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Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731544/localized-mrs-reliability-of-in-vivo-glutamate-at-3%C3%A2-t-in-shortened-scan-times-a-feasibility-study
#1
J Eric Jensen, Randy P Auerbach, Angela Pisoni, Diego A Pizzagalli
Glutamate is the prime excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain and has been implicated in a wide range of psychiatric conditions. To improve the applicability and clinical reach of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), research is needed to develop shortened, yet reliable, MRS scanning procedures for standard 1.5-3-T clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, particularly with young or vulnerable populations unable to tolerate longer protocols. To this end, we evaluated the test-retest reliability of a shortened J-resolved MRS sequence in healthy adolescents (n = 22) aged 12-14 years...
July 21, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725548/age-dependent-lasting-effects-of-methylphenidate-on-the-gabaergic-system-of-adhd-patients
#2
Michelle M Solleveld, Anouk Schrantee, Nicolaas A J Puts, Liesbeth Reneman, Paul J Lucassen
Stimulants are the main pharmacological treatment for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Their current prescription rates are rising, both in children, adolescents and adults. Related to the impulse control phenotype, both preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated lower γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels in prefrontal brain regions in ADHD. Whereas stimulant treatment increases GABA levels, preclinical studies have suggested that stimulant treatment effects may be age-dependent...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724545/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-preterm-infants-association-with-neurodevelopmental-outcomes
#3
Reina Hyodo, Yoshiaki Sato, Miharu Ito, Yuichiro Sugiyama, Chikako Ogawa, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiki Nakane, Akiko Saito, Akihiro Hirakawa, Hiroyuki Kidokoro, Jun Natsume, Masahiro Hayakawa
OBJECTIVE: To compare magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) metabolite ratios in preterm infants at term-equivalent age with those in term infants and to evaluate the association between MRS metabolites and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months corrected age in preterm infants. DESIGN: We studied infants born at a gestational age <37 weeks and weighing <1500 g during 2009-2013 using MRS at term-equivalent age. Infants with major brain abnormalities were excluded...
July 19, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722337/validation-of-brain-derived-signals-in-near-infrared-spectroscopy-through-multivoxel-analysis-of-concurrent-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#4
Yoshiya Moriguchi, Takamasa Noda, Kosei Nakayashiki, Yohei Takata, Shiori Setoyama, Shingo Kawasaki, Yoshihiko Kunisato, Kazuo Mishima, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Takashi Hanakawa
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a convenient and safe brain-mapping tool. However, its inevitable confounding with hemodynamic responses outside the brain, especially in the frontotemporal head, has questioned its validity. Some researchers attempted to validate NIRS signals through concurrent measurements with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), but, counterintuitively, NIRS signals rarely correlate with local fMRI signals in NIRS channels, although both mapping techniques should measure the same hemoglobin concentration...
July 19, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721046/brain-metabolite-values-in-children-with-breath-holding-spells
#5
Mustafa Calik, Dilek Sen Dokumaci, Suna Sarikaya, Mahmut Demir, Ilhan Isik, Halil Kazanasmaz, Cemil Kaya, Hasan Kandemir
Breath-holding spells are benign, paroxysmal events with apnea and postural tone changes after a crying episode in infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathologies in brain metabolite values in the absence of seizure in children with breath-holding spells by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Brain MRS examination was performed on 18 children with breath-holding spells and 13 neurologically normal children who were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in terms of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and myoinositol (mI) levels and also in terms of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios between the patients and the control group (all P>0...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716717/big-gaba-edited-mr-spectroscopy-at-24-research-sites
#6
Mark Mikkelsen, Peter B Barker, Pallab K Bhattacharyya, Maiken K Brix, Pieter F Buur, Kim M Cecil, Kimberly L Chan, David Y-T Chen, Alexander R Craven, Koen Cuypers, Michael Dacko, Niall W Duncan, Ulrike Dydak, David A Edmondson, Gabriele Ende, Lars Ersland, Fei Gao, Ian Greenhouse, Ashley D Harris, Naying He, Stefanie Heba, Nigel Hoggard, Tun-Wei Hsu, Jacobus F A Jansen, Alayar Kangarlu, Thomas Lange, R Marc Lebel, Yan Li, Chien-Yuan E Lin, Jy-Kang Liou, Jiing-Feng Lirng, Feng Liu, Ruoyun Ma, Celine Maes, Marta Moreno-Ortega, Scott O Murray, Sean Noah, Ralph Noeske, Michael D Noseworthy, Georg Oeltzschner, James J Prisciandaro, Nicolaas A J Puts, Timothy P L Roberts, Markus Sack, Napapon Sailasuta, Muhammad G Saleh, Michael-Paul Schallmo, Nicholas Simard, Stephan P Swinnen, Martin Tegenthoff, Peter Truong, Guangbin Wang, Iain D Wilkinson, Hans-Jörg Wittsack, Hongmin Xu, Fuhua Yan, Chencheng Zhang, Vadim Zipunnikov, Helge J Zöllner, Richard A E Edden
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is the only biomedical imaging method that can noninvasively detect endogenous signals from the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the human brain. Its increasing popularity has been aided by improvements in scanner hardware and acquisition methodology, as well as by broader access to pulse sequences that can selectively detect GABA, in particular J-difference spectral editing sequences. Nevertheless, implementations of GABA-edited MRS remain diverse across research sites, making comparisons between studies challenging...
July 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714074/altered-metabolomic-genomic-signature-a-potential-noninvasive-biomarker-of-epilepsy
#7
Helen C Wu, Fabien Dachet, Farhad Ghoddoussi, Shruti Bagla, Darren Fuerst, Jeffrey A Stanley, Matthew P Galloway, Jeffrey A Loeb
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify noninvasive biomarkers of human epilepsy that can reliably detect and localize epileptic brain regions. Having noninvasive biomarkers would greatly enhance patient diagnosis, patient monitoring, and novel therapy development. At the present time, only surgically invasive, direct brain recordings are capable of detecting these regions with precision, which severely limits the pace and scope of both clinical management and research progress in epilepsy...
July 17, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712992/proton-and-multinuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-the-human-brain-at-ultra-high-field-strength-a-review
#8
Anke Henning
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) allows for a non-invasive and non-ionizing determination of in vivo tissue concentrations and metabolic turn-over rates of more than 20 metabolites and compounds in the central nervous system of humans. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview about the advantages, challenges and advances of ultra-high field MRS with regard to methodological development, discoveries and applications from its beginnings around 15 years ago up to the current state. The review is limited to human brain and spinal cord application at field strength of 7T and 9...
July 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700727/longitudinal-increases-of-brain-metabolite-levels-in-5-10-year-old-children
#9
Martha J Holmes, Frances C Robertson, Francesca Little, Steven R Randall, Mark F Cotton, Andre J W van der Kouwe, Barbara Laughton, Ernesta M Meintjes
Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies reveal significant changes in brain structure and structural networks that occur together with cognitive and behavioral maturation in childhood. However, the underlying cellular changes accompanying brain maturation are less understood. Examining regional age-related changes in metabolite levels provides insight into the physiology of neurodevelopment. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures localize brain metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698108/imaging-at-ultrahigh-magnetic-fields-history-challenges-and-solutions
#10
Kamil Uğurbil
Following early efforts in applying nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to study biological processes in intact systems, and particularly since the introduction of 4 T human scanners circa 1990, rapid progress was made in imaging and spectroscopy studies of humans at 4 T and animal models at 9.4 T, leading to the introduction of 7 T and higher magnetic fields for human investigation at about the turn of the century. Work conducted on these platforms has provided numerous technological solutions to challenges posed at these ultrahigh fields, and demonstrated the existence of significant advantages in signal-to-noise ratio and biological information content...
July 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691380/transverse-relaxation-time-constants-of-the-five-major-metabolites-in-human-brain-measured-in-vivo-using-laser-and-press-at-3-t
#11
Dinesh K Deelchand, Edward J Auerbach, Naoharu Kobayashi, Małgorzata Marjańska
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to measure and compare the apparent transverse relaxation time constants (T2 ) of five intracellular metabolites using localization by adiabatic selective refocusing (LASER) and point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequences in the human brain at 3 T. METHODS: Five healthy subjects were studied at 3 T. (1) H spectra from the prefrontal cortex were acquired at six different echo times using LASER and PRESS sequences. Postprocessed data were analyzed with LCModel, and the resulting amplitudes were fitted using a mono-exponential decay function to determine the T2 of metabolites...
July 10, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690587/brain-connectivity-patterns-dissociate-action-of-specific-acupressure-treatments-in-fatigued-breast-cancer-survivors
#12
Richard E Harris, Eric Ichesco, Chelsea Cummiford, Johnson P Hampson, Thomas L Chenevert, Neil Basu, Suzanna M Zick
Persistent fatigue is a pernicious symptom in many cancer survivors. Existing treatments are limited or ineffective and often lack any underlying biologic rationale. Acupressure is emerging as a promising new intervention for persistent cancer-related fatigue; however, the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. Our previous investigations suggested that fatigued breast cancer survivors have alterations in brain neurochemistry within the posterior insula and disturbed functional connectivity to the default mode network (DMN), as compared to non-fatigued breast cancer survivors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689591/neurologic-manifestations-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#13
REVIEW
Sentia Iriana, Michael P Curry, Nezam H Afdhal
The extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C include effects on the central nervous system, which have been associated with the ability of hepatitis C virus (HCV) to replicate in microglial and endothelial cells and the chronic inflammation induced by HCV. HCV can induce impaired neurocognition, which is clinically manifested by impaired quality of life, fatigue, and brain fog. These cognitive defects can be present even in patients with mild histologic HCV and have been confirmed by neurocognitive testing and brain imaging by magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
August 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688166/triheptanoin-for-the-treatment-of-brain-energy-deficit-a-14-year-experience
#14
REVIEW
Fanny Mochel
Triheptanoin is an odd-chain triglyceride with anaplerotic properties-that is, replenishing the pool of metabolic intermediates in the Krebs cycle. Unlike even-chain fatty acids metabolized to acetyl-CoA only, triheptanoin can indeed provide both acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, two key carbon sources for the Krebs cycle. Triheptanoin was initially used in patients with long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders. The first demonstration of the possible benefit of triheptanoin for brain energy deficit came from a patient with pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, a severe metabolic disease that affects anaplerosis in the brain...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678857/effects-of-a-compound-from-the-group-of-substituted-thiadiazines-with-hypothermia-inducing-properties-on-brain-metabolism-in-rats-a-study-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#15
O B Shevelev, N B Illarionova, D V Petrovski, A P Sarapultsev, O N Chupakhin, M P Moshkin
The aim of the present study was to examine how administration of a compound of 1,3,4- thiadiazine class 2-morpholino-5-phenyl-6H-1,3,4-thiadiazine, hydrobromide (L-17) with hypothermia inducing properties affects the brain metabolism. The mechanism by which L-17 induces hypothermia is unknown; it may involve hypothalamic central thermoregulation as well as act via inhibition of energy metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that L-17 may induce hypothermia by directly inhibiting energy metabolism. The study in vivo was carried out on Sprague-Dawley adult rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674504/antigliadin-antibodies-aga-igg-are-related-to-neurochemistry-in-schizophrenia
#16
Laura M Rowland, Haley K Demyanovich, S Andrea Wijtenburg, William W Eaton, Katrina Rodriguez, Frank Gaston, Daniela Cihakova, Monica V Talor, Fang Liu, Robert R McMahon, L Elliot Hong, Deanna L Kelly
Inflammation may play a role in schizophrenia; however, subgroups with immune regulation dysfunction may serve as distinct illness phenotypes with potential different treatment and prevention strategies. Emerging data show that about 30% of people with schizophrenia have elevated antigliadin antibodies of the IgG type, representing a possible subgroup of schizophrenia patients with immune involvement. Also, recent data have shown a high correlation of IgG-mediated antibodies between the periphery and cerebral spinal fluid in schizophrenia but not healthy controls, particularly AGA IgG suggesting that these antibodies may be crossing the blood-brain barrier with resulting neuroinflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669913/divergent-influences-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-gaba-concentrations-on-the-emotion-circuitry
#17
Nina Levar, Judith M C van Leeuwen, Damiaan Denys, Guido A van Wingen
Neuroimaging research has revealed that emotion processing recruits a widespread neural network including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), hippocampus, and amygdala. Recent studies have started to investigate the role of the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on brain function, but little is known about the influences of GABA on this emotion circuitry. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigated the role of GABA levels in the dACC on emotion processing by presenting emotional and neutral pictures to 68 healthy male participants during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
June 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667395/-intra-axial-brain-tumors-in-adults-on-the-basis-of-the-2016-who-classification
#18
REVIEW
N Peitgen, P Papanagiotou
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: The influence of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification from 2016 on the radiological diagnosis for tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: In order to come as close as possible to the correct diagnosis of CNS tumors, MRI is the long-standing accepted method of choice that can in some cases be supported by the use of CT to demonstrate calcification or bone destruction...
June 30, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663553/functional-and-dynamic-polymerization-of-the-als-linked-protein-tdp-43-antagonizes-its-pathologic-aggregation
#19
Tariq Afroz, Eva-Maria Hock, Patrick Ernst, Chiara Foglieni, Melanie Jambeau, Larissa A B Gilhespy, Florent Laferriere, Zuzanna Maniecka, Andreas Plückthun, Peer Mittl, Paolo Paganetti, Frédéric H T Allain, Magdalini Polymenidou
TDP-43 is a primarily nuclear RNA-binding protein, whose abnormal phosphorylation and cytoplasmic aggregation characterizes affected neurons in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Here, we report that physiological nuclear TDP-43 in mouse and human brain forms homo-oligomers that are resistant to cellular stress. Physiological TDP-43 oligomerization is mediated by its N-terminal domain, which can adopt dynamic, solenoid-like structures, as revealed by a 2.1 Å crystal structure in combination with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electron microscopy...
June 29, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659829/risk-conferring-glutamatergic-genes-and-brain-glutamate-plus-glutamine-in-schizophrenia
#20
Juan R Bustillo, Veena Patel, Thomas Jones, Rex Jung, Nattida Payaknait, Clifford Qualls, Jose M Canive, Jingyu Liu, Nora Irma Perrone-Bizzozero, Vince D Calhoun, Jessica A Turner, Charles Gasparovic
BACKGROUND: The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) signals from glutamate (or the combined glutamate and glutamine signal-Glx) have been found to be greater in various brain regions in people with schizophrenia. Recently, the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium reported that several common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in glutamate-related genes confer increased risk of schizophrenia. Here, we examined the relationship between presence of these risk polymorphisms and brain Glx levels in schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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