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Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525587/assessing-the-psychedelic-after-glow-in-ayahuasca-users-post-acute-neurometabolic-and-functional-connectivity-changes-are-associated-with-enhanced-mindfulness-capacities
#1
Frederic Sampedro, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Marta Valle, Natalia Roberto, Elisabet Domínguez-Clavé, Matilde Elices, Luís Eduardo Luna, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Draulio B de Araujo, Pablo Friedlander, Steven A Barker, Enrique Álvarez, Joaquim Soler, Juan C Pascual, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Background: Ayahuasca is a plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmala monoamine-oxidase inhibitors. Acute administration leads to neurophysiological modifications in brain regions of the default mode network (DMN), purportedly through a glutamatergic mechanism. Post-acutely, ayahuasca potentiates mindfulness capacities in volunteers, and induces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant patients. However, the mechanisms underlying these fast and maintained effects are poorly understood...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524120/proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-%C3%A2-h-mrs-study-of-early-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rabbits
#2
Yong Xiao, Yigang Fu, Yi Zhou, Jianguo Xia, Lina Wang, Chunhong Hu
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dynamic changes of cerebral metabolism and degree of trauma in rabbit models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS). MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-five Chinese rabbits were randomly divided into control, mild, moderate, and severe TBI groups. ¹H-MRS was performed 1, 6, and 24 h after trauma. The concentrations of NAA, Cr, Cho, and Lac, and NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios in each group, were estimated...
May 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523532/progressive-pathological-changes-in-neurochemical-profile-of-the-hippocampus-and-early-changes-in-the-olfactory-bulbs-of-tau-transgenic-mice-rtg4510
#3
Jieun Kim, In-Young Choi, Karen E Duff, Phil Lee
Tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD-tau) dementia, characterized by pathologic aggregation of the microtubule-associated tau protein and formation of neurofibrillary tangles, have been linked to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. The early detection of cerebral abnormalities and the identification of biological contributors to the continuous pathologic processes of neurodegeneration in tauopathies critically hinge on sensitive and reliable measures of biomarkers in the living brain...
May 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516076/primary-central-nervous-system-vasculitis-mimicking-a-cortical-brain-tumor-a-case-report
#4
Joo-Seok Lee, Tae-Young Jung, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Seul-Kee Kim
We report a case of primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) mimicking a cortical brain tumor. A 25-year-old woman presented with a 2-week history of headache and transient right hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cortical-involving lesion on the left frontal lobe. The 6-cm sized lesion showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The lesion had continual linear enhancement on the subcortical white matter and leptomeninges...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515688/insulin-resistance-as-a-link-between-amyloid-beta-and-tau-pathologies-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Roger J Mullins, Thomas C Diehl, Chee W Chia, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
Current hypotheses and theories regarding the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) heavily implicate brain insulin resistance (IR) as a key factor. Despite the many well-validated metrics for systemic IR, the absence of biomarkers for brain-specific IR represents a translational gap that has hindered its study in living humans. In our lab, we have been working to develop biomarkers that reflect the common mechanisms of brain IR and AD that may be used to follow their engagement by experimental treatments...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510609/spr-based-fragment-screening-with-neurotensin-receptor-1-generates-novel-small-molecule-ligands
#6
Sylwia Huber, Fabio Casagrande, Melanie N Hug, Lisha Wang, Philipp Heine, Lutz Kummer, Andreas Plückthun, Michael Hennig
The neurotensin receptor 1 represents an important drug target involved in various diseases of the central nervous system. So far, the full exploitation of potential therapeutic activities has been compromised by the lack of compounds with favorable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties which efficiently penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Recent progress in the generation of stabilized variants of solubilized neurotensin receptor 1 and its subsequent purification and successful structure determination presents a solid starting point to apply the approach of fragment-based screening to extend the chemical space of known neurotensin receptor 1 ligands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506858/accuracy-of-1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-for-quantification-of-2-hydroxyglutarate-using-linear-combination-and-j-difference-editing-at-9-4t
#7
Ulf Neuberger, Philipp Kickingereder, Xavier Helluy, Manuel Fischer, Martin Bendszus, Sabine Heiland
Non-invasive detection of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) by magnetic resonance spectroscopy is attractive since it is related to tumor metabolism. Here, we compare the detection accuracy of 2HG in a controlled phantom setting via widely used localized spectroscopy sequences quantified by linear combination of metabolite signals vs. a more complex approach applying a J-difference editing technique at 9.4T. Different phantoms, comprised out of a concentration series of 2HG and overlapping brain metabolites, were measured with an optimized point-resolved-spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) and an in-house developed J-difference editing sequence...
May 12, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503999/quantitative-assessment-of-brain-glucose-metabolic-rates-using-in%C3%A2-vivo-deuterium-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#8
Ming Lu, Xiao-Hong Zhu, Yi Zhang, Gheorghe Mateescu, Wei Chen
Quantitative assessment of cerebral glucose consumption rate (CMRglc) and tricarboxylic acid cycle flux (VTCA) is crucial for understanding neuroenergetics under physiopathological conditions. In this study, we report a novel in vivo Deuterium ((2)H) MRS (DMRS) approach for simultaneously measuring and quantifying CMRglc and VTCA in rat brains at 16.4 Tesla. Following a brief infusion of deuterated glucose, dynamic changes of isotope-labeled glucose, glutamate/glutamine (Glx) and water contents in the brain can be robustly monitored from their well-resolved (2)H resonances...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503156/effects-of-antipsychotic-administration-on-brain-glutamate-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-1-h-mrs-studies
#9
REVIEW
Alice Egerton, Akarmi Bhachu, Kate Merritt, Grant McQueen, Agata Szulc, Philip McGuire
Schizophrenia is associated with brain glutamate dysfunction, but it is currently unclear whether antipsychotic administration can reduce the extent of glutamatergic abnormality. We conducted a systematic review of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) studies examining the effects of antipsychotic treatment on brain glutamate levels in schizophrenia. The Medline database was searched to identify relevant articles published until December 2016. Inclusion required that studies examined longitudinal changes in brain glutamate metabolites in patients with schizophrenia before and after initiation of first antipsychotic treatment or a switch in antipsychotic treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497464/in-vivo-proton-observed-carbon-edited-poce-13-c-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-the-rat-brain-using-a-volumetric-transmitter-and-receive-only-surface-coil-on-the-proton-channel
#10
Chathura Kumaragamage, Dan Madularu, Axel P Mathieu, Henk De Feyter, M Natasha Rajah, Jamie Near
PURPOSE: In vivo carbon-13 ((13) C) MR spectroscopy (MRS) is capable of measuring energy metabolism and neuroenergetics, noninvasively in the brain. Indirect ((1) H-[(13) C]) MRS provides sensitivity benefits compared with direct (13) C methods, and normally includes a (1) H surface coil for both localization and signal reception. The aim was to develop a coil platform with homogenous B1+ and use short conventional pulses for short echo time proton observed carbon edited (POCE) MRS. METHODS: A (1) H-[(13) C] MRS coil platform was designed with a volumetric resonator for (1) H transmit, and surface coils for (1) H reception and (13) C transmission...
May 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494346/glutamatergic-and-neural-dysfunction-in-postpartum-depression-using-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#11
Carlos E Rosa, Jair C Soares, Felipe P Figueiredo, Ricardo C Cavalli, Marco A Barbieri, Maristela S Schaufelberger, Carlos E G Salmon, Cristina M Del-Ben, Antonio C Santos
Although postpartum depression (PPD) is a prevalent subtype of major depressive disorder, neuroimaging studies on PPD are rare, particularly those identifying neurochemical abnormalities obtained by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS). The dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPF) and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) are part of the neural pathways involved in executive functions and emotional processing, and both structures have been implicated in the neurobiology of depressive disorders. This study aimed to evaluate brain metabolites abnormalities in women with PPD compared with healthy postpartum (HP) women...
April 26, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491190/pyogenic-brain-abscess-with-atypical-features-resembling-glioblastoma-in-advanced-mri-imaging
#12
Arsany Hakim, Markus Oertel, Roland Wiest
Differentiation between infectious and neoplastic brain processes is crucial for treatment planning. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques, such as diffusion, perfusion, susceptibility weighted imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, enhance the imaging differences between these two pathologies. However, despite the utilization of these advanced techniques, the pathologic process may be confound by atypical findings. Here, we report a case of an autistic patient with multiple brain lesions with diffusion weighted imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and perfusion patterns resembling features of a multicentric glioblastoma, which were confirmed surgically, neuropathologically, and bacteriologically as brain abscesses...
June 2017: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487658/early-changes-in-glutamate-metabolism-and-perfusion-in-basal-ganglia-following-hypoxia-ischemia-in-neonatal-piglets-a-multi-sequence-3-0t-mr-study
#13
Yu-Xue Dang, Kai-Ning Shi, Xiao-Ming Wang
The excitotoxicity of glutamate metabolism as well as hemodynamic disorders of the brain are both risk factors for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). In the present study, changes in glutamate metabolism in the basal ganglia were detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) at 0-6, 8-12, 24-30, and 48-60 h after the induction of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in newborn piglets. Meanwhile, correlation analysis was performed by combining the microcirculatory perfusion informations acquired by intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) scan to explore their possible interaction mechanism...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486641/current-clinical-brain-tumor-imaging
#14
Javier E Villanueva-Meyer, Marc C Mabray, Soonmee Cha
Neuroimaging plays an ever evolving role in the diagnosis, treatment planning, and post-therapy assessment of brain tumors. This review provides an overview of current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods routinely employed in the care of the brain tumor patient. Specifically, we focus on advanced techniques including diffusion, perfusion, spectroscopy, tractography, and functional MRI as they pertain to noninvasive characterization of brain tumors and pretreatment evaluation. The utility of both structural and physiological MRI in the post-therapeutic brain evaluation is also reviewed with special attention to the challenges presented by pseudoprogression and pseudoresponse...
May 9, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480987/gaba-metabolism-and-its-role-in-gamma-band-oscillatory-activity-during-auditory-processing-an-mrs-and-eeg-study
#15
Christine Wyss, Desmond H Y Tse, Michael Kometer, Jürgen Dammers, Rita Achermann, N Jon Shah, Wolfram Kawohl, Irene Neuner
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate are believed to have inhibitory and exhibitory neuromodulatory effects that regulate the brain's response to sensory perception. Furthermore, frequency-specific synchronization of neuronal excitability within the gamma band (30-80 Hz) is attributable to a homeostatic balance between excitation and inhibition. However, our understanding of the physiological mechanism underlying gamma rhythms is based on animal models. Investigations of the relationship between GABA concentrations, glutamate concentrations, and gamma band activity in humans were mostly restricted to the visual cortex and are conflicting...
May 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480619/rapid-and-simultaneous-measurement-of-phosphorus-metabolite-pool-size-ratio-and-reaction-kinetics-of-enzymes-in-vivo
#16
Sang-Young Kim, Wei Chen, Dost Ongur, Fei Du
PURPOSE: The metabolites phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and in-organic phosphate (Pi) are biochemically coupled. Their pool sizes, assessed by their magnetization ratios, have been extensively studied and reflect bioenergetics status in vivo. However, most such studies have ignored chemical exchange and T1 relaxation effects. In this work, we aimed to extend the T1nom method to simultaneously quantify the reaction rate constants as well as phosphorus metabolite pool size ratios under partially relaxed conditions...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479403/normal-aging-slows-spontaneous-switching-in-auditory-and-visual-bistability
#17
Hirohito M Kondo, Takanori Kochiyama
Age-related changes in auditory and visual perception have an impact on the quality of life. It has been debated how perceptual organization is influenced by advancing age. From the neurochemical perspective, we investigated age effects on auditory and visual bistability. In perceptual bistability, a sequence of sensory inputs induces spontaneous switching between different perceptual objects. We used different modality tasks of auditory streaming and visual plaids. Young and middle-aged participants (20-60years) were instructed to indicate by a button press whenever their perception changed from one stable state to the other...
May 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476320/region-specific-aging-of-the-human-brain-as-evidenced-by-neurochemical-profiles-measured-noninvasively-in-the-posterior-cingulate-cortex-and-the-occipital-lobe-using-1-h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-at-7-t
#18
Małgorzata Marjańska, J Riley McCarten, James Hodges, Laura S Hemmy, Andrea Grant, Dinesh K Deelchand, Melissa Terpstra
The concentrations of fourteen neurochemicals associated with metabolism, neurotransmission, antioxidant capacity, and cellular structure were measured noninvasively from two distinct brain regions using (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Seventeen young adults (age 19-22years) and sixteen cognitively normal older adults (age 70-88years) were scanned. To increase sensitivity and specificity, (1)H magnetic resonance spectra were obtained at the ultra-high field of 7T and at ultra-short echo time. The concentrations of neurochemicals were determined using water as an internal reference and accounting for gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid content of the volume of interest...
May 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467982/adenosine-triphosphate-metabolism-measured-by-phosphorus-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-potential-biomarker-for-multiple-sclerosis-severity
#19
Paul Kauv, Samar S Ayache, Alain Créange, Moussa A Chalah, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Jérôme Hodel, Pierre Brugières
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) has previously shown abnormal changes in energy metabolites in the brain of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, the relationship between these energy metabolites - particularly adenosine triphosphate (ATP) - and the disease severity remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether measuring ATP metabolites can help to predict disease severity in MS patients. METHODS: 31P-MRS at 3 tesla was performed in 9 relapsing remitting (RRMS), 9 secondary progressive MS patients (SPMS), and 10 age-matched healthy controls...
May 4, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448965/neuroprotective-treatments-after-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-evaluated-with-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#20
Hester Rijkje Berger, Eva Brekke, Marius Widerøe, Tora Sund Morken
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a major health problem. Adjuvant treatments that improve the neuroprotective effect of the current treatment, therapeutic hypothermia, are urgently needed. The growing knowledge about the complex pathophysiology of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) has led to the discovery of several important targets for neuroprotection. Early interventions should focus on the preservation of energy metabolism, the reduction of glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, the maintenance of calcium homeostasis, and the prevention of apoptosis...
April 28, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
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