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Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Ju-Hwi Kim, Woo-Youl Jang, Tae-Young Jung, Kyung-Sub Moon, Shin Jung, Kyung-Hwa Lee, In-Young Kim
In this study, we report a case of solitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) without skull or systemic lesions, including reviewing the initial magnetic resonance (MR) findings of cerebral LCH. A 36-year-old male patient presented with generalized tonic-clonic type seizure. Brain MR imaging showed a 3cm mass lesion involving the right frontal lobe. It showed iso-intensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images. After gadolinium enhancement, the mass showed heterogeneous enhancement with perilesional edema and additional adjacent leptomeningeal enhancement...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Alia L Yasen, Jolinda Smith, Anita D Christie
Animal models of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) suggest that metabolic changes in the brain occur immediately after a mechanical injury to the head. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) can be used to determine relative concentrations of metabolites in vivo in the human brain. PURPOSE: To determine concentrations of glutamate and GABA in the brain acutely after mTBI and throughout 2 months of recovery. METHODS: Concentrations of glutamate and GABA were obtained using 1H-MRS in nine individuals who had suffered an mTBI and nine control individuals in two brain regions of interest: the primary motor cortex (M1), and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and at three different time points post injury: 72-hours, 2-weeks, and 2 months post-injury...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Soheil Keshmiri, Hidenubo Sumioka, Ryuji Yamazaki, Hiroshi Ishiguro
Neuroscience research shows a growing interest in the application of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) in analysis and decoding of the brain activity of human subjects. Given the correlation that is observed between the Blood Oxygen Dependent Level (BOLD) responses that are exhibited by the time series data of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and the hemoglobin oxy/deoxy-genation that is captured by NIRS, linear models play a central role in these applications. This, in turn, results in adaptation of the feature extraction strategies that are well-suited for discretization of data that exhibit a high degree of linearity, namely, slope and the mean as well as their combination, to summarize the informational contents of the NIRS time series...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Dinesh K Shukla, S Andrea Wijtenburg, Hongji Chen, Joshua J Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong, Laura M Rowland
Background: The underlying neurobiological mechanism for abnormal functional connectivity in schizophrenia (SCZ) remains unknown. This project investigated whether glutamate and GABA, 2 metabolites that contribute to excitatory and inhibitory functions, may influence functional connectivity in SCZ. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy were acquired from 58 SCZ patients and 61 healthy controls (HC)...
June 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Chern Chiuh Woo, Kavita Kaur, Wei Xin Chan, Xing Qi Teo, Teck Hock Philip Lee
Glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) gene is frequently upregulated in various types of cancer including lung, prostate and brain. It catabolizes glycine to yield 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, an important substrate in one-carbon metabolism for nucleotide synthesis. In this study, we used exon splicing modulating steric hindrance antisense oligonucleotide (shAON) to suppress GLDC expression and investigated its effect on pyruvate metabolism via hyperpolarized carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The MRS technique allows us to study in vivo metabolic flux in tumor tissues with/without GLDC-shAON intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Elizabeth Joe, Luis D Medina, John M Ringman, Joseph O'Neill
1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can reveal changes in brain biochemistry in vivo in humans and has been applied to late onset Alzheimer disease (AD). Carriers of mutations for autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) may show changes in levels of metabolites prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Proton MR spectra were acquired at 1.5 T for 16 cognitively asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic mutation carriers (CDR < 1) and 11 non-carriers as part of a comprehensive cross-sectional study of preclinical ADAD...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Eva-Maria Ratai, Zheng Zhang, James Fink, Mark Muzi, Lucy Hanna, Erin Greco, Todd Richards, Daniel Kim, Ovidiu C Andronesi, Akiva Mintz, Lale Kostakoglu, Melissa Prah, Benjamin Ellingson, Kathleen Schmainda, Gregory Sorensen, Daniel Barboriak, David Mankoff, Elizabeth R Gerstner
A multi-center imaging trial by the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) "A Multicenter, phase II assessment of tumor hypoxia in glioblastoma using 18F Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) with PET and MRI (ACRIN 6684)", was conducted to assess hypoxia in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). The aims of this study were to support the role of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H MRSI) as a prognostic marker for brain tumor patients in multi-center clinical trials. Seventeen participants from four sites had analyzable 3D MRSI datasets acquired on Philips, GE or Siemens scanners at either 1...
2018: PloS One
Raffaele Nuzzi, Laura Dallorto, Teresa Rolle
Background: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The increasing interest in the involvement of the cortical visual pathway in glaucomatous patients is due to the implications in recent therapies, such as neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. Objective: In this review, we outline the current understanding of brain structural, functional, and metabolic changes detected with the modern techniques of neuroimaging in glaucomatous subjects. Methods: We screened MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, LILACS, Trip Database, and NICE for original contributions published until 31 October 2017...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Thomas W Sedlak, Leslie G Nucifora, Minori Koga, Lindsay S Shaffer, Cecilia Higgs, Teppei Tanaka, Anna M Wang, Jennifer M Coughlin, Peter B Barker, Jed W Fahey, Akira Sawa
Schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders await mechanism-associated interventions. Excess oxidative stress is increasingly appreciated to participate in the pathophysiology of brain disorders, and decreases in the major antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), have been reported in multiple studies. Technical cautions regarding the estimation of oxidative stress-related changes in the brain via imaging techniques have led investigators to explore peripheral GSH as a possible pathological signature of oxidative stress-associated brain changes...
May 2018: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Alison M Lee, Michaela J Beasley, Emerald D Barrett, Judy R James, Jennifer M Gambino
Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of canine brain diseases are often nonspecific. Single- and multi-voxel spectroscopy techniques allow quantification of chemical biomarkers for tissues of interest and may help to improve diagnostic specificity. However, published information is currently lacking for the in vivo performance of these two techniques in dogs. The aim of this prospective, methods comparison study was to compare the performance of single- and multi-voxel spectroscopy in the brains of eight healthy, juvenile dogs using 3 Tesla MRI...
June 10, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Francis T Hane, Tao Li, Jennifer-Anne Plata, Ayman Hassan, Karl Granberg, Mitchell S Albert
Biomarkers have the potential to aid in the study of Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD); unfortunately, AD biomarker values often have a high degree of overlap between healthy and AD individuals. This study investigates the potential utility of a series of novel AD biomarkers, the sixty second 129 Xe retention time, and the xenon washout parameter, based on the washout of hyperpolarized 129 Xe from the brain of AD participants following inhalation. The xenon washout parameter is influenced by cerebral perfusion, T1 relaxation of xenon, and the xenon partition coefficient, all factors influenced by AD...
June 6, 2018: Diagnostics
A Egerton, B V Broberg, N Van Haren, K Merritt, G J Barker, D J Lythgoe, R Perez-Iglesias, L Baandrup, S W Düring, K V Sendt, J M Stone, E Rostrup, I E Sommer, B Glenthøj, R S Kahn, P Dazzan, P McGuire
Conventional antipsychotic medication is ineffective in around a third of patients with schizophrenia, and the nature of the therapeutic response is unpredictable. We investigated whether response to antipsychotics is related to brain glutamate levels prior to treatment. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure glutamate levels (Glu/Cr) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and in the thalamus in antipsychotic-naive or minimally medicated patients with first episode psychosis (FEP, n = 71) and healthy volunteers (n = 60), at three sites...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Yingying Tang, Xiaoliu Zhang, Jianhua Sheng, Xuanhong Zhang, Jianye Zhang, Jiale Xu, Yajing Zhu, Junjie Wang, Tianhong Zhang, Shanbao Tong, Lipeng Ning, Manhua Liu, Yao Li, Jijun Wang
Metabolic and functional alterations in hippocampus have been associated with the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, how the hippocampal biochemical disruptions lead to dysfunction of limbic-cortical circuit remains unclear. The present pilot study combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to investigate the hippocampal metabolic alteration and its relationship with the intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) changes in MDD...
May 26, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Inka Ristow, Meng Li, Lejla Colic, Vanessa Marr, Carina Födisch, Felicia von Düring, Kolja Schiltz, Krasimira Drumkova, Joachim Witzel, Henrik Walter, Klaus Beier, Tillmann H C Kruger, Jorge Ponseti, Boris Schiffer, Martin Walter
A pedophilic disorder is characterised by abnormal sexual urges towards prepubescent children. Child abusive behavior is frequently a result of lack of behavioral inhibition and current treatment options entail, next to suppressing unchangeable sexual orientation, measures to increase cognitive and attentional control. We tested, if in brain regions subserving attentional control of behavior and perception of salient stimuli, such inhibition deficit can be observed also on the level of inhibitory neurotransmitters...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Mohammed Rupawala, Hamid Dehghani, Samuel J E Lucas, Peter Tino, Damian Cruse
Qualitative clinical assessments of the recovery of awareness after severe brain injury require an assessor to differentiate purposeful behavior from spontaneous behavior. As many such behaviors are minimal and inconsistent, behavioral assessments are susceptible to diagnostic errors. Advanced neuroimaging tools can bypass behavioral responsiveness and reveal evidence of covert awareness and cognition within the brains of some patients, thus providing a means for more accurate diagnoses, more accurate prognoses, and, in some instances, facilitated communication...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ying He, Tomasz Kosciolek, Jinsong Tang, Yao Zhou, Zongchang Li, Xiaoqian Ma, Qiyun Zhu, Ning Yuan, Liu Yuan, Chunwang Li, Ke Jin, Rob Knight, Ming T Tsuang, Xiaogang Chen
BACKGROUND: The microbiota-gut-brain axis and membrane dysfunction in the brain has attracted increasing attention in the field of psychiatric research. However, the possible interactive role of gut microbiota and brain function in the prodromal stage of schizophrenia has not been studied yet. METHODS: To explore this, we collected fecal samples and performed Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) scans in 81 high risk (HR) subjects, 19 ultra-high risk (UHR) subjects and 69 health controls (HC)...
June 2, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Angela L D'Rozario, Delwyn J Bartlett, Keith K H Wong, Toos Sach, Qiao Yang, Ronald R Grunstein, Caroline D Rae
Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a well-established cause of impaired daytime functioning. However, there is a complex inter-individual variability in neurobehavioural performance in OSA patients. We previously reported compromised brain bioenergetics during apneic sleep in severe OSA. In this study, we investigate whether brain bioenergetics during resting wakefulness are related to neurobehavioural performance. Methods: Patients attended the sleep laboratory in the evening and were kept awake over-night...
June 1, 2018: Sleep
Dounia El Hamrani, Henri Gin, Jean-Louis Gallis, Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore, Marie-Christine Beauvieux
Alcopops are flavored alcoholic beverages sweetened by sodas, known to contain fructose. These drinks have the goal of democratizing alcohol among young consumers (12-17 years old) and in the past few years have been considered as fashionable amongst teenagers. Adolescence, however, is a key period for brain maturation, occurring in the prefrontal cortex and limbic system until 21 years old. Therefore, this drinking behavior has become a public health concern. Despite the extensive literature concerning the respective impacts of either fructose or ethanol on brain, the effects following joint consumption of these substrates remains unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Tai-Wei Wu, Benita Tamrazi, Kai-Hsiang Hsu, Eugenia Ho, Aaron J Reitman, Matthew Borzage, Stefan Blüml, Jessica L Wisnowski
Background: Cerebral lactate concentration can remain detectable in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) after hemodynamic stability. The temporal resolution of regional cerebral lactate concentration in relation to the severity or area of injury is unclear. Furthermore, the interplay between serum and cerebral lactate in neonatal HIE has not been well defined. The study aims to describe cerebral lactate concentration in neonatal HIE in relation to time, injury, and serum lactate...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Johanna Balz, Yadira Roa Romero, Julian Keil, Florian Schubert, Bernd Ittermann, Ralf Mekle, Christiane Montag, Jürgen Gallinat, Daniel Senkowski
Clinical studies suggest aberrant neurotransmitter concentrations in the brains of patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). Numerous studies have indicated deviant glutamate concentrations in SCZ, although the findings are inconsistent. Moreover, alterations in glutamate concentrations could be linked to personality traits in SCZ. Here, we examined the relationships between personality dimensions and glutamate concentrations in a voxel encompassing the occipital cortex (OCC) and another voxel encompassing the left superior temporal sulcus (STS)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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