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Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633562/advances-in-imaging-brain-metabolism
#1
Fahmeed Hyder, Douglas L Rothman
Metabolism is central to neuroimaging because it can reveal pathways by which neuronal and glial cells use nutrients to fuel their growth and function. We focus on advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods used in brain metabolic studies. (17)O-MRS and (31)P-MRS, respectively, provide rates of oxygen use and ATP synthesis inside mitochondria, whereas (19)F-MRS enables measurement of cytosolic glucose metabolism. Calibrated functional MRI (fMRI), an advanced form of fMRI that uses contrast generated by deoxyhemoglobin, provides maps of oxygen use that track neuronal firing across brain regions...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627984/diagnostic-accuracy-of-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-and-perfusion-weighted-imaging-in-brain-gliomas-follow-up-a-single-institutional-experience
#2
Monica Anselmi, Alessia Catalucci, Valentina Felli, Valentina Vellucci, Alessandra Di Sibio, Giovanni Luca Gravina, Mario Di Staso, Ernesto Di Cesare, Carlo Masciocchi
Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are able to increase diagnostic accuracy in the follow-up of brain gliomas, identifying the progression of disease before it becomes evident in the standard MRI; also to evaluate which of the two techniques has the best diagnostic accuracy. Methods Eighty-three patients with cerebral glioma (50 high-grade gliomas (HGGs), 33 low-grade gliomas (LGGs)) were retrospectively enrolled...
June 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625752/neurologic-complications-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Ashleigh Xie, Phillip Lo, Tristan D Yan, Paul Forrest
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence on neurologic complications in adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients with regard to incidence, pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis, monitoring techniques, prevention, and management. DESIGN: Literature review. SETTING: Observational studies and case reports from a variety of institutions. PARTICIPANTS: Adult ECMO patients. INTERVENTIONS: Six electronic databases were searched from their dates of inception to October 2016...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621826/cerebral-metabolic-alterations-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease-using-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-and-wechsler-intelligence-scale
#4
Doaa Mohammed Youssef, Ahmed Hosny Mohamed, Wafaa Mahmoud Kamel Attia, Faten Fawzy Mohammad, Nelly Rafaat Abd El Fatah, Amal Saeed Elshal
BACKGROUND: Many studies described Impaired intelligence, attention, memory and executive function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) dialyzed and non-dialyzed, but there is still lacking the early and sensitive method of detection of these deficits. The purpose of this study is to investigate relation between the brain metabolic alteration [measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)] and cognitive dysfunction in CKD children (detected by psychometric analysis). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty patients with CKD were included [ 40 patients with stage 5 CKD on dialysis, 30 patients with stage 4 to 5 CKD without dialysis, and 70 patients with stage 1 to 3 CKD]...
June 16, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621205/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-children-with-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major-psychometric-neurophysiologic-and-radiologic-evaluation
#5
M S Elalfy, R H Aly, H Azzam, K Aboelftouh, R H Shatla, M Tarif, M Abdatty, R M Elsayed
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of iron chelating drugs and serum ferritin on the neurocognitive functions of patients with β thalassemia major (β-TM), using psychometric, neurophysiologic and radiologic tests. METHODS: Eighty children with β-TM were enrolled into the study and were compared to 40 healthy controls. All participants were evaluated by measuring serum ferritin, neurocognitive assessment by Benton Visual Retention Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wisconsin Card Sort Test, P300 and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
June 16, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619605/the-prognostic-value-of-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-term-newborns-treated-with-therapeutic-hypothermia-following-asphyxia
#6
Paul E Sijens, Katharina Wischniowsky, Hendrik J Ter Horst
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to correlate brain metabolism assessed shortly after therapeutic hyperthermia by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with neurodevelopmental outcome. METHODS: At the age of 6.0±1.8days, brain metabolites of 35 term asphyxiated newborns, treated with therapeutic hypothermia, were quantified by multivoxel proton MRS of a volume cranial to the corpus callosum, containing both gray and white matter. At the age of 30months the Bayley Scale of Infant Development-III was performed...
June 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618012/metabolomic-signature-of-brain-cancer
#7
Renu Pandey, Laura Caflisch, Alessia Lodi, Andrew J Brenner, Stefano Tiziani
Despite advances in surgery and adjuvant therapy, brain tumours represent one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality and morbidity in both adults and children. Gliomas constitute about 60% of all cerebral tumours, showing varying degrees of malignancy. They are difficult to treat due to dismal prognosis and limited therapeutics. Metabolomics is the untargeted and targeted analyses of endogenous and exogenous small molecules, which characterizes the phenotype of an individual. This emerging "omics" science provides functional readouts of cellular activity that contribute greatly to the understanding of cancer biology including brain tumour biology...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611604/on-the-accuracy-of-in-vivo-ethanol-and-acetaldehyde-monitoring-a-key-tile-in-the-puzzle-of-acetaldehyde-as-a-neuroactive-agent
#8
REVIEW
Paolo Enrico, Marco Diana
Over the last 20 years researchers have explored the postulated role of acetaldehyde (ACD) as a mediator of some of the actions of ethanol (EtOH) in the central nervous system (CNS). However, efforts have been hampered mainly by the difficulty of directly measuring in vivo EtOH and ACD levels in the CNS and thus, our knowledge is based on indirect evidences. Although technically challenging, the development of reliable methods for in vivo measurement of ACD and EtOH is of paramount importance to solve the "puzzle of acetaldehyde as a neuroactive agent...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611513/brain-changes-detected-by-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Kun Lv, Yi-Hong Fan, Li Xu, Mao-Sheng Xu
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, non-specific granulomatous inflammatory disorder that commonly affects the small intestine and is a phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD is prone to relapse, and its incidence displays a persistent increase in developing countries. However, the pathogenesis of CD is poorly understood, with some studies emphasizing the link between CD and the intestinal microbiota. Specifically, studies point to the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis as a key player in the occurrence and development of CD...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606476/vitamin-d-supplement-ameliorates-hippocampal-metabolism-in-diabetic-rats
#10
Feng Guo, Hao Yue, Lei Wang, Chenzhao Ding, Lina Wu, Yang Wu, Fabao Gao, Guijun Qin
Vitamin D deficiency induced by diabetes mellitus is tightly associated with neurodegenerative diseases, but the mechanism is still unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) is involved in hippocampal lesion and promote diabetic neuropathy, so we focus on the effects of 1, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 on ER stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were administrated with different doses of vitamin D and divided into 3 groups: high, low, and blank, compared to wild-type rats which were received the same treatment...
June 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603480/how-energy-metabolism-supports-cerebral-function-insights-from-13-c-magnetic-resonance-studies-in-vivo
#11
REVIEW
Sarah Sonnay, Rolf Gruetter, João M N Duarte
Cerebral function is associated with exceptionally high metabolic activity, and requires continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients from the blood stream. Since the mid-twentieth century the idea that brain energy metabolism is coupled to neuronal activity has emerged, and a number of studies supported this hypothesis. Moreover, brain energy metabolism was demonstrated to be compartmentalized in neurons and astrocytes, and astrocytic glycolysis was proposed to serve the energetic demands of glutamatergic activity...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602659/long-term-multi-species-lactobacillus-and-bifidobacterium-dietary-supplement-enhances-memory-and-changes-regional-brain-metabolites-in-middle-aged-rats
#12
Caroline O'Hagan, Jia V Li, Julian R Marchesi, Sue Plummer, Iveta Garaiova, Mark A Good
Ageing is associated with changes in the gut microbiome that may contribute to age-related changes in cognition. Previous work has shown that dietary supplements with multi-species live microorganisms can influence brain function, including induction of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and production of brain derived neurotrophic factor, in both young and aged rodents. However, the effect of such dietary supplements on memory processes has been less well documented, particularly in the context of aging. The main aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a long-term dietary supplement with a multi-species live Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria mixture (Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL60, L...
June 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585933/neuroimaging-studies-of-gaba-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
A Egerton, G Modinos, D Ferrera, P McGuire
Data from animal models and from postmortem studies suggest that schizophrenia is associated with brain GABAergic dysfunction. The extent to which this is reflected in data from in vivo studies of GABA function in schizophrenia is unclear. The Medline database was searched to identify articles published until 21 October 2016. The search terms included GABA, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), schizophrenia and psychosis...
June 6, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585882/increased-astroglial-activity-and-reduced-neuronal-function-across-brain-in-a%C3%AE-pp-ps1-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Anant B Patel, Vivek Tiwari, Pandichelvam Veeraiah, Kamal Saba
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease associated with progressive loss of cognitive function, personality, and behavior. The present study evaluates neuronal and astroglial metabolic activity, and neurotransmitter cycle fluxes in AβPP-PS1 mouse model of AD by using (1)H-[(13)C]-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with an infusion of either [1,6-(13)C2]glucose or [2-(13)C]acetate. The levels of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and glutamate were found to be decreased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in AβPP-PS1 mice, when compared with wild type controls...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585592/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-imaging-in-cerebral-autosomal-dominant-arteriopathy-with-subcortical-infarcts-and-leukoencephalopathy-a-literature-review
#15
Ali Sibtain Farooq Sheikh, Mona Adel Mohamed
This review focuses on the current literature directed towards the brain metabolite findings in Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) disease using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). Using search terms "metabolites", "spectroscopy", and "CADASIL", six articles were found on PubMed database, Scopus and Google Scholar. Changes in metabolites concentrations and relative ratios (RR) were found not only in abnormal but also in normal-appearing brain regions...
June 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574298/valuable-contribution-of-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-differentiation-of-brain-abscess-from-glioma
#16
Marta De Simone, Barbara Brogna, Giovanni Sessa, Giovanni Oliva, Bruno Guida, Maurizio Magliulo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574155/a-systematic-review-of-neuroimaging-in-delirium-predictors-correlates-and-consequences
#17
Anita Nitchingham, Varun Kumar, Susan Shenkin, Karen J Ferguson, Gideon A Caplan
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging advances our understanding of delirium pathophysiology and its consequences. A previous systematic review identified 12 studies (total participants N = 764, delirium cases N = 194; years 1989-2007) and found associations with white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and cerebral atrophy. Our objectives were to perform an updated systematic review of neuroimaging studies in delirium published since January 2006 and summarise the available literature on predictors, correlates or outcomes...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572496/effect-of-age-diet-and-tissue-type-on-pcr-response-to-creatine-supplementation
#18
Marina Yazigi Solis, Guilherme Giannini Artioli, Maria Concepción García Otaduy, Cláudia da Costa Leite, Walquiria Arruda, Raquel Ramos Veiga, Bruno Gualano
Creatine/phosphorylcreatine (PCr) responses to creatine supplementation may be modulated by age, diet and tissue, but studies assessing this possibility are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether the PCr responses vary as a function of age, diet, and tissue. Fifteen children, 17 omnivorous and 14 vegetarian adults, and 18 elderly participated in this study. Participants were given placebo and subsequently creatine (0.3 g•kg(-1)•day(-1)) for 7 days in a single-blind fashion. PCr was measured through phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) in muscle and brain...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571617/brain-activity-underlying-the-recovery-of-meaning-from-degraded-speech-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs-study
#19
Pramudi Wijayasiri, Douglas E H Hartley, Ian M Wiggins
The purpose of this study was to establish whether functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an emerging brain-imaging technique based on optical principles, is suitable for studying the brain activity that underlies effortful listening. In an event-related fNIRS experiment, normally-hearing adults listened to sentences that were either clear or degraded (noise vocoded). These sentences were presented simultaneously with a non-speech distractor, and on each trial participants were instructed to attend either to the speech or to the distractor...
May 25, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560261/brain-structure-function-and-neurochemistry-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-the-magnetic-resonance-neuroimaging-literature
#20
Badari Birur, Nina Vanessa Kraguljac, Richard C Shelton, Adrienne Carol Lahti
Since Emil Kraepelin's conceptualization of endogenous psychoses as dementia praecox and manic depression, the separation between primary psychotic disorders and primary affective disorders has been much debated. We conducted a systematic review of case-control studies contrasting magnetic resonance imaging studies in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A literature search in PubMed of studies published between January 2005 and December 2016 was conducted, and 50 structural, 29 functional, 7 magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and 8 combined imaging and genetic studies were deemed eligible for systematic review...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
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