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Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431605/global-brain-atrophy-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-lgi1-encephalitis-a-prospective-multimodal-mri-study
#1
Monika Szots, Morten Blaabjerg, Gergely Orsi, Pernille Iversen, Daniel Kondziella, Camilla G Madsen, Ellen Garde, Peter O Magnusson, Peter Barsi, Ferenc Nagy, Hartwig R Siebner, Zsolt Illes
BACKGROUND: Chronic cognitive deficits are frequent in leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) encephalitis. We examined structural and metabolic brain abnormalities following LGI1 encephalitis and correlated findings with acute and follow-up clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nine patients underwent prospective multimodal 3 Tesla MRI 33.1±18months after disease onset, including automated volumetry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424764/diffusion-tensor-imaging-colour-mapping-threshold-for-identification-of-ventilation-induced-brain-injury-after-intrauterine-inflammation-in-preterm-lambs
#2
Dhafer M Alahmari, Beatrice Skiöld, Samantha K Barton, Ilias Nitsos, Courtney McDonald, Suzanne L Miller, Valerie Zahra, Robert Galinsky, Qizhu Wu, Michael John Farrell, Timothy J Moss, Stuart B Hooper, James T Pearson, Graeme R Polglase
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine whether advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques can detect early brain injury caused by intrauterine inflammation and inappropriate initial respiratory support in preterm lambs. HYPOTHESIS: Neuropathology caused by intrauterine inflammation is exacerbated by mechanical ventilation at birth and is detectable with advanced MRI techniques. METHODS: Pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 7 days prior to delivery at ~125 days of gestation (85% of gestation), whereupon lambs were delivered and randomised to receive an injurious (LPS + INJ, n = 6) or protective (LPS + PROT, n = 6) ventilation strategy...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418031/serum-concentration-of-hdl-particles-predicts-mortality-in-acute-heart-failure-patients
#3
Ines Potočnjak, Vesna Degoricija, Matias Trbušić, Gudrun Pregartner, Andrea Berghold, Gunther Marsche, Saša Frank
Clinical studies have shown that assessing circulating concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is superior to HDL-cholesterol in predicting cardiovascular risk. We tested the hypothesis that circulating concentrations of HDL particles predict 3-month mortality of patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Out of 152 included patients, 52% were female, additionally the mean patient age was 75.2 ± 10.3 years, and three-month mortality was 27%...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411157/the-separate-effects-of-lipids-and-proteins-on-brain-mri-contrast-revealed-through-tissue-clearing
#4
Christoph Leuze, Markus Aswendt, Emily Ferenczi, Corey W Liu, Brian Hsueh, Maged Goubran, Qiyuan Tian, Gary Steinberg, Michael M Zeineh, Karl Deisseroth, Jennifer A McNab
Despite the widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, the relative contribution of different biological components (e.g. lipids and proteins) to structural MRI contrasts (e.g., T1, T2, T2⁎, proton density, diffusion) remains incompletely understood. This limitation can undermine the interpretation of clinical MRI and hinder the development of new contrast mechanisms. Here, we determine the respective contribution of lipids and proteins to MRI contrast by removing lipids and preserving proteins in mouse brains using CLARITY...
April 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410055/olfactory-recognition-based-on-eeg-gamma-band-activity
#5
Onder Aydemir
There are various kinds of brain monitoring techniques, including local field potential, near-infrared spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography, functional MRI, electroencephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography. Among those techniques, EEG is the most widely used one due to its portability, low setup cost, and noninvasiveness. Apart from other advantages, EEG signals also help to evaluate the ability of the smelling organ. In such studies, EEG signals, which are recorded during smelling, are analyzed to determine the subject lacks any smelling ability or to measure the response of the brain...
April 14, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409563/glutamate-in-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-response-to-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Joseph O'Neill, John Piacentini, Susanna Chang, Ronald Ly, Tsz M Lai, Casey C Armstrong, Lindsey Bergman, Michelle Rozenman, Tara Peris, Allison Vreeland, Ross Mudgway, Jennifer G Levitt, Noriko Salamon, Stefan Posse, Gerhard S Hellemann, Jeffry R Alger, James T McCracken, Erika L Nurmi
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but non-response is common. Brain glutamate (Glu) signaling may contribute to OCD pathophysiology and moderate CBT outcomes. We assessed whether Glu measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was associated with OCD and/or CBT response. Youths aged 8-17 with DSM-IV OCD and typically-developing controls underwent 3T proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) MRS scans of pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) and ventral posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC)-regions possibly affected by OCD-at baseline...
April 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409252/pediatric-brain-mri-part-2-advanced-techniques
#7
REVIEW
Mai-Lan Ho, Norbert G Campeau, Thang D Ngo, Unni K Udayasankar, Kirk M Welker
Pediatric neuroimaging is a complex and specialized field that uses magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as the workhorse for diagnosis. MR protocols should be tailored to the specific indication and reviewed by the supervising radiologist in real time. Targeted advanced imaging sequences can be added to provide information regarding tissue microstructure, perfusion, metabolism and function. In part 2 of this review, we highlight the utility of advanced imaging techniques for superior evaluation of pediatric neurologic disease...
May 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408961/the-usefulness-of-diagnostic-imaging-for-the-assessment-of-pain-symptoms-in-temporomandibular-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Shigeaki Suenaga, Kunihiro Nagayama, Taisuke Nagasawa, Hiroko Indo, Hideyuki J Majima
The causes of pain symptoms in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and masticatory muscle (MM) regions may not be determined by clinical examination alone. In this review, we document that pain symptoms of the TMJ and MM regions in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are associated with computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) findings of internal derangement, joint effusion, osteoarthritis, and bone marrow edema. However, it is emphasized that these imaging findings must not be regarded as the unique and dominant factors in defining TMJ pain...
November 2016: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408159/brain-mrs-glutamine-as-a-biomarker-to-guide-therapy-of-hyperammonemic-coma
#9
Anne H O'Donnell-Luria, Alexander P Lin, Sai K Merugumala, Frances Rohr, Susan E Waisbren, Rebecca Lynch, Vatche Tchekmedyian, Aaron D Goldberg, Andrew Bellinger, J Ricardo McFaline-Figueroa, Tracey Simon, Esteban F Gershanik, Bruce D Levy, David E Cohen, Martin A Samuels, Gerard T Berry, Natasha Y Frank
Acute idiopathic hyperammonemia in an adult patient is a life-threatening condition often resulting in a rapid progression to irreversible cerebral edema and death. While ammonia-scavenging therapies lower blood ammonia levels, in comparison, clearance of waste nitrogen from the brain may be delayed. Therefore, we used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to monitor cerebral glutamine levels, the major reservoir of ammonia, in a gastric bypass patient with hyperammonemic coma undergoing therapy with N-carbamoyl glutamate and the ammonia-scavenging agents, sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402605/biotin-thiamine-responsive-basal-ganglia-disease-identification-of-a-pyruvate-peak-on-brain-spectroscopy-novel-mutation-in-slc19a3-and-calculation-of-prevalence-based-on-allele-frequencies-from-aggregated-next-generation-sequencing-data
#10
Carlos R Ferreira, Matthew T Whitehead, Eyby Leon
Biotin-thiamine responsive basal ganglia disease is an inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in SLC19A3, encoding a transporter of thiamine across the plasma membrane. We report a novel mutation identified in the homozygous state in a patient with typical brain MRI changes. In addition, this patient had markedly elevated CSF pyruvate, a low lactate-to-pyruvate molar ratio, and an abnormal pyruvate peak at 2.4 ppm on brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Using aggregated exome sequencing data, we calculate the carrier frequency of mutations in SLC19A3 as 1 in 232 individuals in the general population, for an estimated prevalence of the disease of approximately 1 in 215,000 individuals...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397726/long-term-brain-tissue-monitoring-after-semi-brain-irradiation-in-rats-using-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-preliminary-study-in-vivo
#11
Hong Chen, Yu-Shu Cheng, Zheng-Rong Zhou
BACKGROUND: In head and neck neoplasm survivors treated with brain irradiation, metabolic alterations would occur in the radiation-induced injury area. The mechanism of these metabolic alterations has not been fully understood, while the alternations could be sensitively detected by proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In this study, we investigated the metabolic characteristics of radiation-induced brain injury through a long-term follow-up after radiation treatment using MRS in vivo...
April 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396157/coupled-brain-and-urine-spectroscopy-in-vivo-metabolomic-characterization-of-hmg-coa-lyase-deficiency-in-5-patients
#12
Dominique Roland, Patrice Jissendi-Tchofo, Gilbert Briand, Joseph Vamecq, Monique Fontaine, Vincent Ultré, Cécile Acquaviva-Bourdain, Karine Mention, Dries Dobbelaere
BACKGROUND: 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) lyase deficiency is a rare inborn error of leucine metabolism and ketogenesis. Despite recurrent hypoglycemia and metabolic decompensations, most patients have a good clinical and neurological outcome contrasting with abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals and consistent abnormal brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) metabolite peaks. Identifying these metabolites could provide surrogate markers of the disease and improve understanding of MRI-clinical discrepancy and follow-up of affected patients...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394203/dysregulation-of-energy-metabolism-in-multiple-sclerosis-measured-in-vivo-with-diffusion-weighted-spectroscopy
#13
Benedetta Bodini, Francesca Branzoli, Emilie Poirion, Daniel García-Lorenzo, Mélanie Didier, Elisabeth Maillart, Julie Socha, Geraldine Bera, Catherine Lubetzki, Itamar Ronen, Stephane Lehericy, Bruno Stankoff
OBJECTIVE: We employed diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DW-MRS), which allows to measure in vivo the diffusion properties of metabolites, to explore the functional neuro-axonal damage and the ongoing energetic dysregulation in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with MS and 18 healthy controls (HC) underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DW-MRS. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of total N-acetyl-aspartate (tNAA) and creatine-phosphocreatine (tCr) were measured in the parietal normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and in the thalamic grey matter (TGM)...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392373/persistent-blood-glucose-reduction-upon-repeated-transcranial-electric-stimulation-in-men
#14
Alina Kistenmacher, Sebastian Manneck, Ewelina K Wardzinski, Jan C Martens, Georg Gohla, Uwe H Melchert, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Kerstin M Oltmanns
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human brain increases systemic glucose tolerance. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate whether this effect persists after one week of repeated stimulation. Because systemic glucose uptake relates to brain energy homeostasis, we concomitantly measured cerebral high-energy phosphate metabolites. METHODS: In a sham-controlled crossover design, 14 healthy men were tested under daily anodal tDCS vs...
March 25, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391258/dexmedetomidine-combined-with-therapeutic-hypothermia-is-associated-with-cardiovascular-instability-and-neurotoxicity-in-a-piglet-model-of-perinatal-asphyxia
#15
Mojgan Ezzati, Go Kawano, Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, Daniel Alonso-Alconada, Jane K Hassell, Kevin D Broad, Igor Fierens, Bobbi Fleiss, Alan Bainbridge, David L Price, Pardis Kaynezhad, Brian Anderson, Mariya Hristova, Ilias Tachtsidis, Xavier Golay, Pierre Gressens, Robert D Sanders, Nicola J Robertson
The selective α2-adrenoreceptor agonist dexmedetomidine has shown neuroprotective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and sympatholytic properties that may be beneficial in neonatal encephalopathy (NE). As therapeutic hypothermia is only partially effective, adjunct therapies are needed to optimize outcomes. The aim was to assess whether hypothermia + dexmedetomidine treatment augments neuroprotection compared to routine treatment (hypothermia + fentanyl sedation) in a piglet model of NE using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) biomarkers, which predict outcomes in babies with NE, and immunohistochemistry...
April 8, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388601/early-post-natal-exposure-to-intermittent-hypoxia-in-rodents-is-pro-inflammatory-impairs-white-matter-integrity-and-alters-brain-metabolism
#16
Robert A Darnall, Xi Chen, Krishnamurthy V Nemani, Chrystelle M Sirieix, Barjor Gimi, Susan Knoblach, Betty L McEntire, Carl E Hunt
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are frequently exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with apnea and periodic breathing that may result in inflammation and brain injury that later manifests as cognitive and executive function deficits. We used a rodent model to determine whether early postnatal exposure to IH would result in inflammation and brain injury. METHODS: Rat pups were exposed to IH from P2-P12. Control animals were exposed to room air. Cytokines were analyzed in plasma and brain tissue at P13 and P18...
April 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382555/fitting-interrelated-datasets-metabolite-diffusion-and-general-lineshapes
#17
Victor Adalid, André Döring, Sreenath Pruthviraj Kyathanahally, Christine Sandra Bolliger, Chris Boesch, Roland Kreis
OBJECTIVE: Simultaneous modeling of true 2-D spectroscopy data, or more generally, interrelated spectral datasets has been described previously and is useful for quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy applications. In this study, a combined method of reference-lineshape enhanced model fitting and two-dimensional prior-knowledge fitting for the case of diffusion weighted MR spectroscopy is presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Time-dependent field distortions determined from a water reference are applied to the spectral bases used in linear-combination modeling of interrelated spectra...
April 5, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375210/corticolimbic-hyper-response-to-emotion-and-glutamatergic-function-in-people-with-high-schizotypy-a-multimodal-fmri-mrs-study
#18
G Modinos, A McLaughlin, A Egerton, K McMullen, V Kumari, G J Barker, C Keysers, S C R Williams
Animal models and human neuroimaging studies suggest that altered levels of glutamatergic metabolites within a corticolimbic circuit have a major role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Rodent models propose that prefrontal glutamate dysfunction could lead to amygdala hyper-response to environmental stress and underlie hippocampal overdrive in schizophrenia. Here we determine whether changes in brain glutamate are present in individuals with high schizotypy (HS), which refers to the presence of schizophrenia-like characteristics in healthy individuals, and whether glutamate levels are related to altered corticolimbic response to emotion...
April 4, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370675/7t-physics-safety-and-potential-clinical-applications
#19
REVIEW
Oliver Kraff, Harald H Quick
With more than 60 installed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems worldwide operating at a magnetic field strength of 7T or higher, ultrahigh-field (UHF) MRI has been established as a platform for clinically oriented research in recent years. Profound technical and methodological developments have helped overcome the inherent physical challenges of UHF radiofrequency (RF) signal homogenization in the human body. The ongoing development of dedicated RF coil arrays was pivotal in realizing UHF body MRI, beyond mere brain imaging applications...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370576/initial-investigation-of-glucose-metabolism-in-mouse-brain-using-enriched-17-o-glucose-and-dynamic-17-o-mrs
#20
Robert Borowiak, Wilfried Reichardt, Dmitry Kurzhunov, Christian Schuch, Jochen Leupold, Axel Joachim Krafft, Marco Reisert, Thomas Lange, Elmar Fischer, Michael Bock
In this initial work, the in vivo degradation of (17) O-labeled glucose was studied during cellular glycolysis. To monitor cellular glucose metabolism, direct (17) O-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used in the mouse brain at 9.4 T. Non-localized spectra were acquired with a custom-built transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) two-turn surface coil and a free induction decay (FID) sequence with a short TR of 5.4 ms. The dynamics of labeled oxygen in the anomeric 1-OH and 6-CH2 OH groups was detected using a Hankel-Lanczos singular value decomposition (HLSVD) algorithm for water suppression...
April 3, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
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