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Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217759/frontal-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-concentrations-are-associated-with-cognitive-performance-in-older-adults
#1
Eric C Porges, Adam J Woods, Richard A E Edden, Nicolaas A J Puts, Ashley D Harris, Huaihou Chen, Amanda M Garcia, Talia R Seider, Damon G Lamb, John B Williamson, Ronald A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the brain's principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, has been associated with perceptual and attentional functioning. Recent application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides in vivo evidence for decreasing GABA concentrations during adulthood. It is unclear, however, how age-related decrements in cerebral GABA concentrations contribute to cognitive decline, or whether previously reported declines in cerebral GABA concentrations persist during healthy aging...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203104/proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-assessment-of-metabolite-status-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-chronic-pain-patients-and-healthy-controls
#2
Takahiro Ito, Sachiko Tanaka-Mizuno, Narihito Iwashita, Ikuo Tooyama, Akihiko Shiino, Katsuyuki Miura, Sei Fukui
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a common cause of reduced quality of life. Recent studies suggest that chronic pain patients have a different brain neurometabolic status to healthy people. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can determine the concentrations of metabolites in a specific region of the brain without being invasive. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 56 chronic pain patients and 60 healthy controls to compare brain metabolic characteristics...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197103/increases-in-brain-1-h-mr-glutamine-and-glutamate-signals-following-acute-exhaustive-endurance-exercise-in-the-rat
#3
Maciej Świątkiewicz, Michał Fiedorowicz, Jarosław Orzeł, Marlena Wełniak-Kamińska, Piotr Bogorodzki, Józef Langfort, Paweł Grieb
Objective: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in ultra-high magnetic field can be used for non-invasive quantitative assessment of brain glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) in vivo. Glu, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is efficiently recycled between synapses and presynaptic terminals through Glu-Gln cycle which involves glutamine synthase confined to astrocytes, and uses 60-80% of energy in the resting human and rat brain. During voluntary or involuntary exercise many brain areas are significantly activated, which certainly intensifies Glu-Gln cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195034/treatment-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells-a-phase-i-iia-clinical-study
#4
Yun-An Tsai, Ren-Shyan Liu, Jiing-Feng Lirng, Bang-Hung Yang, Chin-Hao Chang, YiChen Wang, Yu-Shan Wu, Jennifer Hui-Chun Ho, Oscar K Lee, Bing-Wen Soong
Ataxia is one of the most devastating symptoms of many neurodegenerative disorders. As of today, there isn’tany effective treatment to retard its progression. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promise in treating neurodegenerative diseases. We hereby report the results of a phase I/IIa clinical study conducted in Taiwan to primarily evaluate the safety, tolerability and, secondarily, the possible efficacy of intravenous administration of allogeneic adipose tissuederived MSCs from healthy donors...
February 14, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192828/mr-spectroscopy-findings-in-retired-professional-rugby-league-players
#5
Andrew J Gardner, Grant L Iverson, Magdalena Wojtowicz, Christopher R Levi, Frances Kay-Lambkin, Peter W Schofield, Ross Zafonte, Sandy R Shultz, Alexander P Lin, Peter Stanwell
The aim of this study was to examine brain neurometabolite concentrations in retired rugby league players who had a history of numerous self-reported concussions. Participants were 16 retired professional rugby league players (ages 30-45 years) with an extensive history of concussion and participation in contact sports, and 16 age- and education-matched controls who had no history of neurotrauma or participation in contact sports. All completed a clinical interview, psychological and cognitive testing, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) investigation...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192451/in-vivo-functional-neurochemistry-of-human-cortical-cholinergic-function-during-visuospatial-attention
#6
Michael Lindner, Tiffany Bell, Somya Iqbal, Paul Gerald Mullins, Anastasia Christakou
Cortical acetylcholine is involved in key cognitive processes such as visuospatial attention. Dysfunction in the cholinergic system has been described in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Levels of brain acetylcholine can be pharmacologically manipulated, but it is not possible to directly measure it in vivo in humans. However, key parts of its biochemical cascade in neural tissue, such as choline, can be measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). There is evidence that levels of choline may be an indirect but proportional measure of acetylcholine availability in brain tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186868/effects-of-near-infrared-light-on-cerebral-bioenergetics-measured-with-phosphorus-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#7
Dionyssios Mintzopoulos, Timothy E Gillis, Clark E Tedford, Marc J Kaufman
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral photobiomodulation (PBM) improves mood and cognition. Cerebral metabolic enhancement is a mechanism proposed to underlie PBM effects. No PBM studies to date have applied phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P MRS), which can be used to assess metabolic intermediates such as phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate, the latter of which is elevated by PBM. Accordingly, we used 9.4 Tesla (31)P MRS to characterize effects of single and repeat cerebral PBM treatments on metabolism...
February 9, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180078/acute-stress-effects-on-gaba-and-glutamate-levels-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-a-7t-1-h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#8
L C Houtepen, R R Schür, J P Wijnen, V O Boer, M P M Boks, R S Kahn, M Joëls, D W Klomp, C H Vinkers
There is ample evidence that the inhibitory GABA and the excitatory glutamate system are essential for an adequate response to stress. Both GABAergic and glutamatergic brain circuits modulate hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity, and stress in turn affects glutamate and GABA levels in the rodent brain. However, studies examining stress-induced GABA and glutamate levels in the human brain are scarce. Therefore, we investigated the influence of acute psychosocial stress (using the Trier Social Stress Test) on glutamate and GABA levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of 29 healthy male individuals using 7 Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170180/therapeutic-prospective-of-infused-allogenic-cultured-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-traumatic-brain-injury-mice-a-longitudinal-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-assessment
#9
Sushanta Kumar Mishra, Poonam Rana, Subash Khushu, Gurudutta Gangenahalli
Improved therapeutic assessment of experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), would immensely benefit its therapeutic management. Neurometabolite patterns at injury site, measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) after MSCs transplantation, may serve as a bio-indicator of the recovery mechanism. This study used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and 1H-MRS to evaluate the therapeutic prospects of implanted MSCs at injury site in experimental mice longitudinally up to 21 days...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169457/improving-labeling-efficiency-in-automatic-quality-control-of-mrsi-data
#10
Nuno Pedrosa de Barros, Richard McKinley, Roland Wiest, Johannes Slotboom
PURPOSE: To improve the efficiency of the labeling task in automatic quality control of MR spectroscopy imaging data. METHODS: 28'432 short and long echo time (TE) spectra (1.5 tesla; point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS); repetition time (TR)= 1,500 ms) from 18 different brain tumor patients were labeled by two experts as either accept or reject, depending on their quality. For each spectrum, 47 signal features were extracted. The data was then used to run several simulations and test an active learning approach using uncertainty sampling...
February 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168127/krabbe-disease-report-of-a-rare-lipid-storage-and-neurodegenerative-disorder
#11
Pratyusha Pavuluri, Sabitha Vadakedath, Rajkumar Gundu, Sushmitha Uppulety, Venkataramana Kandi
Krabbe disease is a rare (one in 100,000 births) autosomal recessive condition, usually noticed among children. It causes sphingolipidosis (dysfunctional metabolism of sphingolipids) and leads to fatal degenerative changes affecting the myelin sheath of the nervous system. We report a case of a six-year-old male child who presented with symptoms of muscle spasticity and irritability. Diagnosis of this disease can only be made with clinical suspicion. Laboratory diagnosis includes brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy, biochemical analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, and genetic analysis for detecting mutation in genes coding for galactosyl cerebroside (GALC)...
January 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165649/intracellular-ph-measured-by-31-p-mr-spectroscopy-might-predict-site-of-progression-in-recurrent-glioblastoma-under-antiangiogenic-therapy
#12
Katharina J Wenger, Elke Hattingen, Kea Franz, Joachim P Steinbach, Oliver Bähr, Ulrich Pilatus
PURPOSE: In solid tumors, changes in the expression/activity of plasma membrane ion transporters facilitate proton efflux and enable tumor cells to maintain a higher intracellular pH (pHi ), while the microenvironment (pHe ) is commonly more acidic. This supports various tumor-promoting mechanisms. We propose that these changes in pH take place before a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detectable brain tumor recurrence occurs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 66 patients with recurrent glioblastoma, treated with bevacizumab...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164364/simultaneous-determination-of-metabolite-concentrations-t1-and-t2-relaxation-times
#13
Li An, Shizhe Li, Jun Shen
PURPOSE: To simultaneously measure concentration and T1 and T2 values of metabolites in the human brain in a single scan session. METHODS: A new pulse sequence with multiple variable acquisition parameters was proposed to encode metabolite T1 and T2 information into the acquired data. A linear combination-fitting algorithm was developed in-house to simultaneously determine metabolite concentrations and relaxation times. RESULTS: Concentration, T1 , and T2 values of N-acetyl-aspartate, total creatine, total choline, and glutamate were reliably measured in the frontal gray matter and white matter regions of nine healthy volunteers at 7 tesla in less than 10 minutes of scan time per voxel...
February 5, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153690/lactate-and-glutamate-dynamics-during-prolonged-stimulation-of-the-rat-barrel-cortex-suggest-adaptation-of-cerebral-glucose-and-oxygen-metabolism
#14
Sarah Sonnay, João M N Duarte, Nathalie Just
A better understanding of BOLD responses stems from a better characterization of the brain's ability to metabolize glucose and oxygen. Non-invasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS) have thus been developed allowing for the reproducible assessment of metabolic changes during barrel cortex (S1BF) activations in rats. The present study aimed at further exploring the role of neurotransmitters on local and temporal changes in vascular and metabolic function in S1BF. fMRS and fMRI data were acquired sequentially in α-chloralose anesthetized rats during 32-min rest and trigeminal nerve stimulation periods...
January 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150876/edited-1-h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-vivo-methods-and-metabolites
#15
REVIEW
Ashley D Harris, Muhammad G Saleh, Richard A E Edden
The Proton magnetic resonance ((1) H-MRS) spectrum contains information about the concentration of tissue metabolites within a predefined region of interest (a voxel). The conventional spectrum in some cases obscures information about less abundant metabolites due to limited separation and complex splitting of the metabolite peaks. One method to detect these metabolites is to reduce the complexity of the spectrum using editing. This review provides an overview of the one-dimensional editing methods available to interrogate these obscured metabolite peaks...
February 2, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149919/comparison-of-group-level-source-localized-activity-for-simultaneous-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-magnetoencephalography-and-simultaneous-fnirs-fmri-during-parametric-median-nerve-stimulation
#16
Theodore Huppert, Jeff Barker, Benjamin Schmidt, Shawn Walls, Avniel Ghuman
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging technique, which uses light to measure changes in cerebral blood oxygenation through sensors placed on the surface of the scalp. We recorded concurrent fNIRS with magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in order to investigate the group-level correspondence of these measures with source-localized fNIRS estimates. Healthy participants took part in both a concurrent fNIRS-MEG and fNIRS-fMRI neuroimaging session during two somatosensory stimulation tasks, a blocked design median nerve localizer and parametric pulsed-pair median nerve stimulation using interpulse intervals from 100 to 500 ms...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149758/defining-the-endpoints-how-to-measure-the-efficacy-of-drugs-that-are-active-against-central-nervous-system-metastases
#17
REVIEW
Alessandra Fabi, Antonello Vidiri
Brain metastases (BMs) are the most common cause of malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors in adults. In the recent past, patients with BMs were excluded from clinical trials, but now, with the advent of new biological and immunological drugs, their inclusion is more common. In the last era response and progression criteria used across clinical trials have defined the importance to consider not only measurement changes of brain lesions but also the modification of parameters related to the metastases such as metabolism of tissue and its pathological features...
December 2016: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149649/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Lydia Yarlott, Eleanor Heald, Daniel Forton
An association between hepatitis C virus infection and neuropsychiatric symptoms has been proposed for some years. A variety of studies have been undertaken to assess the nature and severity of these symptoms, which range from fatigue and depression to defects in attention and verbal reasoning. There is evidence of mild neurocognitive impairment in some patients with HCV infection, which is not fully attributable to liver dysfunction or psychosocial factors. Further evidence of a biological cerebral effect has arisen from studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy; metabolic abnormalities correlate with cognitive dysfunction and resemble the patterns of neuroinflammation that have been described in HIV infection...
March 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149099/bilateral-ptosis-without-upward-gaze-palsy-unusual-presentation-of-midbrain-tuberculoma
#19
Shatanik Sarkar, Chaitali Patra, Malay Kumar Dasgupta
Central nervous system tuberculoma can have variable presentations depending on the site and number of tuberculomas. We are reporting a rare case of an 11-year-old male child presenting with ptosis and ataxia. Clinical examination revealed bilateral partial 3(rd) cranial nerve palsy (ptosis without any upward gaze palsy) associated with dysdiadochokinesia and ataxia on the right side. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a single ring-enhancing lesion in the dorsal midbrain with perifocal edema...
January 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148286/fifteen-year-follow-up-of-italian-families-affected-by-arginine-glycine-amidinotransferase-deficiency
#20
Roberta Battini, M Grazia Alessandrì, Claudia Casalini, Manuela Casarano, Michela Tosetti, Giovanni Cioni
BACKGROUND: Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency (AGAT-d) is a very rare inborn error of creatine synthesis mainly characterized by absence of brain Creatine (Cr) peak, intellectual disability, severe language impairment and behavioural disorder and susceptible to supplementary Cr treatment per os. Serial examinations by magnetic resonance spectroscopy are required to evaluate Cr recovery in brain during treatment of high doses of Cr per os, which have been proved beneficial and effective in treating main clinical symptoms...
February 2, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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