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Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667260/tai-chi-improves-brain-metabolism-and-muscle-energetics-in-older-adults
#1
Min Zhou, Huijun Liao, Lasya P Sreepada, Joshua R Ladner, James A Balschi, Alexander P Lin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tai Chi is a mind-body exercise that has been shown to improve both mental and physical health. As a result, recent literature suggests the use of Tai Chi to treat both physical and psychological disorders. However, the underlying physiological changes have not been characterized. The aim of this pilot study is to assess the changes in brain metabolites and muscle energetics after Tai Chi training in an aging population using a combined brain-muscle magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) examination...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666589/applications-of-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs-in-studying-cognitive-development-the-case-of-mathematics-and-language
#2
REVIEW
Mojtaba Soltanlou, Maria A Sitnikova, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Thomas Dresler
In this review, we aim to highlight the application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a useful neuroimaging technique for the investigation of cognitive development. We focus on brain activation changes during the development of mathematics and language skills in schoolchildren. We discuss how technical limitations of common neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have resulted in our limited understanding of neural changes during development, while fNIRS would be a suitable and child-friendly method to examine cognitive development...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663845/a-24-month-advanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients-treated-with-alemtuzumab
#3
Irene M Vavasour, Roger Tam, David Kb Li, Cornelia Laule, Carolyn Taylor, Shannon H Kolind, Alex L MacKay, Adil Javed, Anthony Traboulsee
BACKGROUND: Tissue damage in both multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) are important contributors to disability and progression. Specific aspects of MS pathology can be measured using advanced imaging. Alemtuzumab is a humanised monoclonal antibody targeting CD52 developed for MS treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes over 2 years of advanced magnetic resonance (MR) metrics in lesions and NAWM of MS patients treated with alemtuzumab...
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656881/fundamentals-of-functional-imaging-i-current-clinical-techniques
#4
A Luna, T Martín Noguerol, L Alcalá Mata
Imaging techniques can establish a structural, physiological, and molecular phenotype for cancer, which helps enable accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment. In recent years, various imaging techniques that make it possible to study the functional characteristics of tumors quantitatively and reproducibly have been introduced and have become established in routine clinical practice. Perfusion studies enable us to estimate the microcirculation as well as tumor angiogenesis and permeability using ultrafast dynamic acquisitions with ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging...
April 12, 2018: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651240/cognitive-neuroscience-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-its-clinical-translation
#5
REVIEW
Katya Rubia
This review focuses on the cognitive neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and on recent clinically relevant applications such as fMRI-based diagnostic classification or neuromodulation therapies targeting fMRI deficits with neurofeedback (NF) or brain stimulation. Meta-analyses of fMRI studies of executive functions (EFs) show that ADHD patients have cognitive-domain dissociated complex multisystem impairments in several right and left hemispheric dorsal, ventral and medial fronto-cingulo-striato-thalamic and fronto-parieto-cerebellar networks that mediate cognitive control, attention, timing and working memory (WM)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648462/a-systematic-review-of-neuroimaging-findings-in-children-and-adolescents-with-sports-related-concussion
#6
Emilie Chamard, Jonathan D Lichtenstein
BACKGROUND: Sport-related concussion (SRC) generally does not result in structural anomalies revealed through clinical imaging techniques such as MRI and CT. While advanced neuroimaging techniques offer another avenue to investigate the subtle alterations following SRC, the current pediatric literature in this area has yet to be reviewed. The aim of this review is to systematically explore the literature on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and cortical thickness following SRC in children and adolescents...
April 12, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616444/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-schizophrenia-evidence-for-glutamatergic-dysfunction-and-impaired-energy-metabolism
#7
João M N Duarte, Lijing Xin
In the past couple of decades, major efforts were made to increase reliability of metabolic assessments by magnetic resonance methods. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been valuable for providing in vivo evidence and investigating biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia. Alterations of glutamate and glutamine levels in brains of schizophrenia patients relative to healthy subjects are generally interpreted as markers of glutamatergic dysfunction. However, only a small fraction of MRS-detectable glutamate is involved in neurotransmission...
April 3, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600890/preoperative-brain-temperature-imaging-on-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-predicts-hemispheric-ischemia-during-carotid-endarterectomy-for-unilateral-carotid-stenosis-with-inadequate-collateral-blood-flow
#8
Shouta Tsutsui, Takamasa Nanba, Yoshichika Yoshioka, Makoto Sasaki, Shunrou Fujiwara, Masakazu Kobayashi, Kenji Yoshida, Kenya Miyoshi, Shinpei Sato, Kuniaki Ogasawara
Objective Preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) angiography sometimes shows the absence of collateral flow via the circle of Willis. This study examined whether brain temperature (BT) imaging on multi-voxel proton MR spectroscopy after this finding increases the accuracy of predicting hemispheric ischemia during internal carotid artery (ICA) clamping during endarterectomy for patients with symptomatic unilateral carotid stenosis. Methods In 52 patients with ICA stenosis (≥70%) and absence of collateral blood flow via the circle of Willis on preoperative MR angiography, BT imaging was displayed using proton multi-voxel MR spectroscopy...
March 30, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599727/brain-gaba-and-glutamate-concentrations-following-chronic-gabapentin-administration-a-convenience-sample-studied-during-early-abstinence-from-alcohol
#9
Dieter J Meyerhoff, Donna E Murray, Timothy C Durazzo, David L Pennington
Gabapentin (GBP), a GABA analog that may also affect glutamate (Glu) production, can normalize GABA and Glu tone during early abstinence from alcohol, effectively treating withdrawal symptoms and facilitating recovery. Using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we tested the degree to which daily GBP alters regional brain GABA and Glu levels in short-term abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals. Regional metabolite levels were compared between 13 recently abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals who had received daily GBP for at least 1 week (GBP+) and 25 matched alcohol-dependent individuals who had not received GBP (GBP-)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593585/functional-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-the-new-mrs-for-cognitive-neuroscience-and-psychiatry-research
#10
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Stanley, Naftali Raz
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) is a well-established technique for quantifying the brain regional biochemistry in vivo . In most studies, however, the1 H MRS is acquired during rest with little to no constraint on behavior. Measured metabolite levels, therefore, reflect steady-state concentrations whose associations with behavior and cognition are unclear. With the recent advances in MR technology-higher-field MR systems, robust acquisition techniques and sophisticated quantification methods-1 H MRS is now experiencing a resurgence...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588064/the-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-steroid-treatment-on-the-tumor-and-peritumoral-edema-by-dwi-and-mr-spectroscopy-in-brain-tumors
#11
Cahit Kural, Gokce Kaan Atac, Ozkan Tehli, Ilker Solmaz, Caglar Temiz, Irgen Hodaj, Yusuf Izci
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of dexamethasone on brain tumor and peritumoral edema by different sequences of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI was performed in 28 patients with brain tumor. Patients were divided into the 3 groups based on the histological diagnosis; Group I: high-grade glial tumor, Group II: low-grade glial tumor, and Group III: brain metastasis. The measurements of peritumoral edema volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were performed while the peak areas of cerebral metabolites were measured by spectroscopy in groups I and II...
March 13, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587752/alzheimer-like-brain-metabolic-and-structural-features-in-cholesterol-fed-rabbit-detected-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Ping Jin, Yongming Pan, Zhiyong Pan, Jianqin Xu, Min Lin, Zhichao Sun, Minli Chen, Maosheng Xu
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is known to increase the risk of AD in later life, the purpose of this study is to illustrate brain metabolic and structural changes in a cholesterol-fed rabbit model of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) by using clinical 3 T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). METHODS: The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University approved the study. Totally 16 Japanese White Rabbits (JWR) were randomly divided into 2 groups including normal control group fed with routine diet (group NC) and high cholesterol diet group (group CD) fed a 2% cholesterol diet with 0...
March 27, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581538/brain-lactate-and-ph-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-findings-from-magnetic-resonance-studies
#13
Asli Ercan Dogan, Cagri Yuksel, Fei Du, Virginie-Anne Chouinard, Dost Öngür
Converging evidence from molecular to neuroimaging studies suggests brain energy metabolism abnormalities in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. One emerging hypothesis is: decreased oxidative phosphorylation leading to accumulation of lactic acid from glycolysis and subsequent acidification of tissue. In this regard, integrating lactate and pH data from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in both diseases may help us understand underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In order to achieve this goal, we performed a systematic search of case-control studies examining brain lactate or pH among schizophrenia and/or bipolar patients by using MRS...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560372/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-reveals-abnormalities-of-glucose-metabolism-in-the-alzheimer-s-brain
#14
Roger Mullins, David Reiter, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
Objective: Brain glucose hypometabolism is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and in this case-control study we used Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to assess AD-related differences in the posterior cingulate/precuneal ratio of glucose, lactate, and other metabolites. Methods: J-modulated Point-Resolved Spectroscopy (J-PRESS) and Prior-Knowledge Fitting (ProFit) software was used to measure glucose and other metabolites in the posterior cingulate/precuneus of 25 AD, 27 older controls, and 27 younger control participants...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559930/working-memory-modulates-glutamate-levels-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-during-1-h-fmrs
#15
Eric A Woodcock, Chaitali Anand, Dalal Khatib, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Jeffrey A Stanley
Glutamate is involved in excitatory neurotransmission and metabolic processes related to brain function. Previous studies using proton functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H fMRS) have demonstrated elevated cortical glutamate levels by 2-4% during visual and motor stimulation, relative to periods of no stimulation. Here, we extended this approach to working memory cognitive task performance, which has been consistently associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activation. Sixteen healthy adult volunteers completed a continuous visual fixation "rest" task followed by a letter 2-back working memory task during1 H fMRS acquisition of the left dlPFC, which encompassed Brodmann areas 45 and 46 over a 4...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556351/perfluorocarbon-enhanced-glasgow-oxygen-level-dependent-gold-magnetic-resonance-metabolic-imaging-identifies-the-penumbra-following-acute-ischemic-stroke
#16
Graeme A Deuchar, David Brennan, William M Holmes, Martin Shaw, I Mhairi Macrae, Celestine Santosh
The ability to identify metabolically active and potentially salvageable ischaemic penumbra is crucial for improving treatment decisions in acute stroke patients. Our solution involves two complementary novel MRI techniques (Glasgow Oxygen Level Dependant (GOLD) Metabolic Imaging), which when combined with a perfluorocarbon (PFC) based oxygen carrier and hyperoxia can identify penumbra due to dynamic changes related to continued metabolism within this tissue compartment. Our aims were (i) to investigate whether PFC offers similar enhancement of the second technique (Lactate Change) as previously demonstrated for the T2 *OC technique (ii) to demonstrate both GOLD metabolic imaging techniques working concurrently to identify penumbra, following administration of Oxycyte® (O-PFC) with hyperoxia...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555943/dynamic-metabolic-patterns-tracking-neurodegeneration-and-gliosis-following-26s-proteasome-dysfunction-in-mouse-forebrain-neurons
#17
Philippine C Geiszler, Aslihan Ugun-Klusek, Karen Lawler, Marie-Christine Pardon, Ding Yuchun, Li Bai, Clare A Daykin, Dorothee P Auer, Lynn Bedford
Metabolite profiling is an important tool that may better capture the multiple features of neurodegeneration. With the considerable parallels between mouse and human metabolism, the use of metabolomics in mouse models with neurodegenerative pathology provides mechanistic insight and ready translation into aspects of human disease. Using 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy we have carried out a temporal region-specific investigation of the metabolome of neuron-specific 26S proteasome knockout mice characterised by progressive neurodegeneration and Lewy-like inclusion formation in the forebrain...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548050/radiomics-metabolic-and-molecular-mri-for-brain-tumors
#18
Philipp Kickingereder, Ovidiu Cristian Andronesi
Magnetic resonance imaging plays a key role in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of brain tumors. Novel imaging techniques that specifically interrogate aspects of underlying tumor biology and biochemical pathways have great potential in neuro-oncology. This review focuses on the emerging role of 2-hydroxyglutarate-targeted magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as radiomics and radiogenomics in establishing diagnosis for isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant gliomas, and for monitoring treatment response and predicting prognosis of this group of brain tumor patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544167/glutamatergic-hypofunction-in-medication-free-major-depression-secondary-effects-of-affective-diagnosis-and-relationship-to-peripheral-glutaminase
#19
Toby Wise, Matthew J Taylor, Andres Herane-Vives, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Francesco Cappello, David J Lythgoe, Steve Cr Williams, Allan H Young, Anthony J Cleare, Danilo Arnone
BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty as to whether alterations in glutamatergic function in affective disorders differ between unipolar and bipolar disorders and between depressive and euthymic states. Additionally, there are currently no available blood-based markers of central glutamatergic function to support clinical diagnosis and aid brain based investigations. METHODS: In this study, we measured levels of glutamate in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in-vivo using 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in medication free unipolar and bipolar patients (n = 29, 20 unipolar and 9 bipolar) experiencing a major depressive episode, in comparison with a group of matched healthy controls (n = 20)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536563/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-neuroimaging-in-hepatitis-c-chronic-infection
#20
REVIEW
G Oriolo, E Egmond, Z Mariño, M Cavero, R Navines, L Zamarrenho, R Solà, J Pujol, N Bargallo, X Forns, R Martin-Santos
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is considered a systemic disease because of extra-hepatic manifestations. Neuroimaging has been employed in hepatitis C virus-infected patients to find in vivo evidence of central nervous system alterations. AIMS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging research in chronic hepatitis C treatment naive patients, or patients previously treated without sustained viral response, to study structural and functional brain impact of hepatitis C...
March 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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