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Bernard Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Cinzia Volonte, Stephen D Skaper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Judith Kimble
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Science
John Preskill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Science
Rajesh K Singh, Sahil Kumar, D N Prasad, T R Bhardwaj
Cancer is considered as one of the most serious health problems today. The discovery of nitrogen mustard as an alkylating agent in 1942, opened a new era in the cancer chemotherapy. This valuable class of alkylating agent exerts its biological activity by binding to DNA, cross linking two strands, preventing DNA replication and ultimate cell death. At the molecular level, nitrogen lone pairs of nitrogen mustard generate a strained intermediate "aziridinium ion" which is very reactive towards DNA of tumor cell as well as normal cell resulting in various adverse side effects alogwith therapeutic implications...
April 3, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Nicola Picardi
È pleonastico ricordare che ogni individuo raziocinante delle essere responsabile delle sue azioni: deve agire con la coscienza degli scopi che si propone evitando possibili conseguenze negative dei suoi atti. In ambito medico questo tipo di responsabilità è codificata con le norme della "deontologia". Per secoli l'arte terapeutica è stata praticata da individui dotati di una particolare vocazione ed una particolare cultura acquisita da Maestri dell'arte ancor prima che dalla propria esperienza, con nozioni di erboristeria e di elementari conoscenze anatomiche e di fisiologia, circondati da un'aura sacerdotale e da un rispetto derivante dal timore e dall'ammirazione per il coraggio e auspicabilmente dai successi, e facendo riferimento nell'occidente mediterraneo alle regole operative fissate nel Giuramento di Ippocrate, di significato tra il sacro ed il deontologico...
2018: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Andreas M Neophytou, Sally Picciotto, Daniel M Brown, Lisa E Gallagher, Harvey Checkoway, Ellen A Eisen, Sadie Costello
Exposure to silica has been linked to excess risk of lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease mortality. In this study we estimated risk for both these outcomes in relation to occupational silica exposure as well as the reduction in risk that would result from hypothetical interventions on exposure in a cohort of exposed workers. Analyses were carried out in an all-male study population consisting of 2342 California diatomaceous earth workers regularly exposed to crystalline silica, followed between 1942 and 2011...
April 3, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Georgina Ferry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2018: Nature
Peng Wang, Neal W Menzies, Chen Hongping, Xinping Yang, Steve P Mcgrath, Fangjie Zhao, Peter M Kopittke
The increasingly widespread usage of silver (Ag) nanoparticles has raised concerns regarding their environmental risk. The behavior of Ag and its transfer risk to the food chain were investigated using a long-term field experiment that commenced in 1942 in which Ag-containing sewage sludge was repeatedly applied to the soil (25 applications during 20 years). The speciation of the Ag in both the sludge and the soils retrieved from the long-term experimental archive was examined using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and extractable Ag concentrations from soils determined using 0...
March 28, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yuichiro Matsui, Daisuke Kawamura, Hiroaki Kida, Kanako C Hatanaka, Norimasa Iwasaki
BACKGROUND: Trigger wrist is a rare condition first described by Marti in 1960, and various causes have been reported. The condition mostly occurs with finger flexion and extension, and rarely with flexion and extension of the wrist itself. Avascular necrosis of the capitate is also a rare condition, first described by Jönsson in 1942. While some reports of this condition have been published, little is known about its etiology. Therefore, no established treatment exists. We report a case of trigger wrist caused by avascular necrosis of the capitate...
March 27, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Michael Story, Michael Weil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Radiation Research
Martin Rees
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2018: Nature
Klaus Schepker, Thomas Beddies
Hans Heinze and the Research Programme of the German Association of Child Psychiatry and Therapeutic Education 1942-1945 Upon its foundation in 1940, Paul Schröder, full professor for psychiatry in Leipzig, was the first president of the German Society for Child Psychiatry and Therapeutic Education (DGKH). Following his death in 1941, his student Hans Heinze (Brandenburg/H.) succeeded him, prevailing over Werner Villinger (Breslau). The principal task of the DGKH was considered to be the exploration of the genetic origins of intellectual disabilities and behavioural disorders among children and adolescents...
September 2017: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Yongjian Xu, Jie Ma, Na Wu, Xiaojing Fan, Tao Zhang, Zhongliang Zhou, Jianmin Gao, Jianping Ren, Gang Chen
INTRODUCTION: In 2009, China officially launched the New Health Care Reform (NHCR). One important purpose of the reform was to reduce financial burden of health care through health insurance expansion and health care provider regulations. This study aimed to provide evidence on the effect of the NHCR reform on catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) by comparing the occurrence and inequality of CHE among households with chronic diseases patients before and after the reform. METHODS: This study used the subset of data from the 2008 and 2013 National Health Services Survey conducted in Shaanxi Province...
2018: PloS One
Peter J Featherstone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: International Anesthesiology Clinics
Elias Oulasvirta, Päivi Koroknay-Pál, Ahmad Hafez, Ahmed Abou Elseoud, Hanna Lehto, Aki Laakso
BACKGROUND: Population-based long-term data on pediatric patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are limited. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the characteristics and long-term outcome of pediatric patients with AVM. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 805 consecutive brain AVM patients admitted to a single center between 1942 and 2014. The patients were defined as children if they were under 18 yr at admission. Children were compared to an adult cohort...
March 5, 2018: Neurosurgery
Alison M Behie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Evolutionary Anthropology
Elizabeth D Ellis, John D Boice, Ashley P Golden, David J Girardi, Sarah S Cohen, Michael T Mumma, Roy E Shore, Richard W Leggett, George D Kerr
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works was the earliest uranium processing facility in the Manhattan Project, beginning in 1942. Even then, concern existed about possible health effects resulting from exposure to radiation and pitchblende dust. This concern was well founded as the facility processed Belgian Congo pitchblende ore that was up to 60% pure uranium with high U content and up to 100 mg of radium per ton. Workers were exposed to external gamma radiation plus internal radiation from inhalation and ingestion of pitchblende dust (uranium, radium, and silica)...
April 2018: Health Physics
John D Boice, Elizabeth D Ellis, Ashley P Golden, David J Girardi, Sarah S Cohen, Heidi Chen, Michael T Mumma, Roy E Shore, Richard W Leggett
The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of ongoing work on the Million Worker Study (MWS), highlighting some of the key methods and progress so far as exemplified by the study of workers at the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (MCW). The MWS began nearly 25 y ago and continues in a stepwise fashion, evaluating one study cohort at a time. It includes workers from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manhattan Project facilities, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulated nuclear power plants, industrial radiographers, U...
April 2018: Health Physics
Hidechika Akashi, Miwa Ishioka, Akiko Hagiwara, Rumiko Akashi, Yasuyo Osanai
Providing a continuum of care (CoC) is important strategy for improving maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH). Japan's current very low maternal and infant mortality rates suggest that its CoC for MNCH is good. In this paper, we attempt to clarify how CoC and low mortality rates are being maintained in Japan, by examining the entire MNCH service provision system. First, we examine two important tools for integrated service provision, the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Handbook and registration of pregnant women with local governments, both introduced in 1942...
February 26, 2018: Bioscience Trends
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