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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141272/peripheral-airway-dysfunction-and-relationship-with-symptoms-in-smokers-with-preserved-spirometry
#1
Kanika Jetmalani, Cindy Thamrin, Claude S Farah, Amy Bertolin, David G Chapman, Norbert Berend, Cheryl M Salome, Gregory G King
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Smokers develop respiratory symptoms and peripheral airway dysfunction even when spirometry is preserved. Multiple breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) and impulse oscillometry system (IOS) are potentially useful measures of peripheral airway function but they have not been compared in such subjects. We hypothesized that MBNW and IOS are jointly abnormal in smokers with normal spirometry and that these abnormalities relate to respiratory symptoms. METHODS: Eighty smokers with normal spirometry completed a symptom questionnaire, had ventilation heterogeneity in diffusion (Sacin) and convection-dependent (Scond) airways and trapped gas volume at functional residual capacity as a percentage of vital capacity (%VtrFRC/VC) measured by MBNW...
November 15, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066586/mechanical-insufflation-exsufflation-versus-conventional-chest-physiotherapy-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#2
Rasintra Siriwat, Jitladda Deerojanawong, Suchada Sritippayawan, Sumalee Hantragool, Prapasri Cheanprapai
BACKGROUND: The cough mechanism is often impaired in children with quadriplegic spastic cerebral palsy, accounting for the high prevalence of pneumonia and atelectasis requiring prolonged hospitalization. Conventional chest physiotherapy (CPT) is a current technique recommended at the onset of lower-respiratory infections in cerebral palsy. Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) in children with neuromuscular disease. To date, there has been no study of MI-E in children with quadriplegic spastic cerebral palsy...
October 24, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958052/treating-chronic-hypoventilation-with-automatic-adjustable-versus-fixed-epap-intelligent-volume-assured-positive-airway-pressure-support-ivaps-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Nigel McArdle, Clare Rea, Stuart King, Kathleen Maddison, Dinesh Ramanan, Sahisha Ketheeswaran, Lisa Erikli, Vanessa Baker, Jeff Armitstead, Glenn Richards, Bhajan Singh, David Hillman, Peter Eastwood
Objectives: New noninvasive ventilation (NIV) modes can automatically adjust pressure support settings to deliver effective ventilation in response to varying ventilation demands. It is recommended that fixed expiratory positive airway pressure (FixedEPAP) is determined by attended laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) titration. This study investigated whether automatically determined EPAP (AutoEPAP) was noninferior to FixedEPAP for the control of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during intelligent volume-assured pressure support (iVAPS) treatment of chronic hypoventilation...
October 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798203/peripheral-ventilation-heterogeneity-determines-the-extent-of-bronchoconstriction-in-asthma
#4
Catherine E Farrow, Cheryl M Salome, Benjamin E Harris, Dale L Bailey, Norbert Berend, Gregory G King
In asthma, bronchoconstriction causes topographically heterogeneous airway narrowing, as measured by 3-dimensional ventilation imaging. Computation modelling suggests that peripheral airway dysfunction is a potential determinant of acute airway narrowing measured by imaging. We hypothesised that the development of low ventilation regions measured topographically by 3-dimensional imaging after bronchoconstriction is predicted by peripheral airway function. Fourteen (14) asthmatic subjects underwent ventilation Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/CT (VSPECT/CT) before and after methacholine challenge...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797305/improved-success-rates-using-videolaryngoscopy-in-unexperienced-users-a-randomized-crossover-study-in-airway-manikins
#5
Hendrik Eismann, Lion Sieg, Nicola Etti, Lars Friedrich, Christian Schröter, Philipp Mommsen, Christian Krettek, Christian Zeckey
BACKGROUND: Videolaryngoscopy has been proven to be a safe procedure managing difficult airways in the hands of airway specialists. Information about the success rates in unexperienced users of videolaryngoscopy compared to conventional laryngoscopy is sparse. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate if there might be more success in securing an airway if the unexperienced provider is using a videolaryngoscope in simulated airways in a randomized manikin study. Differences between commonly used videolaryngoscopes were elucidated...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750882/unrecognized-failed-airway-management-using-a-supraglottic-airway-device
#6
Veer D Vithalani, Sabrina Vlk, Steven Q Davis, Neal J Richmond
BACKGROUND: 911 Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems utilize supraglottic devices for either primary advanced airway management, or for airway rescue following failed attempts at direct laryngoscopy endotracheal intubation. There is, however, limited data on objective confirmation of supraglottic airway placement in the prehospital environment. Furthermore, the ability of EMS field providers to recognize a misplaced airway is unknown. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients who underwent airway management using the King LTS-D supraglottic airway in a large urban EMS system, between 3/1/15-9/30/2015...
October 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712737/pharmacists-can-help-prevent-lipoid-pneumonia
#7
Ann E Cabri, Afoma King, Lee Morrow, Mark A Malesker
OBJECTIVES: To report 2 cases of lipoid pneumonia. SUMMARY: Lipoid pneumonia is an inflammatory process in the lower airways due to the presence of lipid molecules in the alveoli. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is due to the inhalation or aspiration of fat-containing substances. Historically, mineral oil is the most common medication cause but there have also been several reports of lipoid pneumonia associated with petroleum jelly, medicated vapor rub, and lip glosses...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634749/the-king-laryngeal-tube-a-mimic-of-esophageal-intubation-in-the-emergency-department
#8
Daniel B Green, Christopher W Root, Ian R Drexler, Alan C Legasto, Jonathan St George
The King Airway is a temporary airway device used primarily in the pre-hospital setting and typically exchanged for an endotracheal tube upon arrival to the emergency department. Since this usually occurs before imaging, many radiologists are unfamiliar with the King Airway. This lack of familiarity can have important consequences for the patient and treating team. The purpose of this article is to raise awareness of the King Airway among radiologists, emphasize appropriate positioning, and review the imaging complications of incorrect positioning...
December 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624608/obesity-s-impact-on-asthma-extends-to-diagnostic-criteria
#9
Njira Lugogo, Cynthia L Green, Noah Agada, Siyi Zhang, Susanne Meghdadpour, Run Zhou, Siyun Yang, Kevin J Anstrom, Elliot Israel, Richard Martin, Robert F Lemanske, Homer Boushey, Stephen C Lazarus, Stephen I Wasserman, Mario Castro, William Calhoun, Stephen P Peters, Emily DiMango, Vernon Chinchilli, Nikolina Icitovic, Susan Kunselman, Tonya S King, Monica Kraft
BACKGROUND: The use of inflammatory biomarkers to delineate the type of lung inflammation present in asthma is increasingly common. However, the impact of obesity on these markers is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the impact of obesity on conventional markers of inflammation in asthma. METHODS: We performed secondary analysis of data from 652 patients previously enrolled in two ACRN trials. We performed linear correlations between biomarkers and logistic regression analysis to determine the predictive value of IgE, blood eosinophils and FeNO in relationship to sputum eosinophils (>2%), as well as to determine if cut points existed that would maximize the sensitivity and specificity for predicting sputum eosinophilia in the three weight groups...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601203/the-care-of-thermally-injured-patients-in-operational-austere-and-mass-casualty-situations
#10
REVIEW
Booker T King, Wylan C Peterson
Burn injury affects a half million people in the United States annually. The severe thermal injury can have long-term debilitating effects. The management of burn patients in austere and operational environments is more complex. Mass casualty incidents can result in a large number of patients with multiple traumatic injuries, which often include burn injury. Appropriate triage of casualties is essential. Severely burned patients should be evacuated to a burn center if possible. Airway management and fluid resuscitation of burn patients present unique challenges...
June 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558071/gene-expression-patterns-induced-at-different-stages-of-rhinovirus-infection-in-human-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#11
Mohammad Reza Etemadi, King-Hwa Ling, Shahidee Zainal Abidin, Hui-Yee Chee, Zamberi Sekawi
Human rhinovirus (HRV) is the common virus that causes acute respiratory infection (ARI) and is frequently associated with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). We aimed to investigate whether HRV infection induces a specific gene expression pattern in airway epithelial cells. Alveolar epithelial cell monolayers were infected with HRV species B (HRV-B). RNA was extracted from both supernatants and infected monolayer cells at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours post infection (hpi) and transcriptional profile was analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip and the results were subsequently validated using quantitative Real-time PCR method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549421/comparison-of-vividtrac%C3%A2-airtraq%C3%A2-king-vision%C3%A2-macintosh-laryngoscope-and-a-custom-made-videolaryngoscope-for-difficult-and-normal-airways-in-mannequins-by-novices
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Szilárd Rendeki, Dóra Keresztes, Gábor Woth, Ákos Mérei, Martin Rozanovic, Mátyás Rendeki, József Farkas, Diána Mühl, Bálint Nagy
BACKGROUND: Direct laryngoscopy remains the gold standard for endotracheal intubation and is preferred by experienced operators. However, an increasing number of reports currently support videolaryngoscopy, particularly for novice users. The widespread use of videolaryngoscopy may be limited due to financial limitations, especially in low-income countries. Therefore, affordable single-use scopes are now becoming increasingly popular. We sought to compare these new scopes with direct laryngoscopes and the previously tested videolaryngoscopes in mannequins by novices...
May 26, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549081/randomized-equivalence-trial-of-the-king-vision-ablade-videolaryngoscope-with-the-miller-direct-laryngoscope-for-routine-tracheal-intubation-in-children-2%C3%A2-yr-of-age
#13
N Jagannathan, J Hajduk, L Sohn, A Huang, A Sawardekar, B Albers, S Bienia, G S De Oliveira
Background.: We conducted a randomized equivalence trial to compare direct laryngoscopy using a Miller blade (DL) with the King Vision videolaryngoscope (KVL) for routine tracheal intubation. We hypothesized that tracheal intubation times with DL would be equivalent to the KVL in children <2 yr of age. Methods.: Two hundred children were randomly assigned to tracheal intubation using DL or KVL. The primary outcome was the median difference in the total time for successful tracheal intubation...
June 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538589/reply-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-adults-the-role-of-upper-airway-and-facial-skeletal-surgery
#14
LETTER
Ravi K Garg, Timothy W King, Ruston Sanchez, Ahmed M Afifi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446881/assessment-of-airway-distensibility-by-the-forced-oscillation-technique-reproducible-and-potentially-simplifiable
#15
Samuel Mailhot-Larouche, Mélanie Lachance, Michela Bullone, Cyndi Henry, Ronald J Dandurand, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Michel Laviolette, Gregory G King, Claude S Farah, Ynuk Bossé
A non-invasive index of airway distensibility is required to track airway remodeling over time. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) provides such an index by measuring the change in respiratory system conductance at 5 Hz over the corresponding change in lung volume (ΔGrs5/ΔVL). To become useful clinically, this method has to be reproducible and easy to perform. The series of breathing maneuvers required to measure distensibility would be greatly facilitated if the difficulty of breathing below functional residual capacity (FRC) could be precluded and the number of maneuvers could be reduced...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402037/atrial-electrophysiological-and-molecular-remodelling-induced-by-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#16
Devika Channaveerappa, Jacob C Lux, Kelly L Wormwood, Timothy A Heintz, Meredith McLerie, Jacqueline A Treat, Hannah King, Donia Alnasser, Robert J Goodrow, Glenn Ballard, Robert Decker, Costel C Darie, Brian K Panama
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) affects 9-24% of the adult population. OSA is associated with atrial disease, including atrial enlargement, fibrosis and arrhythmias. Despite the link between OSA and cardiac disease, the molecular changes in the heart which occur with OSA remain elusive. To study OSA-induced cardiac changes, we utilized a recently developed rat model which closely recapitulates the characteristics of OSA. Male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 50-70 days, received surgically implanted tracheal balloons which were inflated to cause transient airway obstructions...
September 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397998/determinants-of-peripheral-airway-function-in-adults-with-and-without-asthma
#17
Paul D Robinson, Gregory G King, Malcolm R Sears, Chuen Y Hong, Robert J Hancox
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Peripheral airway involvement in asthma remains poorly understood. We investigated impulse oscillometry (IOS) measures of peripheral airway function in a population-based birth cohort. METHODS: Pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry and IOS measures of respiratory resistance and reactance were measured in 915 participants at age 38 years. RESULTS: Current asthma was associated with impairments in both spirometry and IOS parameters...
August 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372678/randomized-trial-of-a-novel-double-lumen-nasopharyngeal-catheter-versus-traditional-nasal-cannula-during-total-intravenous-anesthesia-for-gastrointestinal-procedures
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Adam B King, Bret D Alvis, Douglas Hester, Susan Taylor, Michael Higgins
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing general anesthesia routinely experience episodes of hypoxemia. There are multiple causes of procedural oxygen desaturation including upper airway obstruction and central hypoventilation. We hypothesize that oxygen supplementation via nasopharyngeal catheter (NPC) will decrease the number of episodes of hypoxemia as compared to traditional NC oxygen supplementation in patients undergoing general anesthesia provided by an anesthesia provider for gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349659/endoscopic-management-of-tissue-engineered-tracheal-graft-stenosis-in-an-ovine-model
#19
Victoria K Pepper, Ekene A Onwuka, Cameron A Best, Nakesha King, Eric Heuer, Jed Johnson, Christopher K Breuer, Jonathan M Grischkan, Tendy Chiang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of bronchoscopic interventions in the management of tissue-engineered tracheal graft (TETG) stenosis. STUDY DESIGN: Animal research study. METHODS: TETGs were constructed with seeded autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells on a bioartificial graft. Eight sheep underwent tracheal resection and orthotopic implantation of this construct. Animals were monitored by bronchoscopy and fluoroscopy at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 4 months...
October 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328157/lack-of-small-colony-variants-of-staphylococcus-aureus-from-lower-respiratory-tract-specimens
#20
Rosemary Carzino, Emily Hart, Philip Sutton, Louise King, Sarath Ranganathan
BACKGROUND: Small-colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus are associated with worse lung disease in children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF), exhibit a higher resistance to antibiotics and co-colonize more commonly with Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to the normal phenotype. The prevalence of SCVs in lower airway specimens from children with CF is largely unknown. METHODS: Each visible morphotype of S. aureus was subcultured onto horse blood agar (HBA) to enable identification of SCVs...
May 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
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