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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550257/increasing-body-mass-index-at-midlife-is-associated-with-increased-cortical-thinning-in-alzheimer-s-disease-vulnerable-regions
#1
Marnie E Shaw, Walter P Abhayaratna, Kaarin J Anstey, Nicolas Cherbuin
Higher body mass index (BMI) at midlife is associated with greater decreases in cognitive function at older age as well as increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk, compared to those with normal BMI. Here, we tested whether BMI at midlife was associated with cortical thinning in brain regions known to be affected in early AD. We examined a large sample (n = 404) of midlife individuals (44-49 years) from the PATH population-based study. Individuals were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging (1.5T) on up to three occasions over eight years...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550245/amyloid-burden-in-obstructive-sleep%C3%A2-apnea
#2
Chang-Ho Yun, Ho-Young Lee, Seung Ku Lee, Hyun Kim, Hyung Suk Seo, Seong Ae Bang, Sang Eun Kim, Douglas N Greve, Rhoda Au, Chol Shin, Robert J Thomas
To test the hypothesis that excessive amyloid deposition is a biological link between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Alzheimer's disease, we determined whether OSA increases cerebral amyloid burden, relative to controls, using Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging. The subjects were adult participants (age 50-65 years) from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Polysomnography, brain MRI including 3D images, and a detailed neuro-cognitive function test battery were done in 2011-2012. Nineteen OSA subjects (Apnea-Hypopnea Index [AHI] ≥15/h, 21...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549796/development-of-the-error-monitoring-system-from-ages-9-35-unique-insight-provided-by-mri-constrained-source-localization-of-eeg
#3
George A Buzzell, John E Richards, Lauren K White, Tyson V Barker, Daniel S Pine, Nathan A Fox
The ability to self-detect errors and dynamically adapt behavior is a cornerstone of higher-level cognition, requiring coordinated activity from a network of neural regions. However, disagreement exists over how the error-monitoring system develops throughout adolescence and early adulthood. The present report leveraged MRI-constrained EEG source localization to detail typical development of the error-monitoring system in a sample of 9-35 year-olds (n=43). Participants performed a flanker task while high-density EEG was recorded; structural MRIs were also acquired for all participants...
May 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545486/depression-in-patients-with-sapho-syndrome-and-its-relationship-with-brain-activity-and-connectivity
#4
Jie Lu, Yanping Duan, Zhentao Zuo, Wenrui Xu, Xuewei Zhang, Chen Li, Rong Xue, Hanzhang Lu, Weihong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome is a rare disease and there is no related literature concerning psychiatric symptoms in SAPHO patients. Thus, we believe that this will be the first paper to explore the episode and the neurobiological basis of depression symptoms in SAPHO patients using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Twenty-eight SAPHO patients and fifteen age- and gender- matched normal controls (NC) were consecutively submitted to psychiatric evaluation and rs-fMRI scanning...
May 25, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544994/12h-abstinence-induced-right-anterior-insula-network-pattern-changes-in-young-smokers
#5
Yanzhi Bi, Yajuan Zhang, Yangding Li, Dahua Yu, Kai Yuan, Jie Tian
BACKGROUND: The strong craving to smoke is a core factor of smoking abstinence that precipitates relapse. Insula plays critical roles in maintaining nicotine dependence, especially in the interoceptive awareness of craving. Despite evidence indicating a link between insula and abstinence-induced craving, less is known about the neural basis of abstinence-induced craving from the circuit level of insula. METHODS: The present study examined the effects of 12h of abstinence from smoking on the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of anterior (AI) and posterior insula in young smokers using a within-subject design...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542444/regional-brain-amyloid-%C3%AE-accumulation-associates-with-domain-specific-cognitive-performance-in-parkinson-disease-without-dementia
#6
Rizwan S Akhtar, Sharon X Xie, Yin J Chen, Jacqueline Rick, Rachel G Gross, Ilya M Nasrallah, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, John Q Trojanowski, Alice S Chen-Plotkin, Howard I Hurtig, Andrew D Siderowf, Jacob G Dubroff, Daniel Weintraub
Parkinson disease patients develop clinically significant cognitive impairment at variable times over their disease course, which is often preceded by milder deficits in memory, visuo-spatial, and executive domains. The significance of amyloid-β accumulation to these problems is unclear. We hypothesized that amyloid-β PET imaging by 18F-florbetapir, a radiotracer that detects fibrillar amyloid-β plaque deposits, would identify subjects with global cognitive impairment or poor performance in individual cognitive domains in non-demented Parkinson disease patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536046/neural-substrates-of-updating-the-prediction-through-prediction-error-during-decision-making
#7
Ying Wang, Ning Ma, Xiaosong He, Nan Li, Zhengde Wei, Lizhuang Yang, Rujing Zha, Long Han, Xiaoming Li, Daren Zhang, Ying Liu, Xiaochu Zhang
Learning of prediction error (PE), including reward PE and risk PE, is crucial for updating the prediction in reinforcement learning (RL). Neurobiological and computational models of RL have reported extensive brain activations related to PE. However, the occurrence of PE does not necessarily predict updating the prediction, e.g., in a probability-known event. Therefore, the brain regions specifically engaged in updating the prediction remain unknown. Here, we conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments, the probability-unknown Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the probability-known risk decision task (RDT)...
May 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529874/shared-and-disorder-specific-task-positive-and-default-mode-network-dysfunctions-during-sustained-attention-in-paediatric-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#8
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Ana Cubillo, Clodagh M Murphy, Kaylita Chantiluke, Andrew Simmons, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obsessive/compulsive disorder (OCD) share problems with sustained attention, and are proposed to share deficits in switching between default mode and task positive networks. The aim of this study was to investigate shared and disorder-specific brain activation abnormalities during sustained attention in the two disorders. Twenty boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 age-matched healthy controls aged between 12 and 18 years completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) version of a parametrically modulated sustained attention task with a progressively increasing sustained attention load...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527205/moderate-physical-activity-is-associated-with-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-adults-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Ryan J Dougherty, Stephanie A Schultz, Taylor K Kirby, Elizabeth A Boots, Jennifer M Oh, Dorothy Edwards, Catherine L Gallagher, Cynthia M Carlsson, Barbara B Bendlin, Sanjay Asthana, Mark A Sager, Bruce P Hermann, Bradley T Christian, Sterling C Johnson, Dane B Cook, Ozioma C Okonkwo
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between accelerometer-measured physical activity (PA) and glucose metabolism in asymptomatic late-middle-aged adults. Ninety-three cognitively healthy late-middle-aged adults from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participated in this cross-sectional study. They underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) to measure free-living PA. Accelerometer data yielded measures of light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) intensity PA...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526620/evidence-for-cortical-structural-plasticity-in-humans-after-a-day-of-waking-and-sleep-deprivation
#10
Torbjørn Elvsåshagen, Nathalia Zak, Linn B Norbom, Per Ø Pedersen, Sophia H Quraishi, Atle Bjørnerud, Dag Alnæs, Nhat Trung Doan, Ulrik F Malt, Inge R Groote, Lars T Westlye
Sleep is an evolutionarily conserved process required for human health and functioning. Insufficient sleep causes impairments across cognitive domains, and sleep deprivation can have rapid antidepressive effects in mood disorders. However, the neurobiological effects of waking and sleep are not well understood. Recently, animal studies indicated that waking and sleep are associated with substantial cortical structural plasticity. Here, we hypothesized that structural plasticity can be observed after a day of waking and sleep deprivation in the human cerebral cortex...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525587/assessing-the-psychedelic-after-glow-in-ayahuasca-users-post-acute-neurometabolic-and-functional-connectivity-changes-are-associated-with-enhanced-mindfulness-capacities
#11
Frederic Sampedro, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Marta Valle, Natalia Roberto, Elisabet Domínguez-Clavé, Matilde Elices, Luís Eduardo Luna, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Draulio B de Araujo, Pablo Friedlander, Steven A Barker, Enrique Álvarez, Joaquim Soler, Juan C Pascual, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Background: Ayahuasca is a plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmala monoamine-oxidase inhibitors. Acute administration leads to neurophysiological modifications in brain regions of the default mode network (DMN), purportedly through a glutamatergic mechanism. Post-acutely, ayahuasca potentiates mindfulness capacities in volunteers, and induces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant patients. However, the mechanisms underlying these fast and maintained effects are poorly understood...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523232/male-to-female-gender-dysphoria-gender-specific-differences-in-resting-state-networks
#12
Benjamin Clemens, Jessica Junger, Katharina Pauly, Josef Neulen, Christiane Neuschaefer-Rube, Dirk Frölich, Gianluca Mingoia, Birgit Derntl, Ute Habel
INTRODUCTION: Recent research found gender-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies examining the differences in rs-FC between men, women, and individuals who report a discrepancy between their anatomical sex and their gender identity, i.e. gender dysphoria (GD). METHODS: To address this important issue, we present the first fMRI study systematically investigating the differences in typical resting-state networks (RSNs) and hormonal treatment effects in 26 male-to-female GD individuals (MtFs) compared with 19 men and 20 women...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523217/relation-between-patterns-of-intrinsic-network-connectivity-cognitive-functioning-and-symptom-presentation-in-trauma-exposed-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#13
Melissa Parlar, Maria Densmore, Geoffrey B Hall, Paul A Frewen, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated resting fMRI connectivity within the default mode (DMN), salience (SN), and central executive (CEN) networks in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity in trauma-exposed patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD: Group independent component analysis was conducted among patients with MDD (n = 21), examining DMN, SN, and CEN connectivity in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520647/altered-brain-structure-and-function-associated-with-sensory-and-affective-components-of-classic-trigeminal-neuralgia
#14
Yuan Wang, Dong-Yuan Cao, Bethany Remeniuk, Samuel Krimmel, David A Seminowicz, Ming Zhang
Classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) is a chronic neuropathic pain state characterized by intense, piercing spasms of the orofacial region, and may be attributable to abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system. Our study investigated neuronal alterations using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffuse tensor imaging (DTI), and resting state functional connectivity in 38 CTN patients and 38 matched healthy controls. For VBM analyses, CTN patients displayed gray matter volume (GMV) reductions in the anterior and mid cingulate cortex (ACC and MCC), insula, secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), primary motor cortex (M1), premotor area (PMA), and several regions in the temporal lobe...
May 16, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513186/initially-intact-neural-responses-to-pain-in-autism-are-diminished-during-sustained-pain
#15
Michelle D Failla, Estephan J Moana-Filho, Greg K Essick, Grace T Baranek, Baxter P Rogers, Carissa J Cascio
Pain assessments typically depend on self-report of the pain experience. Yet, in individuals with autism spectrum disorders, this can be an unreliable due to communication difficulties. Importantly, observations of behavioral hypo- and hyperresponsivity to pain suggest altered pain sensitivity in autism spectrum disorder. Neuroimaging may provide insight into mechanisms underlying pain behaviors. The neural pain signature reliably responds to painful stimulation and is modulated by other outside regions, affecting the pain experience...
May 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506703/abnormal-asymmetry-of-white-matter-tracts-between-ventral-posterior-cingulate-cortex-and-middle-temporal-gyrus-in-recent-onset-schizophrenia
#16
Sung Woo Joo, Myong-Wuk Chon, Yogesh Rathi, Martha E Shenton, Marek Kubicki, Jungsun Lee
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have reported abnormalities in the ventral posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in schizophrenia patients. However, it remains unclear whether the white matter tracts connecting these structures are impaired in schizophrenia. Our study investigated the integrity of these white matter tracts (vPCC-MTG tract) and their asymmetry (left versus right side) in patients with recent onset schizophrenia. METHOD: Forty-seven patients and 24 age-and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study...
May 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506213/voxel-wise-correlations-between-cognition-and-cerebral-blood-flow-using-arterial-spin-labeled-perfusion-mri-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Tomohiro Kaneta, Omi Katsuse, Takamasa Hirano, Matsuyoshi Ogawa, Ayako Shihikura-Hino, Keisuke Yoshida, Toshinari Odawara, Yoshio Hirayasu, Tomio Inoue
BACKGROUND: To analyze voxel-wise correlation between cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured using ASL-MRI and cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Forty-one patients diagnosed with AD or mild cognitive impairment due to AD were recruited for this study. CBF images were obtained using ASL-MRI (n = 41) with a post-labeling delay (PLD) of 1.5 and 2.5 s (PLD1.5 and PLD2.5, respectively) using a 3 T scanner, in addition to brain perfusion SPECT with N-isopropyl-4-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (n = 28)...
May 15, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498277/influence-of-visceral-interoceptive-experience-on-the-brain-s-response-to-food-images-in-anorexia-nervosa
#18
Kara L Kerr, Scott E Moseman, Jason A Avery, Jerzy Bodurka, W Kyle Simmons
OBJECTIVE: To determine how visceral sensations affect responses to food stimuli in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHODS: Twenty weight-restored, unmedicated adolescent and young adult women with AN and twenty healthy control participants completed an interoceptive attention task during which they focused on sensations from the heart, stomach, and bladder and made ratings of these sensations. They then underwent fMRI scanning while viewing pictures of food and non-food objects...
May 12, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495939/apoe-e4-is-associated-with-gray-matter-loss-in-the-posterior-cingulate-cortex-in-healthy-elderly-controls-subsequently-developing-subtle-cognitive-decline
#19
S Haller, M-L Montandon, C Rodriguez, M Ackermann, F R Herrmann, P Giannakopoulos
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The presence of apolipoprotein E4 (APOE*E4) is the strongest currently known genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease and is associated with brain gray matter loss, notably in areas involved in Alzheimer disease pathology. Our objective was to assess the effect of APOE*E4 on brain structures in healthy elderly controls who subsequently developed subtle cognitive decline. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 382 community-dwelling elderly controls...
May 11, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495332/the-neural-correlates-of-theory-of-mind-and-their-role-during-empathy-and-the-game-of-chess-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#20
Joanne L Powell, Davide Grossi, Rhiannon Corcoran, Fernand Gobet, Marta García-Fiñana
Chess involves the capacity to reason iteratively about potential intentional choices of an opponent and therefore involves high levels of explicit theory of mind [ToM] (i.e. ability to infer mental states of others) alongside clear, strategic rule-based decision-making. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used on 12 healthy male novice chess players to identify cortical regions associated with chess, ToM and empathizing. The blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response for chess and empathizing tasks was extracted from each ToM region...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience
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