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posterior cingulate cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673625/abnormal-target-detection-and-novelty-processing-neural-response-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#1
Pilar M Sanjuan, Chloe Andrews, Eric D Claus
Attention impairments are common symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the nature of these impairments remains elusive. Attention impairment may arise as the result of either excessive response to task-irrelevant stimuli or reduced response to task-relevant information. To test the association between PTSD and response to task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli, we used a 3-tone novelty auditory oddball task (AOD). We hypothesized that participants with PTSD relative to trauma controls would have less response during novelty processing in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex, as well as less response in the dlPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex during target detection...
April 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668391/the-reflective-mind-examining-individual-differences-in-susceptibility-to-base-rate-neglect-with-fmri
#2
Oshin Vartanian, Erin L Beatty, Ingrid Smith, Kristen Blackler, Quan Lam, Sarah Forbes, Wim De Neys
Performance on heuristics and biases tasks has been shown to be susceptible to bias. In turn, susceptibility to bias varies as a function of individual differences in cognitive abilities (e.g., intelligence) and thinking styles (e.g., propensity for reflection). Using a classic task (i.e., lawyer-engineer problem), we conducted two experiments to examine the differential contributions of cognitive abilities versus thinking styles to performance. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT)-a well-established measure of reflective thinking-predicted performance on conflict problems (where base rates and intuition point in opposite directions), whereas STM predicted performance on nonconflict problems...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665490/smaller-hippocampal-volume-in-current-but-not-in-past-depression-in-comparison-to-healthy-controls-minor-evidence-from-an-older-adults-sample
#3
Ismaïl Bensassi, Jorge Lopez-Castroman, Jerome J Maller, Chantal Meslin, Marilyn Wyart, Karen Ritchie, Philippe Courtet, Sylvaine Artero, Raffaella Calati
BACKGROUND: Structural neuroimaging studies revealed a consistent pattern of volumetric reductions in both hippocampus (HC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of individuals with major depressive episode(s) (MDE). This study investigated HC and ACC volume differences in currently depressed individuals (n = 150), individuals with a past lifetime MDE history (n = 79) and healthy controls (n = 287). METHODS: Non-demented individuals were recruited from a cohort of community-dwelling older adults (ESPRIT study)...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661904/increased-cerebral-functional-connectivity-in-als-a-resting-state-magnetoencephalography-study
#4
Malcolm Proudfoot, Giles L Colclough, Andrew Quinn, Joanne Wuu, Kevin Talbot, Michael Benatar, Anna C Nobre, Mark W Woolrich, Martin R Turner
OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess cortical function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using noninvasive neural signal recording. METHODS: Resting-state magnetoencephalography was used to measure power fluctuations in neuronal oscillations from distributed cortical parcels in 24 patients with ALS and 24 healthy controls. A further 9 patients with primary lateral sclerosis and a group of 15 asymptomatic carriers of genetic mutations associated with ALS were also studied...
April 17, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660812/tremor-severity-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-cortical-changes-of-areas-controlling-movement-sequencing-a-preliminary-study
#5
Julián Benito-León, J Ignacio Serrano, Elan D Louis, Ales Holobar, Juan P Romero, P Povalej-Bržan, Félix Bermejo-Pareja, M Dolores Del Castillo, Ignacio J Posada, Eduardo Rocon
There remains much to learn about the changes in cortical anatomy that are associated with tremor severity in Parkinson's disease (PD). For this reason, we used a combination of structural neuroimaging to measure cortical thickness and neurophysiological studies to analyze whether PD tremor was associated with cortex integrity. Magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological assessment were performed in 13 nondemented PD patients (9 women, 69.2%) with a clearly tremor-dominant phenotype. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were performed with the Freesurfer image analysis software...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660636/regional-homogeneity-and-functional-connectivity-patterns-in-major-depressive-disorder-cognitive-vulnerability-to-depression-and-healthy-subjects
#6
Hui Sun, Lizhu Luo, Xinru Yuan, Lu Zhang, Yini He, Shuqiao Yao, Jiaojian Wang, Jing Xiao
BACKGROUND: Cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) is a high risk for depressive disorder. Recent studies focus on individuals with CVD to determine the neural basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) neuropathology. However, whether CVD showed specific or similar brain functional activity and connectivity patterns, compared to MDD, remain largely unknown. METHODS: Here, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in subjects with CVD, healthy controls (HC) and MDD, regional homogeneity (ReHo) and resting-state functional connectivity (R-FC) analyses were conducted to assess local synchronization and changes in functional connectivity patterns...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660081/data-driven-analysis-of-functional-connectivity-reveals-a-potential-auditory-verbal-hallucination-network
#7
Dustin Scheinost, Fuyuze Tokoglu, Michelle Hampson, Ralph Hoffman, R Todd Constable
Schizophrenia is a severe global health problem, with over half of such patients experiencing auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). A better understanding of the neural correlates differentiating patients experiencing AVHs from patients not experiencing AVHs and healthy controls may identify targets that lead to better treatment strategies for AVHs. Employing 2 data-driven, voxel-based measure of functional connectivity, we studied 46 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (28 experiencing AVHs and 18 not experiencing AVHs)...
April 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649562/carrying-the-past-to-the-future-distinct-brain-networks-underlie-individual-differences-in-human-spatial-working-memory-capacity
#8
Siwei Liu, Jia-Hou Poh, Huili Koh, Eric Kwun-Kei Ng, Yng Miin Loke, Joseph Kai Wei Lim, Joanna Su Xian Chong, Juan Zhou
Spatial working memory (SWM) relies on the interplay of anatomically separated and interconnected large-scale brain networks. EEG studies often observe load-associated sustained negative activity during SWM retention. Yet, whether and how such sustained negative activity in retention relates to network-specific functional activation/deactivation and relates to individual differences in SWM capacity remain to be elucidated. To cover these gaps, we recorded concurrent EEG-fMRI data in 70 healthy young adults during the Sternberg delayed-match-to-sample SWM task with three memory load levels...
April 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644521/functional-connectivity-change-between-posterior-cingulate-cortex-and-ventral-attention-network-relates-to-the-impairment-of-orientation-for-time-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#9
Ken-Ichiro Yamashita, Taira Uehara, Pukovisa Prawiroharjo, Koji Yamashita, Osamu Togao, Akio Hiwatashi, Yoshihide Taniwaki, Hidetsuna Utsunomiya, Takuya Matsushita, Ryo Yamasaki, Jun-Ichi Kira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients exhibit various cognitive dysfunctions, including impairment of orientation for time (OT). The brain regions underlying OT impairment remain to be elucidated. A previous single-photon emission computed tomography study has indicated hypoperfusion of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in relation to deterioration of OT. In this study, we investigated whole brain functional connectivity changes of PCC using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based functional connectivity with PCC was analyzed in OT-poor or OT-good AD patients, classified according to the mean OT scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination subscale...
April 12, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628067/orbital-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-functional-connectivity-of-major-depression-vulnerability-and-disease
#10
Zoe Samara, Elisabeth A T Evers, Frenk Peeters, Harry B M Uylings, Grazyna Rajkowska, Johannes G Ramaekers, Peter Stiers
BACKGROUND: Pathophysiology models of major depression (MD) center on the dysfunction of various cortical areas within the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex. While independent structural and functional abnormalities in these areas are consistent findings in MD, the complex interactions among them and the rest of the cortex remain largely unexplored. METHODS: We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity to systematically map alterations in the communication between orbital and medial prefrontal cortex fields and the rest of the brain in MD...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623428/frontal-cortical-control-of-posterior-sensory-and-association-cortices-through-the-claustrum
#11
Michael G White, Brian N Mathur
The claustrum is a telencephalic gray matter nucleus that is richly interconnected with the neocortex. This structure subserves top-down executive functions that require frontal cortical control of posterior cortical regions. However, functional anatomical support for the claustrum allowing for long-range intercortical communication is lacking. To test this, we performed a channelrhodopsin-assisted long-circuit mapping strategy in mouse brain slices. We find that anterior cingulate cortex input to the claustrum is transiently amplified by claustrum neurons that, in turn, project to parietal association cortex or to primary and secondary visual cortices...
April 6, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619853/multi-modality-molecular-imaging-characteristics-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#12
Zhong-Bao Gao, Wei Wang, Xing-Li Zhao, Tong Chen, Li-Ping Fu, Bai-Xuan Xu, Zhen-Fu Wang
Objective Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a common type of neurodegenerative dementia. Molecular neuroimaging using dopamine transporter (DaT), Pittsburgh compound B (PIB), and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has advantages in detecting dopaminergic neuron loss, abnormal amyloid β-protein deposition, and glucose metabolism changes in patients with neurodegenerative disorders. However, the multi-modality molecular imaging features of patients with DLB have rarely been reported...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618125/distributed-affective-space-represents-multiple-emotion-categories-across-the-human-brain
#13
Heini Saarimäki, Lara Farzaneh Ejtehadian, Enrico Glerean, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Patrik Vuilleumier, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
The functional organization of human emotion systems as well as their neuroanatomical basis and segregation in the brain remains unresolved. Here we used pattern classification and hierarchical clustering to characterize the organization of a range of specific emotion categories in the human brain. We induced 14 emotions (6 "basic", e.g. fear and anger; and 8 "non-basic", e.g. shame and gratitude) and a neutral state using guided mental imagery while participants' brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
March 28, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615677/longitudinal-outcomes-of-amyloid-positive-versus-negative-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairments-a-three-year-longitudinal-study
#14
Byoung Seok Ye, Hee Jin Kim, Yeo Jin Kim, Na-Yeon Jung, Jin San Lee, Juyoun Lee, Young Kyoung Jang, Jin-Ju Yang, Jong-Min Lee, Jacob W Vogel, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo
We aimed to compare the longitudinal outcome of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients with significant Pittsburgh Compound B uptake [PiB(+) aMCI] and those without [PiB(-) aMCI]. Cerebral β-amyloid was measured in 47 patients with aMCI using PiB-positron emission tomography (PET) (31 PiB(+) aMCI and 16 PiB(-) aMCI). Clinical (N = 47) and neuropsychological follow-up (N = 37), and follow-up with brain magnetic resonance imaging (N = 38) and PiB-PET (N = 30) were performed for three years...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615111/metabolic-correlates-of-reserve-and-resilience-in-mci-due-to-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#15
Matteo Bauckneht, Andrea Chincarini, Roberta Piva, Dario Arnaldi, Nicola Girtler, Federico Massa, Matteo Pardini, Matteo Grazzini, Hulya Efeturk, Marco Pagani, Gianmario Sambuceti, Flavio Nobili, Silvia Morbelli
BACKGROUND: We explored the presence of both reserve and resilience in late-converter mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD) and in patients with slowly progressing amyloid-positive MCI by assessing the topography and extent of neurodegeneration with respect to both "aggressive" and typically progressing phenotypes and in the whole group of patients with MCI, grounding the stratification on education level. METHODS: We analyzed 94 patients with MCI-AD followed until conversion to dementia and 39 patients with MCI who had brain amyloidosis (AMY+ MCI), all with available baseline18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) results...
April 3, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614925/selective-map-following-navigation-deficit-a-new-case-of-developmental-topographical-disorientation
#16
Massimiliano Conson, Filippo Bianchini, Mario Quarantelli, Maddalena Boccia, Sara Salzano, Antonella Di Vita, Cecilia Guariglia
INTRODUCTION: Developmental topographical disorientation (DTD) is a lifelong condition in which affected individuals are selectively impaired in navigating space. Although it seems that DTD is widespread in the population, only a few cases have been studied from both a behavioral and a neuroimaging point of view. Here, we report a new case of DTD, never described previously, of a young woman (C.F.) showing a specific deficit in translating allocentrically coded information into egocentrically guided navigation, in presence of spared ability of constructing such representations...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603092/microrna-expression-levels-are-altered-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-young-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Paul M McKeever, Raphael Schneider, Foad Taghdiri, Anna Weichert, Namita Multani, Robert A Brown, Adam L Boxer, Anna Karydas, Bruce Miller, Janice Robertson, Maria Carmela Tartaglia
Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) prior to the age of 65 years is classified as young-onset (YOAD), whereas diagnosis after the age of 65 years is considered late-onset (LOAD). Although rare autosomal mutations more commonly associate with YOAD, most YOAD and LOAD cases are sporadic. YOAD and LOAD share amyloid and tau pathology, but many YOAD patients show increased disease severity and rate of progression. The current study examined the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile from exosomes isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of YOAD patients with biomarker-confirmed AD...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601896/differentiating-between-bipolar-and-unipolar-depression-in-functional-and-structural-mri-studies
#18
REVIEW
Kyu-Man Han, Domenico De Berardis, Michele Fornaro, Yong-Ku Kim
Distinguishing depression in bipolar disorder (BD) from unipolar depression (UD) solely based on clinical clues is difficult, which has led to the exploration of promising neural markers in neuroimaging measures for discriminating between BD depression and UD. In this article, we review structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies that directly compare UD and BD depression based on neuroimaging modalities including functional MRI studies on regional brain activation or functional connectivity, structural MRI on gray or white matter morphology, and pattern classification analyses using a machine learning approach...
March 27, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595708/brain-heart-pathways-to-blood-pressure-related-hypoalgesia
#19
Cristina Ottaviani, Sabrina Fagioli, Eugenio Mattei, Federica Censi, Louisa Edwards, Emiliano Macaluso, Marco Bozzali, Hugo Critchley, Giovanni Calcagnini
OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure (BP) is associated with reduced pain sensitivity, known as BP-related hypoalgesia. The underlying neural mechanisms remain uncertain, yet arterial baroreceptor signaling, occurring at cardiac systole, is implicated. We examined normotensives using functional neuroimaging (fMRI) and pain stimulation during distinct phases of the cardiac cycle to test the hypothesized neural mediation of baroreceptor-induced attenuation of pain. METHODS: Eighteen participants (10 women; 32...
March 28, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594394/cingulate-abnormalities-in-bipolar-disorder-relate-to-gender-and-outcome-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#20
Giuseppe Delvecchio, Valentina Ciappolino, Cinzia Perlini, Marco Barillari, Mirella Ruggeri, A Carlo Altamura, Marcella Bellani, Paolo Brambilla
Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies reported gray matter (GM) loss in bipolar disorder (BD) in cingulate cortices, key regions subserving emotional regulation and cognitive functions in humans. The aim of this study was to further explore cingulate GM volumes in a sizeable group of BD patients with respect to healthy controls, particularly investigating the impact of gender and clinical variables. 39 BD patients (mean Age = 48.6 ± 9.7, 15 males and 24 females) and 39 demographically matched healthy subjects (mean Age = 47...
March 28, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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