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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452127/serotonergic-psychedelics-and-personality-a-systematic-review-of-contemporary-research
#1
REVIEW
José Carlos Bouso, Rafael G Dos Santos, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles, Jaime E C Hallak
Serotonergic psychedelics act as agonists at cortical 5-HT 2A receptors and seem to induce personality changes. We conducted a systematic review of studies assessing the effects of these drugs on personality. Papers published from 1985 to 2016 were included from PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases. Three hundred and sixty-nine studies were identified, and 18 were included. Specific personality traits, such as Absorption and Self-Transcendence, seem to influence the effects of psychedelics, and psychedelic drug users and nonusers appear to differ in some personality traits...
February 13, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450645/brain-c-fos-expression-patterns-induced-by-emotional-stressors-differing-in-nature-and-intensity
#2
Jesús Úbeda-Contreras, Ignacio Marín-Blasco, Roser Nadal, Antonio Armario
Regardless of its particular nature, emotional stressors appear to elicit a widespread and roughly similar brain activation pattern as evaluated by c-fos expression. However, their behavioral and physiological consequences may strongly differ. Here we addressed in adult male rats the contribution of the intensity and the particular nature of stressors by comparing, in a set of brain areas, the number of c-fos expressing neurons in response to open-field, cat odor or immobilization on boards (IMO). These are qualitatively different stressors that are known to differ in terms of intensity, as evaluated by biological markers...
February 15, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449278/7t-brain-mrs-in-hiv-infection-correlation-with-cognitive-impairment-and-performance-on-neuropsychological-tests
#3
M Mohamed, P B Barker, R L Skolasky, N Sacktor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Validated neuroimaging markers of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in patients on antiretroviral therapy are urgently needed for clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and brain metabolism in older subjects with HIV infection. It was hypothesized that MR spectroscopy measurements related to neuronal health and function (particularly N -acetylaspartate and glutamate) would be lower in HIV-positive subjects with worse cognitive performance...
February 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445270/alterations-of-the-default-mode-network-and-cognitive-impairments-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Xianwei Hu, Haibao Wang, Youhui Tu, Mengdi Fei, Minmin Yin, Guanghe Fei, Yongqiang Yu
Background and objectives: Cognitive impairment is a common extrapulmonary comorbidity in COPD patients. The default mode network (DMN) plays a critical role in maintaining the normal activities of humans, and its function can be evaluated by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between cognition and function changes of the DMN in COPD patients. Methods: One hundred and thirteen eligible participants including 30 control subjects and 83 COPD patients matched for demographic characteristics were recruited...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444971/anosognosia-predicts-default-mode-network-hypometabolism-and-clinical-progression-to-dementia
#5
Joseph Therriault, Kok Pin Ng, Tharick A Pascoal, Sulantha Mathotaarachchi, Min Su Kang, Hanne Struyfs, Monica Shin, Andrea L Benedet, Ishan C Walpola, Vasavan Nair, Serge Gauthier, Pedro Rosa-Neto
OBJECTIVE: To identify the pathophysiologic mechanisms and clinical significance of anosognosia for cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment. METHODS: We stratified 468 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment into intact and impaired awareness groups, determined by the discrepancy between the patient and the informant score on the Everyday Cognition questionnaire. Voxel-based linear regression models evaluated the associations between self-awareness status and baseline β-amyloid load, measured by [ 18 F]florbetapir, and the relationships between awareness status and regional brain glucose metabolism measured by [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose at baseline and at 24-month follow-up...
February 14, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442274/congenital-olfactory-impairment-is-linked-to-cortical-changes-in-prefrontal-and-limbic-brain-regions
#6
Helena Gásdal Karstensen, Martin Vestergaard, William F C Baaré, Arnold Skimminge, Bjarki Djurhuus, Bjarki Ellefsen, Norbert Brüggemann, Camilla Klausen, Anne-Mette Leffers, Niels Tommerup, Hartwig R Siebner
The human sense of smell is closely associated with morphological differences of the fronto-limbic system, specifically the piriform cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). Still it is unclear whether cortical volume in the core olfactory areas and connected brain regions are shaped differently in individuals who suffer from lifelong olfactory deprivation relative to healthy normosmic individuals. To address this question, we examined if regional variations in gray matter volume were associated with smell ability in seventeen individuals with isolated congenital olfactory impairment (COI) matched with sixteen normosmic controls...
February 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439345/joint-assessment-of-quantitative-18f-florbetapir-and-18f-fdg-regional-uptake-using-baseline-data-from-the-adni
#7
Fayçal Ben Bouallègue, Denis Mariano-Goulart, Pierre Payoux
Joint analysis of amyloid and metabolic PET patterns across healthy, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects was performed using baseline 18F-florbetapir and 18F-FDG PET of 684 subjects from the ADNI (251 normal, 204 stable MCI, 85 AD converters, and 144 AD). Correlation between regional amyloid and metabolic uptake was measured and predictive value of PET profile regarding AD conversion in cognitively impaired subjects was assessed using survival analysis and support vector machine classification (SVM)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434208/cognition-emotion-and-reward-networks-associated-with-sex-differences-for-romantic-appraisals
#8
Jie Yin, Zhiling Zou, Hongwen Song, Zhuo Zhang, Bo Yang, Xiting Huang
Romantic love is a cross-culturally universal phenomenon that serves as a commitment device for motivating pair bonding in human beings. Women and men may experience different feelings when viewing the same warm, romantic scenes. To determine which brain systems may be involved in romance perception and examine possible sex differences, we scanned 16 women and 16 men who were intensely in love, using functional MRI. Participants were required to rate the romance level of 60 pictures showing romantic events that may frequently occur during romantic relationship formation...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429985/posterior-associative-and-cingulate-cortex-involvement-of-brain-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-spect-imaging-in-semantic-dementia-with-probable-alzheimer-disease-pathology-a-case-report
#9
Yumi Takano, Keiko Kunitoki, Yasuko Tatewaki, Tatsushi Mutoh, Tomoko Totsune, Hideo Shimomura, Manabu Nakagawa, Hiroyuki Arai, Yasuyuki Taki
BACKGROUND Semantic dementia (SD) is a type of primary progressive aphasia with prominent language dysfunction, mostly within the spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Although there is an overlap in clinical manifestations of SD attributable to FTLD and neuropathologically proven Alzheimer disease (AD), clinical diagnostic clues are not readily available. We present a characteristic finding based on a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based regional cerebral blood flow study and its statistical imaging analysis for a rare case of SD with AD-like pathology...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429423/aberrant-topographical-organization-in-default-mode-network-in-first-episode-remitted-geriatric-depression-a-graph-theoretical-analysis
#10
Yan Zhu, Dongqing Wang, Zhe Liu, Yuefeng Li
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown that major depressive disorder is associated with altered activity patterns of the default-mode network (DMN). In this study, we sought to investigate the topological organization of the DMN in patients with remitted geriatric depression (RGD) and whether RGD patients would be more likely to show disrupted topological configuration of the DMN during the resting-state. METHODS: Thirty-three RGD patients and thirty-one healthy control participants underwent clinical and cognitive evaluations as well as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans...
February 12, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426824/plasma-a%C3%AE-analysis-using-magnetically-labeled-immunoassays-and-pet-18f-florbetapir-binding-in-non-demented-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Kuan-Yi Wu, Ing-Tsung Hsiao, Chia-Hsiang Chen, Chia-Yih Liu, Jung-Lung Hsu, Sheng-Yao Huang, Tzu-Chen Yen, Kun-Ju Lin
An increased level of brain amyloid deposition and a decreased level of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 are currently considered reliable biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the usefulness of plasma Aβ levels are not well-established. This study investigated the relationships between plasma Aβ levels and cerebral amyloidosis in 36 non-demented patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). All participants underwent 18F-florbetapir PET imaging and provided a blood sample at the same time for immunomagnetic reduction assay to measure the plasma levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422882/disrupted-brain-intrinsic-networks-and-executive-dysfunction-in-cirrhotic-patients-without-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy
#12
Zhe-Ting Yang, Hua-Jun Chen, Qiu-Feng Chen, Hailong Lin
Objective: Patients with cirrhosis often exhibit cognitive deficits, particularly executive dysfunction, which is considered a predictor of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE). We examined brain intrinsic networks associated with executive function to investigate the neural basis of this cognitive deficiency in cirrhosis. Methods: Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from 20 cirrhotic patients and 18 healthy controls. Seed-based correlation analysis was used to identify the three well-known networks associated with executive function, including executive control (ECN), default mode (DMN), and salience (SN) networks...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422088/associations-of-bcl-2-rs956572-genotype-groups-in-the-structural-covariance-network-in-early-stage-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Chiung-Chih Chang, Ya-Ting Chang, Chi-Wei Huang, Shih-Jen Tsai, Shih-Wei Hsu, Shu-Hua Huang, Chen-Chang Lee, Wen-Neng Chang, Chun-Chung Lui, Chia-Yi Lien
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease, and genetic differences may mediate neuronal degeneration. In humans, a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) gene, rs956572, has been found to significantly modulate Bcl-2 protein expression in the brain. The Bcl-2 AA genotype has been associated with reduced Bcl-2 levels and lower gray matter volume in healthy populations. We hypothesized that different Bcl-2 genotype groups may modulate large-scale brain networks that determine neurobehavioral test scores...
February 8, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421336/do-scores-on-the-food-craving-inventory-and-three-factor-eating-questionnaire-correlate-with-expected-brain-regions-of-interest-in-people-with-obesity
#14
Chanaka Nadeeshan Kahathuduwa, Tyler Davis, Michael O'Boyle, Martin Binks
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether subscales of Food Craving Inventory (FCI) and Three-factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) correlate with brain functional magnetic resonance imaging food-cue reactivity (fMRI-FCR) in the brain. METHODS: Thirty-two male and female adults with obesity (19-60years; 30-39.9kg/m2) participated in a 3-week dietary intervention (1120kcal/day from either 1) total meal replacement shakes, 2) portion-controlled typical food. FCI, TFEQ and fMRI-FCR were measured pre- and post-intervention...
January 27, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417705/functional-connectivity-corresponding-to-the-tonotopic-differentiation-of-the-human-auditory-cortex
#15
Guangjie Yuan, Guangyuan Liu, Dongtao Wei, Gaoyuan Wang, Qiang Li, Mingming Qi, Shifu Wu
Recent research has demonstrated that resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) within the human auditory cortex (HAC) is frequency-selective, but whether RS-FC between the HAC and other brain areas is differentiated by frequency remains unclear. Three types of data were collected in this study, including resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, task-based fMRI data using six pure tone stimuli (200, 400, 800, 1,600, 3,200, and 6,400 Hz), and structural imaging data. We first used task-based fMRI to identify frequency-selective cortical regions in the HAC...
February 7, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416508/the-default-mode-network-supports-episodic-memory-in-cognitively-unimpaired-elderly-individuals-different-contributions-to-immediate-recall-and-delayed-recall
#16
Lijuan Huo, Rui Li, Pengyun Wang, Zhiwei Zheng, Juan Li
While the neural correlates of age-related decline in episodic memory have been the subject of much interest, the spontaneous functional architecture of the brain for various memory processes in elderly adults, such as immediate recall (IR) and delayed recall (DR), remains unclear. The present study thus examined the neural correlates of age-related decline of various memory processes. A total of 66 cognitively normal older adults (aged 60-80 years) participated in this study. Memory processes were measured using the Auditory Verbal Learning Test as well as resting-state brain images, which were analyzed using both regional homogeneity (ReHo) and correlation-based functional connectivity (FC) approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413534/income-change-alters-default-mode-network-connectivity-for-adolescents-in-poverty
#17
David G Weissman, Rand D Conger, Richard W Robins, Paul D Hastings, Amanda E Guyer
Experiencing poverty during childhood and adolescence may affect brain function. However, income is dynamic, and studies have not addressed whether income change relates to brain function. In the present study, we investigated whether intrinsic functional connectivity of default mode network (DMN) regions was influenced by mean family income and family income change. Parents of 68 Mexican-origin adolescents (35 females) reported family income annually when adolescents were 10-16 years old. Intercept and slope of income at each of these ages were calculated for each participant...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409920/the-effects-of-serotonin-modulation-on-medial-prefrontal-connectivity-strength-and-stability-a-pharmacological-fmri-study-with-citalopram
#18
D Arnone, T Wise, C Walker, P J Cowen, O Howes, S Selvaraj
BACKGROUND: Static and dynamic functional connectivity are being increasingly used to measure the effects of disease and a range of different interventions on brain networks. While preliminary evidence suggests that static connectivity can be modulated by chronic antidepressants administration in healthy individuals and in major depression, much less is known about the acute effects of antidepressants especially on dynamic functional connectivity changes. Here we examine acute effects of antidepressants on dynamic functional connectivity within the default mode network...
January 31, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409740/regulation-of-threat-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-associations-between-inhibitory-control-and-dissociative-symptoms
#19
Robert D Melara, Lesia M Ruglass, Eric A Fertuck, Denise A Hien
The current study investigated links between trauma exposure, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and inhibitory control assessed using a modified version of the visual flanker task. The study had three aims: (1) specifically confirm general non-affective deficits in sustained attention in PTSD; (2) probe the influence of threatening and trauma-related stimuli on inhibitory control; and (3) explore neural correlates connecting PTSD, facets of dissociation, and inhibitory control. Participants with PTSD (n=16), trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD (TE; n=14), and healthy controls (n=15) discriminated line orientations while ignoring temporally flanking lines and images depicting threatening or non-threatening scenes or faces...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403032/structural-tract-alterations-predict-downstream-tau-accumulation-in-amyloid-positive-older-individuals
#20
Heidi I L Jacobs, Trey Hedden, Aaron P Schultz, Jorge Sepulcre, Rodrigo D Perea, Rebecca E Amariglio, Kathryn V Papp, Dorene M Rentz, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson
Animal models of Alzheimer's disease have suggested that tau pathology propagation, facilitated by amyloid pathology, may occur along connected pathways. To investigate these ideas in humans, we combined amyloid scans with longitudinal data on white matter connectivity, hippocampal volume, tau positron emission tomography and memory performance in 256 cognitively healthy older individuals. Lower baseline hippocampal volume was associated with increased mean diffusivity of the connecting hippocampal cingulum bundle (HCB)...
February 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
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