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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933746/why-could-meditation-practice-help-promote-mental-health-and-well-being-in-aging
#1
Gaël Chételat, Antoine Lutz, Eider Arenaza-Urquijo, Fabienne Collette, Olga Klimecki, Natalie Marchant
Psycho-affective states or traits such as stress, depression, anxiety and neuroticism are known to affect sleep, cognition and mental health and well-being in aging populations and to be associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mental training for stress reduction and emotional and attentional regulation through meditation practice might help reduce these adverse factors. So far, studies on the impact of meditation practice on brain and cognition in aging are scarce and have limitations but the findings are encouraging, showing a positive effect of meditation training on cognition, especially on attention and memory, and on brain structure and function especially in frontal and limbic structures and insula...
June 22, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928255/altered-whole-brain-and-network-based-functional-connectivity-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Laura J de Schipper, Anne Hafkemeijer, Jeroen van der Grond, Johan Marinus, Johanna M L Henselmans, Jacobus J van Hilten
Background: Functional imaging methods, such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, reflect changes in neural connectivity and may help to assess the widespread consequences of disease-specific network changes in Parkinson's disease. In this study we used a relatively new graph analysis approach in functional imaging: eigenvector centrality mapping. This model-free method, applied to all voxels in the brain, identifies prominent regions in the brain network hierarchy and detects localized differences between patient populations...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920392/pretherapeutic-motor-thalamus-resting-state-functional-connectivity-with-visual-areas-predicts-tremor-arrest-after-thalamotomy-for-essential-tremor-tracing-the-cerebello-thalamo-visuo-motor-network
#3
Constantin Tuleasca, Elena Najdenovska, Jean Régis, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Jérôme Champoudry, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Dimitri Van De Ville
BACKGROUND: Essential tremor (ET) is a common movement disorder. Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is non-invasive neuroimaging method acquired in absence of task. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims at correlating pretherapeutic ventro-lateral thalamus functional connectivity (FC) with clinical result 1 year after stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T) for drug-resistant ET. Data from 12 healthy controls was included. METHODS: Resting-state was acquired for 17 consecutive (right handed) patients, before and after left unilateral SRS-T...
June 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916789/storytelling-is-intrinsically-mentalistic-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-narrative-production-across-modalities
#4
Ye Yuan, Judy Major-Girardin, Steven Brown
People utilize multiple expressive modalities for communicating narrative ideas about past events. The three major ones are speech, pantomime, and drawing. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify common brain areas that mediate narrative communication across these three sensorimotor mechanisms. In the scanner, participants were presented with short narrative prompts akin to newspaper headlines (e.g., "Surgeon finds scissors inside of patient"). The task was to generate a representation of the event, either by describing it verbally through speech, by pantomiming it gesturally, or by drawing it on a tablet...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915363/ghrelin-reductions-following-bariatric-surgery-were-associated-with-decreased-resting-state-activity-in-the-hippocampus
#5
Yi Zhang, Gang Ji, Guanya Li, Yang Hu, Li Liu, Qingchao Jin, Qianqian Meng, Jizheng Zhao, Kai Yuan, Jixn Liu, Karen M von Deneen, Antao Chen, Guangbin Cui, Huaning Wang, Qingchuan Zhao, Kaichun Wu, Jie Tian, Peter Manza, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow, Yongzhan Nie, Gene-Jack Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric surgery to treat obesity, and involves removal of the gastric fundus where ghrelin is mainly produced. Ghrelin stimulates appetite and regulates food intake through its effect on the hypothalamus and hippocampus (HIPP). While ghrelin's role on the hypothalamus has been explored, little is known about its role on HIPP. We tested the hypothesis that LSG-induced reductions in ghrelin levels would be associated with changes in HIPP activity...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914991/the-multifaceted-abstract-brain
#6
REVIEW
Rutvik H Desai, Megan Reilly, Wessel van Dam
concepts play a central role in human behaviour and constitute a critical component of the human conceptual system. Here, we investigate the neural basis of four types of abstract concepts, examining their similarities and differences through neuroimaging meta-analyses. We examine numerical and emotional concepts, and two higher-order abstract processes, morality judgements and theory of mind. Three main findings emerge. First, representation of abstract concepts is more widespread than is often assumed. Second, representations of different types of abstract concepts differ in important respects...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913906/using-fmri-to-evaluate-the-effects-of-milnacipran-on-central-pain-processing-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia
#7
F Petzke, K B Jensen, E Kosek, E Choy, S Carville, P Fransson, S C R Williams, H Marcus, Y Mainguy, M Ingvar, R H Gracely
Background In recent years, the prescription of serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) has increased with reports of their efficacy. The SNRI milnacipran is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of FM, yet, the mechanisms by which milnacipran reduces FM symptoms are unknown. A large number of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated altered brain function in patients with FM but the effect of milnacipran on central pain processing has not been investigated...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912445/anterior-cingulate-glutamate-and-gaba-associations-on-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia
#8
Dinesh K Shukla, S Andrea Wijtenburg, Hongji Chen, Joshua J Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong, Laura M Rowland
Background: The underlying neurobiological mechanism for abnormal functional connectivity in schizophrenia (SCZ) remains unknown. This project investigated whether glutamate and GABA, 2 metabolites that contribute to excitatory and inhibitory functions, may influence functional connectivity in SCZ. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy were acquired from 58 SCZ patients and 61 healthy controls (HC)...
June 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907927/-1-h-mrs-spectroscopy-in-preclinical-autosomal-dominant-alzheimer-disease
#9
Elizabeth Joe, Luis D Medina, John M Ringman, Joseph O'Neill
1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can reveal changes in brain biochemistry in vivo in humans and has been applied to late onset Alzheimer disease (AD). Carriers of mutations for autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) may show changes in levels of metabolites prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Proton MR spectra were acquired at 1.5 T for 16 cognitively asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic mutation carriers (CDR < 1) and 11 non-carriers as part of a comprehensive cross-sectional study of preclinical ADAD...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901414/longitudinal-clinical-and-neuroimaging-evaluation-of-symptomatic-concussion-in-10-14-year-old-youth-athletes
#10
Christine L MacDonald, Jason Barber, Jason Wright, David Coppel, Nina De Lacy, Steve Ottinger, Suzanne Peck, Chris Panks, Samantha Sun, Kody Zalewski, Nancy Temkin
This study longitudinally assessed 10-14-year-old patients with sports and recreational concussion (n=22) who remained symptomatic 3-4 weeks post-injury compared to typically developing controls (n=24). Examination by multimodal MRI and multidomain clinical outcome measures was completed at 1-month and 6-months post-injury. Concussion patients showed evidence of improvement by 6-month follow up in domains of cognitive function while measures of psychological health were less resolved with patients exhibiting sustained symptoms of depression, behavior impairment, and concussion symptoms...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895218/increased-posterior-cingulate-cortex-efficiency-may-predict-cognitive-impairment-in-asymptomatic-hiv-patients
#11
Nina Ventura, Linda Douw, Diogo G Correa, Tania M Netto, Rafael F Cabral, Fernanda Cristina Rueda Lopes, Emerson L Gasparetto
Purpose Despite antiretroviral therapy, approximately half of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) will develop HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Efficiency of brain networks is of great importance for cognitive functioning, since functional networks may reorganize or compensate to preserve normal cognition. This study aims to compare efficiency of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) between patients with and without HAND and controls. We hypothesize HAND negative (HAND-) patients will show higher PCC efficiency than HAND positive (HAND+) patients...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889154/high-field-mrs-study-of-gaba-in-patients-with-migraine-response-to-levetiracetam-treatment
#12
Qiang Li, Chunfu Chen, Tao Gong
To explore alterations in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in response to levetiracetam (LEV) treatment in patients with migraine. Patients with migraine (N=14) were treated with LEV for 12 weeks. The levels of GABA+ in the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were examined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy before (baseline) and after treatment. LEV showed good efficacy in the reduction of headache frequency and intensity in patients with migraine...
June 7, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888315/influencing-connectivity-and-cross-frequency-coupling-by-real-time-source-localized-neurofeedback-of-the-posterior-cingulate-cortex-reduces-tinnitus-related-distress
#13
Sven Vanneste, Kathleen Joos, Jan Ost, Dirk De Ridder
Background: In this study we are using source localized neurofeedback to moderate tinnitus related distress by influencing neural activity of the target region as well as the connectivity within the default network. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that up-training alpha and down-training beta and gamma activity in the posterior cingulate cortex has a moderating effect on tinnitus related distress by influencing neural activity of the target region as well as the connectivity within the default network and other functionally connected brain areas...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887811/the-temporal-propagation-of-intrinsic-brain-activity-associate-with-the-occurrence-of-ptsd
#14
Yifei Weng, Rongfeng Qi, Feng Chen, Jun Ke, Qiang Xu, Yuan Zhong, Lida Chen, Jianjun Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Li Zhang, Guangming Lu
The abnormal brain activity is a pivotal condition for the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the dynamic time features of intrinsic brain activities still remain unclearly in PTSD patients. Our study aims to perform the resting-state lag analysis (RS-LA) method to explore potential propagated patterns of intrinsic brain activities in PTSD patients. We recruited 27 drug-naive patients with PTSD, 33 trauma-exposed controls (TEC), and 30 demographically matched healthy controls (HC) in the final data statistics...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885847/abnormal-spontaneous-brain-activity-is-associated-with-impaired-emotion-and-cognition-in-hyperthyroidism-a-rs-fmri-study
#15
Mengmeng Zhi, Zhenghua Hou, Qiong We, Yuqun Zhang, Ling Li, Yonggui Yuan
Hyperthyroid patients undergo emotional and cognitive dysfunction. However, the neurological basis for it remains ambiguous. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) were used to investigate abnormal spontaneous activity in hyperthyroidism for the first time. 29 hyperthyroid patients and 29 healthy controls (HC) received 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and neuropsychological assessments. Compared with HC, hyperthyroid patients showed decreased ALFF in left medial frontal gyrus (MeFG) and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)...
June 7, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882015/differential-associations-of-combined-vs-isolated-cannabis-and-nicotine-on-brain-resting-state-networks
#16
Francesca M Filbey, Suril Gohel, Shikha Prashad, Bharat B Biswal
Concomitant cannabis and nicotine use is more prevalent than cannabis use alone; however, to date, most of the literature has focused on associations of isolated cannabis and nicotine use limiting the generalizability of existing research. To determine differential associations of concomitant use of cannabis and nicotine, isolated cannabis use and isolated nicotine use on brain network connectivity, we examined systems-level neural functioning via independent components analysis (ICA) on resting state networks (RSNs) in cannabis users (CAN, n = 53), nicotine users (NIC, n = 28), concomitant nicotine and cannabis users (NIC + CAN, n = 26), and non-users (CTRL, n = 30)...
June 7, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880873/effects-of-repeated-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-smoking-craving-and-brain-reactivity-to-smoking-cues
#17
Marine Mondino, David Luck, Stéphanie Grot, Dominique Januel, Marie-Françoise Suaud-Chagny, Emmanuel Poulet, Jérôme Brunelin
Recent studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may reduce craving and smoking. However, little is known regarding brain correlates of these behavioral changes. We aimed to evaluate whether 10 sessions of tDCS modulate cigarette consumption, craving and brain reactivity to smoking cues in subjects with tobacco use disorder (TUD). In a double blind parallel-arms study, 29 subjects with TUD who wished to quit smoking were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either active or sham tDCS applied with the anode over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and a large cathode over the left occipital region...
June 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879474/a-longitudinal-model-for-functional-connectivity-networks-using-resting-state-fmri
#18
Brian Hart, Ivor Cribben, Mark Fiecas
Many neuroimaging studies collect functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in a longitudinal manner. However, the current fMRI literature lacks a general framework for analyzing functional connectivity (FC) networks in fMRI data obtained from a longitudinal study. In this work, we build a novel longitudinal FC model using a variance components approach. First, for all subjects' visits, we account for the autocorrelation inherent in the fMRI time series data using a non-parametric technique. Second, we use a generalized least squares approach to estimate 1) the within-subject variance component shared across the population, 2) the baseline FC strength, and 3) the FC's longitudinal trend...
June 4, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877883/18f-fdg-pet-brain-in-a-patient-with-fatal-familial-insomnia
#19
Wei Ying Tham, Yee-Liang Thian, Pavanni Ratnagopal, Wanying Xie
A 57-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of cognitive impairment, daytime somnolence, and violent sleep behavior. Her first- and second-degree relatives had similar symptoms prior to their premature deaths. Her MRI scan of the brain showed no significant abnormality. Electroencephalogram showed loss of slow-wave activity. Functional brain imaging performed with F-FDG PET was fused with her MRI scans. This demonstrated profound hypometabolism in bilateral thalami and the posterior cingulate cortex, which is pathognomonic for familial fatal insomnia...
June 5, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876271/regional-microstructural-organization-of-the-cerebral-cortex-is-affected-by-preterm-birth
#20
Marine Bouyssi-Kobar, Marie Brossard-Racine, Marni Jacobs, Jonathan Murnick, Taeun Chang, Catherine Limperopoulos
Objectives: To compare regional cerebral cortical microstructural organization between preterm infants at term-equivalent age (TEA) and healthy full-term newborns, and to examine the impact of clinical risk factors on cerebral cortical micro-organization in the preterm cohort. Study design: We prospectively enrolled very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) at birth<32 weeks; birthweight<1500 g) and healthy full-term controls. Using non-invasive 3T diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics, we quantified regional micro-organization in ten cerebral cortical areas: medial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior cingulate cortex, insula, posterior parietal cortex, motor/somatosensory/auditory/visual cortex...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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