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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217224/the-neural-correlates-of-self-referential-memory-encoding-and-retrieval-in-schizophrenia
#1
Amy M Jimenez, Junghee Lee, Jonathan K Wynn, Michael F Green
BACKGROUND: Enhanced memory for self-oriented information is known as the self-referential memory (SRM) effect. fMRI studies of the SRM effect have focused almost exclusively on encoding, revealing selective engagement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during "self" relative to other processing conditions. Other critical areas for self-processing include ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and posterior cingulate/precuneus (PCC/PC). Previous behavioral studies show that individuals with schizophrenia fail to benefit from this memory boost...
December 4, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212618/altered-cerebral-perfusion-in-infants-born-preterm-compared-with-infants-born-full-term
#2
Marine Bouyssi-Kobar, Jonathan Murnick, Marie Brossard-Racine, Taeun Chang, Eman Mahdi, Marni Jacobs, Catherine Limperopoulos
OBJECTIVES: To compare regional cerebral cortical blood flow (CBF) in infants born very preterm at term-equivalent age (TEA) and healthy newborns born full term and to examine the impact of clinical risk factors on CBF in the cohort born preterm. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, cross-sectional study included infants born very preterm (gestational age at birth <32 weeks; birth weight <1500 g) and healthy infants born full term. Using noninvasive 3T arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging, we quantified regional CBF in the cerebral cortex: sensorimotor/auditory/visual cortex, superior medial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/posterior cingulate cortex, insula, and lateral posterior parietal cortex, as well as in the brainstem, and deep gray matter...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211656/the-neural-basis-of-successful-word-reading-in-aphasia
#3
Sara B Pillay, William L Gross, William W Graves, Colin Humphries, Diane S Book, Jeffrey R Binder
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the neural basis of recovery from stroke is a major research goal. Many functional neuroimaging studies have identified changes in brain activity in people with aphasia, but it is unclear whether these changes truly support successful performance or merely reflect increased task difficulty. We addressed this problem by examining differences in brain activity associated with correct and incorrect responses on an overt reading task. On the basis of previous proposals that semantic retrieval can assist pronunciation of written words, we hypothesized that recruitment of semantic areas would be greater on successful trials...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209804/efferents-of-anterior-cingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-and-midcingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-in-the-mouse
#4
Clémentine Fillinger, Ipek Yalcin, Michel Barrot, Pierre Veinante
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), constituted by areas 25, 32, 24a and 24b in rodents, plays a major role in cognition, emotion and pain. In a previous study, we described the afferents of areas 24a and 24b and those of areas 24a' and 24b' of midcingulate cortex (MCC) in mice and highlighted some density differences among cingulate inputs (Fillinger et al., Brain Struct Funct 222:1509-1532, 2017). To complete this connectome, we analyzed here the efferents of ACC and MCC by injecting anterograde tracers in areas 24a/24b of ACC and 24a'/24b' of MCC...
December 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209181/the-agent-brain-a-review-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-studies-on-sensing-agency
#5
REVIEW
Davide Crivelli, Michela Balconi
According to philosophy of mind and neuroscientific models, the sense of agency can be defined as the sense that I am the one that is generating an action and causing its effects. Such ability to sense ourselves as causal agents is critical for the definition of intentional behavior and is a primary root for human interaction skills. The present mini-review aims at discussing evidences from non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) studies targeting functional correlates of different aspects of agency and evidences on the way stimulation techniques affect such core feature of human subjective experience...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208492/resting-state-connectivity-mediates-the-relationship-between-collectivism-and-social-cognition
#6
Gennady G Knyazev, Alexander N Savostyanov, Andrey V Bocharov, Ekaterina A Merkulova
Humans are intrinsically social beings and it is natural that self-processing is associated with social cognition. The degree to which the self is perceived as a part of social environment is modulated by cultural stereotypes, such as collectivism and individualism. Here, we tested the hypothesis that individuals who endorse collectivist values would spontaneously think more about their relationships with other people and this association would be mediated by connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the rest of the brain...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204132/the-relationship-between-regional-gray-matter-volume-of-social-exclusion-regions-and-personal-self-esteem-is-moderated-by-collective-self-esteem
#7
Xin Wu, Yujie Chen, Bing Chen, Lili Guan, Yufang Zhao
According to sociometer theory, self-esteem is an internal monitor of positive social bonds to others. Social exclusion can break or threaten social bonds, which might be reflected by the brain structure of social exclusion regions. Thus, self-esteem might be influenced by structurally individual differences in these regions. It has been suggested that self-esteem can be divided into personal (PSE) and collective (CSE) self-esteem and CSE can bring individuals many benefits, such as acceptance, belonging, and social support, which could further maintain or increase their PSE...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203671/early-childhood-stress-exposure-reward-pathways-and-adult-decision-making
#8
Rasmus M Birn, Barbara J Roeber, Seth D Pollak
Individuals who have experienced chronic and high levels of stress during their childhoods are at increased risk for a wide range of behavioral problems, yet the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. We measured the life circumstances of a community sample of school-aged children and then followed these children for a decade. Those from the highest and lowest quintiles of childhood stress exposure were invited to return to our laboratory as young adults, at which time we reassessed their life circumstances, acquired fMRI data during a reward-processing task, and tested their judgment and decision making...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201643/relationships-between-brain-metabolite-levels-functional-connectivity-and-negative-mood-in-urologic-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome-patients-compared-to-controls-a-mapp-research-network-study
#9
Daniel E Harper, Eric Ichesco, Andrew Schrepf, Megan Halvorson, Tudor Puiu, Daniel J Clauw, Richard E Harris, Steven E Harte
Until recently, the predominant pathology of chronic pelvic pain conditions was thought to reside in the peripheral tissues. However, mounting evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests an important role of the central nervous system in the pathogenesis of these conditions. In the present cross-sectional study, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of the brain was conducted in female patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) to determine if they exhibit abnormal concentrations of brain metabolites (e...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200179/structural-and-functional-abnormalities-of-the-insular-cortex-in-trigeminal-neuralgia-a-multimodal-mri-analysis
#10
Yue Wang, Yuanchao Zhang, Jinlei Zhang, Jiaojian Wang, Jinping Xu, Jie Li, Gaoyu Cui, Jiuquan Zhang
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a chronic neuropathic pain disorder characterized by intense, lancinating attacks of facial pain. Increasing evidence suggests that TN is accompanied by abnormalities in brain morphology, white matter microstructure and function. However, whether these abnormalities are linked or reflect independent etiologies remains unknown. Using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging data of 20 TN patients and 21 healthy controls (HC), we investigated cortical gyrification abnormalities, their relationships with abnormalities of the underlying white matter microstructure and gray matter morphology, as well as their functional significance in TN...
December 1, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197501/intuitive-physics-ability-in-systemizers-relies-on-differential-use-of-the-internalizing-system-and-long-term-spatial-representations
#11
Tapani Riekki, Juha Salmi, Annika M Svedholm-Häkkinen, Marjaana Lindeman
According to the Empathizing-Systemizing theory (E-S Theory), individual differences in how people understand the physical world (systemizing) and the social world (empathizing), are two continuums in the general population with several implications, from vocational interests to skills in the social and physical domains. The underlying mechanisms of intuitive physics performance among individuals with a strong systemizing and weak empathizing (systemizers) are, however, unknown. Our results affirm higher intuitive physics skills in healthy adult systemizers (N=36), and further reveal the brain mechanisms that are characteristic for those individuals in carrying out such tasks...
November 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196107/distribution-of-smad-mrna-and-proteins-in-the-rat-brain
#12
Takayuki Nakajima, Ryusuke Hata, Yuji Kunieda, Tomohiro Kondo
Smad proteins are known to transduce the action of TGF-β superfamily proteins including TGF-βs, activins, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In this study, we examined the expression of Smad1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -8 mRNA in the rat brain by means of RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH). In addition, we examined the nuclear accumulation of Smad1, -2, -3, -5, and -8 proteins after intracerebroventricular injection of TGF-β1, activin A, or BMP6 with immunohistochemistry to investigate whether TGF-β, activin, and/or BMP activate Smads in the rat brain...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190989/aberrant-pattern-of-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-voxel-wise-meta-analysis-of-arterial-spin-labeling-mr-imaging-studies
#13
Hai Rong Ma, Ping Lei Pan, Li Qin Sheng, Zhen Yu Dai, Gen Di Wang, Rong Luo, Jia Hui Chen, Pei Rong Xiao, Jian Guo Zhong, Hai Cun Shi
Many studies have applied arterial spin labeling (ASL) to characterize cerebral perfusion patterns of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, findings across studies are not conclusive. A quantitatively voxel-wise meta-analysis to pool the resting-state ASL studies that measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alterations in AD was conducted to identify the most consistent and replicable perfusion pattern using seed-based d mapping. The meta-analysis, including 17 ASL studies encompassing 327 AD patients and 357 healthy controls, demonstrated that decreased rCBF in AD patients relative to healthy controls were consistently identified in the bilateral posterior cingulate cortices (PCC)/precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180137/the-influence-of-early-life-stress-on-the-integration-of-emotion-and-working-memory
#14
Sophie Metz, Sabine Aust, Yan Fan, Luisa Bönke, Zjala Harki, Matti Gärtner, Malek Bajbouj, Simone Grimm
INTRODUCTION: Early life stress (ELS) impacts emotional and cognitive competences. We aimed to investigate whether the effects of ELS on working memory (WM) performance depend on the valence of the stimuli. METHODS: Between January and October 2015, we recruited (N=31) healthy subjects with (N=15) and without (N=16) ELS experiences. Participants performed a WM-task with emotional stimuli. RESULTS: Results show a trend towards decreased WM accuracy in subjects with ELS experiences (p=...
November 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179993/dissociable-effects-of-reward-and-expectancy-during-evaluative-feedback-processing-revealed-by-topographic-erp-mapping-analysis
#15
Davide Gheza, Katharina Paul, Gilles Pourtois
Evaluative feedback provided during performance monitoring (PM) elicits either a positive or negative deflection ~250-300ms after its onset in the event-related potential (ERP) depending on whether the outcome is reward-related or not, as well as expected or not. However, it remains currently unclear whether these two deflections reflect a unitary process, or rather dissociable effects arising from non-overlapping brain networks. To address this question, we recorded 64-channel EEG in healthy adult participants performing a standard gambling task where valence and expectancy were manipulated in a factorial design...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175651/subclinical-cerebrovascular-disease-in-nafld-without-overt-risk-factors-for-atherosclerosis
#16
Lorena Airaghi, Mario Rango, Diletta Maira, Valentina Barbieri, Luca Valenti, Rosa Lombardi, Pietro Biondetti, Silvia Fargion, Anna Ludovica Fracanzani
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is recognized not only as part of the metabolic syndrome but also as an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: In this study, NMR spectroscopy method, together with perfusion techniques, was used to detect subclinical brain vascular damage in subjects with NAFLD without overt atherosclerosis risk factors (i.e. hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, obesity). RESULTS: The results suggest that subjects with histologically proven NAFLD have a reduced cerebral perfusion (CBFr) confined to limited brain areas, i...
November 16, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172194/-mental-space-navigation-and-mental-time-travel
#17
Mitsuru Kawamura
We examined patients with mental space navigation or mental time travel disorder to identify regions in the brain that may play a critical role in mental time travel in terms of clinical neuropsychology. These regions included the precneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus, as well as the orbitofrontal cortex: the anterior and posterior medial areas were both shown to be important in this process. Further studies are required to define whether these form a network for mental time travel...
November 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172188/-posterior-cingulate-cascading-delay-model-for-timing-behavior
#18
Kazuo Okanoya, Tohru Kurotani
We present a novel model for timing behavior. This model is based on the firing property of neurons in the superficial layers of the posterior cingulate granular retrosplenial cortex (GRS) and does not require a unit-time clock. Suppose that event B occurs N seconds after event A and triggers behavior C. By our behavioral, physiological and anatomical experiments, we found the following facts. 1) Thalamic input carrying sensory information, A, is provided to the superficial layers of the GRS and delayed by the lateral cascading connection within the layers...
November 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172186/-neural-basis-for-producing-temporal-order
#19
Shigeru Kitazawa
It has been proposed that a position in time can be discriminated in two ways. First, each position is either past, present, or future (A series). Second, each position is either before or after another (B series). In this review, we aim to infer how the two series are represented in the brain on the basis of findings from clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies. We suggest that the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex are critically involved in the A series. In the B series, we suggest that a group of events are represented in space around the intraparietal cortex and are combined with the temporal directional cue provided by the motion signals in the left temporo-parietal junction...
November 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168420/vulnerabilities-in-sequencing-and-task-switching-in-healthy-youth-offspring-of-parents-with-mood-disorders
#20
Manpreet K Singh, Sara M Leslie, Kalpa Bhattacharjee, Melina Gross, Elizabeth F Weisman, Laila M Soudi, Owen R Phillips, Alexander Onopa
INTRODUCTION: Visuospatial processing and task switching are impaired in individuals with mood disorders. It is unknown whether early deficits are present before mood symptom on set or are related to risk for a specific type of mood disorder. To investigate, we compared visual attention and task switching during sequencing among never-disordered youth with parental family histories of bipolar (BD) and major depressive disorders (MDD) and healthy controls (HC) with no personal or family history of psychopathology...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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