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posterior cingulate cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050387/temporal-lobe-networks-supporting-the-comprehension-of-spoken-words
#1
Leonardo Bonilha, Argye E Hillis, Gregory Hickok, Dirk B den Ouden, Chris Rorden, Julius Fridriksson
Auditory word comprehension is a cognitive process that involves the transformation of auditory signals into abstract concepts. Traditional lesion-based studies of stroke survivors with aphasia have suggested that neocortical regions adjacent to auditory cortex are primarily responsible for word comprehension. However, recent primary progressive aphasia and normal neurophysiological studies have challenged this concept, suggesting that the left temporal pole is crucial for word comprehension. Due to its vasculature, the temporal pole is not commonly completely lesioned in stroke survivors and this heterogeneity may have prevented its identification in lesion-based studies of auditory comprehension...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036815/diaschisis-like-association-of-hippocampal-atrophy-and-posterior-cingulate-cortex-hypometabolism-in-cognitively-normal-elderly-depends-on-impaired-integrity-of-parahippocampal-cingulum-fibers
#2
Florian U Fischer, Dominik Wolf
Hippocampal atrophy and hypometabolism of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), early markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), have been shown to be associated in late mild cognitive impairment and early AD via atrophy of connecting cingulum fibers. Recently, a direct association of hippocampal atrophy and PCC hypometabolism has been shown in cognitively normal elderly. We aimed to investigate if this association might be modulated by partly non-hippocampogenic alterations of parahippocampal cingulum (PHC) integrity...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033807/walking-through-architectural-spaces-the-impact-of-interior-forms-on-human-brain-dynamics
#3
Maryam Banaei, Javad Hatami, Abbas Yazdanfar, Klaus Gramann
Neuroarchitecture uses neuroscientific tools to better understand architectural design and its impact on human perception and subjective experience. The form or shape of the built environment is fundamental to architectural design, but not many studies have shown the impact of different forms on the inhabitants' emotions. This study investigated the neurophysiological correlates of different interior forms on the perceivers' affective state and the accompanying brain activity. To understand the impact of naturalistic three-dimensional (3D) architectural forms, it is essential to perceive forms from different perspectives...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031764/combined-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-patients-with-idiopathic-restless-legs-syndrome
#4
Yaoyao Zhuo, Yuncheng Wu, Yanhong Xu, Lunbo Lu, Ting Li, Xifu Wang, Kangan Li
OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs along with paraesthesia deep within them. In this study, we aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) to investigate the changes in regional spontaneous brain activity change for RLS patients against age- and gender-matched normal control (NC) subjects. METHODS: A total of 35 RLS patients and 27 age- and gender-matched NC subjects were recruited for group comparison research that used DTI and ReHo techniques...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031411/in%C3%A2-vivo-brain-glycine-and-glutamate-concentrations-in-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis-measured-by-echo-time-averaged-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-at-4t
#5
Sang-Young Kim, Marc J Kaufman, Bruce M Cohen, J Eric Jensen, Joseph T Coyle, Fei Du, Dost Öngür
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of abnormal glutamateric neurotransmission and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. The purpose of this study was to quantify in vivo glutamate (Glu) and glycine (Gly) levels in patients with first-episode psychosis as well as age-matched healthy control subjects with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). METHODS: The subjects were 46 patients with first-episode psychosis (20 with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 26 with bipolar disorder) and 50 age-matched healthy control subjects...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029313/subjective-objective-sleep-discrepancy-is-associated-with-alterations-in-regional-glucose-metabolism-in-patients-with-insomnia-and-good-sleeper-controls
#6
Daniel B Kay, Helmet T Karim, Adriane M Soehner, Brant P Hasler, Jeffrey A James, Anne Germain, Martica H Hall, Peter L Franzen, Julie C Price, Eric A Nofzinger, Daniel J Buysse
Objectives: Sleep discrepancies are common in primary insomnia (PI), and include reports of longer sleep onset latency (SOL) than measured by polysomnography (PSG), or "negative SOL discrepancy." We hypothesized that negative SOL discrepancy in PI would be associated with higher relative glucose metabolism during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in brain networks involved in conscious awareness, including the salience, left executive control, and default mode networks. Methods: PI (n=32) and good sleeper controls (GS; n=30) completed [ 18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans during NREM sleep and relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) was measured...
October 3, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025324/the-effects-of-head-cooling-on-brain-function-during-passive-hyperthermia-an-fmri-study
#7
Yan Xue, Li Li, Shaowen Qian, Kai Liu, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, Bo Li, Qingjun Jiang, Zhuanzhuan Wu, Lexia Du, Gang Sun
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of head-cooling on resting-state spontaneous brain activity during passive hyperthermia. METHODS: An environmental heat exposure was simulated on 16 healthy men under a normal control condition (NC) at 25°C and two hot conditions at 50°C with (HHC) and without (HOT) keeping the head cool, respectively. Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data were acquired under each condition and the values of amplitude low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and z functional connectivity (zFC) were computed to examine regional activity and functional integration, respectively...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024659/posterior-cingulate-neurons-dynamically-signal-decisions-to-disengage-during-foraging
#8
David L Barack, Steve W C Chang, Michael L Platt
Foraging for resources is a fundamental behavior balancing systematic search and strategic disengagement. The foraging behavior of primates is especially complex and requires long-term memory, value comparison, strategic planning, and decision-making. Here we provide evidence from two different foraging tasks that neurons in primate posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) signal decision salience during foraging to motivate disengagement from the current strategy. In our foraging tasks, salience refers to the difference between decision thresholds and the net harvested reward...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024197/multifaceted-brain-networks-reconfiguration-in-disorders-of-consciousness-uncovered-by-co-activation-patterns
#9
Carol Di Perri, Enrico Amico, Lizette Heine, Jitka Annen, Charlotte Martial, Stephen K Larroque, Andrea Soddu, Daniele Marinazzo, Steven Laureys
INTRODUCTION: Given that recent research has shown that functional connectivity is not a static phenomenon, we aim to investigate the dynamic properties of the default mode network's (DMN) connectivity in patients with disorders of consciousness. METHODS: Resting-state fMRI volumes of a convenience sample of 17 patients in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and controls were reduced to a spatiotemporal point process by selecting critical time points in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024192/association-of-schizotypy-with-striatocortical-functional-connectivity-and-its-asymmetry-in-healthy-adults
#10
Yi Wang, Ulrich Ettinger, Thomas Meindl, Raymond C K Chan
Altered striatocortical functional connectivity has been suggested to be a trait marker of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including schizotypal personality. In the present study, we examined the association between schizotypal personality traits and striatocortical functional connectivity in a sample of healthy adults. The German version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire was obtained from N = 111 participants recruited from the general public. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired at 3T...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022655/anosognosia-is-an-independent-predictor-of-conversion-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease-and-is-associated-with-reduced-brain-metabolism
#11
Philip Gerretsen, Jun Ku Chung, Parita Shah, Eric Plitman, Yusuke Iwata, Fernando Caravaggio, Shinichiro Nakajima, Bruce G Pollock, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
OBJECTIVE: Anosognosia, or impaired illness awareness, is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and less so of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Importantly, anosognosia negatively influences clinical outcomes for patients and their caregivers and may predict the conversion from MCI to AD. This study aimed to examine (1) the relationship between brain glucose metabolism as measured by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and anosognosia in patients with MCI and AD and (2) the predictive utility of anosognosia in patients with MCI for later conversion to AD, even when controlling for other factors, including gender, education, apolipoprotein E ε4 carrier status, dementia severity, and cognitive dysfunction...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018338/altered-distant-synchronization-of-background-network-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-during-an-executive-function-task
#12
Pengyun Wang, Rui Li, Jing Yu, Zirui Huang, Zhixiong Yan, Ke Zhao, Juan Li
Few studies to date have investigated the background network in the cognitive state relying on executive function in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. Using the index of degree of centrality (DC), we explored distant synchronization of background network in MCI during a hybrid delayed-match-to-sample task (DMST), which mainly relies on the working memory component of executive function. We observed significant interactions between group and cognitive state in the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the ventral subregion of precuneus...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993722/type-1-diabetes-and-impaired-awareness-of-hypoglycemia-are-associated-with-reduced-brain-gray-matter-volumes
#13
Petr Bednarik, Amir A Moheet, Heidi Grohn, Anjali F Kumar, Lynn E Eberly, Elizabeth R Seaquist, Silvia Mangia
In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the anatomical MRI data acquired from 52 subjects with type 1 diabetes (26M/26F, 36 ± 11 years old, A1C = 7.2 ± 0.9%) and 50 age, sex and BMI frequency-matched non-diabetic controls (25M/25F, 36 ± 14 years old). The T1D group was further sub-divided based on whether subjects had normal, impaired, or indeterminate awareness of hypoglycemia (n = 31, 20, and 1, respectively). Our goals were to test whether the gray matter (GM) volumes of selected brain regions were associated with diabetes status as well as with the status of hypoglycemia awareness...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993708/body-mass-index-is-associated-with-cortical-thinning-with-different-patterns-in-mid-and-late-life
#14
M E Shaw, P S Sachdev, W Abhayaratna, K J Anstey, N Cherbuin
OBJECTIVE: High BMI at midlife is associated with increased risk of dementia as well as faster decline in cognitive function. In late-life, however, high BMI has been found to be associated with both increased and decreased dementia risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the neural substrates of this age-related change in BMI risk. METHODS: We measured longitudinal cortical thinning over the whole brain, based on MRI scans for 910 individuals aged 44 to 66 years at baseline...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993219/involvement-of-posterior-cingulate-cortex-in-ketamine-induced-psychosis-relevant-behaviors-in-rats
#15
Jingyi Ma, L Stan Leung
The involvement of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) on ketamine-induced psychosis relevant behaviors was investigated in rats. Bilateral infusion of muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist, into the PCC significantly antagonized ketamine-induced deficit in prepulse inhibition of a startle reflex (PPI), deficit in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials, and behavioral hyperlocomotion in a dose dependent manner. Local infusion of ketamine directly into the PCC also induced a PPI deficit. Systemic injection of ketamine (3mg/kg,s...
October 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992533/neural-correlates-of-affective-and-non-affective-cognition-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-imaging-studies
#16
A Rasgon, W H Lee, E Leibu, A Laird, D Glahn, W Goodman, S Frangou
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualistic behaviors and has been associated with diverse functional brain abnormalities. We sought to synthesize current evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and examine their alignment to pathogenetic models of OCD. Following systematic review, we identified 54 task-fMRI studies published in the last decade comparing adults with OCD (n=1186) to healthy adults (n=1159) using tasks of affective and non-affective cognition...
September 1, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992273/neural-correlates-of-moral-judgment-in-pedophilia
#17
Claudia Massau, Christian Kärgel, Simone Weiß, Martin Walter, Jorge Ponseti, Tillmann Hc Krueger, Henrik Walter, Boris Schiffer
Pedophilia is a sexual preference that is often associated with child sex offending (CSO). Sexual urges towards prepubescent children and specifically acting upon those urges are universally regarded as immoral. However, up until now, it is completely unknown whether moral processing of sexual offenses is altered in pedophiles. A total of 31 pedophilic men and 19 healthy controls were assessed by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination with a moral judgment paradigm consisting of 36 scenarios describing different types of offenses...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991914/topiramate-modulates-trigeminal-pain-processing-in-thalamo-cortical-networks-in-humans-after-single-dose-administration
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Julia M Hebestreit, Arne May
Migraine is the sixth most common cause of disability in the world. Preventive migraine treatment is used to reduce frequency, severity and duration of attacks and therefore lightens the burden on the patients' quality of life and reduces disability. Topiramate is one of the preventive migraine treatments of proven efficacy. The mechanism of action underlying the preventive effect of topiramate in migraine remains largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we examined the central effects of a single dose of topiramate (100mg) on trigeminal pain in humans, compared to placebo (mannitol)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986640/reduced-gaba-levels-correlate-with-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Guanmei Cao, Richard A E Edden, Fei Gao, Hao Li, Tao Gong, Weibo Chen, Xiaohui Liu, Guangbin Wang, Bin Zhao
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are abnormal compared with healthy controls, and their relationship to cognitive function in RRMS. METHODS: Twenty-eight RRMS patients and twenty-six healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3-T to detect GABA signals from posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left hippocampus using the 'MEGAPoint Resolved Spectroscopy Sequence' (MEGA-PRESS) technique...
October 6, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984601/failure-to-recover-from-proactive-semantic-interference-and-abnormal-limbic-connectivity-in-asymptomatic-middle-aged-offspring-of-patients-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Stella M Sánchez, Carolina Abulafia, Barbara Duarte-Abritta, M Soledad Ladrón de Guevara, Mariana N Castro, Lucas Drucaroff, Gustavo Sevlever, Charles B Nemeroff, Daniel E Vigo, David A Loewenstein, Mirta F Villarreal, Salvador M Guinjoan
BACKGROUND: We have obtained previous evidence of limbic dysfunction in middle-aged, asymptomatic offspring of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) patients, and failure to recover from proactive semantic interference has been shown to be a sensitive cognitive test in other groups at risk for LOAD. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of specific proactive semantic interference deficits as they relate to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neocortical and limbic functional connectivity in middle aged offspring of individuals with LOAD (O-LOAD) and age-equivalent controls...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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