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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334019/chemical-stabilization-of-polymers-implications-for-dermal-exposure-to-additives
#1
N Bartsch, M Girard, L Schneider, V Van De Weijgert, A Wilde, O Kappenstein, B Vieth, C Hutzler, A Luch
Technical benefits of additives in polymers stand in marked contrast to their associated health risks. Here, a multi-analyte method based on gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed to quantify polymer additives in complex matrices such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and isolated human skin layers after dermal exposure ex vivo. That way both technical aspects and dermal exposure were investigated. The effects of polymer additivation on the material were studied using the example of LDPE...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330162/transcriptome-analyses-of-mosaic-msc-mitochondrial-mutants-of-cucumber-in-a-highly-inbred-nuclear-background
#2
Tomasz L Mróz, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Agata Bernat, Agnieszka Skarzyńska, Leszek Pryszcz, Madeline Olberg, Michael J Havey, Grzegorz Bartoszewski
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) has a large, paternally transmitted mitochondrial genome. Cucumber plants regenerated from cell cultures occasionally show paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC) phenotypes, characterized by slower growth, chlorotic patterns on the leaves and fruit, lower fertility, and rearrangements in their mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs). MSC lines 3, 12, and 16 originated from different cell cultures all established using the highly-inbred, wild-type line B. These MSC lines possess different rearrangements and under-represented regions in their mtDNAs...
January 12, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328916/the-neuronal-gene-arc-encodes-a-repurposed-retrotransposon-gag-protein-that-mediates-intercellular-rna-transfer
#3
Elissa D Pastuzyn, Cameron E Day, Rachel B Kearns, Madeleine Kyrke-Smith, Andrew V Taibi, John McCormick, Nathan Yoder, David M Belnap, Simon Erlendsson, Dustin R Morado, John A G Briggs, Cédric Feschotte, Jason D Shepherd
The neuronal gene Arc is essential for long-lasting information storage in the mammalian brain, mediates various forms of synaptic plasticity, and has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about Arc's molecular function and evolutionary origins. Here, we show that Arc self-assembles into virus-like capsids that encapsulate RNA. Endogenous Arc protein is released from neurons in extracellular vesicles that mediate the transfer of Arc mRNA into new target cells, where it can undergo activity-dependent translation...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325591/correction-to-rp58-and-p27kip1-coordinate-cell-cycle-exit-and-neuronal-migration-within-the-embryonic-mouse-cerebral-cortex
#4
Olivier Clément, Isabel Anne Hemming, Ivan Enghian Gladwyn-Ng, Zhengdong Qu, Shan Shan Li, Michael Piper, Julian Ik-Tsen Heng
After publication of the original article [1] it was realised that there were errors in figures 2a,b,f,g, which arose as a result of preparing figures from data collected and analysed at the same time as the work reported in [2] (Supplementary Figure 1 of [2]). An updated Fig. 2 is included with this Correction.
January 11, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325134/continued-propagation-of-the-crf19_cpx-variant-among-hiv-positive-msm-patients-in-spain
#5
S Pérez-Parra, M Álvarez, J A Fernandez-Caballero, A B Pérez, J Santos, O Bisbal, A Aguilera, M Rivero, L García-Fraile, F García
Objectives: The HIV-1 CRF19_cpx genetic form has been recently associated with greater pathogenicity. We used CoRIS, a national cohort of 31 reference hospitals in Spain, to investigate the current epidemiological situation of this variant in Spain. Patients and methods: We analysed 4734 naive HIV-1-positive patients diagnosed during the 2007-15 period with an available pol gene sequence in the CoRIS resistance database. HIV-1 CRF19_cpx was ascribed through REGA3...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324849/the-b-cell-death-function-of-obinutuzumab-hdel-produced-in-plant-nicotiana-benthamiana-l-is-equivalent-to-obinutuzumab-produced-in-cho-cells
#6
Jin Won Lee, Woon Heo, Jinu Lee, Narae Jin, Sei Mee Yoon, Ki Youl Park, Eun Yu Kim, Woo Taek Kim, Joo Young Kim
Plants have attracted attention as bio-drug production platforms because of their economical and safety benefits. The preliminary efficacy of ZMapp, a cocktail of antibodies produced in N. benthamiana (Nicotiana benthamiana L.), suggested plants may serve as a platform for antibody production. However, because the amino acid sequences of the Fab fragment are diverse and differences in post-transcriptional processes between animals and plants remain to be elucidated, it is necessary to confirm functional equivalence of plant-produced antibodies to the original antibody...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324757/genome-downsizing-physiological-novelty-and-the-global-dominance-of-flowering-plants
#7
Kevin A Simonin, Adam B Roddy
The abrupt origin and rapid diversification of the flowering plants during the Cretaceous has long been considered an "abominable mystery." While the cause of their high diversity has been attributed largely to coevolution with pollinators and herbivores, their ability to outcompete the previously dominant ferns and gymnosperms has been the subject of many hypotheses. Common among these is that the angiosperms alone developed leaves with smaller, more numerous stomata and more highly branching venation networks that enable higher rates of transpiration, photosynthesis, and growth...
January 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324680/phylogenetic-analysis-and-characterization-of-a-sporadic-isolate-of-equine-influenza-a-h3n8-from-an-unvaccinated-horse-in-2015
#8
Chithra C Sreenivasan, Sunayana S Jandhyala, Sisi Luo, Ben M Hause, Milton Thomas, David E B Knudsen, Pamela Leslie-Steen, Travis Clement, Stephanie E Reedy, Thomas M Chambers, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric Nelson, Dan Wang, Radhey S Kaushik, Feng Li
Equine influenza, caused by the H3N8 subtype, is a highly contagious respiratory disease affecting equid populations worldwide and has led to serious epidemics and transboundary pandemics. This study describes the phylogenetic characterization and replication kinetics of recently-isolated H3N8 virus from a nasal swab obtained from a sporadic case of natural infection in an unvaccinated horse from Montana, USA. The nasal swab tested positive for equine influenza by Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)...
January 11, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316432/what-s-in-a-name-cell-fate-reprogramming-in-sarcomagenesis
#9
Kevin B Jones
Differentiation features in cancer cells are typically attributed to the cell of origin. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Drummond et al. demonstrate a transdifferentiation program apparent in rhabdomyosarcomas (cancers with skeletal muscle differentiation features) arising through cell fate reprogramming from a single oncogene activation in endothelial cell precursors.
January 8, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314901/secondary-electrons-as-an-energy-source-for-life
#10
Kamil B Stelmach, Marc Neveu, Trista J Vick-Majors, Rebecca L Mickol, Luoth Chou, Kevin D Webster, Matt Tilley, Federica Zacchei, Cristina Escudero, Claudio L Flores Martinez, Amanda Labrado, Enrique J G Fernández
Life on Earth is found in a wide range of environments as long as the basic requirements of a liquid solvent, a nutrient source, and free energy are met. Previous hypotheses have speculated how extraterrestrial microbial life may function, among them that particle radiation might power living cells indirectly through radiolytic products. On Earth, so-called electrophilic organisms can harness electron flow from an extracellular cathode to build biomolecules. Here, we describe two hypothetical mechanisms, termed "direct electrophy" and "indirect electrophy" or "fluorosynthesis," by which organisms could harness extracellular free electrons to synthesize organic matter, thus expanding the ensemble of potential habitats in which extraterrestrial organisms might be found in the Solar System and beyond...
January 9, 2018: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313699/post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disease-after-liver-transplantation
#11
José Ignacio Herrero, Carlos Panizo
We have read the article "Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in liver transplant recipients" with great interest. This article reports a series of liver transplant recipients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). The effect on patient survival and the potential benefit of rituximab-based therapy are highlighted. Rituximab is a chimeric antibody against the CD20 surface marker. This marker is found in most PTLD of a B cell origin. A recent study from our center also highlighted the role of rituximab in PTLD therapy (3)...
January 9, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313083/-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-of-the-head-and-neck
#12
REVIEW
B Konukiewitz, A Agaimy, W Weichert, G Klöppel
Common to all neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), irrespective of their site of origin, is the expression of synaptophysin and chromogranin A. NENs of the head and neck region derive either from epithelial or neural/neuroectodermal tissues. The epithelial-type NENs express cytokeratins and include the well-differentiated typical and atypical carcinoids (also called low- and intermediate-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas by WHO), the poorly differentiated high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas of small and large cell type and the mixed neuroendocrine-nonneuroendocrine neoplasms...
January 8, 2018: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312858/de-novo-glomerular-diseases-after-renal-transplantation-how-is-it-different-from-recurrent-glomerular-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Fedaey Abbas, Mohsen El Kossi, Jon Kim Jin, Ajay Sharma, Ahmed Halawa
The glomerular diseases after renal transplantation can occur de novo, i.e., with no relation to the native kidney disease, or more frequently occur as a recurrence of the original disease in the native kidney. There may not be any difference in clinical features and histological pattern between de novo glomerular disease and recurrence of original glomerular disease. However, structural alterations in transplanted kidney add to dilemma in diagnosis. These changes in architecture of histopathology can happen due to: (1) exposure to the immunosuppression specifically the calcineurin inhibitors (CNI); (2) in vascular and tubulointerstitial alterations as a result of antibody mediated or cell-mediated immunological onslaught; (3) post-transplant viral infections; (4) ischemia-reperfusion injury; and (5) hyperfiltration injury...
December 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311742/simple-integration-of-fast-excitation-and-offset-delayed-inhibition-computes-directional-selectivity-in-drosophila
#14
Eyal Gruntman, Sandro Romani, Michael B Reiser
A neuron that extracts directionally selective motion information from upstream signals lacking this selectivity must compare visual responses from spatially offset inputs. Distinguishing among prevailing algorithmic models for this computation requires measuring fast neuronal activity and inhibition. In the Drosophila melanogaster visual system, a fourth-order neuron-T4-is the first cell type in the ON pathway to exhibit directionally selective signals. Here we use in vivo whole-cell recordings of T4 to show that directional selectivity originates from simple integration of spatially offset fast excitatory and slow inhibitory inputs, resulting in a suppression of responses to the nonpreferred motion direction...
January 8, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311385/immune-cell-infiltration-and-tertiary-lymphoid-structures-as-determinants-of-antitumor-immunity
#15
REVIEW
Victor H Engelhard, Anthony B Rodriguez, Ileana S Mauldin, Amber N Woods, J David Peske, Craig L Slingluff
Limited representation of intratumoral immune cells is a major barrier to tumor control. However, simply enhancing immune responses in tumor-draining lymph nodes or through adoptive transfer may not overcome the limited ability of tumor vasculature to support effector infiltration. An alternative is to promote a sustained immune response intratumorally. This idea has gained traction with the observation that many tumors are associated with tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS), which organizationally resemble lymph nodes...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310860/kinetic-resolution-of-sec-alcohols-catalysed-by-candida-antarctica-lipase-b-displaying-pichia-pastoris-whole-cell-biocatalyst
#16
Kun Zhang, Zhiyou Pan, Zhoujian Diao, Shuli Liang, Shuangyan Han, Suiping Zheng, Ying Lin
Kinetic resolution of sec-alcohols is a green process with biocatalyst. Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) displayed on Pichia pastoris cell-surface (Pp-CALB) was characterized in kinetic resolution of sec-alcohols with different structures. The reaction parameters including acyl donors, molar ratio of substrates, solvents and temperatures were examined with 2-octanol as model substrate. 47.4% molar conversion of 2-octanol and 99.7% eep were obtained after a 5h reaction with Pp-CALB, and 90% of its original activity still remained after being reused for 10 cycles...
March 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306397/pentaplacodinium-saltonense-gen-et-sp-nov-dinophyceae-and-its-relationship-to-the-cyst-defined-genus-operculodinium-and-yessotoxin-producing-protoceratium-reticulatum
#17
Kenneth Neil Mertens, M Consuelo Carbonell-Moore, Vera Pospelova, Martin J Head, Andrea Highfield, Declan Schroeder, Haifeng Gu, Karl B Andree, Margarita Fernandez, Aika Yamaguchi, Yoshihito Takano, Kazumi Matsuoka, Elisabeth Nézan, Gwenael Bilien, Yuri Okolodkov, Kazuhiko Koike, Mona Hoppenrath, Maya Pfaff, Grant Pitcher, Abdulrahman Al-Muftah, André Rochon, Po Teen Lim, Chui Pin Leaw, Zhen Fei Lim, Marianne Ellegaard
Strains of a dinoflagellate from the Salton Sea, previously identified as Protoceratium reticulatum and yessotoxin producing, have been reexamined morphologically and genetically and Pentaplacodinium saltonense n. gen. et sp. is erected to accommodate this species. Pentaplacodinium saltonense differs from Protoceratium reticulatum (Claparède et Lachmann 1859) Bütschli 1885 in the number of precingular plates (five vs. six), cingular displacement (two widths vs. one), and distinct cyst morphology. Incubation experiments (excystment and encystment) show that the resting cyst of Pentaplacodinium saltonense is morphologically most similar to the cyst-defined species Operculodinium israelianum (Rossignol, 1962) Wall (1967) and O...
January 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305553/preclinical-efficacy-of-daratumumab-in-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-t-all
#18
Karen L Bride, Tiffaney L Vincent, Soo-Yeon Im, Richard Aplenc, David M Barrett, William L Carroll, Robin Carson, Yunfeng Dai, Meenakshi Devidas, Kimberly P Dunsmore, Tori Fuller, Tina Glisovic-Aplenc, Terzah M Horton, Stephen P Hunger, Mignon L Loh, Shannon L Maude, Elizabeth A Raetz, Stuart S Winter, Stephan A Grupp, Michelle L Hermiston, Brent L Wood, David T Teachey
As a consequence of acquired or intrinsic disease resistance, the prognosis for patients with relapsed or refractory T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is dismal. Novel, less toxic drugs are clearly needed. One of the most promising emerging therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment is targeted immunotherapy. Immune therapies have improved outcomes for patients with other hematologic malignancies including B-ALL, however no immune therapy has been successfully developed for T-ALL. We hypothesize targeting CD38 will be effective against T-ALL...
January 5, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305531/nonselective-wiring-accounts-for-red-green-opponency-in-midget-ganglion-cells-of-the-primate-retina
#19
Lauren E Wool, Joanna D Crook, John B Troy, Orin S Packer, Qasim Zaidi, Dennis M Dacey
In primate retina, "red-green" color-coding is initiated when signals originating in long (L) and middle (M) wavelength-sensitive cone photoreceptors interact antagonistically. The center-surround receptive field of "midget" ganglion cells provides the neural substrate for L versus M cone-opponent interaction, but the underlying circuitry remains unsettled, centering around the longstanding question of whether specialized cone wiring is present. To address this question, we measured the strength, sign, and spatial tuning of L and M cone input to midget receptive fields in the peripheral retina of macaque primates of either sex...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303024/bortezomib-in-combination-with-dose-adjusted-epoch-etoposide-prednisone-vincristine-cyclophosphamide-and-doxorubicin-induces-long-term-survival-in-patients-with-plasmablastic-lymphoma-a-retrospective-analysis
#20
Christopher Dittus, Natalie Grover, Steven Ellsworth, Xianming Tan, Steven I Park
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare and aggressive form of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This subtype of lymphoma has a post-germinal center cell-of-origin called the plasmablast, and the immunophenotype is more consistent with that of a plasma cell than a lymphocyte. Because of these unique features, PBL is notoriously difficult to treat. Case reports and small reviews have evaluated the addition of agents directed against plasma cell disorders in combination with traditional lymphoma-directed regimens. We describe the largest case series to date, with the longest follow-up, evaluating bortezomib in combination with etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin (V-EPOCH) for the treatment of PBL...
January 5, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
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