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B cell differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679556/a-novel-smac-mimetic-apg-1387-exhibited-dual-antitumor-effect-on-hbv-positive-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-high-expression-of-ciap2-by-inducing-apoptosis-and-enhancing-innate-anti-tumor-immunity
#1
Wentao Pan, Qiuyun Luo, Xianglei Yan, Luping Yuan, Hanjie Yi, Lin Zhang, Baoxia Li, Yuxin Zhang, Jian Sun, Miao-Zhen Qiu, Da-Jun Yang
Check point inhibitor anti-PD1 antibody produced some efficacy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) patients previously treated with sorafenib. Unfortunately, HCC patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection did not respond as well as uninfected patients. Previously, SMAC mimetics-the antagonist for inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) can rapidly reduce serum hepatitis B virus DNA in animal model. APG-1387 is a novel SMAC-mimetic, small molecule inhibitor targeting inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs)...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679291/role-of-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-pathway-in-nmda-preconditioning-different-mechanisms-for-seizures-and-hippocampal-neuronal-degeneration-induced-by-quinolinic-acid
#2
Leandra C Constantino, Luisa B Binder, Samuel Vandresen-Filho, Giordano G Viola, Fabiana K Ludka, Mark W Lopes, Rodrigo B Leal, Carla I Tasca
N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) preconditioning is evoked by the administration of a subtoxic dose of NMDA and is protective against neuronal excitotoxicity. This effect may involve a diversity of targets and cell signaling cascades associated to neuroprotection. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38MAPK pathways play a major role in neuroprotective mechanisms. However, their involvement in NMDA preconditioning was not yet fully investigated...
April 20, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679025/combining-electrical-stimulation-and-tissue-engineering-to-treat-large-bone-defects-in-a-rat-model
#3
Liudmila Leppik, Han Zhihua, Sahba Mobini, Vishnu Thottakkattumana Parameswaran, Maria Eischen-Loges, Andrei Slavici, Judith Helbing, Lukas Pindur, Karla M C Oliveira, Mit B Bhavsar, Lukasz Hudak, Dirk Henrich, John H Barker
Bone Tissue engineering (BTE) has recently been introduced as an alternative to conventional treatments for large non-healing bone defects. BTE approaches mimic autologous bone grafts, by combining cells, scaffold, and growth factors, and have the added benefit of being able to manipulate these constituents to optimize healing. Electrical stimulation (ES) has long been used to successfully treat non-healing fractures and has recently been shown to stimulate bone cells to migrate, proliferate, align, differentiate, and adhere to bio compatible scaffolds, all cell behaviors that could improve BTE treatment outcomes...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678815/feedback-between-tissue-packing-and-neurogenesis-in-the-zebrafish-neural-tube
#4
Tom W Hiscock, Joel B Miesfeld, Kishore R Mosaliganti, Brian A Link, Sean G Megason
Balancing the rate of differentiation and proliferation in developing tissues is essential to produce organs of robust size and composition. Whilst many molecular regulators have been established, how these connect to physical and geometrical aspects of tissue architecture is poorly understood. Here, using high-resolution timelapse imaging, we find that changes to cell geometry associated with dense tissue packing play a significant role in regulating differentiation rate in the zebrafish neural tube. Specifically, progenitors that are displaced away from the apical surface due to crowding tend to differentiate, in a Notch-dependent manner...
April 20, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678224/evaluation-of-the-mucosal-inflammatory-responses-to-equine-cyathostomins-in-response-to-anthelmintic-treatment
#5
A E Steuer, A T Loynachan, M K Nielsen
Members of Cyathostominae are pervasive parasites of equids that can cause larval cyathostominosis, a potentially life-threatening disease that occurs when a multitude of encysted larvae synchronously excyst from the wall of the large intestine. Moxidectin and fenbendazole are the two current labeled drugs that target the encysted larval stages; however, there is limited knowledge of the local inflammatory response to the larvae and to the two treatments in clinically healthy horses. This study is the first to evaluate the local inflammatory response to cyathostomin larvae and to larvicidal treatment at 2 and 5 weeks post treatment...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676593/icos-costimulation-differentially-affects-t-cells-in-secondary-lymphoid-organs-and-inflamed-tissues
#6
Dana Vu Van, Laura Bauer, Richard A Kroczek, Andreas Hutloff
B cell interaction with follicular helper T cells and their subsequent differentiation into high-affinity antibody producing cells normally takes place in secondary lymphoid organs. The costimulator ICOS plays a key role in this process and is therefore considered as an attractive target to modulate exaggerated B cell responses in autoimmune or allergic diseases. Inflamed tissues were recently recognized as additional sites of active T cell/B cell interaction. To analyze whether ICOS costimulation is also important there, we employed a mouse airway inflammation model which allows to directly compare immune reactions in the lung-draining lymph node and the lung tissue and also to assess the relative importance of dendritic cells versus B cells as antigen-presenting cells...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676378/extranodal-histiocytic-sarcoma-in-a-child-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cytomorphological-features-of-a-rare-entity-with-brief-review-of-literature
#7
Krushna Chandra Pani, Mahima Yadav, Shaleen Kumar, Vinita Agrawal
Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare malignant neoplasm showing morphologic and immunophenotypic evidence of histiocytic differentiation. We describe a rare case of synchronous HS in a patient of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A 16-year-old boy diagnosed as ALL also presented with a swelling over the right Achilles tendon. The cytological features of the swelling suggested a histiocytic lesion. Histological and immunohistochemical examination clinched the diagnosis of HS. The available 5-year follow-up showed no recurrence...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676377/expect-the-unexpected-loss-of-surface-cd3-on-flow-cytometry-in-hepatosplenic-t-cell-lymphoma-an-eye-opener
#8
Richa Chauhan, Seema Tyagi, Sumeet Mirgh, Priyanka Mishra, Tulika Seth, Manoranjan Mahapatra, Haraprasad Pati, Renu Saxena
Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL) is a rare extranodal T-cell lymphoma that shows preferential sinusoidal infiltration of spleen and liver. It usually shows bright expression of surface CD3 (sCD3) with restriction for γδ-T cell receptors (TCR). We present a case of a 34-year-old male who presented with hepatosplenomegaly and B symptoms. His peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM) was involved by atypical lymphoid cells that were CD2+, CD7+, CD56+, cytoplasmic CD3+, and sCD3- on immunophenotyping by flow cytometry...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676070/analysis-of-peripheral-b-cell-subsets-in-patients-with-allergic-rhinitis
#9
Jing Luo, Huanhuan Guo, Zhuofu Liu, Tao Peng, Xianting Hu, Miaomiao Han, Xiangping Yang, Xuhong Zhou, Huabin Li
PURPOSE: Recent evidence suggests that B cells can both promote and inhibit the development and progression of allergic disease. However, the characteristics of B cell subsets in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) have not been well documented. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of B cell subsets in the peripheral blood of AR patients. METHODS: Forty-seven AR patients and 54 healthy controls were enrolled in this study, and the B cell subsets in peripheral blood of all subjects were analyzed by flow cytometry...
May 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675568/effect-of-selenium-on-lipid-and-amino-acid-metabolism-in-yeast-cells
#10
Marek Kieliszek, Stanisław Błażejak, Anna Bzducha-Wróbel, Anna M Kot
This article discusses the effect of selenium in aqueous solutions on aspects of lipid and amino acid metabolism in the cell biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 yeasts. The yeast biomass was obtained by using waste products (potato wastewater and glycerol). Selenium, at a dose of 20 mg/L of aqueous solution, affected the differentiation of cellular morphology. Yeast enriched with selenium was characterized by a large functional diversity in terms of protein and amino acid content...
April 19, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675141/differential-hypomethylation-of-the-repetitive-tol2-alu-rich-sequences-in-the-genome-of-bodianus-species-labriformes-labridae
#11
Clóvis C Motta-Neto, André Marques, Gideão W W F Costa, Marcelo B Cioffi, Luiz A C Bertollo, Rodrigo X Soares, Kátia C Scortecci, Roberto F Artoni, Wagner F Molina
Representatives of the order Labriformes show karyotypes of extreme conservatism together with others with high chromosomal diversification. However, the cytological characterization of epigenetic modifications remains unknown for the majority of the species. In the family Labridae, the most abundant fishes on tropical reefs, the genomes of the genus Bodianus Bloch, 1790 have been characterized by the occurrence of a peculiar chromosomal region, here denominated BOD. This region is exceptionally decondensed, heterochromatic, argentophilic, GC-neutral and, in contrast to classical secondary constrictions, shows no signals of hybridization with 18S rDNA probes...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674676/comparative-high-resolution-transcriptome-sequencing-of-lymphoma-cell-lines-and-de-novo-lymphomas-reveals-cell-line-specific-pathway-dysregulation
#12
Leila Taher, Julia Beck, Wen Liu, Catrin Roolf, Jan T Soller, Barbara C Rütgen, Sabine E Hammer, Murali Chodisetti, Sina Sender, Katharina A Sterenczak, Georg Fuellen, Christian Junghanss, Bertram Brenig, Ingo Nolte, Ekkehard Schütz, Hugo Murua Escobar
In dogs as well as humans, lymphoma is one of the most common hematopoietic malignancies. Furthermore, due to its characteristics, canine lymphoma is recognized as a clinically relevant in vivo model to study the corresponding human disease. Immortalized cell lines are widely used as in vitro models to evaluate novel therapeutic agents and characterize their molecular mechanisms. However, it is known that long-term cultivation leads to clonal selection, genetic instability, and loss of the initial heterogenic character, limiting the usefulness of cell lines as preclinical models...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673840/versatile-effects-of-magnesium-hydroxide-nanoparticles-in-plga-scaffold-mediated-chondrogenesis
#13
Kwang-Sook Park, Byoung-Ju Kim, Eugene Lih, Wooram Park, Soo-Hong Lee, Yoon Ki Joung, Dong Keun Han
Artificial scaffolds made up of various synthetic biodegradable polymers have been reported to have many advantages including cheap manufacturing, easy scale up, high mechanical strength, convenient manipulation, and molding into an unlimited variety of shapes. However, the synthetic biodegradable polymers still have the insufficiency for cartilage regeneration owing to their acidic degradation products. To reduce acidification by degradation of synthetic polymers, we incorporated magnesium hydroxide (MH) nanoparticles into porous polymer scaffold not only to effectively neutralize the acidic hydrolysate but also to minimize the structural disturbance of scaffolds...
April 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673365/human-central-nervous-system-astrocytes-support-survival-and-activation-of-b-cells-implications-for-ms-pathogenesis
#14
Hanane Touil, Antonia Kobert, Nathalie Lebeurrier, Aja Rieger, Philippe Saikali, Caroline Lambert, Lama Fawaz, Craig S Moore, Alexandre Prat, Jennifer Gommerman, Jack P Antel, Yasuto Itoyama, Ichiro Nakashima, Amit Bar-Or
BACKGROUND: The success of clinical trials of selective B cell depletion in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) indicates B cells are important contributors to peripheral immune responses involved in the development of new relapses. Such B cell contribution to peripheral inflammation likely involves antibody-independent mechanisms. Of growing interest is the potential that B cells, within the MS central nervous system (CNS), may also contribute to the propagation of CNS-compartmentalized inflammation in progressive (non-relapsing) disease...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673048/emerging-diagnostic-tests-for-vitreoretinal-lymphoma
#15
REVIEW
Abby C Dawson, Keryn A Williams, Binoy Appukuttan, Justine R Smith
Vitreoretinal lymphoma, which most commonly is diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin in type, is a rare cancer with high morbidity and high mortality. Making a tissue diagnosis of vitreoretinal lymphoma is a major challenge for clinicians due to biological and technical factors. Yet, the delay in start of treatment may have vision- and life- threatening consequences, and there is considerable interest in the application of molecular assays to improve the accuracy of the diagnostic process: detection of a clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangements in lymphoma cells by polymerase chain reaction; measurement of vitreous or aqueous interleukin-10 protein levels in ocular fluids; and identification of mutations in the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 in tumour cells...
April 19, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672926/insights-into-the-etiology-associated-gene-regulatory-networks-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-from-the-cancer-genome-atlas
#16
Veerabrahma Pratap Seshachalam, Karthik Sekar, Kam M Hui
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, alcoholic consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver are the major known risk factors for Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There have been very few studies comparing the underlying biological mechanisms associated with the different etiologies of HCC. In this study, we hypothesized the existence of different regulatory networks associated with different liver disease etiologies involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. METHODS: Using upstream regulatory analysis tool in ingenuity pathway analysis software, URs were predicted using differential expressed genes for HCC to facilitate the interrogation of global gene regulation...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672465/lactate-dehydrogenase-levels-and-18f-fdg-pet-ct-metrics-differentiate-between-mediastinal-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-and-primary-mediastinal-b-cell-lymphoma
#17
Rayan H M Alkhawtani, Walter Noordzij, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Rozemarijn S van Rijn, Hilde T van der Galiën, Hans Balink, Marcel Nijland, Hugo J A Adams, Gerwin Huls, Tom van Meerten, Thomas C Kwee
PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate whether clinical, laboratory, and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/CT findings can discriminate between mediastinal Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 56 patients (42 with mediastinal Hodgkin's lymphoma and 14 with PBMCL). Differences in clinical, laboratory, and F-FDG PET/CT metrics were assessed between Hodgkin's lymphoma and PMBCL...
April 18, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672220/environmental-hypoxia-favors-myoblast-differentiation-and-fast-phenotype-but-blunts-activation-of-protein-synthesis-after-resistance-exercise-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#18
Olouyomi Gnimassou, Rodrigo Fernández-Verdejo, Matthew Brook, Damien Naslain, Estelle Balan, Mariwan Sayda, Jessica Cegielski, Henri Nielens, Anabelle Decottignies, Jean-Baptiste Demoulin, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton, Marc Francaux, Louise Deldicque
We hypothesized that a single session of resistance exercise performed in moderate hypoxic (FiO2 : 14%) environmental conditions would potentiate the anabolic response during the recovery period spent in normoxia. Twenty subjects performed a 1-leg knee extension session in normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Muscle biopsies were taken 15 min and 4 h after exercise in the vastus lateralis of the exercised and the nonexercised legs. Blood and saliva samples were taken at regular intervals before, during, and after the exercise session...
April 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671811/shape-shifted-red-blood-cells-a-novel-red-blood-cell-stage
#19
Verónica Chico, Sara Puente-Marin, Iván Nombela, Sergio Ciordia, María Carmen Mena, Begoña Carracedo, Alberto Villena, Luis Mercado, Julio Coll, María Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan
Primitive nucleated erythroid cells in the bloodstream have long been suggested to be more similar to nucleated red cells of fish, amphibians, and birds than the red cells of fetal and adult mammals. Rainbow trout Ficoll-purified red blood cells (RBCs) cultured in vitro undergo morphological changes, especially when exposed to stress, and enter a new cell stage that we have coined shape-shifted RBCs (shRBCs). We have characterized these shRBCs using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, Wright⁻Giemsa staining, cell marker immunostaining, and transcriptomic and proteomic evaluation...
April 19, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671342/human-articular-chondrocytes-retain-their-phenotype-in-sustained-hypoxia-while-normoxia-promotes-their-immunomodulatory-potential
#20
Claire Mennan, John Garcia, Helen McCarthy, Sharon Owen, Jade Perry, Karina Wright, Robin Banerjee, James B Richardson, Sally Roberts
Objective To assess the phenotype of human articular chondrocytes cultured in normoxia (21% O2 ) or continuous hypoxia (2% O2 ). Design Chondrocytes were extracted from patients undergoing total knee replacement ( n = 5) and cultured in ~21% (normoxic chondrocytes, NC) and 2% (hypoxic chondrocytes, HC) oxygen in both monolayer and 3-dimensional (3D) pellet culture and compared with freshly isolated chondrocytes (FC). Cells were assessed by flow cytometry for markers indicative of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), chondrogenic-potency and dedifferentiation...
April 1, 2018: Cartilage
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