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B cell differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102966/histone-deacetylase-2-is-decreased-in-peripheral-blood-pro-inflammatory-cd8-t-and-nkt-like-lymphocytes-following-lung-transplant
#1
Greg Hodge, Sandra Hodge, Chien-Li Holmes-Liew, Paul N Reynolds, Mark Holmes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Immunosuppression therapy following lung transplantation fails to prevent chronic rejection in many patients, which is associated with lack of suppression of cytotoxic mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood T and natural killer T (NKT)-like cells. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) upregulate/downregulate pro-inflammatory gene expression, respectively; however, differences in the activity of these enzymes following lung transplant are unknown...
February 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102847/curcumin-represses-mouse-3t3-l1-cell-adipogenic-differentiation-via-inhibiting-mir-17-5p-and-stimulating-the-wnt-signalling-pathway-effector-tcf7l2
#2
Lili Tian, Zhuolun Song, Weijuan Shao, William W Du, Lisa R Zhao, Kejing Zeng, Burton B Yang, Tianru Jin
Understanding mechanisms underlying adipogenic differentiation may lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for obesity. Wnt signalling pathway activation leads to repressed adipogenic differentiation while certain microRNAs may regulate pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. We show here that in mouse white adipose tissue, miR-17-5p level is elevated after high fat diet consumption. miR-17-5p upregulates adipogenic differentiation, as its over-expression increased while its inhibition repressed 3T3-L1 differentiation...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101583/integrated-analysis-of-microrna-and-transcription-factor-reveals-important-regulators-and-regulatory-motifs-in-adult-b-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#3
Xiao-Cong Lin, Xin-Guang Liu, Yu-Ming Zhang, Ning Li, Zhi-Gang Yang, Wei-Yu Fu, Liu-Bo Lan, Hai-Tao Zhang, Yong Dai
B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B‑ALL) is an aggressive hematological malignancy and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in children and young adults. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of its gene expression has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we performed large scale expression profiling of microRNA (miRNA) and transcription factor (TF) by Illumina deep‑sequencing and TF array technology, respectively, and identified 291 differentially expressed miRNAs and 201 differentially expressed TFs in adult B‑ALL samples relative to their controls...
February 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101144/histopathological-findings-in-systemic-sclerosis-related-myopathy-fibrosis-and-microangiopathy-with-lack-of-cellular-inflammation
#4
Claudio Corallo, Maurizio Cutolo, Nila Volpi, Daniela Franci, Margherita Aglianò, Antonio Montella, Chiara Chirico, Stefano Gonnelli, Ranuccio Nuti, Nicola Giordano
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify specific histopathological features of skeletal muscle involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. METHODS: A total of 35 out of 112 SSc-patients (32%, including 81% female and 68% diffuse scleroderma) presenting clinical, biological and electromyographic (EMG) features of muscle weakness, were included. Patients underwent vastus lateralis biopsy, assessed for individual pathologic features including fibrosis [type I collagen (Coll-I), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)], microangiopathy [cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31), pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), anti-angiogenic VEGF-A165b], immune/ inflammatory response [CD4, CD8, CD20, human leucocyte antigens ABC (HLA-ABC)], and membranolytic attack complex (MAC)...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100914/tet-mediated-hydroxymethylcytosine-at-the-ppar%C3%AE-locus-is-required-for-initiation-of-adipogenic-differentiation
#5
Y Yoo, J H Park, C Weigel, D B Liesenfeld, D Weichenhan, C Plass, D-G Seo, A M Lindroth, Y J Park
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Adipose tissue is one of the main organs regulating energy homeostasis, via energy storage as well as endocrine function. The adipocyte cell number is largely determined by adipogenesis. While the molecular mechanism of adipogenesis has been extensively studied, its role in dynamic DNA methylation plasticity remains unclear. Recently, it has been shown that Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET) are catalytically capable of oxidizing DNA 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) towards a complete removal of the methylated cytosine...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100620/overexpression-of-il-7-extends-the-humoral-immune-response-induced-by-rabies-vaccination
#6
Yingying Li, Ming Zhou, Zhaochen Luo, Yachun Zhang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao
: Rabies continues to present a public health threat in most countries of the world. The most efficient way to prevent and control rabies is to implement vaccination programmes for domestic animals. However, traditional inactivated vaccines used in animals are costly and have a relatively low efficiency, which impedes their extensive use in developing countries. There is therefore an urgent need to develop single-dose and long-lasting rabies vaccines. However, little information is available regarding the mechanisms underlying immunological memory, which can broaden humoral responses following rabies vaccination...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100171/genome-wide-standing-variation-facilitates-long-term-response-to-bidirectional-selection-for-antibody-response-in-chickens
#7
Mette Lillie, Zheya Sheng, Christa F Honaker, Ben J Dorshorst, Christopher M Ashwell, Paul B Siegel, Örjan Carlborg
BACKGROUND: Long-term selection experiments provide a powerful approach to gain empirical insights into adaptation, allowing researchers to uncover the targets of selection and infer their contributions to the mode and tempo of adaptation. Here we implement a pooled genome re-sequencing approach to investigate the consequences of 39 generations of bidirectional selection in White Leghorn chickens on a humoral immune trait: antibody response to sheep red blood cells. RESULTS: We observed wide genome involvement in response to this selection regime...
January 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100001/transplantation-tolerance-don-t-forget-about-the-b-cells
#8
REVIEW
Anita S Chong, Stella H Khiew
Establishing a state of transplantation tolerance that leads to indefinite graft survival without the need for lifelong immunosuppression has been successfully achieved in limited numbers of transplant recipients in the clinic. These successes led to studies aimed at identifying potential biomarkers that diagnose allograft tolerance and identify the patients most amenable to drug minimization, and implicated an enriched B cell signature of tolerance. The emergence of a specialized subset of regulatory B cell (Bregs) that possess immune-modulatory function in inflammation and autoimmune disease, raised the possibility that Bregs play critical roles in the promotion of transplantation tolerance and that Bregs are the underlying explanation for the B cell signature of tolerance...
January 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099922/pafr-selectively-mediates-radioresistance-and-irradiation-induced-autophagy-suppression-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#9
Bing Yao, Bingqian Liu, Lei Shi, Xiang Li, Chuanchuan Ren, Mingbo Cai, Wen Wang, Jianhua Li, Yongde Sun, Yudong Wu, Jianguo Wen
Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) promotes tumorigenesis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Here, we defined the PAFR as a yielding new inhibiting target to selectively enhance the sensitivity of prostate cancer (PCa) cells to radiation. The selective responding to PAFR inhibiter may be caused by the differential expression pattern of PAFR in PCa cells. In this study, we also determined PAFR as a molecular basis by which the radiation induces autophagy suppression independent of activating mTOR pathway...
January 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099860/follicular-dendritic-cell-activation-by-tlr-ligands-promotes-autoreactive-b-cell-responses
#10
Abhishek Das, Balthasar A Heesters, Allison Bialas, Joseph O'Flynn, Ian R Rifkin, Jordi Ochando, Nanette Mittereder, Gianluca Carlesso, Ronald Herbst, Michael C Carroll
A hallmark of autoimmunity in murine models of lupus is the formation of germinal centers (GCs) in lymphoid tissues where self-reactive B cells expand and differentiate. In the host response to foreign antigens, follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) maintain GCs through the uptake and cycling of complement-opsonized immune complexes. Here, we examined whether FDCs retain self-antigens and the impact of this process in autoantibody secretion in lupus. We found that FDCs took up and retained self-immune complexes composed of ribonucleotide proteins, autoantibody, and complement...
January 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099574/anatomy-and-micromorphometric-analysis-of-leaf-catasetum-x-apolloi-benelli-grill-with-addition-of-potassium-silicate-under-different-light-sources
#11
L Eburneo, N G Ribeiro-Júnior, I V Karsburg, A A B Rossi, I V Silva
The aim of this study was to compare vitroplants Catasetum x apolloi grown under natural light and artificial light and different concentrations of potassium silicate, providing data on the anatomical differentiation that aids the acclimatization process of this species. Plants from in vitro seeding were used; 5 protocorms of approximately 0.5 cm were inoculated into vials with a capacity of 500 mL containing 100 mL of alternative culture medium plus potassium silicate (0.0, 0.5; 1.0 mL L-1), pH adjusted to 5...
January 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099573/hematological-and-morphometric-differences-of-blood-cells-from-rheas-rhea-americana-struthioniformes-rheidae-on-two-conservation-farms
#12
S S M Gallo, N B Ederli, F C R Oliveira
Today, blood tests are an indispensable tool in avian medicine. This study aimed to describe and compare hematological and morphometric data of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes of rhea, Rhea americana. To do so, 58 rheas of both sexes on two farms, one in Cachoeiro do Itapemirim, Espírito Santo (ES), and the other in São Carlos, São Paulo (SP), were selected. Blood samples were taken and their RBC counts, PCV and Hb levels were determined and used in hematimetric index calculations. The total and differentiated leukocyte counts and the TPP and fibrinogen serum levels were also obtained...
January 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098883/developmental-expression-of-toll%C3%A2-like-receptors-in-the-guinea-pig-lung
#13
Lingjie Ma, Jiali Yang, Li Yang, Juan Shi, Jing Xue, Yong Li, Xiaoming Liu
The guinea pig is a useful model for investigating infectious and non‑infectious lung diseases due to the sensitivity of its respiratory system and susceptibility to infectious agents. Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the innate immune response and are critical for lung immune function. In the present study, the differentiation of epithelial cells in the guinea pig lung was examined during gestation by studying anatomic morphology and the major epithelial cell types using cell type‑specific markers...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098793/osteocyte-alterations-induce-osteoclastogenesis-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-gaucher-disease
#14
Constanza Bondar, Maximiliano Ormazabal, Andrea Crivaro, Malena Ferreyra-Compagnucci, María Victoria Delpino, Paula Adriana Rozenfeld, Juan Marcos Mucci
Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by mutations in the glucosylceramidase β (GBA 1) gene that confer a deficient level of activity of glucocerebrosidase (GCase). This deficiency leads to the accumulation of the glycolipid glucocerebroside in the lysosomes of cells, mainly in the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Its mildest form is Type I GD, characterized by non-neuronopathic involvement. Bone compromise is the most disabling aspect of the Gaucher disease. However, the pathophysiological aspects of skeletal alterations are not yet fully understood...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098247/c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-2-promotes-enterocyte-survival-and-goblet-cell-differentiation-in-the-inflamed-intestine
#15
A D Mandić, E Bennek, J Verdier, K Zhang, S Roubrocks, R J Davis, B Denecke, N Gassler, K Streetz, A Kel, M Hornef, F J Cubero, C Trautwein, G Sellge
c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) contribute to immune signaling but their functional role during intestinal mucosal inflammation has remained ill defined. Using genetic mouse models, we characterized the role of JNK1 and JNK2 during homeostasis and acute colitis. Epithelial apoptosis, regeneration, differentiation, and barrier function were analyzed in intestinal epithelium-specific (ΔIEC) or complete JNK1 and bone marrow chimeric or complete JNK2 deficient mice as well as double-knockout animals (JNK1(ΔIEC)JNK2(-/-)) during homeostasis and acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis...
January 18, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096407/development-of-chronic-allergic-responses-by-dampening-bcl6-mediated-suppressor-activity-in-memory-t-helper-2-cells
#16
Takashi Ogasawara, Masahiko Hatano, Hisae Satake, Jun Ikari, Toshibumi Taniguchi, Nobuhide Tsuruoka, Haruko Watanabe-Takano, Lisa Fujimura, Akemi Sakamoto, Hirokuni Hirata, Kumiya Sugiyama, Yasutsugu Fukushima, Susumu Nakae, Kenji Matsumoto, Hirohisa Saito, Takeshi Fukuda, Kazuhiro Kurasawa, Koichiro Tatsumi, Takeshi Tokuhisa, Masafumi Arima
Mice deficient in the transcriptional repressor B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) exhibit similar T helper 2 (TH2) immune responses as patients with allergic diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Bcl6-directed regulation of TH2 cytokine genes remain unclear. We identified multiple Bcl6/STAT binding sites (BSs) in TH2 cytokine gene loci. We found that Bcl6 is modestly associated with the BSs, and it had no significant effect on cytokine production in newly differentiated TH2 cells. Contrarily, in memory TH2 (mTH2) cells derived from adaptively transferred TH2 effectors, Bcl6 outcompeted STAT5 for binding to TH2 cytokine gene loci, particularly Interleukin4 (Il4) loci, and attenuated GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) binding to highly conserved intron enhancer regions in mTH2 cells...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095743/adult-murine-pancreatic-progenitors-require-egf-and-nicotinamide-for-self-renewal-and-differentiation-in-a-serum-and-conditioned-medium-free-culture
#17
Lena Wedeken, Angela Luo, Jacob R Tremblay, Jeffrey Rawson, Liang Jin, Dan Gao, Janine Quijano, Hsun Teresa Ku
Adult pancreatic stem and progenitor cells may serve as an alternative source of insulin-secreting endocrine cells in cell replacement therapy for type 1 diabetes, but much remained unknown about these cells. We previously identified adult murine pancreatic progenitor-like cells that displayed in vitro self-renewal and tri-lineage differentiation activities in a 3-dimensional colony/organoid assay containing 1% methylcellulose and 5% Matrigel. However, the presence of other undefined culture components, such as serum and conditioned medium, has prevented a complete understanding of the signals required for progenitor cell growth...
January 17, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095610/uveal-schwannoma-in-a-brown-eyed-dog
#18
Todd L Marlo, Elizabeth A Giuliano, Cecil P Moore, Gillian C Shaw, Leandro B C Teixeira
An eleven-year-old, female spayed Boxer dog was diagnosed with a uveal schwannoma (formerly known as the spindle cell tumor of the blue-eyed dog or SCTBED) despite having a uniformly brown iris. The patient presented to emergency for ocular discomfort, and the right globe was subsequently enucleated due to glaucoma and submitted for histopathology. Upon histopathologic evaluation, a uveal schwannoma was diagnosed and confirmed with immunohistochemical staining. Complete metastatic evaluation 1 and 6 months after initial presentation did not reveal evidence of metastasis, and the dog remains systemically healthy...
January 17, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095323/pattern-recognitions-receptors-in-immunodeficiency-disorders
#19
Esameil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock, Payam Tabarsi, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Masoud Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Hamidreza Jamaati, Aliakbar Velayati
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize common microbial or host-derived macromolecules and have important roles in early activation and response of the immune system. Initiation of the innate immune response starts with the recognition of microbial structures called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Recognition of PAMPs is performed by germline-encoded receptors expressed mainly on immune cells termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), and Nod-like receptors (NLRs)...
January 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095297/dual-estrogenic-regulation-of-the-nuclear-progestin-receptor-and-spermatogonial-renewal-during-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-spermatogenesis
#20
François Chauvigné, Janmejay Parhi, Judith Ollé, Joan Cerdà
Studies in teleosts suggest that progestins have crucial functions during early spermatogenesis. However, the role of the different progestin receptors in these mechanisms is poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the expression pattern and hormonal regulation of the classical nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr) in the gilthead seabream at three different stages of spermatogenesis: the resting (postspawning) phase, onset of spermatogenesis, and spermiation. Immunolocalization experiments using a seabream specific Pgr antibody revealed that the receptor was expressed in Sertoli and Leydig cells, and also in a subset of spermatogonia type A, throughout spermatogenesis...
January 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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