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B cell differentiation

B K Singleton, M Ahmed, C A Green, H Heimpel, M J Woźniak, L Ranjha, F Seeney, A Bomford, P Mehta, A Guest, R Mushens, M-J King
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow examination has been the confirmatory test for congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II (CDAII). Occasional spherocytes on peripheral blood smear can confound the diagnosis. Since a screening test is still unavailable, we explored the feasibility of using flow cytometry as a preliminary screening method. METHODS: Thirteen monoclonal antibodies with specificities for eight erythrocyte membrane proteins were used in FACS analysis to probe the cellular features of red cells from CDAII, normal adults, hereditary spherocytosis (HS), and cord red cells...
October 26, 2016: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
Sheila Cardeña-Núñez, Luis Óscar Sánchez-Guardado, Rubén Corral-San-Miguel, Lucía Rodríguez-Gallardo, Faustino Marín, Luis Puelles, Pilar Aroca, Matías Hidalgo-Sánchez
The vertebrate inner ear is a complex three-dimensional sensorial structure with auditory and vestibular functions. The molecular patterning of the developing otic epithelium creates various positional identities, consequently leading to the stereotyped specification of each neurosensory and non-sensory element of the membranous labyrinth. The Iroquois (Iro/Irx) genes, clustered in two groups (A: Irx1, Irx2, and Irx4; and B: Irx3, Irx5, and Irx6), encode for transcriptional factors involved directly in numerous patterning processes of embryonic tissues in many phyla...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Sarah Kado, W L William Chang, Aimy Nguyen Chi, Monika Wolny, David M Shepherd, Christoph F A Vogel
Currently, it is not well understood how ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) modify inflammatory responses triggered by Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in human dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we show that AhR ligands 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the tryptophan derivatives 6-formylindolo[3,2-b] carbazole (FICZ), kynurenine (kyn), and the natural dietary compound indole-3-carbinol (I3C) differentially modify cytokine expression in human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs). The results show that TLR-activated MoDCs express higher levels of AhR and are more sensitive toward the effects of AhR ligands...
October 25, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
N Wu, U Gaur, Q Zhu, B Chen, Z Xu, X Zhao, M Yang, D Li
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a highly conserved class of small noncoding RNA about 19-24 nucleotides in length that function in a specific manner to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in organisms. Tissue miRNA expression studies have discovered a myriad of functions for miRNAs in various aspects, but a role for miRNAs in chicken ovarian tissue at 300 days of age has not hitherto been reported. In this study, we performed the first miRNA analysis of ovarian tissues in chickens with low and high rates of egg production using high-throughput sequencing...
October 26, 2016: Animal Genetics
Kateryna S Pantiukh, Nikolay N Chekanov, Igor V Zaigrin, Alexei M Zotov, Alexander M Mazur, Egor B Prokhortchouk
Concerns of traditional prenatal aneuploidy testing methods, such as low accuracy of noninvasive and health risks associated with invasive procedures, were overcome with the introduction of novel noninvasive methods based on genetics (NIPT). These were rapidly adopted into clinical practice in many countries after a series of successful trials of various independent submethods. Here we present results of own NIPT trial carried out in Moscow, Russia. 1012 samples were subjected to the method aimed at measuring chromosome coverage by massive parallel sequencing...
2016: F1000Research
Jonathan B Shurin, Michael D Burkart, Stephen P Mayfield, Val H Smith
Modern society is fueled by fossil energy produced millions of years ago by photosynthetic organisms. Cultivating contemporary photosynthetic producers to generate energy and capture carbon from the atmosphere is one potential approach to sustaining society without disrupting the climate. Algae, photosynthetic aquatic microorganisms, are the fastest growing primary producers in the world and can therefore produce more energy with less land, water, and nutrients than terrestrial plant crops. We review recent progress and challenges in developing bioenergy technology based on algae...
2016: F1000Research
Annalisa Ciabattini, Elena Pettini, Fabio Fiorino, Gabiria Pastore, Peter Andersen, Gianni Pozzi, Donata Medaglini
Adjuvants contribute to enhancing and shaping the vaccine immune response through different modes of action. Here early biomarkers of adjuvanticity after primary immunization were investigated using four different adjuvants combined with the chimeric tuberculosis vaccine antigen H56. C57BL/6 mice were immunized by the subcutaneous route with different vaccine formulations, and the modulation of primary CD4(+) T cell and B cell responses was assessed within draining lymph nodes, blood, and spleen, 7 and 12 days after priming...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
F Barabé, L Gil, M Celton, A Bergeron, V Lamontagne, É Roques, K Lagacé, A Forest, R Johnson, L Pécheux, J Simard, J Pelloux, A Bellemare-Pelletier, E Gagnon, J Hebert, S Cellot, B T Wilhelm
Acute myeloid leukemias (AML) result from a series of genetic events occurring in a stem or progenitor hematopoietic cell which gives rise to their clonal expansion and an impaired capacity to differentiate. To circumvent the genetic heterogeneity of AML patient cohorts, we have developed a model system, driven by the MLL-AF9 (MA9) oncogene, to generate multiple human leukemias using progenitor cells from a single healthy donor. Through stepwise RNA-sequencing data generated using this model and AML patients, we have identified consistent changes associated with MA9-driven leukemogenesis and demonstrate that no recurrent secondary mutations are required...
October 26, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Kavin Fatehchand, Elizabeth L McMichael, Brenda F Reader, Huiqing Fang, Ramasamy Santhanam, Shalini Gautam, Saranya Elavazhagan, Payal Mehta, Nathaniel J Buteyn, Giovanna Merchand-Reyes, Sumithira Vasu, Xiaokui Mo, Don M Benson, James S Blachly, William E Carson, John C Byrd, Jonathan P Butchar, Susheela Tridandapani
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is characterized by the proliferation of immature myeloid-lineage blasts. Due to its heterogeneity and to the high rate of acquired drug resistance and relapse, new treatment strategies are needed. Here, we demonstrate that IFNγ promotes AML blasts to act as effector cells within the context of antibody therapy. Treatment with IFNγ drove AML blasts toward a more differentiated state, wherein they showed increased expression of the M1-related markers HLA-DR and CD86, as well as of FcγRI, which mediates effector responses to therapeutic antibodies...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Michela Novelli, Marta Menegazzi, Pascale Beffy, Svetlana Porozov, Alex Gregorelli, Daniela Giacopelli, Vincenzo De Tata, Pellegrino Masiello
The extract of the herbaceous plant St. John's wort (SJW) and its phloroglucinol component hyperforin (HPF) were previously shown to inhibit cytokine-induced STAT-1 and NF-κB activation and prevent damage in pancreatic β cells. To further clarify the mechanisms underlying their protective effects, we evaluated the phosphorylation state of various factors of cytokine signaling pathways and the expression of target genes involved in β-cell function, inflammatory response and apoptosis induction. In the INS-1E β-cell line, exposed to a cytokine mixture with/without SJW extract (2-5μg/ml) or HPF (1-5μM), protein phosphorylation was assessed by Western blotting and expression of target genes by real-time quantitative PCR...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Xing He, Rui Tang, Yue Sun, Yan-Ge Wang, Kui-Yang Zhen, Dong-Mei Zhang, Wei-Qing Pan
Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by the parasite of the Schistosoma genus and is characterized by egg-induced hepatic granulomas and fibrosis. Macrophages play a central role in schistosomiasis with several studies highlighting their differentiation into M2 cells involved in the survival of infected mice through limitation of immunopathology. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms of regulating macrophage differentiation. Here, we showed that the early stage of infection by Schistosoma japonicum induced expression of type 1T-helper-cell (Th1) cytokine, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), leading to increase in M1 cells...
October 19, 2016: EBioMedicine
L Berrón-Ruíz, G López-Herrera, C E Ávalos-Martínez, C Valenzuela-Ponce, E Ramírez-SanJuan, G Santoyo-Sánchez, F Mújica Guzmán, F J Espinosa-Rosales, L Santos-Argumedo
BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood B cells include lymphocytes at various stages of differentiation, each with a specific function in the immune response. All these stages show variations in percentage and absolute number throughout human life. The numbers and proportions of B subpopulation are influenced by factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, and lifestyle. This study establishes reference values according to age of peripheral blood B cell subtypes in healthy Mexican population. METHODS: Peripheral blood from healthy new-borns and adults were analysed for total B cell subpopulations, using surface markers such as CD19, IgM, IgD, CD21, CD24, CD27, and CD38, to identify naïve, memory with and without isotype switch, double-negative, transitional, and plasmablast cells...
October 22, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Joseph Chi-Ching Tsui, Carol Po-Ying Lau, Alex Chun Cheung, Kwok-Chuen Wong, Lin Huang, Stephen Kwok-Wing Tsui, Shekhar Madhukar Kumta
Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is the most commonly reported non-malignant bone tumor in Hong Kong. This kind of tumor usually affects people aged 20-40 years. Also, it is well known for recurrence locally, especially when the tumor cannot be removed completely. Filamins are actin-binding proteins which contain three family members, filamin A, B and C. They are the products of three different genes, FLNA, FLNB and FLNC, which can generate various transcript variants in different cell types. In this study, we focused on the effects of FLNBv2 and FLNBv4 toward GCT cells...
October 24, 2016: Oncology Reports
Moyu Ming, Zhixi Luo, Shengqiu Lv, Chaoqian Li
The present study aimed to investigate whether inhalation of inactivated‑Mycobacterium phlei could prevent airway hyperresponsiveness and airway eosinophilia. A total of 24 male Balb/c mice were randomly divided into three groups: Normal control group (group A), asthma model group (group B) and the intervention group (group C), (8 mice/group). Group A mice were sensitized and with challenged saline and group B with ovalbumin (OVA). Group C mice were administered with aerosol Mycobacterium phlei once daily prior to the allergen challenge...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
A Rybicka, C Eyileten, B Taciak, J Mucha, K Majchrzak, E Hellmen, M Krol
Cancer stem-like cells as cells with ability to self-renewal and potential to differentiate into various types of cells are known to be responsible for tumour initiation, recurrence and drug resistance. Hence a comprehensive research is concentrated on discovering cancer stem-like cells biology and interdependence between them and other cells. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of macrophages on cancer stem-like cells in canine mammary carcinomas. As recent studies indicated presence of macrophages in cancer environment stimulates cancer cells into more motile and invasive cells by acquisition of macrophage phenotypes...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Douglas F Dluzen, Nicole Noren Hooten, Yongqing Zhang, Yoonseo Kim, Frank E Glover, Salman M Tajuddin, Kimberly D Jacob, Alan B Zonderman, Michele K Evans
Systemic arterial hypertension is an important cause of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. African Americans are disproportionately affected by hypertension, in fact the incidence, prevalence, and severity of hypertension is highest among African American (AA) women. Previous data suggests that differential gene expression influences individual susceptibility to selected diseases and we hypothesized that this phenomena may affect health disparities in hypertension. Transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AA or white, normotensive or hypertensive females identified thousands of mRNAs differentially-expressed by race and/or hypertension...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Felicity M Davis, Bethan Lloyd-Lewis, Olivia B Harris, Sarah Kozar, Douglas J Winton, Leila Muresan, Christine J Watson
The mammary gland undergoes cycles of growth and regeneration throughout reproductive life, a process that requires mammary stem cells (MaSCs). Whilst recent genetic fate-mapping studies using lineage-specific promoters have provided valuable insights into the mammary epithelial hierarchy, the true differentiation potential of adult MaSCs remains unclear. To address this, herein we utilize a stochastic genetic-labelling strategy to indelibly mark a single cell and its progeny in situ, combined with tissue clearing and 3D imaging...
October 25, 2016: Nature Communications
Kenneth G Liu, Amit Verma, Olga Derman, Noah Kornblum, Murali Janakiram, Ira Braunschweig, Ramakrishna Battini
BACKGROUND: Population studies showed that patients with JAK2 V617F mutation had increased mortality, and increased risk of any cancer, hematologic cancer, and myeloproliferative disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old Asian male with JAK2 V617F mutation developed four different hematologic and non-hematologic neoplastic processes. In 2009, he was diagnosed with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma and also noted to have worsening leukocytosis and thrombocytosis with peak platelet count of 1,054,000/mL)...
2016: Biomarker Research
Santhilal Subhash, Per-Ola Andersson, Subazini Thankaswamy Kosalai, Chandrasekhar Kanduri, Meena Kanduri
BACKGROUND: Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein enriched genome-wide sequencing (MBD-Seq) is a robust and powerful method for analyzing methylated CpG-rich regions with complete genome-wide coverage. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the role of CpG methylated regions associated with transcribed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) and repetitive genomic elements are poorly understood. Based on MBD-Seq, we characterized the global methylation profile of high CpG-rich regions in different CLL prognostic subgroups based on IGHV mutational status...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Fanqi Kong, Bozhi Ye, Jiatian Cao, Xueli Cai, Lu Lin, Shanjun Huang, Weijian Huang, Zhouqing Huang
Aims: In the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, the pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is closely related to the progression of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to assess the effects of curcumin on NLRP3 inflammasome in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced macrophages and explore its underlying mechanism. Methods: Human monocytic THP-1 cells were pretreated with curcumin for 1 h and subsequently induced with PMA for 48 h. Total protein was collected for Western blot analysis. Cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β release and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation were detected by ELISA assay and cellular NF-κB translocation kit, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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