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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245000/does-traumatic-brain-injury-hold-the-key-to-the-alzheimer-s-puzzle
#1
Robert E Becker, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Nigel H Greig
INTRODUCTION: Neurodegenerative disorders have been a graveyard for hundreds of well-intentioned efforts at drug discovery and development. Concussion and other traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share many overlapping pathologies and possible clinical links. METHODS: We searched the literature since 1995 using MEDLINE and Google Scholar for the terms concussion, AD, and shared neuropathologies. We also studied a TBI animal model as a supplement to transgenic (Tg) mouse AD models for evaluating AD drug efficacy by preventing neuronal losses...
December 12, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244903/dermal-fibroblast-in-cutaneous-development-and-healing
#2
REVIEW
Venkata Thulabandu, Demeng Chen, Radhika P Atit
The skin is the largest organ of the body and is composed of two layers: the overlying epidermis and the underlying dermis. The dermal fibroblasts originate from distinct locations of the embryo and contain the positional identity and patterning information in the skin. The dermal fibroblast progenitors differentiate into various cell types that are fated to perform specific functions such as hair follicle initiation and scar formation during wound healing. Recent studies have revealed the heterogeneity and plasticity of dermal fibroblasts within skin, which has implications for skin disease and tissue engineering...
December 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244869/lspr-mediated-high-axial-resolution-fluorescence-imaging-on-a-silver-nanoparticle-sheet
#3
Eiji Usukura, Yuhki Yanase, Ayumi Ishijima, Thasaneeya Kuboki, Satoru Kidoaki, Koichi Okamoto, Kaoru Tamada
This paper reports our original technique for visualizing cell-attached nanointerfaces with extremely high axial resolution using homogeneously excited localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) on self-assembled silver nanoparticle sheets. The LSPR sheet can confine and enhance the fluorescence at the nanointerface, which provides high signal-to-noise ratio images of focal adhesion at the cell-attached interface. The advantage of this LSPR-assisted technique is its usability, which provides comparable or higher-quality nanointerfacial images than TIRF microscopy, even under epifluorescence microscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244023/osteocalcin-expressing-cells-from-tendon-sheaths-in-mice-contribute-to-tendon-repair-by-activating-hedgehog-signaling
#4
Yi Wang, Xu Zhang, Huihui Huang, Yin Xia, YiFei Yao, Arthur Fuk-Tat Mak, Patrick Shu-Hang Yung, Kai-Ming Chan, Li Wang, Chenglin Zhang, Yu Huang, Kingston King-Lun Mak
Both extrinsic and intrinsic tissues contribute to tendon repair, but the origin and molecular functions of extrinsic tissues in tendon repair are not fully understood. Here we show that tendon sheath cells harbor stem/progenitor cell properties and contribute to tendon repair by activating Hedgehog signaling. We found that Osteocalcin (Bglap) can be used as an adult tendon-sheath-specific marker in mice. Lineage tracing experiments show that Bglap-expressing cells in adult sheath tissues possess clonogenic and multipotent properties comparable to those of stem/progenitor cells isolated from tendon fibers...
December 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242606/murine-stroma-adopts-a-human-like-metabolic-phenotype-in-the-pdx-model-of-colorectal-cancer-and-liver-metastases
#5
Arnaud Blomme, Gaetan Van Simaeys, Gilles Doumont, Brunella Costanza, Justine Bellier, Yukihiro Otaka, Félicie Sherer, Pierre Lovinfosse, Sébastien Boutry, Ana Perez Palacios, Edwin De Pauw, Touko Hirano, Takehiko Yokobori, Roland Hustinx, Akeila Bellahcène, Philippe Delvenne, Olivier Detry, Serge Goldman, Masahiko Nishiyama, Vincent Castronovo, Andrei Turtoi
Cancer research is increasingly dependent of patient-derived xenograft model (PDX). However, a major point of concern regarding the PDX model remains the replacement of the human stroma with murine counterpart. In the present work we aimed at clarifying the significance of the human-to-murine stromal replacement for the fidelity of colorectal cancer (CRC) and liver metastasis (CRC-LM) PDX model. We have conducted a comparative metabolic analysis between 6 patient tumors and corresponding PDX across 4 generations...
December 15, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242502/impact-of-electrode-position-on-the-elicitation-of-sodium-spikes-in-retinal-bipolar-cells
#6
Frank Rattay, Hassan Bassereh, Andreas Fellner
Bipolar cells of the magnocellular pathway in the primate retina can generate action potentials because they have an axonal segment with high sodium channel density, comparable to the sodium channel band in retinal ganglion cells or pyramidal cells. The similarity between the non-human primate and the human retina is of interest for the research on retinal implants for the blind, and especially, the conditions to elicit sodium spikes in bipolar cells using extracellular stimulation. A comparison of excitation characteristics of three model neurons, a bipolar cell, a retinal ganglion cell, and a cortical pyramidal cell, demonstrates the similarities and differences regarding stimulation with microelectrodes...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242199/organ-specific-lymphatic-vasculature-from-development-to-pathophysiology
#7
REVIEW
Tatiana V Petrova, Gou Young Koh
Recent discoveries of novel functions and diverse origins of lymphatic vessels have drastically changed our view of lymphatic vasculature. Traditionally regarded as passive conduits for fluid and immune cells, lymphatic vessels now emerge as active, tissue-specific players in major physiological and pathophysiological processes. Lymphatic vessels show remarkable plasticity and heterogeneity, reflecting their functional specialization to control the tissue microenvironment. Moreover, alternative developmental origins of lymphatic endothelial cells in some organs may contribute to the diversity of their functions in adult tissues...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241934/fetoplacental-cytogenetic-discrepancy-in-a-pregnancy-with-fetal-mosaic-tetrasomy-12p-and-pallister-killian-syndrome-detected-by-amniocentesis
#8
Chih-Ping Chen, Liang-Kai Wang, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Shin-Wen Chen, Shih-Ting Lai, Tzu-Yun Chuang, Li-Feng Chen, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present fetoplacental cytogenetic discrepancy in a pregnancy with prenatally detected mosaic tetrasomy 12p by amniocentesis. CASE REPORT: A 34-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Cytogenetic analysis of cultured amniocytes revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+i(12)(p10)[7]/46,XX[16]. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis of the DNA extracted from cultured amniocytes revealed arr (12p)×3, (X)×2...
December 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241418/isolation-and-characterization-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-based-on-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity
#9
Mehdi Najar, Laurent Dollé, Emerence Crompot, Stefaan Verhulst, Leo Van Grunsven, Hélène Busser, Laurence Lagneaux
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have particular properties that allow their use as therapeutic strategies for several cell-based applications. Historically, bone marrow (BM)-MSCs are isolated by culture adherence since specific cell surface markers are yet to be developed. This original work aimed to identify and characterize isolating expanded BM-MSCs based on their aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity known to be a hallmark of stem cells and relevant for their isolation. We thus isolated by FACS technology two functionally different populations of BM-MSCs depending on their ALDH activity (ALDH+ and ALDH-)...
December 14, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240689/investigating-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-misincorporation-in-human-cell-cultures-a-comparative-study-with-known-amino-acid-analogues
#10
Rianita van Onselen, Simoné Downing, Gabré Kemp, Tim Downing
Misincorporation of β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) into proteins has been proposed to be a mechanism of toxicity to explain the role of BMAA in neurodegenerative disease development. However, studies have shown that all detectable BMAA can be removed from proteins by SDS-PAGE purification and that the toxicity of l-canavanine cannot be reproduced in prokaryotes or in a rat pheochromocytoma cell line, strongly indicating that the misincorporation hypothesis of BMAA should be re-investigated. The aim of this study was therefore to determine if BMAA misincorporates into proteins in cells of human origin with subsequent misincorporation-type toxicity...
December 14, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240300/genomic-origin-and-nuclear-localization-of-terra-telomeric-repeat-containing-rna-from-darkness-to-dawn
#11
REVIEW
Aurélie Diman, Anabelle Decottignies
Long non-coding RNAs, produced from distinct regions of the chromosomes, are emerging as new key players in several important biological processes. The long non-coding RNAs add a new layer of complexity to cellular regulatory pathways, from transcription to cellular trafficking or chromatin remodeling. More than 25 years ago, the discovery of a transcriptional activity at telomeres of protozoa ended the long-lasting belief that telomeres were transcriptionally silent. Since then, progressively accumulating evidences established that production of TElomeric Repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) was a general feature of eukaryotic cells...
December 14, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239787/deciphering-psoriasis-a-bioinformatic-approach
#12
Juan L Melero, Sergi Andrades, Lluís Arola, Antoni Romeu
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is an immune-mediated, inflammatory and hyperproliferative disease of the skin and joints. The cause of psoriasis is still unknown. The fundamental feature of the disease is the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and the recruitment of cells from the immune system in the region of the affected skin, which leads to deregulation of many well-known gene expressions. OBJECTIVE: Based on data mining and bioinformatic scripting, here we show a new dimension of the effect of psoriasis at the genomic level...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239765/immune-responses-transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-networks-pass-the-baton
#13
Johannes Lichti, Christian Gallus, Elke Glasmacher
Diverse gene regulatory mechanisms impact on immune homeostasis, and a new model now emerges as fundamental in light of recent genome-wide studies. In this picture, transcriptional networks drive functional changes during immune activation, whereas autoregulatory feedback loops of post-transcriptional programs ensure the original cell lineage identity and subsequent immune resolution.
November 24, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239340/research-on-human-glioma-stem-cells-in-china
#14
REVIEW
Yao-Dong Zhao, Quan-Bin Zhang, Hua Chen, Xi-Feng Fei, Yun-Tian Shen, Xiao-Yan Ji, Jia-Wei Ma, Ai-Dong Wang, Jun Dong, Qing Lan, Qiang Huang
Research on human glioma stem cells began early in the 21st century and since then has become a rapidly growing research field with the number of publications increasing year by year. The research conducted by our diverse group of investigators focused primarily on cell culture techniques, molecular regulation, signaling pathways, cancer treatment, the stem cell microenvironment and the cellular origin and function of glioma stem cells. In particular, we put forward our view that there are inverse or forward transformations among neural stem cells, glial cells and glioma stem cells in glioma tissues under certain conditions...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239333/nigral-dopaminergic-neuron-replenishment-in-adult-mice-through-ve-cadherin-expressing-neural-progenitor-cells
#15
Abir A Rahman, Nathan K Lai, Joshua E Albright, Paige E Urquhart, Abby R Webb, Brad E Morrison
The function of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is of central importance to the coordination of movement by the brain's basal ganglia circuitry. This is evidenced by the loss of these neurons, resulting in the cardinal motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease. In order to fully understand the physiology of these key neurons and develop potential therapies for their loss, it is essential to determine if and how dopaminergic neurons are replenished in the adult brain. Recent work has presented evidence for adult neurogenesis of these neurons by Nestin+/Sox2- neural progenitor cells...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239040/molecular-pathology-of-thyroid-tumours-of-follicular-cells-a-review-of-genetic-alterations-and-their-clinicopathological-relevance
#16
REVIEW
Giorgia Acquaviva, Michela Visani, Andrea Repaci, Kerry J Rhoden, Dario de Biase, Annalisa Pession, Tallini Giovanni
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Knowledge of the molecular pathology of thyroid tumours originating from follicular cells has greatly advanced in the past several years. Common molecular alterations, such as BRAF p.V600E, RAS point mutations, and fusion oncogenes (RET-PTC being the prototypical example), have been, respectively, associated with conventional papillary carcinoma, follicular-patterned tumours (follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma/non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features), and with papillary carcinomas from young patients and arising after exposure to ionising radiation, respectively...
January 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238969/axially-confined-in%C3%A2-vivo-single-cell-labeling-by-primed-conversion-using-blue-and-red-lasers-with-conventional-confocal-microscopes
#17
Atsushi Taniguchi, Yukiko Kimura, Ikue Mori, Shigenori Nonaka, Shin-Ichi Higashijima
Green-to-red photoconvertible fluorescent proteins have been found to undergo efficient photoconversion by a new method termed primed conversion that uses dual wave-length illumination with blue and red/near-infrared light. By modifying a confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) such that two laser beams only meet at the focal plane, confined photoconversion at the axial dimension has been achieved. The necessity of this custom modification to the CLSM, however, has precluded the wide-spread use of this method...
December 13, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238858/spatial-organization-of-chromosome-territories-in-the-interphase-nucleus-of-trisomy-21-cells
#18
Stephan Kemeny, Christophe Tatout, Gaelle Salaun, Céline Pebrel-Richard, Carole Goumy, Natasha Ollier, Eugenie Maurin, Bruno Pereira, Philippe Vago, Laetitia Gouas
In the interphase cell nucleus, chromosomes adopt a conserved and non-random arrangement in subnuclear domains called chromosome territories (CTs). Whereas chromosome translocation can affect CT organization in tumor cell nuclei, little is known about how aneuploidies can impact CT organization. Here, we performed 3D-FISH on control and trisomic 21 nuclei to track the patterning of chromosome territories, focusing on the radial distribution of trisomic HSA21 as well as 11 disomic chromosomes. We have established an experimental design based on cultured chorionic villus cells which keep their original mesenchymal features including a characteristic ellipsoid nuclear morphology and a radial CT distribution that correlates with chromosome size...
December 14, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238412/oral-leiomyoma-in-an-adult-male-a-case-report
#19
Amanda Phoon Nguyen, Agnieszka M Frydrych
Introduction: Oral leiomyomas are rare, benign neoplasms of smooth muscle origin, presenting as a solitary, asymptomatic, nodular mass. Case Presentation: Here we present the case of a 54-year-old male with a lesion in the midline of his hard palate, which was diagnosed as a localized benign leiomyoma, along with a review of the recent literature. Discussion: Diagnosis of a leiomyoma must be based on the histopathological assessment of tissue as the clinical appearance is non-specific...
2017: Open Dentistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238397/a-method-to-generate-the-surface-cell-layer-of-the-3d-virtual-shoot-apex-from-apical-initials
#20
Krzysztof Kucypera, Marcin Lipowczan, Anna Piekarska-Stachowiak, Jerzy Nakielski
Background: The development of cell pattern in the surface cell layer of the shoot apex can be investigated in vivo by use of a time-lapse confocal images, showing naked meristem in 3D in successive times. However, how this layer is originated from apical initials and develops as a result of growth and divisions of their descendants, remains unknown. This is an open area for computer modelling. A method to generate the surface cell layer is presented on the example of the 3D paraboloidal shoot apical dome...
2017: Plant Methods
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