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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651004/a-human-endogenous-retrovirus-derived-gene-that-can-contribute-to-oncogenesis-by-activating-the-erk-pathway-and-inducing-migration-and-invasion
#1
Cécile Lemaître, Jhen Tsang, Caroline Bireau, Thierry Heidmann, Marie Dewannieux
Endogenous retroviruses are cellular genes of retroviral origin captured by their host during the course of evolution and represent around 8% of the human genome. Although most are defective and transcriptionally silenced, some are still able to generate retroviral-like particles and proteins. Among these, the HERV-K(HML2) family is remarkable since its members have amplified relatively recently and many of them still have full length coding genes. Furthermore, they are induced in cancers, especially in melanoma, breast cancer and germ cell tumours, where viral particles, as well as the envelope protein (Env), can be detected...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650480/lineage-specification-of-human-dendritic-cells-is-marked-by-irf8-expression-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-multipotent-progenitors
#2
Jaeyop Lee, Yu Jerry Zhou, Wenji Ma, Wanwei Zhang, Arafat Aljoufi, Thomas Luh, Kimberly Lucero, Deguang Liang, Matthew Thomsen, Govind Bhagat, Yufeng Shen, Kang Liu
The origin and specification of human dendritic cells (DCs) have not been investigated at the clonal level. Through the use of clonal assays, combined with statistical computation, to quantify the yield of granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes and three subsets of DCs from single human CD34(+) progenitor cells, we found that specification to the DC lineage occurred in parallel with specification of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to the myeloid and lymphoid lineages. This started as a lineage bias defined by specific transcriptional programs that correlated with the combinatorial 'dose' of the transcription factors IRF8 and PU...
June 26, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650344/the-relationship-between-cardiac-endothelium-and-fibroblasts-it-s-complicated
#3
Ravi Karra, Agoston O Walter, Sean M Wu
Coronary revascularization is an effective means of treating ischemic heart disease; however, current therapeutic revascularization strategies are limited to large caliber vessels. Because the mammalian heart scars following cardiac injury, recent work showing that cardiac fibroblasts can transdifferentiate into new coronary endothelium raises a new and exciting approach to promoting endogenous revascularization following cardiac injury. In this issue of the JCI, He et al. report on their employment of a battery of lineage-tracing tools to address the developmental origins of fibroblasts that give rise to new endothelial cells...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650342/inflammatory-ly6chi-monocytes-and-their-conversion-to-m2-macrophages-drive-atherosclerosis-regression
#4
Karishma Rahman, Yuliya Vengrenyuk, Stephen A Ramsey, Noemi Rotllan Vila, Natasha M Girgis, Jianhua Liu, Viktoria Gusarova, Jesper Gromada, Ada Weinstock, Kathryn J Moore, P'ng Loke, Edward A Fisher
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and developing therapies to promote its regression is an important clinical goal. We previously established that atherosclerosis regression is characterized by an overall decrease in plaque macrophages and enrichment in markers of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. We have now investigated the origin and functional requirement for M2 macrophages in regression in normolipidemic mice that received transplants of atherosclerotic aortic segments. We compared plaque regression in WT normolipidemic recipients and those deficient in chemokine receptors necessary to recruit inflammatory Ly6Chi (Ccr2-/- or Cx3cr1-/-) or patrolling Ly6Clo (Ccr5-/-) monocytes...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649985/attenuation-of-rna-polymerase-ii-pausing-mitigates-brca1-associated-r-loop-accumulation-and-tumorigenesis
#5
Xiaowen Zhang, Huai-Chin Chiang, Yao Wang, Chi Zhang, Sabrina Smith, Xiayan Zhao, Sreejith J Nair, Joel Michalek, Ismail Jatoi, Meeghan Lautner, Boyce Oliver, Howard Wang, Anna Petit, Teresa Soler, Joan Brunet, Francesca Mateo, Miguel Angel Pujana, Elizabeth Poggi, Krysta Chaldekas, Claudine Isaacs, Beth N Peshkin, Oscar Ochoa, Frederic Chedin, Constantine Theoharis, Lu-Zhe Sun, Tyler J Curiel, Richard Elledge, Victor X Jin, Yanfen Hu, Rong Li
Most BRCA1-associated breast tumours are basal-like yet originate from luminal progenitors. BRCA1 is best known for its functions in double-strand break repair and resolution of DNA replication stress. However, it is unclear whether loss of these ubiquitously important functions fully explains the cell lineage-specific tumorigenesis. In vitro studies implicate BRCA1 in elimination of R-loops, DNA-RNA hybrid structures involved in transcription and genetic instability. Here we show that R-loops accumulate preferentially in breast luminal epithelial cells, not in basal epithelial or stromal cells, of BRCA1 mutation carriers...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649760/immunometabolism-of-human-autoimmune-diseases-from-metabolites-to-extracellular-vesicles
#6
REVIEW
Paola de Candia, Veronica De Rosa, Vincenzo Gigantino, Gerardo Botti, Antonio Ceriello, Giuseppe Matarese
Immunometabolism focuses on the mechanisms regulating the impact of metabolism on lymphocyte activity and autoimmunity outbreak. The adipose tissue is long known to release adipokines, either pro- or anti-inflammatory factors bridging nutrition and immune function. More recently, adipocytes were discovered to also release extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing a plethora of biological molecules, including metabolites and microRNAs, which can regulate cell function/metabolism in distant tissues, suggesting that immune regulatory function by the adipose tissue may be far more complex than originally thought...
June 26, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649577/in%C3%A2-vivo-murine-matured-human-cd3-cells-as-a-preclinical-model-for-t-cell-based-immunotherapies
#7
Kevin G Haworth, Christina Ironside, Zachary K Norgaard, Willimark M Obenza, Jennifer E Adair, Hans-Peter Kiem
Adoptive cellular immunotherapy is a promising and powerful method for the treatment of a broad range of malignant and infectious diseases. Although the concept of cellular immunotherapy was originally proposed in the 1990s, it has not seen successful clinical application until recent years. Despite significant progress in creating engineered receptors against both malignant and viral epitopes, no efficient preclinical animal models exist for rapidly testing and directly comparing these engineered receptors...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649475/solid-pseudopapillary-tumor-of-the-pancreas-an-unusual-cause-of-abdominal-pain
#8
Talal El Imad, Fady G Haddad, Mayurathan Kesavan, Liliane Deeb, Sherif Andrawes
Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a rare tumor that accounts for less than one percent of pancreatic tumors. The diagnosis could be challenging as SPN tend to manifest with nonspecific abdominal symptoms, variable radiological features, and inconsistent morphology. The cellular origin of SPN is unclear and might involve ductal, acinar and endocrine stem cells.  We report a rare case of a 27-year-old female who presented with intermittent abdominal pain for two years, associated with a decrease in appetite...
May 16, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649443/a-multiscale-model-of-early-cell-lineage-specification-including-cell-division
#9
Alen Tosenberger, Didier Gonze, Sylvain Bessonnard, Michel Cohen-Tannoudji, Claire Chazaud, Geneviève Dupont
Embryonic development is a self-organised process during which cells divide, interact, change fate according to a complex gene regulatory network and organise themselves in a three-dimensional space. Here, we model this complex dynamic phenomenon in the context of the acquisition of epiblast and primitive endoderm identities within the inner cell mass of the preimplantation embryo in the mouse. The multiscale model describes cell division and interactions between cells, as well as biochemical reactions inside each individual cell and in the extracellular matrix...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649014/apatite-nanoparticles-strongly-improve-red-blood-cell-cryopreservation-by-mediating-trehalose-delivery-via-enhanced-membrane-permeation
#10
Martin Stefanic, Kevin Ward, Harvey Tawfik, Ralf Seemann, Vladimir Baulin, Yachong Guo, Jean-Baptiste Fleury, Christophe Drouet
Cryopreservation of red blood cells (RBC) is an important method for maintaining an inventory of rare RBC units and managing special transfusion circumstances. Currently, in a clinical setting, glycerol is used as cryoprotectant against freezing damage. After thawing and before transfusion, glycerol must however be removed to avoid intravascular hemolysis, via a complex and time-consuming deglycerolization process which requires specialized equipment. Improved cryopreservation methods using non-toxic agents are required to increase biocompatibility and decrease processing time...
June 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648952/extracellular-vesicles-as-biomarkers-and%C3%A2-therapeutics-in-dermatology-a%C3%A2-focus%C3%A2-on-exosomes
#11
REVIEW
Jeffrey D McBride, Luis Rodriguez-Menocal, Evangelos V Badiavas
Extracellular vesicles (exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies) are ubiquitous in human tissues, circulation, and body fluids. Of these vesicles, exosomes are of growing interest among investigators across multiple fields, including dermatology. The characteristics of exosomes, their associated cargo (nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids), and downstream functions are vastly different, depending on the cell origin. Here, we review concepts in extracellular vesicle biology, with a focus on exosomes, highlighting recent studies in the field of dermatology...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648948/randomized-phase-ii-study-comparing-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-alone-to-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-and-consolidative-extra-cranial-irradiation-for-extensive-disease-small-cell-lung-cancer-ed-sclc-nrg-oncology-rtog-0937
#12
Elizabeth M Gore, Chen Hu, Alexander Y Sun, Daniel F Grimm, Suresh S Ramalingam, Neal E Dunlap, Kristin A Higgins, Maria Werner-Wasik, Aaron M Allen, Puneeth Iyengar, Gregory M M Videtic, Russell K Hales, Ronald C McGarry, James J Urbanic, Anthony T Pu, Candice A Johnstone, Volker W Stieber, Rebecca Paulus, Jeffrey D Bradley
INTRODUCTION: RTOG-0937 is a randomized phase-II trial evaluating 1-year OS with PCI or PCI plus consolidative radiation therapy (cRT) to intra-thoracic disease and extracranial metastases for ED-SCLC. METHODS: Patients with 1-4 extracranial metastases were eligible after CR or PR to chemotherapy. Randomization was to PCI or PCI+cRT to the thorax and metastases. Original stratification included PR vs CR after chemotherapy and 1 vs 2-4 metastases; age < 65 vs > 65 was added after an observed imbalance...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648897/unique-organization-of-the-nuclear-envelope-in-the-post-natal-quiescent-neural-stem-cells
#13
Arantxa Cebrián-Silla, Clara Alfaro-Cervelló, Vicente Herranz-Pérez, Naoko Kaneko, Dae Hwi Park, Kazunobu Sawamoto, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, Daniel A Lim, José Manuel García-Verdugo
Neural stem cells (B1 astrocytes; NSCs) in the adult ventricular-subventricular-zone (V-SVZ) originate in the embryo. Surprisingly, recent work has shown that B1 cells remain largely quiescent. They are reactivated postnatally to function as primary progenitors for neurons destined for the olfactory bulb and some corpus callosum oligodendrocytes. The cellular and molecular properties of quiescent B1 cells remain unknown. Here we found that a subpopulation of B1 cells has a unique nuclear envelope invagination specialization similar to envelope-limited chromatin sheets (ELCS), reported in certain lymphocytes and some cancer cells...
June 21, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648822/novel-predators-reshape-holozoan-phylogeny-and-reveal-the-presence-of-a-two-component-signaling-system-in-the-ancestor-of-animals
#14
Elisabeth Hehenberger, Denis V Tikhonenkov, Martin Kolisko, Javier Del Campo, Anton S Esaulov, Alexander P Mylnikov, Patrick J Keeling
Our understanding of the origin of animals has been transformed by characterizing their most closely related, unicellular sisters: the choanoflagellates, filastereans, and ichthyosporeans. Together with animals, these lineages make up the Holozoa [1, 2]. Many traits previously considered "animal specific" were subsequently found in other holozoans [3, 4], showing that they evolved before animals, although exactly when is currently uncertain because several key relationships remain unresolved [2, 5]. Here we report the morphology and transcriptome sequencing from three novel unicellular holozoans: Pigoraptor vietnamica and Pigoraptor chileana, which are related to filastereans, and Syssomonas multiformis, which forms a new lineage with Corallochytrium in phylogenomic analyses...
June 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648300/the-effects-of-2-3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic-acid-dmps-and-meso-2-3-dimercaptosuccinic-acid-dmsa-on-the-nephrotoxicity-in-the-mouse-during-repeated-cisplatin-cddp-treatments
#15
Y Yajima, M Kawaguchi, M Yoshikawa, M Okubo, E Tsukagoshi, K Sato, A Katakura
Previously, we reported that specific lower dose of sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) which is an antidote to heavy metal intoxication, inversely enhanced cisplatin (CDDP)-induced antitumor activity to S-180 cell-bearing mouse. This activity was only weak with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), however. This study investigated the effects of lower doses of DMPS or DMSA on the nephrotoxicity and kinetics of CDDP. Kidney and blood isolated from female mice which received CDDP with or without DMPS or DMSA once daily for 4 days were provided for measuring levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and transporter proteins (OCT2: organic cation transporter; MATE1: multidrug and toxin extrusion) mRNA, and CDDP-originated platinum, and TUNEL staining of renal tubular cells...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648299/the-intra-articular-injection-of-rankl-binding-peptides-inhibits-cartilage-degeneration-in-a-murine-model-of-osteoarthritis
#16
Md Zahirul Haque Bhuyan, Yukihiko Tamura, Eri Sone, Yuki Yoshinari, Chizuko Maeda, Mariko Takahashi, Yasuhiko Tabata, Ramachandran Murali, Yoshihiro Waki, Kazuhiro Aoki
We recently found that the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-binding peptide, OP3-4 stimulated the differentiation of both chondrocytes and osteoblasts. OP3-4 is also shown to inhibit cartilage degeneration. To clarify whether the peptide can inhibit cartilage degeneration without stimulating bone formation, we first performed a proliferation assay using C3H10T1/2 (the murine mesenchymal stem cell line), which is the common origin of both chondrocytes and osteoblasts. The RANKL-binding peptides, OP3-4 and W9, promoted cellular proliferation at 24 and 48 h, respectively...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648296/effect-of-storage-temperature-on-the-lag-time-of-geobacillus-stearothermophilus-individual-spores
#17
Myrsini Kakagianni, Juan S Aguirre, Alexandra Lianou, Konstantinos P Koutsoumanis
The lag times (λ) of Geobacillus stearothermophilus single spores were studied at different storage temperatures ranging from 45 to 59 °C using the Bioscreen C method. A significant variability of λ was observed among individual spores at all temperatures tested. The storage temperature affected both the position and the spread of the λ distributions. The minimum mean value of λ (i.e. 10.87 h) was observed at 55 °C, while moving away from this temperature resulted in an increase for both the mean and standard deviation of λ...
October 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647858/counter-intuitive-plasma-vitamin-d-and-zinc-status-in-hiv-1-infected-adults-with-persistent-low-level-viraemia-after-treatment-initiation-a-pilot-case-control-study
#18
H Melliez, A Duhamel, O Robineau, L Bocket, I Kim, E Sauser, F Loiseleur, N Viget, A Pasquet, E Senneville, D Seguy
Determinants of persistent low-level viraemia [PLLV, a viral load (VL) of between 50 and 500 copies/mL] have not been elucidated. In a case-control study, we evaluated the influence of micronutrients on PLLV in a population of 454 HIV-1 adults having initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) between January 2007 and December 2011. Plasma levels of retinol (vitamin A), 25-OH vitamin D2 + D3, vitamin E and zinc were measured at ART initiation in cases (PLLV after 6 months of ART) and in controls (VL <50 copies/mL after 6 months)...
June 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647567/stearoyl-coa-desaturase-regulates-sorafenib-resistance-via-modulation-of-er-stress-induced-differentiation
#19
Mark Kin Fai Ma, Eunice Yuen Ting Lau, Doris Hoi Wing Leung, Jessica Lo, Nicole Pui Yu Ho, Lily Kwan Wai Cheng, Stephanie Ma, Chi Ho Lin, John A Copland, Jin Ding, Regina Cheuk Lam Lo, Irene Oi Lin Ng, Terence Kin Wah Lee
We investigated the functional role and clinical significance of Stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in regulation of liver tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) and sorafenib resistance, aiming to develop a novel therapeutic strategy against hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) METHODS We evaluated the clinic-pathological relevance of SCD1 and its correlation with sorafenib resistance in large cohorts of HCC clinical samples by qPCR and immunohistochemical analyses. Lentiviral-based overexpression and knockdown approaches were performed to characterize functional roles of SCD1 in regulation of liver T-ICs and sorafenib resistance...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647488/autoreactivity-to-malondialdehyde-modifications-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-is-linked-to-disease-activity-and-synovial-pathogenesis
#20
Caroline Grönwall, Khaled Amara, Uta Hardt, Akilan Krishnamurthy, Johanna Steen, Marianne Engström, Meng Sun, A Jimmy Ytterberg, Roman A Zubarev, Dagmar Scheel-Toellner, Jeffrey D Greenberg, Lars Klareskog, Anca I Catrina, Vivianne Malmström, Gregg J Silverman
Oxidation-associated malondialdehyde (MDA) modification of proteins can generate immunogenic neo-epitopes that are recognized by autoantibodies. In health, IgM antibodies to MDA-adducts are part of the natural antibody pool, while elevated levels of IgG anti-MDA antibodies are associated with inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Yet, in human autoimmune disease IgG anti-MDA responses have not been well characterized and their potential contribution to disease pathogenesis is not known. Here, we investigate MDA-modifications and anti-MDA-modified protein autoreactivity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
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