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Beta cells AND Taurine

Po-Ju Chen, Jung-Kai Tseng, Yi-Ling Lin, Yi-Hsieng Samuel Wu, Yi-Tse Hsiao, Jr-Wei Chen, Yi-Chen Chen
Via an assay using an Amino Acid Analyzer, pepsin-digested chicken liver hydrolysates (CLHs) contain taurine (365.57 ± 39.04 mg/100 g), carnosine (14.03 ± 1.98 mg/100 g), and anserine (151.58 ± 27.82 mg/100 g). This study aimed to evaluate whether CLHs could alleviate thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrosis. A dose of 100 mg TAA/kg BW significantly increased serum liver damage indices and liver cytokine contents. Cell infiltration and monocytes/macrophages in livers of TAA-treated rats were illustrated by the H&E staining and immunohistochemical analysis of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68, ED1), respectively...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mark F McCarty
Oxidative stress, the resulting uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity, are key mediators of the vascular and microvascular complications of diabetes. Much of this oxidative stress arises from up-regulated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity. Phycocyanobilin (PhyCB), the light-harvesting chromophore in edible cyanobacteria such as spirulina, is a biliverdin derivative that shares the ability of free bilirubin to inhibit certain isoforms of NADPH oxidase...
March 14, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Ana Lucia C Figueroa, Hugo Figueiredo, Sandra A Rebuffat, Elaine Vieira, Ramon Gomis
Close ties have been made among certain nutrients, obesity, type 2 diabetes and circadian clocks. Among nutrients, taurine has been documented as being effective against obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of taurine on circadian clocks has not been elucidated. We investigated whether taurine can modulate or correct disturbances in daily rhythms caused by a high-fat diet in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided in four groups: control (C), control + taurine (C+T), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD + taurine (HFD+T)...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zahra Ashkavand, Ciara O'Flanagan, Mirko Hennig, Xiuxia Du, Stephen D Hursting, Sergey A Krupenko
Folate coenzymes are involved in biochemical reactions of one-carbon transfer, and deficiency of this vitamin impairs cellular proliferation, migration and survival in many cell types. Here the effect of folate restriction on mammary cancer was evaluated using three distinct breast cancer subtypes differing in their aggressiveness and metastatic potential: non-invasive basal-like (E-Wnt), invasive but minimally metastatic claudin-low (M-Wnt), and highly metastatic claudin-low (metM-Wntliver) cell lines, each derived from the same pool of MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mouse mammary tumors...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Aza Shetewy, Kayoko Shimada-Takaura, Danielle Warner, Chian Ju Jong, Abu-Bakr Al Mehdi, Mikhail Alexeyev, Kyoko Takahashi, Stephen W Schaffer
Hyper-beta-alaninemia is a rare metabolic condition that results in elevated plasma and urinary β-alanine levels and is characterized by neurotoxicity, hypotonia, and respiratory distress. It has been proposed that at least some of the symptoms are caused by oxidative stress; however, only limited information is available on the mechanism of reactive oxygen species generation. The present study examines the hypothesis that β-alanine reduces cellular levels of taurine, which are required for normal respiratory chain function; cellular taurine depletion is known to reduce respiratory function and elevate mitochondrial superoxide generation...
May 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Johnny Habchi, Paolo Arosio, Michele Perni, Ana Rita Costa, Maho Yagi-Utsumi, Priyanka Joshi, Sean Chia, Samuel I A Cohen, Martin B D Müller, Sara Linse, Ellen A A Nollen, Christopher M Dobson, Tuomas P J Knowles, Michele Vendruscolo
The conversion of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide into pathogenic aggregates is linked to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Although this observation has prompted an extensive search for therapeutic agents to modulate the concentration of Aβ or inhibit its aggregation, all clinical trials with these objectives have so far failed, at least in part because of a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of aggregation and its inhibition. To address this problem, we describe a chemical kinetics approach for rational drug discovery, in which the effects of small molecules on the rates of specific microscopic steps in the self-assembly of Aβ42, the most aggregation-prone variant of Aβ, are analyzed quantitatively...
February 2016: Science Advances
Takashi Ito, Natsumi Yoshikawa, Hiromi Ito, Stephen W Schaffer
Taurine, an endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid, is found in millimolar concentrations in mammalian tissue, and its tissue content is altered by diet, disease and aging. The effectiveness of taurine administration against obesity and its related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, has been well documented. However, the impact of taurine depletion on glucose metabolism and fat deposition has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of taurine depletion (in the taurine transporter (TauT) knockout mouse model) on blood glucose control and high fat diet-induced obesity...
September 2015: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Hyun-Soo Shin, Eun-Sun Ryu, Eok-Soo Oh, Duk-Hee Kang
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and apoptosis of peritoneal mesothelial cells are known to be the earliest mechanisms of peritoneal fibrosis in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with an unfolded protein response is regarded to have a role in the development of organ fibrosis. To investigate the potential role of ER stress as a target to prevent and/or delay the development of peritoneal fibrosis, we examined the effect of ER stress on EMT or apoptosis of human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) and elucidated the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of ER stress preconditioning on TGF-β1-induced EMT...
October 2015: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Ulrike Breitinger, Karim M Raafat, Hans-Georg Breitinger
The inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR), a cys-loop ion channel receptor, mediates rapid synaptic inhibition in spinal cord, brainstem and higher centres of the mammalian central nervous system. Here, modulation of GlyR function by glucose and fructose was examined in recombinant alpha1 and alpha1/beta GlyRs using patch-clamp methods. Glucose was a positive modulator of the receptor, reducing the average EC50 for glycine up to 4.5-fold. Glucose reduced cell-to-cell variability of glycine-mediated currents by stabilizing receptors with low EC50...
September 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
Michelle Desforges, Hannah Whittaker, Etaoin Farmer, Colin P Sibley, Susan L Greenwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yoshito Abe, Takatoshi Ohkuri, Sachiko Yoshitomi, Shigeru Murakami, Tadashi Ueda
Taurine is one of the osmolytes that maintain the structure of proteins in cells exposed to denaturing environmental stressors. Recently, cryoelectron tomographic analysis of eukaryotic cells has revealed that their cytoplasms are crowded with proteins. Such crowding conditions would be expected to hinder the efficient folding of nascent polypeptide chains. Therefore, we examined the role of taurine on the folding of denatured and reduced lysozyme, as a model protein, under a crowding condition. The results confirmed that taurine had a better effect on protein folding than did β-alanine, which has a similar chemical structure, when the protein to be folded was present at submillimolar concentration...
May 2015: Amino Acids
Ilya Chumakov, Serguei Nabirotchkin, Nathalie Cholet, Aude Milet, Aurélie Boucard, Damien Toulorge, Yannick Pereira, Esther Graudens, Sory Traoré, Julie Foucquier, Mickael Guedj, Emmanuel Vial, Noëlle Callizot, Rémy Steinschneider, Tangui Maurice, Viviane Bertrand, Catherine Scart-Grès, Rodolphe Hajj, Daniel Cohen
Alzheimer disease (AD) represents a major medical problem where mono-therapeutic interventions demonstrated only a limited efficacy so far. We explored the possibility of developing a combinational therapy that might prevent the degradation of neuronal and endothelial structures in this disease. We argued that the distorted balance between excitatory (glutamate) and inhibitory (GABA/glycine) systems constitutes a therapeutic target for such intervention. We found that a combination of two approved drugs - acamprosate and baclofen - synergistically protected neurons and endothelial structures in vitro against amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers...
January 8, 2015: Scientific Reports
Hye Yun Kim, Hyunjin V Kim, Jin H Yoon, Bo Ram Kang, Soo Min Cho, Sejin Lee, Ji Yoon Kim, Joo Won Kim, Yakdol Cho, Jiwan Woo, YoungSoo Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a lethal progressive neurological disorder affecting the memory. Recently, US Food and Drug Administration mitigated the standard for drug approval, allowing symptomatic drugs that only improve cognitive deficits to be allowed to accelerate on to clinical trials. Our study focuses on taurine, an endogenous amino acid found in high concentrations in humans. It has demonstrated neuroprotective properties against many forms of dementia. In this study, we assessed cognitively enhancing property of taurine in transgenic mouse model of AD...
2014: Scientific Reports
Mina Mostafavi, Jainee Christa Lewis, Tanisha Saini, Julian Albert Bustamante, Ivan Thomas Gao, Tuyet Thi Tran, Sean Nicholas King, Zhenzhong Huang, Joseph C Chen
BACKGROUND: Genetic models have been developed in divergent branches of the class Alphaproteobacteria to help answer a wide spectrum of questions regarding bacterial physiology. For example, Sinorhizobium meliloti serves as a useful representative for investigating rhizobia-plant symbiosis and nitrogen fixation, Caulobacter crescentus for studying cell cycle regulation and organelle biogenesis, and Zymomonas mobilis for assessing the potentials of metabolic engineering and biofuel production...
2014: BMC Microbiology
Lisa Cadavez, Joel Montane, Gema Alcarraz-Vizán, Montse Visa, Laia Vidal-Fàbrega, Joan-Marc Servitja, Anna Novials
In type 2 diabetes, beta-cell dysfunction is thought to be due to several causes, one being the formation of toxic protein aggregates called islet amyloid, formed by accumulations of misfolded human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). The process of hIAPP misfolding and aggregation is one of the factors that may activate the unfolded protein response (UPR), perturbing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. Molecular chaperones have been described to be important in regulating ER response to ER stress. In the present work, we evaluate the role of chaperones in a stressed cellular model of hIAPP overexpression...
2014: PloS One
Alessandra Stacchiotti, Francesca Rovetta, Matteo Ferroni, Giovanni Corsetti, Antonio Lavazza, Giorgio Sberveglieri, Maria Francesca Aleo
Cisplatin (CisPt) is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug whose side effects include muscle weakness and cachexia. Here we analysed CisPt-induced atrophy in C2C12 myotubes by a multidisciplinary morphological approach, focusing on the onset and progression of autophagy, a protective cellular process that, when excessively activated, may trigger protein hypercatabolism and atrophy in skeletal muscle. To visualize autophagy we used confocal and transmission electron microscopy at different times of treatment and doses of CisPt...
2014: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Tai Tien Tran, Anfeng Mu, Yuka Adachi, Yasushi Adachi, Shigeru Taketani
δ-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin accumulation is widely used in the treatment of cancer, as photodynamic therapy (PDT). To clarify the mechanisms of ALA uptake by tumor cells, we have examined the ALA-induced accumulation of protoporphyrin by the treatment of colon cancer DLD-1 and epithelial cancer HeLa cells with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related compounds. When the cells were treated with GABA, taurine and β-alanine, the level of protoporphyrin was decreased, suggesting that plasma membrane transporters involved in the transport of neurotransmitters contribute to the uptake of ALA...
September 2014: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Barbara Komm, Marlena Beyreis, Michael Kittl, Martin Jakab, Markus Ritter, Hubert H Kerschbaum
Phagocytes form engulfment pseudopodia at the contact area with their target particle by a process resembling cell volume (CV) regulatory mechanisms. We evaluated whether the osmoregulatory active neutral amino acid glycine, which contributes to CV regulation via activation of sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporters (SNATs) improves phagocytosis in isotonic and hypertonic conditions in the murine microglial cell line BV-2 and primary microglial cells (pMG). In BV-2 cells and pMG, RT-PCR analysis revealed expression of SNATs (Slc38a1, Slc38a2), but not of GlyRs (Glra1-4)...
August 2014: Amino Acids
Qinru Sun, Haitao Hu, Weixi Wang, Hui Jin, Gaifeng Feng, Ning Jia
Amyloid β (Aβ) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Studies indicate that Aβ causes reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurons loss in vivo and in vitro. Taurine, a naturally occurring β-amino acid in the brain, has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective properties. In the present study, the effects of taurine on cell viability and mitochondrial function in Aβ1-42-treated SK-N-SH cells were investigated. Pretreatment of taurine significantly attenuated Aβ1-42-induced neuronal death...
May 9, 2014: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Arefeh Jafarian, Mohammad Taghikhani, Saeid Abroun, Zahra Pourpak, Amir Allahverdi, Masoud Soleimani
Allogenic islet transplantation is a most efficient approach for treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, the scarcity of islets and long term need for an immunosuppressant limits its application. Recently, cell replacement therapies that generate of unlimited sources of β cells have been developed to overcome these limitations. In this study we have described a stage specific differentiation protocol for the generation of insulin producing islet-like clusters from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs)...
July 2014: Molecular Biology Reports
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