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Beta cells AND Taurine

Agnieszka Wendołowicz, Ewa Stefańska, Lucyna Ostrowska
The diet is directly connected not only with the physical status but also with the functioning of the brain and the mental status. The potentially beneficial nutrients with a protective effect on the nervous system function include amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, taurine), glucose and vitamins C, E, D and beta-carotene, B group vitamins (vitamin B12, vitamin B6, vitamin B4, vitamin B1) and minerals (selenium, zinc, magnesium, sodium, iron, copper, manganese, iodine). The presence of antioxidants in the diet protects against oxidative damage to nervous system cells...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Takashi Ito, Yukiko Nakanishi, Noriko Yamaji, Shigeru Murakami, Stephen W Schaffer
It has been identified that skeletal muscle is an endocrine tissue. Since skeletal muscle aging affects not only to muscle strength and function but to systemic aging and lifespan, myokines secreted from skeletal muscle may be crucial factors for intertissue communication during aging. In the present study, we investigated the expression of myokines associated with skeletal muscle aging in taurine transporter knockout (TauTKO) mice, which exhibit the accelerated skeletal muscle aging. Among transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family genes, only growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) was markedly higher (>3-fold) in skeletal muscle of old TauTKO mice compared with that of either young TauTKO mice or old wild-type mice...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Mehri Mortazavi, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Soroush Sardari, Kayhan Azadmanesh, Reza Mahdian, Hooman Kaghazian, Seyed Nezamedin Hosseini, Elnaz Shams
Recombinant protein aggregation is a problematic issue and can provoke immunological response. The aim of this study was to analyze the stability of erythropoietin, as a therapeutic protein expressed in mammalian cells, in the presence of different chemicals and find a specific stabilizer for erythropoietin. The effects of several chemicals, including mannitol, betaine, trehalose, taurine, linoleic acid, beta cyclodextrin, copper sulfate, spermidine, maltose, maltodextrin, sucrose, dextran, beta alanine, myo-inositol and cysteine, on protein stabilization through the thermally induced aggregation of erythropoietin were monitored...
January 9, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
R Schwarzer, D Kivaranovic, M Mandorfer, R Paternostro, D Wolrab, B Heinisch, T Reiberger, M Ferlitsch, C Gerner, M Trauner, M Peck-Radosavljevic, A Ferlitsch
BACKGROUND: The amino sulphonic acid taurine reduces oxidative endoplasmatic reticulum stress and inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation, which might lead to reduction of portal pressure in cirrhosis. AIM: To assess the haemodynamic effects of taurine supplementation in patients with cirrhosis and varices. METHODS: Patients with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) ≥12 mm Hg were included in this prospective proof of concept study...
January 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Takashi Ito, Koei Okazaki, Daisuke Nakajima, Daisuke Shibata, Shigeru Murakami, Stephen Schaffer
Taurine is an abundant beta-amino acid found in high concentration in mammalian tissues. Taurine possesses many beneficial functions in mammalian cells. There are also a variety of taurine-conjugated products formed between taurine and bile acids, fatty acids, chloramine, mitochondrial tRNA, etc., and some of these have been identified as functional compounds. In the present study, we identified taurine-conjugated metabolites using LC-MS-based metabolome analysis of heart extracts prepared from hearts of wild-type and taurine transporter-knockout (TauTKO) mice, the latter being severely taurine deficient...
October 10, 2017: Amino Acids
Stanley M H Chan, Yeh-Siang Lau, Alyson A Miller, Jacqueline M Ku, Simon Potocnik, Ji-Ming Ye, Owen L Woodman, Terence P Herbert
The metabolic syndrome is associated with an increase in the activation of the renin angiotensin system, whose inhibition reduces the incidence of new-onset diabetes. Importantly, angiotensin II (AngII), independently of its vasoconstrictor action, causes β-cell inflammation and dysfunction, which may be an early step in the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine how AngII causes β-cell dysfunction. Islets of Langerhans were isolated from C57BL/6J mice that had been infused with AngII in the presence or absence of taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and effects on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation, and β-cell function determined...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
Bin Han, Yu Fang, Mao Feng, Han Hu, Yue Hao, Chuan Ma, Xinmei Huo, Lifeng Meng, Xufeng Zhang, Fan Wu, Jianke Li
The brain is a vital organ in regulating complex social behaviors of honeybees including learning and memory. Knowledge of how brain membrane proteins and their phosphorylation underlie the age-related behavioral polyethism is still lacking. A hitherto age-resolved brain membrane proteome and phosphoproteome were reported in adult worker bees from two strains of honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica): Italian bee (ITB) and Royal Jelly bee (RJB), a line selected from ITB for increased RJ outputs over four decades...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Yang-Hsiang Lin, Meng-Han Wu, Ya-Hui Huang, Chau-Ting Yeh, Mei-Ling Cheng, Hsiang-Cheng Chi, Chung-Ying Tsai, I-Hsiao Chung, Ching-Ying Chen, Kwang-Huei Lin
Cancer cells display altered glucose metabolism characterized by a preference for aerobic glycolysis. The aerobic glycolytic phenotype of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often correlated with tumor progression and poorer clinical outcomes. However, the issue of whether glycolytic metabolism influences metastasis in HCC remains unclear. In the current study, we showed that knockdown of Taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) induces marked inhibition of cell migration, invasion and glycolysis via suppression of miR-455-3p...
August 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Po-Ju Chen, Jung-Kai Tseng, Yi-Ling Lin, Yi-Hsieng Samuel Wu, Yi-Tse Hsiao, Jr-Wei Chen, Yi-Chen Chen
Via an assay using an Amino Acid Analyzer, pepsin-digested chicken liver hydrolysates (CLHs) contain taurine (365.57 ± 39.04 mg/100 g), carnosine (14.03 ± 1.98 mg/100 g), and anserine (151.58 ± 27.82 mg/100 g). This study aimed to evaluate whether CLHs could alleviate thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrosis. A dose of 100 mg TAA/kg BW significantly increased serum liver damage indices and liver cytokine contents. Cell infiltration and monocytes/macrophages in livers of TAA-treated rats were illustrated by the H&E staining and immunohistochemical analysis of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68, ED1), respectively...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mark F McCarty
Oxidative stress, the resulting uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity, are key mediators of the vascular and microvascular complications of diabetes. Much of this oxidative stress arises from up-regulated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity. Phycocyanobilin (PhyCB), the light-harvesting chromophore in edible cyanobacteria such as spirulina, is a biliverdin derivative that shares the ability of free bilirubin to inhibit certain isoforms of NADPH oxidase...
March 14, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Ana Lucia C Figueroa, Hugo Figueiredo, Sandra A Rebuffat, Elaine Vieira, Ramon Gomis
Close ties have been made among certain nutrients, obesity, type 2 diabetes and circadian clocks. Among nutrients, taurine has been documented as being effective against obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of taurine on circadian clocks has not been elucidated. We investigated whether taurine can modulate or correct disturbances in daily rhythms caused by a high-fat diet in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided in four groups: control (C), control + taurine (C+T), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD + taurine (HFD+T)...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zahra Ashkavand, Ciara O'Flanagan, Mirko Hennig, Xiuxia Du, Stephen D Hursting, Sergey A Krupenko
Folate coenzymes are involved in biochemical reactions of one-carbon transfer, and deficiency of this vitamin impairs cellular proliferation, migration and survival in many cell types. Here the effect of folate restriction on mammary cancer was evaluated using three distinct breast cancer subtypes differing in their aggressiveness and metastatic potential: non-invasive basal-like (E-Wnt), invasive but minimally metastatic claudin-low (M-Wnt), and highly metastatic claudin-low (metM-Wntliver) cell lines, each derived from the same pool of MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mouse mammary tumors...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Aza Shetewy, Kayoko Shimada-Takaura, Danielle Warner, Chian Ju Jong, Abu-Bakr Al Mehdi, Mikhail Alexeyev, Kyoko Takahashi, Stephen W Schaffer
Hyper-beta-alaninemia is a rare metabolic condition that results in elevated plasma and urinary β-alanine levels and is characterized by neurotoxicity, hypotonia, and respiratory distress. It has been proposed that at least some of the symptoms are caused by oxidative stress; however, only limited information is available on the mechanism of reactive oxygen species generation. The present study examines the hypothesis that β-alanine reduces cellular levels of taurine, which are required for normal respiratory chain function; cellular taurine depletion is known to reduce respiratory function and elevate mitochondrial superoxide generation...
May 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Johnny Habchi, Paolo Arosio, Michele Perni, Ana Rita Costa, Maho Yagi-Utsumi, Priyanka Joshi, Sean Chia, Samuel I A Cohen, Martin B D Müller, Sara Linse, Ellen A A Nollen, Christopher M Dobson, Tuomas P J Knowles, Michele Vendruscolo
The conversion of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide into pathogenic aggregates is linked to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Although this observation has prompted an extensive search for therapeutic agents to modulate the concentration of Aβ or inhibit its aggregation, all clinical trials with these objectives have so far failed, at least in part because of a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of aggregation and its inhibition. To address this problem, we describe a chemical kinetics approach for rational drug discovery, in which the effects of small molecules on the rates of specific microscopic steps in the self-assembly of Aβ42, the most aggregation-prone variant of Aβ, are analyzed quantitatively...
February 2016: Science Advances
Takashi Ito, Natsumi Yoshikawa, Hiromi Ito, Stephen W Schaffer
Taurine, an endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid, is found in millimolar concentrations in mammalian tissue, and its tissue content is altered by diet, disease and aging. The effectiveness of taurine administration against obesity and its related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, has been well documented. However, the impact of taurine depletion on glucose metabolism and fat deposition has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of taurine depletion (in the taurine transporter (TauT) knockout mouse model) on blood glucose control and high fat diet-induced obesity...
September 2015: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Hyun-Soo Shin, Eun-Sun Ryu, Eok-Soo Oh, Duk-Hee Kang
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and apoptosis of peritoneal mesothelial cells are known to be the earliest mechanisms of peritoneal fibrosis in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with an unfolded protein response is regarded to have a role in the development of organ fibrosis. To investigate the potential role of ER stress as a target to prevent and/or delay the development of peritoneal fibrosis, we examined the effect of ER stress on EMT or apoptosis of human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) and elucidated the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of ER stress preconditioning on TGF-β1-induced EMT...
October 2015: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Ulrike Breitinger, Karim M Raafat, Hans-Georg Breitinger
The inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR), a cys-loop ion channel receptor, mediates rapid synaptic inhibition in spinal cord, brainstem and higher centres of the mammalian central nervous system. Here, modulation of GlyR function by glucose and fructose was examined in recombinant alpha1 and alpha1/beta GlyRs using patch-clamp methods. Glucose was a positive modulator of the receptor, reducing the average EC50 for glycine up to 4.5-fold. Glucose reduced cell-to-cell variability of glycine-mediated currents by stabilizing receptors with low EC50...
September 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
Michelle Desforges, Hannah Whittaker, Etaoin Farmer, Colin P Sibley, Susan L Greenwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yoshito Abe, Takatoshi Ohkuri, Sachiko Yoshitomi, Shigeru Murakami, Tadashi Ueda
Taurine is one of the osmolytes that maintain the structure of proteins in cells exposed to denaturing environmental stressors. Recently, cryoelectron tomographic analysis of eukaryotic cells has revealed that their cytoplasms are crowded with proteins. Such crowding conditions would be expected to hinder the efficient folding of nascent polypeptide chains. Therefore, we examined the role of taurine on the folding of denatured and reduced lysozyme, as a model protein, under a crowding condition. The results confirmed that taurine had a better effect on protein folding than did β-alanine, which has a similar chemical structure, when the protein to be folded was present at submillimolar concentration...
May 2015: Amino Acids
Ilya Chumakov, Serguei Nabirotchkin, Nathalie Cholet, Aude Milet, Aurélie Boucard, Damien Toulorge, Yannick Pereira, Esther Graudens, Sory Traoré, Julie Foucquier, Mickael Guedj, Emmanuel Vial, Noëlle Callizot, Rémy Steinschneider, Tangui Maurice, Viviane Bertrand, Catherine Scart-Grès, Rodolphe Hajj, Daniel Cohen
Alzheimer disease (AD) represents a major medical problem where mono-therapeutic interventions demonstrated only a limited efficacy so far. We explored the possibility of developing a combinational therapy that might prevent the degradation of neuronal and endothelial structures in this disease. We argued that the distorted balance between excitatory (glutamate) and inhibitory (GABA/glycine) systems constitutes a therapeutic target for such intervention. We found that a combination of two approved drugs - acamprosate and baclofen - synergistically protected neurons and endothelial structures in vitro against amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers...
January 8, 2015: Scientific Reports
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