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Placenta metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788824/activation-of-ampk-in-human-placental-explants-impairs-mitochondrial-function-and-cellular-metabolism
#1
Daphne Landau, Maricela Haghiac, Judi Minium, Yelenna Skomorovska-Prokvolit, Virtu Calabuig-Navarro, Perrie O'Tierney-Ginn
OBJECTIVE: Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor whose phosphorylation increases energy production. We sought to evaluate the placenta-specific effect of AMPK activation on the handling of nutrients required for fetal development. METHODS: Explants were isolated from term placenta of 29 women (pregravid body mass index: 29.1 ± 9.9 kg/m2 ) and incubated for 24 hours with 0 to 100 µmol/L resveratrol or 0 to 1 mmol/L of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleoside (AICAR)...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781079/the-role-of-new-adipokines-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-pathogenesis
#2
Radzisław Mierzyński, Elżbieta Poniedziałek-Czajkowska, Dominik Dłuski, Bożena Leszczyńska-Gorzelak
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition dur-ing pregnancy. Explanation of the GDM pathogenesis is important due to preventing gestational complications. During pregnancy there are significant changes in maternal metabolism. Many of these changes are influenced by different adi-pokines produced in the placenta and adipose tissue. The exact role of adipokines in the pathogenesis of GDM remains still unknown. Several adipokines have been analysed throughout gestation and their levels have been suggested as biomarkers of maternal-perinatal outcomes...
2018: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773464/sex-and-gender-differences-in-developmental-programming-of-metabolism
#3
REVIEW
Laura Dearden, Sebastien G Bouret, Susan E Ozanne
BACKGROUND: The early life environment experienced by an individual in utero and during the neonatal period is a major factor in shaping later life disease risk-including susceptibility to develop obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The incidence of metabolic disease is different between males and females. How the early life environment may underlie these sex differences is an area of active investigation. SCOPE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of how the early life environment influences metabolic disease risk in a sex specific manner...
April 30, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772225/maternal-one-carbon-metabolism-through-increased-oxidative-stress-and-disturbed-angiogenesis-can-influence-placental-apoptosis-in-preeclampsia
#4
REVIEW
Vaishali V Kasture, Deepali P Sundrani, Sadhana R Joshi
Adequate maternal nutrition is critical for a healthy pregnancy outcome and poor maternal nutrition is known to be associated with pregnancy complications like preeclampsia. We have earlier demonstrated that there is an imbalance in the levels of micronutrients (folate and vitamin B12 ) along with low levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) and high homocysteine levels in women with preeclampsia. Homocysteine is known to be involved in the formation of free radicals leading to increased oxidative stress...
May 14, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767691/thyroid-hormones-and-female-reproduction
#5
Juneo F Silva, Natália M Ocarino, Rogéria Serakides
Thyroid hormones are vital for the proper functioning of the female reproductive system, since they modulate the metabolism and development of ovarian, uterine and placental tissues. Therefore, hypo- and hyperthyroidism may result in subfertility or infertility in both women and animals. Other well-documented sequelae of maternal thyroid dysfunctions include menstrual/estral irregularity, anovulation, abortion, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, postpartum thyroiditis, and mental retardation in children...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763375/chromosomal-architecture-and-placental-expression-of-the-human-growth-hormone-gene-family-are-targeted-by-pre-pregnancy-maternal-obesity
#6
Yan Jin, Hana Vakili, SongYan Liu, Savas Menticoglou, Margaret E Bock, Peter A Cattini
The human (h) placental lactogenic hormone chorionic somatomammotropin (CS) is highly produced during pregnancy and acts as a metabolic adaptor in response to maternal insulin resistance. Maternal obesity can exacerbate this "resistance" and a >75% decrease in CS RNA levels was observed in term placentas from obese versus lean women. The genes coding for hCS (hCS-A and hCS-B) and placental growth hormone (hGH-V) as well as the hCS-L pseudogene and pituitary growth hormone (GH) gene (hGH-N) are located at a single locus on chromosome 17...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734515/decreased-placental-and-muscular-expression-of-the-fibroblast-growth-factor-19-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Dongyu Wang, Shuqia Xu, Wenjing Ding, Caixia Zhu, Songqing Deng, Xiwen Qiu, Zilian Wang
AIMS: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 has been shown to improve glycaemic homeostasis and lipid metabolism in animal models. In humans, decreased FGF19 level has been described in diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the expression of FGF19 in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples for measurement were obtained from 20 GDM women and 25 healthy controls. The mRNA and protein expression levels of FGF19, FGF21 and co-receptor β-klotho (KLB) in placenta, rectus muscle and subcutaneous fat tissues were quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western-blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730292/altered-expression-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-pdx1-and-their-methylation-status-are-associated-with-fetal-glucose-metabolism-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Lizhen Wang, Hailing Fan, Ludan Zhou, Yanjun Wu, Hongping Lu, Jing Luo
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the expression and methylation of PGC-1α and PDX1 in placenta and their effects on fetal glucose metabolism. METHODS: 20 cases of full-term placenta without pregnancy complications and umbilical cord abnormalities and 20 cases of GDM group were collected. DNA and RNA were isolated from samples of tissue collected from the fetal side of the placenta immediately after delivery. DNA methylation was quantified at 7 CpG sites within the PGC-1α and PDX1 genes using PCR amplification of bisulfite treated DNA and subsequent DNA sequencing...
May 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726582/extracellular-vesicles-generated-by-placental-tissues-ex-vivo-a-transport-system-for-immune-mediators-and-growth-factors
#9
Wendy Fitzgerald, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Offer Erez, Roberto Romero, Leonid Margolis
PROBLEM: To study the mechanisms of placenta function and the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in pregnancy, it is necessary to develop an ex vivo system that retains placental cytoarchitecture and the primary metabolic aspects, in particular the release of EVs and soluble factors. Here, we developed such a system and investigated the pattern of secretion of cytokines, growth factors, and extracellular vesicles by placental villous and amnion tissues ex vivo. METHODS OF STUDY: Placental villous and amnion explants were cultured for 2 weeks at the air/liquid interface and their morphology and the released cytokines and EVs were analyzed...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715698/antenatal-vitamin-d-preserves-placental-vascular-and-fetal-growth-in-experimental-chorioamnionitis-due-to-intra-amniotic-endotoxin-exposure
#10
Michael W Cookson, Sharon L Ryan, Gregory J Seedorf, R Blair Dodson, Steve H Abman, Erica W Mandell
BACKGROUND:  Chorioamnionitis (CA) is associated with a high risk for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) after preterm birth, but mechanisms that increase susceptibility for BPD and strategies to prevent BPD are uncertain. As a model of CA, antenatal intra-amniotic (IA) endotoxin (ETX) exposure alters placental structure, causes fetal growth restriction, increases perinatal mortality, and causes sustained cardiorespiratory abnormalities throughout infancy. Vitamin D (Vit D) has been shown to have both anti-inflammatory and proangiogenic properties...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702403/transfer-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-from-mother-to-fetus-in-relation-to-pregnancy-complications
#11
Xudong Dong, Qibing Wang, Juan Peng, Min Wu, Bo Pan, Baoshan Xing
The accumulation and transfer of carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in the human body, especially from mother to fetus, has been the subject of many research studies, but the related data are limited and the mechanisms are unknown. This is the first study to investigate the distribution of PAHs in paired samples of maternal blood, placenta tissue, and umbilical cord blood in relation to pregnancy complications. Sixty-four pairs of samples were collected in Kunming, China; 18 were from healthy pregnant women and 46 were from patients with pregnancy complications...
April 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701266/sex-specific-alterations-in-serology-and-the-expression-of-liver-fatp4-protein-in-offspring-exposed-to-high-fat-diet-during-pregnancy-and-or-lactation
#12
Mingqiu Zhao, Yi Li, Huihui Yao, Lihua Dou, Shuya Zhang, Qihong Zhao, Li Li
Changes in dietary composition will have a significant impact on the nutritional status of the mother and the offspring. To examine the relevant hormone level changes during lactation and the expression of fatty acid transporters in the placenta and liver under the condition of a high-fat (HF) diet, we established HF animal models and conducted a cross-fostering program to mimic the shift in diet. On gestation day (GD)18, the weight of placenta in the HF group was significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0...
March 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699712/foetoplacental-epigenetic-changes-associated-with-maternal-metabolic-dysfunction
#13
Bredford Kerr, Andrea Leiva, Marcelo Farías, Susana Contreras-Duarte, Fernando Toledo, Francisca Stolzenbach, Luis Silva, Luis Sobrevia
Metabolic-related diseases are attributed to a sedentary lifestyle and eating habits, and there is now an increased awareness regarding pregnancy as a preponderant window in the programming of adulthood health and disease. The developing foetus is susceptible to the maternal environment; hence, any unfavourable condition will result in foetal physiological adaptations that could have a permanent impact on its health. Some of these alterations are maintained via epigenetic modifications capable of modifying gene expression in metabolism-related genes...
April 12, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684673/exercise-as-a-therapeutic-intervention-to-optimize-fetal-weight
#14
REVIEW
Laura M Reyes, Margie H Davenport
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease suggest the in utero environment programs offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, there is a need to implement safe therapeutic interventions that do not involve the intake of medications or biological products during pregnancy that can improve maternal and fetal health. Prenatal exercise is established to promote maternal and fetal health. It is generally recommended that women accumulate at least 150 min per week of moderate-intensity exercise...
April 22, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682127/de-novo-sequencing-of-a-sparassis-latifolia-genome-and-its-associated-comparative-analyses
#15
Donglai Xiao, Lu Ma, Chi Yang, Zhenghe Ying, Xiaoling Jiang, Yan-Quan Lin
Known to be rich in β- glucan, Sparassis latifolia ( S. latifolia ) is a valuable edible fungus cultivated in East Asia. A few studies have suggested that S. latifolia is effective on antidiabetic, antihypertension, antitumor, and antiallergen medications. However, it is still unclear genetically why the fungus has these medical effects, which has become a key bottleneck for its further applications. To provide a better understanding of this fungus, we sequenced its whole genome, which has a total size of 48...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671598/impact-of-oxygen-concentration-on-metabolic-profile-of-human-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-determined-by-chemical-isotope-labeling-lc-ms
#16
Dan Wang, Deying Chen, Jiong Yu, Jingqi Liu, Xiaowei Shi, Yanni Sun, Qiaoling Pan, Xian Luo, Jinfeng Yang, Yang Li, Hongcui Cao, Liang Li, Lanjuan Li
The placenta resides in a physiologically low oxygen microenvironment of the body. Hypoxia induces a wide range of stem cell cellular activities. Here, we report a workflow for exploring the role of physiological (hypoxic, 5% oxygen) and original cell culture (normoxic, 21% oxygen) oxygen concentrations in regulating the metabolic status of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs). The general biological characteristics of hPMSCs were assessed via a variety of approaches such as cell counts, flow cytometry and differentiation study...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669946/pravastatin-therapy-during-preeclampsia-prevents-long-term-adverse-health-effects-in-mice
#17
Nicola Garrett, Joaquim Pombo, Michelle Umpierrez, James E Clark, Mark Simmons, Guillermina Girardi
Preeclampsia (PE), associates with long-term increased risk for cardiovascular disease in women, suggesting that PE is not an isolated disease of pregnancy. It is not known if increased risk for long-term diseases is due to PE-specific factors or to prepregnancy renal and cardiovascular risk factors. We used a mouse model in which a WT female with normal prepregnancy health develops PE to investigate if preeclampsia causes long-term cardiovascular consequences after pregnancy for mothers and offspring. Mothers exhibited endothelial dysfunction and hypertension after PE and had glomerular injury that not only persisted but deteriorated, leading to fibrosis...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661800/chorionic-somatomammotropin-impacts-early-fetal-growth-and-placental-gene-expression
#18
Kimberly M Jeckel, Alexander C Boyarko, Gerrit Bouma, Quinton Winger, Russ V Anthony
Several developmental windows, including placentation, must be negotiated to establish and maintain pregnancy. Impaired placental function can lead to pre-eclampsia and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), resulting in increased infant mortality and morbidity. It has been hypothesized that chorionic somatomammotropin (CSH), plays a significant role in fetal development, potentially by modifying maternal and fetal metabolism. Recently, using lentiviral-mediated in vivo RNA interference in sheep, we demonstrated significant reductions in near-term (135 days of gestation; dGA) fetal and placental size, and altered fetal liver gene expression, resulting from CSH deficiency...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642799/placental-defects-an-epigenetic-perspective
#19
Sharvari S Deshpande, Nafisa H Balasinor
Placenta, the first organ to be formed during gestation, plays a crucial role in intrauterine regulation of fetal growth and is involved in several functions during fetal development such as exchange of nutrients, wastes, and gases; protection against maternal immune rejection; and various metabolic and endocrine functions. Several studies have shown the regulation of epigenetic factors and the phenomenon of genomic imprinting in placentation and embryogenesis. Any gain or loss of imprint marks in the placenta has been shown to associate with severe placental defects which in turn affect both the mother and the growing fetus and can have long-term effects during adulthood...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626983/hematopoietic-changes-in-the-offspring-induced-by-maternal-overweight-effect-on-placenta-and-fetal-liver-populations
#20
Luana Leirós, Juliana Barbosa Torreão Dáu, Daphne Pinheiro, Ana Carolina Stumbo Machado, Alessandra Alves Thole, Erika Afonso Costa Cortez, Laís de Carvalho, Simone Nunes de Carvalho
INTRODUCTION: Bone marrow cells (BMC) from obese adult mice display an increased apoptosis rate over proliferation. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) form all blood cells and are important BMC used in cell therapy. Because it is known that prenatal development can be affected by adverse metabolic epigenetic programming from the maternal organism, this work aimed to investigate the effects of maternal overweight on placenta and fetal liver hematopoietic niches. METHODS: Overweight was induced in female mice by overfeeding during lactation...
April 2018: Placenta
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