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Placenta metabolism

Chiara Sartori, Pietro Lazzeroni, Silvia Merli, Viviana Dora Patianna, Francesca Viaroli, Francesca Cirillo, Sergio Amarri, Maria Elisabeth Street
Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Jing Wang, Xing Dong, Hong-Yan Wu, Nan Wu, Xue-Jun Zhang, Xin Wang, Li-Xin Shang
BACKGROUND: Liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and endoglin have been postulated to play roles in trophoblast invasion and lipid metabolic disturbances. However, the relationship between LXRα and endoglin levels in serum and placenta of patients with preeclampsia remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify correlations between LXRα, endoglin and preeclampsia and provide new feasible methods of clinical prediction and treatment for preeclampsia. METHODS: We enrolled 45 patients with preeclampsia (24 with moderate preeclampsia and 21 with severe preeclampsia) and 15 normal pregnant women (control group) who were admitted to the Department of Obstetrics of the General Hospital of Beijing Command between October 2012 and July 2013 in this study...
2016: PloS One
Rekik A Muluye, Yuhong Bian, Li Wang, Paulos N Alemu, Huantian Cui, Xiaofei Peng, Shanshan Li
Background: Level of fatigue is related to the metabolic energy available to tissues and cells, mainly through mitochondrial respiration, as well fatigue is the most common symptom of poorly functioning mitochondria. Hence, dysfunction of these organelles may be the cause of the fatigue seen in Chronic fatigue (CF). Placenta has been used for treatment of fatigue and various disease, moreover peptides has known protect mitochondrial viability, and alleviate fatigue. These properties of placenta and peptides may link with its effect on mitochondria; therefore, it is highly important to investigate the effectiveness of placenta peptide on fatigue and mitochondrial dysfunction...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Wenjuan Sun, Baoxia Cui, Fanzhen Hong, Yongping Xu
In the present study, we established an ApoE-knockout mouse model of preeclampsia to examine the role of vascular endothelial injury associated with abnormal lipid metabolism in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. To establish the ApoE-knockout homozygous (ApoE(-/-)) and heterozygous (ApoE(+/-)) mouse model, mice were mated with the same genotype and orbital blood on day 19 of conception was collected. The progeny mice were assigned into 3 groups: ApoE(-/), ApoE(+/-) and wild-type (WT) groups. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density and high-density lipoprotein were measured in the serum at the end of conception...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Stine Linding Andersen, Peter Laurberg
Hyperthyroidism in women who are of childbearing age is predominantly of autoimmune origin and caused by Graves' disease. The physiological changes in the maternal immune system during a pregnancy may influence the development of this and other autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, pregnancy-associated physiological changes influence the synthesis and metabolism of thyroid hormones and challenge the interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnancy. Thyroid hormones are crucial regulators of early development and play an important role in the maintenance of a normal pregnancy and in the development of the fetus, particularly the fetal brain...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
Anning Yang, Huiping Zhang, Yue Sun, Yanhua Wang, Xiaoming Yang, Xiaoling Yang, Hui Zhang, Wei Guo, Guangrong Zhu, Jue Tian, Yuexia Jia, Yideng Jiang
Inflammation and dysregulated lipid metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is known to regulate both inflammation and lipid metabolism. In the present study, we elucidated the role of FABP4 using in vitro and in vivo models of preclampsia. We found increased expression of FABP4 in the placenta of preeclamptic rats, which was further confirmed in HTR-8 cells, an extravillous trophoblast cell line, treated with L-NAME. Overexpression of FABP4 in HTR-8 cells resulted in upregulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, and increased lipid accumulation, suggesting that FABP4 plays a role in preeclampsia...
October 2016: Placenta
Timothy R Fennell, Ninell P Mortensen, Sherry R Black, Rodney W Snyder, Keith E Levine, Eric Poitras, James M Harrington, Christopher J Wingard, Nathan A Holland, Wimal Pathmasiri, Susan C J Sumner
Few investigations have been conducted on the disposition and fate of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in pregnancy. The distribution of a single dose of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized AgNP was investigated in pregnant rats. Two sizes of AgNP, 20 and 110 nm, and silver acetate (AgAc) were used to investigate the role of AgNP diameter and particle dissolution in tissue distribution, internal dose and persistence. Dams were administered AgNP or AgAc intravenously (i.v.) (1 mg kg(-1) ) or by gavage (p...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Vinita V Khot, Preeti Chavan-Gautam, Savita Mehendale, Sadhana R Joshi
Children born preterm are reported to be at increased risk of developing noncommunicable diseases in later life. Altered placental DNA methylation patterns are implicated in fetal programming of adult diseases. Our earlier animal studies focus on micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) that interact in the 1 carbon cycle, thereby influencing methylation reactions. Our previous studies in women delivering preterm show altered plasma levels of micronutrients and lower plasma LCPUFA levels...
September 27, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Gozde Unek, Asli Ozmen, Bekir Sitki Isenlik, Emin T Korgun
The placenta, which is a regulator organ for many metabolic activities between mother and fetus, is critical in influencing the outcome of pregnancy. Therefore, fetal growth is directly related to the placental development. Placental development depends on the coordinated action of trophoblast proliferation, differentiation and invasion. Studies on cell cycle related proteins that control these events are limited. Abnormal placental development is linked to various pregnancy pathologies such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, diabetes mellitus and gestational trophoblastic diseases...
September 26, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
Fuzhen Song, Weibin Wu, Zhaoxia Qian, Guofu Zhang, Yingsheng Cheng
Placental insufficiency is a major cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and seriously affects fetal development. When placental insufficiency happened, the diffusion of water molecule was restricted and the metabolic balance was destroyed in the placenta. In this prospective study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in combination with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) for placental insufficiency in IUGR. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated using DWI, and the metabolism of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline, and lipid and their ratios in the placenta were calculated using (1)H MRS...
September 19, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Z Zhou, M Vailati-Riboni, E Trevisi, J K Drackley, D N Luchini, J J Loor
The onset of lactation in dairy cows is characterized by high output of methylated compounds in milk when sources of methyl group are in short supply. Methionine and choline (CHOL) are key methyl donors and their availability during this time may be limiting for milk production, hepatic lipid metabolism, and immune function. Supplementing rumen-protected Met and CHOL may improve overall performance and health of transition cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental rumen-protected Met and CHOL on performance and health of transition cows...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Ramanathan K Kasimanickam
The objective was to elucidate gene expression differences in uterus, caruncle, and cotyledon of ewes with subclinical pregnancy toxemia (SCPT) and healthy ewes, and to identify associated biological functions and pathways involved in pregnancy toxemia. On Day 136 (±1 day) post-breeding, ewes (n = 18) had body condition score (BCS; 1-5; 1, emaciated; 5, obese) assessed, and blood samples were collected for plasma glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) analyses. The ewes were euthanized, and tissue samples were collected from the gravid uterus and placentomes...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri, Jorge López-Tello, Abigail L Fowden, Miguel Constancia
Pregnancy success and life-long health depend on a cooperative interaction between the mother and the fetus in the allocation of resources. As the site of materno-fetal nutrient transfer, the placenta is central to this interplay; however, the relative importance of the maternal versus fetal genotypes in modifying the allocation of resources to the fetus is unknown. Using genetic inactivation of the growth and metabolism regulator, Pik3ca (encoding PIK3CA also known as p110α, α/+), we examined the interplay between the maternal genome and the fetal genome on placental phenotype in litters of mixed genotype generated through reciprocal crosses of WT and α/+ mice...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Claudia Gundacker, Jürgen Neesen, Elisabeth Straka, Isabella Ellinger, Helmut Dolznig, Markus Hengstschläger
Exposure to chemicals and environmental pollutants among them cadmium, lead, and mercury can harm reproduction. The metals cross the placenta, accumulate in placental tissue, and pass onto fetal blood and fetal organs to variable amounts. Still, the mechanisms underlying their transplacental passage are largely unknown and the human placenta is the most poorly understood organ in terms of reproduction toxicology. The genetic factors modulating placental toxicokinetics remain unclear just as well. From a genetic perspective, three aspects, which influence capacities of the human placenta to metabolize and transport toxicants, need to be considered...
November 2016: Archives of Toxicology
R Daetz, F Cunha, J H Bittar, C A Risco, F Magalhaes, Y Maeda, J E P Santos, K C Jeong, R F Cooke, K N Galvão
The objectives were to evaluate the clinical response to intrauterine administration of chitosan microparticles (CM) and to assess efficacy for preventing metritis in dairy cows. Holstein cows (n = 104; 40 primiparous and 64 multiparous) at increased risk for metritis (cows that had abortion, dystocia, twins, stillbirth, or retained placenta) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments at 1 d in milk (DIM; 24 h postpartum): CM group (n = 52), daily intrauterine infusion of 8 g of CM dissolved in 40 mL of sterile water for 5 d; control (CON) group (n = 52), daily intrauterine infusion of 40 mL of sterile water for 5 d...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Sultan Ayoub Meo, Asim Hassain
The metabolic physiology during pregnancy is unique in the life of women. This change is a normal physiological adaptation to better accommodate the foetal growth and provides adequate blood, nutrition and oxygen. The metabolic changes prepare the mother\'s body for pregnancy, childbirth and lactation. Early gestational period is considered as an anabolic phase, in which female body stores nutrients, enhance insulin sensitivity to encounter the maternal and feto-placental demands of late gestation and lactation...
September 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Sultan Ayoub Meo, Asim Hassain
The metabolic physiology during pregnancy is unique in the life of women. This change is a normal physiological adaptation to better accommodate the foetal growth and provides adequate blood, nutrition and oxygen. The metabolic changes prepare the mother\'s body for pregnancy, childbirth and lactation. Early gestational period is considered as an anabolic phase, in which female body stores nutrients, enhance insulin sensitivity to encounter the maternal and feto-placental demands of late gestation and lactation...
September 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
M Almada, C Amaral, M Diniz-da-Costa, G Correia-da-Silva, N A Teixeira, B M Fonseca
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous mediators that along with the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), a membrane transporter and metabolic enzymes form the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Several eCBs have been discovered with emphasis on anandamide (AEA). They are involved in several biological processes such as energy balance, immune response and reproduction. Decidualization occurs during the secretory phase of human menstrual cycle, which involves proliferation and differentiation of endometrial stromal cells into decidual cells and is crucial for the establishment and progression of pregnancy...
October 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Jorge R Pasqualini, Gérard S Chetrite
The fetal endocrine system constitutes the earliest system developing in fetal life and operates during all the steps of gestation. Its regulation is in part dependent on the secretion of placental and/or maternal precursors emanating across the feto-maternal interface. Human fetal and placental compartments possess all the enzymatic systems necessary to produce steroid hormones. However, their activities are different and complementary: the fetus is very active in converting acetate into cholesterol, in transforming pregnanes to androstanes, various hydroxylases, sulfotransferases, while all these transformations are absent or very limited in the placenta...
July 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Jeanie B Tryggestad, Anu Vishwanath, Shaoning Jiang, Ashwini Mallappa, April M Teague, Yusuke Takahashi, David M Thompson, Steven D Chernausek
We aimed to identify miRNAs whose expression levels in fetal tissues are altered by exposure to a diabetic milieu and elucidate the impact on target protein expression. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects both immediate and future disease risk in the offspring. We hypothesized that GDM alters miRNA expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that may influence metabolic processes. A cross-sectional design compared differences in miRNA expression in HUVECs and target protein abundance in placentae between infants of women with GDM (IGDM) and infants born to normoglycaemic controls...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
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