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Placenta metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438071/time-to-re-evaluate-art-protocols-in-the-light-of-advances-in-knowledge-about-methylation-and-epigenetics-an-opinion-paper
#1
Yves Menezo, Brian Dale, Kay Elder
DNA methylation is a biochemical process that modifies gene expression without changing the underlying DNA sequence, and this represents the molecular basis for imprinting and epigenetics. Recent reports have revealed alterations in DNA methylation profiles in the placenta of babies born from assisted reproductive technologies (ART). This supports several previous observations that suggested an increase in the prevalence of imprinting diseases following ART treatment, and also fits our observations regarding the metabolism and requirements of early human embryos...
April 25, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433632/role-of-microrna-130b-in-placental-pgc-1%C3%AE-tfam-mitochondrial-biogenesis-pathway
#2
Shaoning Jiang, April M Teague, Jeanie B Tryggestad, Steven D Chernausek
Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with abnormal placenta mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress, which affect fetal development and offspring long-term health. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism. The molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of PGC-1α in placenta in the context of diabetes remain unclear. The present study examined the role of microRNA 130b (miR-130b-3p) in regulating PGC-1α expression and oxidative stress in a placental trophoblastic cell line (BeWo)...
April 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411942/transplacental-nutrient-transfer-in-the-human-in%C3%A2-vivo-determined-by-4-vessel-sampling
#3
Trond M Michelsen, Ane M Holme, Tore Henriksen
BACKGROUND: The intrauterine environment and especially the fetal nutritional conditions affect lifelong health. There are few human in vivo studies on fetal nutrition. The importance to test experimentally based concepts of fetal nutrition in a human in vivo setting is becoming increasingly apparent. A way of testing nutrient transfer in human is 4-vessel sampling, which implies blood sampling from artery and vein on both sides of the placenta. Here we give a brief review of the studies using the 4-vessel sampling method...
March 24, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407805/revelation-of-mrnas-and-proteins-in-porcine-milk-exosomes-by-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-analysis
#4
Ting Chen, Qian-Yun Xi, Jia-Jie Sun, Rui-Song Ye, Xiao Cheng, Rui-Ping Sun, Song-Bo Wang, Gang Shu, Li-Na Wang, Xiao-Tong Zhu, Qing-Yan Jiang, Yong-Liang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Milk is a complex liquid that provides nutrition to newborns. Recent reports demonstrated that milk is enriched in maternal-derived exosomes that are involved in fetal physiological and pathological conditions by transmission of exosomal mRNAs, miRNAs and proteins. Until now, there is no such research relevant to exosomal mRNAs and proteins in porcine milk, therefore, we have attempted to investigate porcine milk exosomal mRNAs and proteins using RNA-sequencing and proteomic analysis...
April 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398928/anesthetic-management-of-mitochondrial-encephalopathy-with-lactic-acidosis-and-stroke-like-episodes-melas-syndrome-in-a-high-risk-pregnancy-a-case-report
#5
Josh D Bell, Kushlin Higgie, Mital Joshi, Joshua Rucker, Sahar Farzi, Naveed Siddiqui
MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like symptoms) is a rare and complex mitochondrial disorder. We present the in-hospital course of a 36-year-old gravida 2, para 0 with MELAS syndrome and severe preeclampsia, complicated by hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and diabetes. A retained placenta with postpartum hemorrhage required urgent instrumental delivery under spinal anesthesia, transfusion, and intensive care unit admission for pulmonary edema, effusions, and atelectasis. Postpartum endometritis and sepsis also were encountered...
April 10, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397398/proteomic-profile-of-mabuya-sp-squamata-scincidae-ovary-and-placenta-during-gestation
#6
Nathaly Hernández-Díaz, Rodrigo Torres, Martha Patricia Ramírez-Pinilla
Reptiles are one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates, providing an integrated system for comparative studies on metabolic, animal physiology, and developmental biology. However, the molecular data available are limited and only recently have started to call attention in the "omics" sciences. Mabuya sp. is a viviparous placentrotrophic skink with particular reproductive features, including microlecithal eggs, early luteolysis, prolonged gestation, and development of a highly specialized placenta. This placenta is responsible for respiratory exchange and the transference of all nutrients necessary for embryonic development...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390193/functional-amino-acids-in-the-development-of-the-pig-placenta
#7
REVIEW
Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer, Gregory A Johnson, Cassandra Herring, Heewon Seo, Zhaolai Dai, Junjun Wang, Zhenlong Wu, Xiaolong Wang
The mammalian placenta is essential for supplying nutrients (e.g., amino acids and water) and oxygen from the mother to fetus and for removing fetal metabolites (e.g., ammonia and CO2 ) from fetus to mother. Thus, placental growth and development are determinants of fetal survival, growth, and development. Indeed, low birth weight is closely associated with reduced placental growth. Providing gestating gilts or sows with dietary supplementation of arginine and glutamine, however, increases placental growth (including vascular growth), improves embryonic/fetal growth and survival, and reduces the large variation in birth weight among litters...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389640/the-vernix-caseosa-is-the-main-site-of-dioxin-excretion-in-the-human-foetus
#8
Seiichi Morokuma, Kiyomi Tsukimori, Tsuguhide Hori, Kiyoko Kato, Masutaka Furue
Dioxins are highly toxic to foetuses and prenatal exposure leads to adverse health effects; however, the metabolic pathways involved in dioxin excretion are poorly understood. We determined the dynamics of maternal-to-foetal dioxin transfer during normal pregnancy and how foetuses eliminate polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls. Dioxin levels in maternal blood, cord blood, placenta, vernix caseosa, meconium, and amniotic fluid were analysed by high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380326/sex-specific-differences-and-developmental-programming-for-diseases-in-later-life
#9
Deepali P Sundrani, Suchitra S Roy, Anjali T Jadhav, Sadhana R Joshi
Epidemiological data indicate that developmental programming of various non-communicable diseases (NCDs) occurs as a consequence of altered maternal metabolic and physiological status due to a number of environmental insults during pregnancy. Sex-specific differences have also been reported in most NCDs. Evidence suggests that beginning from conception, the maternal and neonatal metabolic environment, including hormones, contributes to sex-specific placental development. The placenta then regulates the sex-specific differences in NCDs via the epigenetic mechanisms that are further affected by hormones...
April 6, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378294/micrornas-in-pregnancy-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-emerging-role-in-maternal-metabolic-regulation
#10
REVIEW
Cédrik Poirier, Véronique Desgagné, Renée Guérin, Luigi Bouchard
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review focuses on the recent emergence of microRNAs (miRNAs) as metabolic and developmental regulators in pregnancy and their role in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). MiRNAs are short and stable RNA sequences that repress protein synthesis through interference with messenger RNA translation. RECENT FINDINGS: The placenta produces numerous miRNAs with some of them being released in the maternal circulation. These miRNA genes are encoded into specific clusters and expressed preferentially by placental cells, in a time-dependent manner...
May 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376740/maternal-27-hydroxycholesterol-concentrations-during-the-course-of-pregnancy-and-in-pregnancy-pathologies
#11
Brigitte Sophia Winkler, Ulrich Pecks, Laila Najjari, Nicola Kleine-Eggebrecht, Nicolai Maass, Markus Mohaupt, Geneviève Escher
BACKGROUND: The oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) plays an important role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Pregnancy pathologies like preeclampsia (PE), HELLP-syndrome (HELLP), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and intrahepatic cholestasis in pregnancy (ICP) are linked to disturbances in lipid metabolism. In the present study, we hypothesized a specific gestational regulation of 27-OHC and compromised 27-OHC levels due to placental and hepatic diseases in pregnancy resulting in a dysregulation of lipid metabolism...
April 4, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369354/genetic-modifications-of-mecr-reveal-a-role-for-mitochondrial-2-enoyl-coa-acp-reductase-in-placental-development-in-mice
#12
Remya R Nair, Juha M Kerätär, Kaija J Autio, Ali J Masud, Mikko A J Finnilä, Helena I Autio-Harmainen, Ilkka J Miinalainen, Pentti A Nieminen, J Kalervo Hiltunen, Alexander J Kastaniotis
Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) is an underappreciated but highly conserved metabolic process, indispensable for mitochondrial respiration. It was recently reported that dysfunction of mtFAS causes childhood onset of dystonia and optic atrophy in humans (MEPAN). To study the role of mtFAS in mammals, we generated three different mouse lines with modifications of the Mecr gene, encoding mitochondrial enoyl-CoA/ACP reductase. A knock-out-first type mutation, relying on insertion of a strong transcriptional terminator between the first two exons of Mecr, displayed embryonic lethality over a broad window of time and due to a variety of causes...
March 24, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368446/dysregulation-of-placental-mirna-in-maternal-obesity-is-associated-with-pre-and-post-natal-growth
#13
Gemma Carreras-Badosa, Alexandra Bonmatí, Francisco-Jose Ortega, Josep-Maria Mercader, Marta Guindo-Martínez, David Torrents, Anna Prats-Puig, Jose-Maria Martinez-Calcerrada, Francis DE Zegher, Lourdes Ibáñez, Jose-Manuel Fernandez-Real, Abel Lopez-Bermejo, Judit Bassols
Context: Human placenta exhibits a specific miRNA expression pattern. Some of these miRNAs are dysregulated in pregnancy disorders like preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, and are potential biomarkers for these pathologies. Objective: To study the placental miRNA profile in pregnant women with pregestational (preOB) or gestational obesity (gestOB) and explore the associations of placental miRNAs dysregulated in maternal obesity with pre- and post-natal growth...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365121/effects-of-dry-period-length-and-dietary-energy-source-on-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-oxidative-stress-in-dairy-cows
#14
N Mayasari, J Chen, A Ferrari, R M Bruckmaier, B Kemp, H K Parmentier, A T M van Knegsel, E Trevisi
Negative energy balance in dairy cows in early lactation has been associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress in these cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period (DP) length and dietary energy source on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress in dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 107 multiparous) were assigned randomly to a 3 × 2 factorial design with 3 DP length (0, 30, or 60 d) and 2 early lactation rations (glucogenic or lipogenic)...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358234/iodine-storage-and-metabolism-of-mild-to-moderate-iodine-deficient-pregnant-rats
#15
Xin Sun, Li Lu, Ling Shan, Zhongyan Shan, Weiping Teng
BACKGROUND: Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy results in neurodevelopmental disorders in children, while the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency (MMID) are uncertain. The concentration of iodine in thyroid is the most accurate indicator of iodine nutrition. This paper is aimed to investigate that whether the iodine storage in thyroid is enough for mother and fetus during iodine sufficient and MMID conditions by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
March 30, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351841/maternofetal-transport-of-vitamin-b12-role-of-tcblr-cd320-and-megalin
#16
Kaveri Arora, Jeffrey M Sequeira, Edward V Quadros
Vitamin B12 deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia and neurologic disorder in humans. Gene defects of transcobalamin (TC) and the transcobalamin receptor (TCblR), needed for cellular uptake of the TC-bound B12, do not confer embryonic lethality. TC deficiency can produce the hematologic and neurologic complications after birth, whereas TCblR/CD320 gene defects appear to produce mild metabolic changes. Alternate maternofetal transport mechanisms appear to provide adequate B12 to the fetus. To understand this mechanism, we evaluated the role of TC, TCblR/CD320, and megalin in maternofetal transport of B12 in a TCblR/CD320 knockout (KO) mouse...
March 28, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351623/igf-1-receptor-haploinsufficiency-leads-to-age-dependent-development-of-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Sachin Thakur, Neha Garg, Ning Zhang, Sophie E Hussey, Nicolas Musi, Martin L Adamo
Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are at a higher risk of developing the metabolic syndrome later in life. IGF-1 resistance has been reported in placentae from SGA births and mutations in the Igf1 receptor gene have been reported in several cohorts of SGA subjects. We have used the Igf1r heterozygous (Igf1r(+/-)) male mouse as a model to investigate the mechanisms by which Igf1r haploinsufficiency leads to insulin resistance. Despite exhibiting IGF-1 resistance, insulin signaling is enhanced in young Igf1r(+/-) mice but is attenuated in the muscle of old Igf1r(+/-) mice...
May 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351089/leptin-and-its-receptors-in-human-placenta-of-small-adequate-and-large-for-gestational-age-newborns
#18
Maria-Luisa Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Martha I González-Domínguez, Silvio Zaina, Myrna Sabanero, Leonel Daza-Benítez, Juan Manuel Malacara, Gloria Barbosa-Sabanero
Alterations in birth weight impact postnatal outcome and adult metabolic health. Therefore, fetal growth regulation is crucial for preventing chronic metabolic diseases. Leptin has been suggested to play an important role in placental and fetal growth, albeit its specific mechanisms of action have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze leptin concentrations in placenta, cord blood, and maternal blood of SGA, AGA, and LGA (small, adequate and large for gestational age, respectively) newborns, as well as placental leptin receptor (LEPRa and LEPRb) protein expression...
March 28, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347715/preeclampsia-novel-insights-from-global-rna-profiling-of%C3%A2-trophoblast-subpopulations
#19
Matthew Gormley, Katherine Ona, Miko Kapidzic, Tamara Garrido-Gomez, Tamara Zdravkovic, Susan J Fisher
BACKGROUND: The maternal signs of preeclampsia, which include the new onset of high blood pressure, can occur because of faulty placentation. We theorized that transcriptomic analyses of trophoblast subpopulations in situ would lend new insights into the role of these cells in preeclampsia pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to enrich syncytiotrophoblasts, invasive cytotrophoblasts, or endovascular cytotrophoblasts from the placentas of severe preeclampsia cases...
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346919/the-pregnancy-microbiome
#20
Hadar Neuman, Omry Koren
In recent years, microbiome research has revealed multiple essential roles of the microorganisms residing within the human body in host metabolism, immunity, and overall health. Numerous physiological and pathological states, including obesity and the metabolic syndrome, have been correlated with microbial changes, termed dysbiosis. Our microbiomes change in response to our environment, diet, weight, hormones, and other factors. It is, therefore, not surprising that there are also significant changes in the microbiome during pregnancy when dramatic weight gain and metabolic and immunological changes occur...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
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