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Placenta metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145065/gestational-differences-in-murine-placenta-glycolytic-metabolism-and-pregnancy-parameters
#1
Renee E Albers, Christopher A Waker, Chanel Keoni, Melissa R Kaufman, Michael A Bottomley, Sarah Min, David R Natale, Thomas L Brown
The placenta is a complex and essential organ composed largely of fetal-derived cells, including several different trophoblast subtypes that work in unison to support nutrient transport to the fetus during pregnancy. Abnormal placental development can lead to pregnancy-associated disorders that often involve metabolic dysfunction. The scope of dysregulated metabolism during placental development may not be fully representative of the in vivo state in defined culture systems, such as cell lines or isolated primary cells...
November 4, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137266/correlation-of-placental-microbiota-with-fetal-macrosomia-and-clinical-characteristics-in-mothers-and-newborns
#2
Jia Zheng, Xin-Hua Xiao, Qian Zhang, Li-Li Mao, Miao Yu, Jian-Ping Xu, Tong Wang
Substantial studies indicated that fetal macrosomia was associated with detrimental pregnancy outcomes, and increased susceptibility to metabolic diseases in later life. However, investigations into the association between placental microbiota and fetal macrosomia are limited. We aimed to profile the placental microbiota of fetal macrosomia and study whether they relate to clinical characteristics. Placenta samples were collected from fetal macrosomias and newborns with normal birth weight. The clinical characteristics, umbilical cord blood parameters were measured, and placental microbiota were sequenced and further analysed...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129644/role-of-kinase-coupled-trp-channels-in-mineral-homeostasis
#3
REVIEW
Vladimir Chubanov, Lorenz Mittermeier, Thomas Gudermann
Transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins TRPM6 and TRPM7 are α-kinase-coupled divalent cation-selective channels activated upon a reduction of cytosolic levels of Mg(2+) and Mg·ATP. Emerging evidence indicate that one of the main physiological functions of TRPM6 and TRPM7 is maintaining of cellular metabolism of Mg(2+) and likely other essential metals such as Ca(2+) and Zn(2+). Recent experiments with genetic animal models have shown that TRPM6 and TRPM7 are essential for epithelial Mg(2+) transport in the placenta and intestine...
November 9, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122468/an-intronic-variation-in-slc52a1-causes-exon-skipping-and-transient-riboflavin-responsive-multiple-acyl-coa-dehydrogenation-deficiency
#4
Signe Mosegaard, Gitte Hoffmann Bruun, Karen Freund Flyvbjerg, Yngve Thomas Bliksrud, Niels Gregersen, Maja Dembic, Ellen Annexstad, Trine Tangeraas, Rikke Katrine Jentoft Olsen, Brage S Andresen
Vitamin B2, riboflavin is essential for cellular function, as it participates in a diversity of redox reactions central to human metabolism, through its role as precursor for the cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which are electron carriers. The electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) and its dehydrogenase (ETFDH), uses FAD as cofactor. The ETF and ETFDH are forming the electron transport pathway for many mitochondrial flavoprotein dehydrogenases involved in fatty acid, amino acid and choline metabolism...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112458/review-detrimental-effects-of-alcohol-exposure-around-conception-putative-mechanisms
#5
Jacinta I Kalisch-Smith, Karen M Moritz
In western countries, alcohol consumption is widespread in women of reproductive age, and in binge quantities. These countries also continue to have high incidences of unplanned pregnancies, with women often reported to cease drinking after discovering their pregnancy. This suggests the early embryo may be highly exposed to the detrimental effects of alcohol during this periconceptional period. The periconception and pre-implantation windows which includes maturation of the oocyte, fertilisation and morphogenesis of the pre-implantation embryo, are particularly sensitive times of development...
November 7, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112064/placental-transfer-of-elvitegravir-and-cobicistat-in-an-ex-vivo-human-cotyledon-double-perfusion-model
#6
Valentine Faure Bardon, Laurent Mandelbrot, Dominique Duro, Chloé Dussaux, Minh Le, Gilles Peytavin
OBJECTIVE: To determine the transplacental pharmacokinetics of the HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitor elvitegravir and of cobicistat, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor used as a pharmacoenhancer in antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN AND METHODS: Maternal-to-fetal transfer across the term human placenta was investigated with the ex-vivo dually perfused cotyledon model, in 7 open-circuit experiments and 10 closed-circuit (recirculating) experiments. Elvitegravir and cobicistat were added to a maternal perfusate containing 2 g/L of human serum albumin and antipyrine, as a marker to validate the cotyledon's viability...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109081/vitamin-d-the-placenta-and-early-pregnancy-effects-on-trophoblast-function
#7
Ankana Ganguly, Jennifer Ann Tamblyn, Sarah Finn-Sell, Shiao-Yng Chan, Melissa Westwood, Janesh Gupta, Mark Kilby, Stephane R Gross, Martin Hewison
Pregnancy is associated with significant changes in vitamin D metabolism, notably increased maternal serum levels of active vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin (1,25(OH)2D). This appears to be due primarily to increased renal activity of the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) that catalyzes synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D, but CYP27B1 expression is also prominent in both the maternal decidua and fetal trophoblast components of the placenta. The precise function of placental synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D remains unclear, but is likely to involve localised tissue-specific responses with both decidua and trophoblast also expressing the vitamin D receptor (VDR) for 1,25(OH)2D...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108634/maternal-growth-restriction-and-stress-exposure-in-rats-differentially-alters-expression-of-components-of-the-placental-glucocorticoid-barrier-and-nutrient-transporters
#8
Jessica F Briffa, Sogand S Hosseini, Melanie Tran, Karen M Moritz, James S M Cuffe, Mary E Wlodek
The placenta plays a major role in the development of fetal growth restriction, which affects 10% of pregnancies and contributes to chronic adult disease risk. We have reported that female rats born small develop cardiometabolic dysfunction only during pregnancy. The physiological tests performed during pregnancy induced a maternal stress response as indicated by increased maternal corticosterone concentrations. This stress effected placental growth compared to females who were unhandled during pregnancy. Maternal stress and growth restriction independently program F2 offspring metabolic dysfunction...
November 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081341/dna-methylation-and-birth-weight-a-genome-wide-analysis
#9
Li Li Mao, Xin Hua Xiao, Qian Zhang, Jia Zheng, Wen Hui Li, Miao Yu, Hua Bing Zhang, Fan Ping, Jian Ping Xu, Xiao Jing Wang
The study illustrate the inner correlation between global DNA methylation variation and different birth weights. Infant birth weight was used to identify cases and controls. Cord blood and placentas were collected. We performed DNA methylation profiling of bisulphite-converted DNA. We have identified many differentially methylated CpG sites in experimental groups; these sites involved in hundreds of signalings. Among these, more than ten pathways were referred to the glucose and lipid metabolism. Methylation changes in the insulin-signaling pathway (ISP), adipocytokine signaling pathway (ASP) and MAPK signaling pathway are involved in the fetal programming of diabetes...
September 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080891/prenatal-dynamics-of-kynurenine-pathway-metabolism-in-mice-focus-on-kynurenic-acid
#10
Nick Goeden, Francesca M Notarangelo, Ana Pocivavsek, Sarah Beggiato, Alexandre Bonnin, Robert Schwarcz
The kynurenine pathway (KP), the major catabolic route of tryptophan in mammals, contains several neuroactive metabolites, including kynurenic acid (KYNA) and 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK). KP metabolism, and especially the fate of KYNA, during pregnancy is poorly understood, yet it may play a significant role in the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. The present study was designed to investigate the prenatal features of KP metabolism in vivo, with special focus on KYNA. To this end, pregnant CD-1 mice were treated systemically with kynurenine (100 mg/kg), KYNA (10 mg/kg), or saline on embryonic day 18...
October 28, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074704/characterizing-the-distribution-of-steroid-sulfatase-during-embryonic-development-when-and-where-might-metabolites-of-maternal-steroids-be-reactivated
#11
Ryan T Paitz, Kristin R Duffield, Rachel M Bowden
All vertebrate embryos are exposed to maternally derived steroids during development. In placental vertebrates, metabolism of maternal steroids by the placenta modulates embryonic exposure, but how exposure is regulated in oviparous vertebrates is less clear. Recent work in oviparous vertebrates has demonstrated that steroids are not static molecules, as they can be converted to more polar steroid sulfates by sulfotransferase enzymes. Importantly, these steroid sulfates can be converted back to the parent compound by the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS)...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067020/inheritance-and-establishment-of-gut-microbiota-in-chickens
#12
Jinmei Ding, Ronghua Dai, Lingyu Yang, Chuan He, Ke Xu, Shuyun Liu, Wenjing Zhao, Lu Xiao, Lingxiao Luo, Yan Zhang, He Meng
In mammals, the microbiota can be transmitted from the placenta, uterus, and vagina of the mother to the infant. Unlike mammals, development of the avian embryo is a process isolated from the mother and thus in the avian embryo the gut microbial developmental process remains elusive. To explore the establishment and inheritance of the gut microbiome in the avian embryo, we used the chicken as the model organism to investigate the gut microbial composition in embryos, chicks, and maternal hens. We observed: (1) 28 phyla and 162 genera of microbes in embryos where the dominated genus was Halomonas (79%)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066529/steroidogenic-enzyme-activities-in-the-pre-and-post-parturient-equine-placenta
#13
Erin Lea Legacki, Cynthia Jo Corbin, Barry A Ball, Kirsten Scoggin, Scott D Stanley, Alan Conley
Steroidogenic enzymes in placentas shape steroid hormone profiles in the maternal circulation of each mammalian species. These include 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase (3βHSD) and 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) crucial for progesterone and androgen synthesis, respectively, as well as aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) that converts Δ4-androgens to estrogens. 5α-reductase is another important enzyme in equine placentas because 5α-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) sustains pregnancy in the absence of progesterone in the second half of equine pregnancy...
October 24, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066285/understanding-vitamin-d-metabolism-in-pregnancy-from-physiology-to-pathophysiology-and-clinical-outcomes
#14
Spyridon N Karras, Carol L Wagner, V Daniel Castracane
This critical time frame of intrauterine life development is considered of major importance on the metabolic imprinting of overall health of the offspring, in later life. This requires a delicate immune balance that nurtures the allogeneic fetus, while maintaining reactivity against pathogens. Dysregulation of these tightly controlled biophenomena at a systemic and placental level, have been considered as a potential mechanism mediating pathogenesis of preeclampsia and spontaneous birth. In this context, vitamin D has been considered as a significant regulator of both innate and adaptive immunity by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis...
October 21, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065468/a-summary-of-new-findings-on-the-biological-effects-of-selenium-in-selected-animal-species-a-critical-review
#15
REVIEW
Bozena Hosnedlova, Marta Kepinska, Sylvie Skalickova, Carlos Fernandez, Branislav Ruttkay-Nedecky, Thembinkosi Donald Malevu, Jiri Sochor, Mojmir Baron, Magdalena Melcova, Jarmila Zidkova, Rene Kizek
Selenium is an essential trace element important for many physiological processes, especially for the functions of immune and reproductive systems, metabolism of thyroid hormones, as well as antioxidant defense. Selenium deficiency is usually manifested by an increased incidence of retention of placenta, metritis, mastitis, aborts, lowering fertility and increased susceptibility to infections. In calves, lambs and kids, the selenium deficiency demonstrates by WMD (white muscle disease), in foals and donkey foals, it is associated with incidence of WMD and yellow fat disease, and in pigs it causes VESD (vitamin E/selenium deficiency) syndrome...
October 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062316/preterm-birth-affects-the-risk-of-developing-immune-mediated-diseases
#16
Sybelle Goedicke-Fritz, Christoph Härtel, Gabriela Krasteva-Christ, Matthias V Kopp, Sascha Meyer, Michael Zemlin
Prematurity affects approximately 10% of all children, resulting in drastically altered antigen exposure due to premature confrontation with microbes, nutritional antigens, and other environmental factors. During the last trimester of pregnancy, the fetal immune system adapts to tolerate maternal and self-antigens, while also preparing for postnatal immune defense by acquiring passive immunity from the mother. Since the perinatal period is regarded as the most important "window of opportunity" for imprinting metabolism and immunity, preterm birth may have long-term consequences for the development of immune-mediated diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053802/docosahexaenoic-acid-supplementation-in-pregnancy-modulates-placental-cellular-signaling-and-nutrient-transport-capacity-in-obese-women
#17
Susanne Lager, Vanessa I Ramirez, Ometeotl Acosta, Christiane Meireles, Evelyn Miller, Francesca Gaccioli, Fredrick J Rosario, Jonathan A L Gelfond, Kevin Hakala, Susan T Weintraub, Debra A Krummel, Theresa L Powell
Context: Maternal obesity in pregnancy has profound impacts on maternal metabolism and promotes placental nutrient transport, which may contribute to fetal overgrowth in these pregnancies. The fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has bioactive properties that may improve outcomes in obese pregnant women by modulating placental function. Objective: To determine the effects of DHA supplementation in obese pregnant women on maternal metabolism and placental function...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045485/alterations-in-the-placental-methylome-with-maternal-obesity-and-evidence-for-metabolic-regulation
#18
Kohzoh Mitsuya, Ashley N Parker, Lu Liu, Jianhua Ruan, Margreet C M Vissers, Leslie Myatt
The inflammatory and metabolic derangements of obesity in pregnant women generate an adverse intrauterine environment, increase pregnancy complications and adverse fetal outcomes and program the fetus for obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. We hypothesized that epigenetic modifications in placenta including altered DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation may mediate these effects. Term placental villous tissue was collected following cesarean section from lean (prepregnancy BMI<25) or obese (BMI>30) women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041862/impact-of-chronic-maternal-stress-during-early-gestation-on-maternal-fetal-stress-transfer-and-fetal-stress-sensitivity-in-sheep
#19
Michelle Dreiling, Rene Schiffner, Sabine Bischoff, Sven Rupprecht, Nasim Kroegel, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Matthias Schwab, Florian Rakers
Acute stress-induced reduction of uterine blood flow (UBF) is an indirect mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer during late gestation. Effects of chronic psychosocial maternal stress (CMS) during early gestation, as may be experienced by many working women, on this stress signaling mechanism are unclear. We hypothesized that CMS in sheep during early gestation augments later acute stress-induced decreases of UBF, and aggravates the fetal hormonal, cardiovascular, and metabolic stress responses during later development...
October 18, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034330/perinatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-induces-chronic-inflammation-in-rabbit-offspring-via-modulation-of-gut-bacteria-and-their-metabolites
#20
Lavanya Reddivari, D N Rao Veeramachaneni, William A Walters, Catherine Lozupone, Jennifer Palmer, M K Kurundu Hewage, Rohil Bhatnagar, Amnon Amir, Mary J Kennett, Rob Knight, Jairam K P Vanamala
Bisphenol A (BPA) accumulates in the maturing gut and liver in utero and is known to alter gut bacterial profiles in offspring. Gut bacterial dysbiosis may contribute to chronic colonic and systemic inflammation. We hypothesized that perinatal BPA exposure-induced intestinal (and liver) inflammation in offspring is due to alterations in the microbiome and colonic metabolome. The 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis revealed differences in beta diversity with a significant reduction in the relative abundances of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producers such as Oscillospira and Ruminococcaceae due to BPA exposure...
September 2017: MSystems
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