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Placenta metabolism

Meghan McGee, Shannon Bainbridge, Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson
The fetal origins of health and disease framework has identified extremes in fetal growth and birth weight as factors associated with the lifelong generation of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Maternal nutrition plays a critical role in fetal and placental development, in part by providing the methyl groups required to establish the fetus's genome structure and function, notably through DNA methylation. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the role of maternal dietary methyl donor (methionine, folate, and choline) and cofactor (zinc and vitamins B2, B6, and B12) intake in one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the fetus and placenta, as well as their impacts on fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes, with specific examples in animals and humans...
February 26, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Gretel Ruprechter, Maria de Lourdes Adrien, Alejandro Larriestra, Otavio Meotti, Chester Batista, Ana Meikle, Mirela Noro
The predictive values of plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, albumin and calcium to predict risk of peripartum diseases in primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was investigated. Besides it was assessed if the health status interacted with parity on body condition score and metabolic profiles during the transition period. Dairy cows (126 PP and 182 MP) from a commercial dairy free stall herd (loose-housing system) were weekly body condition scored and tail bled for metabolites determination from -3 to +4 weeks relative to calving...
February 19, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Féaron C Cassidy, Marika Charalambous
In the 1980s, mouse nuclear transplantation experiments revealed that both male and female parental genomes are required for successful development to term ( McGrath and Solter, 1983; Surani and Barton, 1983). This non-equivalence of parental genomes is because imprinted genes are predominantly expressed from only one parental chromosome. Uniparental inheritance of these genomic regions causes paediatric growth disorders such as Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes (reviewed in Peters, 2014). More than 100 imprinted genes have now been discovered and the functions of many of these genes have been assessed in murine models...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Katherine Leavey, Samantha L Wilson, Shannon A Bainbridge, Wendy P Robinson, Brian J Cox
Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is a heterogeneous, hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, with no robust biomarkers or effective treatments. We hypothesized that this heterogeneity is due to the existence of multiple subtypes of PE and, in support of this hypothesis, we recently identified five clusters of placentas within a large gene expression microarray dataset ( N  = 330), of which four (clusters 1, 2, 3, and 5) contained a substantial number of PE samples. However, while transcriptional analysis of placentas can subtype patients, we propose that the addition of epigenetic information could discern gene regulatory mechanisms behind the distinct PE pathologies, as well as identify clinically useful potential biomarkers...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Michael B Langford, Jennifer E Outhwaite, Martha Hughes, David R C Natale, David G Simmons
Fetal growth and survival is dependent on the elaboration and propinquity of the fetal and maternal circulations within the placenta. Central to this is the formation of the interhaemal membrane, a multi-cellular lamina facilitating exchange of oxygen, nutrients and metabolic waste products between the mother and fetus. In rodents, this cellular barrier contains two transporting layers of syncytiotrophoblast, which are multinucleated cells that form by cell-cell fusion. Previously, we reported the expression of the GPI-linked cell surface protein LY6E by the syncytial layer closest to the maternal sinusoids of the mouse placenta (syncytiotrophoblast layer I)...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Clara Yieh Lin Chong, Frank H Bloomfield, Justin M O'Sullivan
The gut microbiome is established in the newborn period and is recognised to interact with the host to influence metabolism. Different environmental factors that are encountered during this critical period may influence the gut microbial composition, potentially impacting upon later disease risk, such as asthma, metabolic disorder, and inflammatory bowel disease. The sterility dogma of the foetus in utero is challenged by studies that identified bacteria, bacterial DNA, or bacterial products in meconium, amniotic fluid, and the placenta; indicating the initiation of maternal-to-offspring microbial colonisation in utero...
February 28, 2018: Nutrients
Wanyi Zhang, Rina Su, Li Lin, Huixia Yang
INTRODUCTION: Fetal macrosomia has confirmed be related to multiple labor complications and metabolism syndromes later in life. However, the mechanism of fetal macrosomia in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnant women is still obscure. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 11 (ARHGEF11) and the insulin signaling pathway in placenta affecting fetal overgrowth in NGT and GDM pregnant women. METHODS: Eighty-nine pregnant women with paired antepartum BMI were recruited and divided into four groups: NGT with normal birth weight (NGT-N, n = 30) or macrosomia (NGT-M, n = 22) and GDM with normal birth weight (GDM-N, n = 22) or macrosomia (GDM-M, n = 15)...
March 2018: Placenta
Hee Young Cho, Yeonkyung Cho, Yun-Jeong Shin, Jieun Park, Sunghan Shim, Yongwook Jung, Sungshin Shim, Donghyun Cha
The prediction and monitoring of fetal growth restriction (FGR) fetuses has become with the use of ultrasound. However, these tools lack the fundamental evidence for the growth of fetus with FGR excluding pathogenic factors.Amniotic fluid samples were obtained from pregnant women for fetal karyotyping and genetic diagnosis at 16 to 19 weeks of gestation. For this study, 15 FGR and 9 control samples were selected, and cell-free fetal RNA was isolated from each supernatant of the amniotic fluid for microarray analysis...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jacqueline Alexander, April M Teague, Jing Chen, Christopher E Aston, Yuet-Kin Leung, Steven Chernausek, Rebecca A Simmons, Sara E Pinney
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that diabetes during pregnancy (DDP) alters genome-wide DNA methylation in placenta resulting in differentially methylated loci of metabolically relevant genes and downstream changes in RNA and protein expression. METHODS: We mapped genome-wide DNA methylation with the Infinium 450K Human Methylation Bead Chip in term fetal placentae from Native American and Hispanic women with DDP using a nested case-control design (n = 17 pairs)...
2018: PloS One
Jonathan Pham, Kanaga Arul Nambi Rajan, Ping Li, Mana M Parast
Placental development is important for proper in utero growth and development of the fetus, as well as maternal well-being during pregnancy. Abnormal differentiation of placental epithelial cells, called trophoblast, is at the root of multiple pregnancy complications, including miscarriage, the maternal hypertensive disorder preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. The ligand-activated nuclear receptor, PPARγ, and nutrient sensor, Sirtuin-1, both play a role in numerous pathways important to cell survival and differentiation, metabolism, and inflammation...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Stephanie Skuby Chassen, Veronique Ferchaud-Roucher, Madhulika B Gupta, Thomas Jansson, Theresa L Powell
Fatty acids (FA) are critical for fetal brain development and are transferred across the placenta by membrane-bound FA transport proteins (FATP), translocases (FAT/CD36) and cytosolic binding proteins (FABP). The cytosolic protein perilipin-2 aids in neutral lipid storage within lipid droplets. Decreased placental nutrient transport is believed to contribute to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); however, IUGR placental lipid transport and metabolism are poorly understood. We hypothesized protein expression of FATPs, FABPs, and perilipin-2 in human placenta is decreased and placental lipid content and incorporation into lipid classes are reduced in IUGR...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Fernanda Carrilho Pinto da Fonseca, Daniela de Barros Mucci, Renata Pereira Assumpção, Henrique Marcondes, Fátima Lúcia de Carvalho Sardinha, Simone Vargas Silva, Marta Citelli, Maria das Graças Tavares do Carmo
Adolescent pregnancy increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. Placental delivery of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) is essential for fetal growth and development. In this pilot study, we aimed to assess maternal and fetal status of fatty acids (FA) measured at birth and the expression of key genes involved in FA uptake, transport and metabolism in the placenta of fifteen adolescents and fifteen adults. FA were quantified by gas-liquid chromatography. Placental expression of FA transporters was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was quantified by Western Blot...
February 16, 2018: Nutrients
Stefan Markovic, Anne Fages, Tangi Roussel, Ron Hadas, Alexander Brandis, Michal Neeman, Lucio Frydman
Placental functions, including transport and metabolism, play essential roles in pregnancy. This study assesses such processes in vivo , from a hyperpolarized MRI perspective. Hyperpolarized urea, bicarbonate, and pyruvate were administered to near-term pregnant rats, and all metabolites displayed distinctive behaviors. Little evidence of placental barrier crossing was observed for bicarbonate, at least within the timescales allowed by 13 C relaxation. By contrast, urea was observed to cross the placental barrier, with signatures visible from certain fetal organs including the liver...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zhong Chen, Na Xu, Danyang Chong, Shan Guan, Chen Jiang, Zhongzhou Yang, Chaojun Li
Aims: With the maturation of placenta, ventricular chamber maturation enhances cardiac contractile performance to adapt to the metabolic demand of growing embryo. The organization of cardiomyocytes is required for the morphological remodeling in ventricular chamber maturation. However, the mechanism governing the establishment of cardiac cytoarchitecture during ventricular chamber maturation is still poorly studied. Methods and results: Here, we found that the expression of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (Ggpps), which mediates protein geranylgeranylation, increased in the mouse heart after the onset of placental function...
February 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Kenichi Tanaka, Hiroko Mori, Rieko Sakamoto, Shirou Matsumoto, Hiroshi Mitsubuchi, Kimitoshi Nakamura, Masanori Iwai
BACKGROUND: Neonatal nonoliguric hyperkalemia (NOHK) is a metabolic abnormality that occurs in extremely premature neonates at approximately 24 h after birth and is mainly due to the immature functioning of the sodium (Na + )/potassium (K + ) pump. Magnesium sulfate is frequently used in obstetrical practice to prevent preterm labor and to treat preeclampsia; this medication can also cause hypermagnesemia and hyperkalemia by a mechanism that is different from that of NOHK. Herein, we report the first case of very early-onset neonatal hyperkalemia induced by maternal hypermagnesemia...
February 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Zhaoxia Liang, Menglin Zhou, Xu-Kang Xu, Fan Qu, Danqing Chen
The present study aimed to explore the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and Chemerin, by analysing Chemerin level, clinical data and biochemical parameters among 46 GDM patients and 43 controls. It was found that the Chemerin levels from cord blood, peripheral blood, adipose tissue and placenta tissue were all significantly higher in the GDM group than those in the control group (p < .05 for all). Maternal insulin resistance (IR) index and serum inflammation parameters, including C-reactive protein and white blood cells, were also higher in GDM group (p < ...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Graham J Burton, Eric Jauniaux
Placental-related fetal growth restriction arises primarily due to deficient remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries supplying the placenta during early pregnancy. The resultant malperfusion induces cell stress within the placental tissues, leading to selective suppression of protein synthesis and reduced cell proliferation. These effects are compounded in more severe cases by increased infarction and fibrin deposition. Consequently, there is a reduction in villous volume and surface area for maternal-fetal exchange...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Karilyn E Sant, Alicia R Timme-Laragy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Developmental toxicity assessments often focus on structural outcomes and overlook subtle metabolic differences which occur during the early embryonic period. Deviant embryonic nutrition can result in later-life disease, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Prior to placenta-mediated nutrient exchange, the human embryo requires maternally supplied nutritional substrates for growth, called yolk. Here, we compare the biology of the human and zebrafish yolk and review examples of toxicant-mediated perturbation of yolk defects, composition, and utilization...
February 7, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Laren Riesche, Suzette D Tardif, Corinna N Ross, Victoria A deMartelly, Toni Ziegler, Julienne N Rutherford
Animal models have been critical in building evidence that the prenatal experience and intrauterine environment are capable of exerting profound and permanent effects on metabolic health through developmental programming of obesity. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World Monkey that has been used as a biomedical model for well over 50 years. The spontaneous, multifactorial, and early life development of obesity in the common marmoset make it a valuable research model for advancing our knowledge about the role of prenatal and placental mechanisms involved in developmental programming of obesity...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Vivi F H Jensen, Anne-Marie Mølck, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ingrid B Bøgh
Glucose is the major energy substrate during embryogenesis and the embryo is dependent on glucose from the maternal circulation to ensure normal metabolism and growth. The placenta plays a key role in this nutrient transfer in mammals, both during embryogenesis and after the development of the chorio-allantoic placental circulation. Maternal hypoglycaemia is accompanied by foetal hypoglycaemia and maternal counter-regulatory measures include a priority to nutrients in the maternal circulation by restricting their transfer to the foetus...
February 3, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
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