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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934478/tuning-rna-folding-and-function-through-rational-design-of-junction-topology
#1
May Daher, Anthony M Mustoe, Alex Morriss-Andrews, Charles L Brooks Iii, Nils G Walter
Structured RNAs such as ribozymes must fold into specific 3D structures to carry out their biological functions. While it is well-known that architectural features such as flexible junctions between helices help guide RNA tertiary folding, the mechanisms through which junctions influence folding remain poorly understood. We combine computational modeling with single molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) and catalytic activity measurements to investigate the influence of junction design on the folding and function of the hairpin ribozyme...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934267/patient-derived-osteosarcoma-cells-are-resistant-to-methotrexate
#2
Amanda Dos Santos Cavalcanti, Walter Meohas, Gabriele de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ana Cristina de Sá Lopes, Sharareh Gholamin, Mostafa Razavi, Taís Hanae Kasai Brunswick, Amir Avan, João Antonio Matheus Guimarães, Maria Eugenia Leite Duarte, Suzana Assad Kahn
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in children and young adults. The median survival of osteosarcoma patients has not significantly improved since 1990, despite administration of different classes of chemotherapy agents, such as methotrexate, cisplatin and doxorubicin. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for the resistance of osteosarcoma to chemotherapy and OCT4, SOX2 and SSEA4 have been used to identify CSCs in osteosarcoma. Here, we used low-passage patient-derived osteosarcoma cells and osteosarcoma cells directly isolated from patients before and after chemotherapy treatments to evaluate the effects of chemotherapy on stem cell markers expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933937/changes-in-sugar-sweetened-soda-consumption-weight-and-waist-circumference-2-year-cohort-of-mexican-women
#3
Dalia Stern, Nicole Middaugh, Megan S Rice, Francine Laden, Ruy López-Ridaura, Bernard Rosner, Walter Willett, Martin Lajous
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate 2-year changes in soda consumption, weight, and waist circumference. METHODS: We followed 11 218 women from the Mexican Teachers' Cohort from 2006 to 2008. Dietary data were collected using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Weight was self-reported, and waist circumference was self-measured. We used linear regression to evaluate changes in sugar-sweetened and sugar-free soda consumption in relation to changes in weight and waist circumference, adjusting for lifestyle and other dietary factors...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933820/considerations-for-safe-innovation-the-case-of-graphene
#4
Margriet V D Z Park, Eric A J Bleeker, Walter Brand, Flemming R Cassee, Merel van Elk, Ilse Gosens, Wim H De Jong, Johannes A J Meesters, Willie Jgm Peijnenburg, Joris T K Quik, Rob J Vandebriel, Adrienne J A M Sips
The terms 'Safe innovation' and 'Safe(r)-by-design' are currently popular in the field of nanotechnology. These terms are used to describe approaches that advocate the consideration of safety aspects already at an early stage of the innovation process of (nano)materials and nano-enabled products. Here, we investigate the possibilities of considering safety aspects during various stages of the innovation processes based on of graphene, outlining what information is already available for assessing potential hazard, exposure and risks...
September 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932838/engineered-biomimetic-nanovesicles-show-intrinsic-anti-inflammatory-properties-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#5
Claudia Corbo, Walter E Cromer, Roberto Molinaro, Naama E Toledano Furman, Kelly A Hartman, Enrica De Rosa, Christian Boada, Xin Wang, David C Zawieja, Marco Agostini, Francesco Salvatore, Bincy P Abraham, Ennio Tasciotti
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Currently, it is treated with immunosuppressant or biologics that often induce severe adverse effects. Thus, there is an urgent clinical need for more specific treatments. To provide a valid therapeutic tool for IBD therapy, in this work we developed biomimetic nanovesicles by manipulating leukocyte membranes to exploit mechanisms of T-cell recruitment during inflammation...
September 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932634/pd1-positive-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-are-associated-with-poor-clinical-outcome-after-pulmonary-metastasectomy-for-colorectal-cancer
#6
Dagmar Kollmann, Thomas Schweiger, Stefan Schwarz, Desislava Ignatova, Yun-Tsan Chang, Gerrit Lewik, Sebastian F Schoppmann, Wolfram Hoetzenecker, Walter Klepetko, Emmanuella Guenova, Konrad Hoetzenecker
Pulmonary metastasectomy (PM) is routinely performed in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with oligometastatic spreading to the lungs. Patients with an aggressive tumor phenotype should be excluded from PM, since its benefit is outweighed by early tumor recurrence and impaired prognosis. Expression of PD-1 and its ligands are prognostic factors in a variety of primary tumors. However, their impact on patients' outcome in the setting of PM for CRC has not been evaluated before. 53 CRC patients with pulmonary metastases receiving PM with curative intent were included in this study...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932631/tadalafil-has-biologic-activity-in-human-melanoma-results-of-a-pilot-trial-with-tadalafil-in-patients-with-metastatic-melanoma-tame
#7
Jessica C Hassel, Huanhuan Jiang, Carolin Bender, Julia Winkler, Alexandra Sevko, Ivan Shevchenko, Niels Halama, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Walter E Haefeli, Dirk Jäger, Alexander Enk, Jochen Utikal, Viktor Umansky
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are known to play a critical role in the suppression of T cell antitumor responses. Our preclinical data showed that the phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitor sildenafil impaired MDSC functions, enhanced intratumoral T cell activity and prolonged survival of melanoma-bearing mice. In this study, we evaluated biologic effects, safety and efficacy of palliative treatment with the PDE-5 inhibitor tadalafil in metastatic melanoma patients. We conducted an open-label, dose de-escalation trial with tadalafil in pretreated metastatic melanoma patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931498/a-smartphone-app-for-improvement-of-colonoscopy-preparation-coloprapp-development-and-feasibility-study
#8
Benjamin Walter, Roland Schmid, Stefan von Delius
BACKGROUND: Optimal bowel preparation is one of the major cornerstones for quality of colonoscopy. But poor bowel preparation still occurs in 10% to 25% of all patients. To optimize patient guidance, we developed a new smartphone app (ColoprAPP) for Android smartphones which guides and accompanies the patient starting 4 days before colonoscopy throughout the whole colonoscopy preparation procedure. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the function of a newly developed smartphone app for supporting colonoscopy preparation...
September 20, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930659/group-1-innate-lymphoid-cell-lineage-identity-is-determined-by-a-cis-regulatory-element-marked-by-a-long-non-coding-rna
#9
Walter K Mowel, Sam J McCright, Jonathan J Kotzin, Magalie A Collet, Asli Uyar, Xin Chen, Alexandra DeLaney, Sean P Spencer, Anthony T Virtue, EnJun Yang, Alejandro Villarino, Makoto Kurachi, Margaret C Dunagin, Gretchen Harms Pritchard, Judith Stein, Cynthia Hughes, Diogo Fonseca-Pereira, Henrique Veiga-Fernandes, Arjun Raj, Taku Kambayashi, Igor E Brodsky, John J O'Shea, E John Wherry, Loyal A Goff, John L Rinn, Adam Williams, Richard A Flavell, Jorge Henao-Mejia
Commitment to the innate lymphoid cell (ILC) lineage is determined by Id2, a transcriptional regulator that antagonizes T and B cell-specific gene expression programs. Yet how Id2 expression is regulated in each ILC subset remains poorly understood. We identified a cis-regulatory element demarcated by a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that controls the function and lineage identity of group 1 ILCs, while being dispensable for early ILC development and homeostasis of ILC2s and ILC3s. The locus encoding this lncRNA, which we termed Rroid, directly interacted with the promoter of its neighboring gene, Id2, in group 1 ILCs...
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930436/development-of-a-cigarette-tobacco-filler-standard-reference-material
#10
Lane C Sander, Jeanita S Pritchett, Yasmine C Daniels, Laura J Wood, Brian E Lang, Stephen A Wise, James H Yen, Tricia L Johnson, Matthew J Walters, Tracy Phillips, Matthew R Holman, Grace E Lee, Joseph G Lisko, Brian Lane, Liza Valentin-Blasini, Clifford Watson
A new tobacco filler Standard Reference Material (SRM) has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in September 2016 with certified and reference mass fraction values for nicotine, N-nitrosonornicotine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, and volatiles. The constituents have been determined by multiple analytical methods with measurements at NIST and at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and with confirmatory measurements by commercial laboratories. This effort highlights the development of the first SRM for reduced nicotine and reduced tobacco-specific nitrosamines with certified values for composition...
September 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930024/enterovirus-d68-associated-acute-flaccid-myelitis-in-immunocompromised-woman-italy
#11
Emanuela Giombini, Martina Rueca, Walter Barberi, Anna Paola Iori, Maurizio Inghilleri, Concetta Castilletti, Paola Scognamiglio, Francesco Vairo, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Maria Beatrice Valli
In Italy in 2016, acute flaccid myelitis developed in a woman who had received a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Enterovirus D68 viral genome was detected in respiratory and cerebrospinal fluid samples, and the viral protein 1 sequence clustered with lineage B3. Immunocompromised adults may be at risk for enterovirus D68-associated neurologic complications.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929991/effects-of-different-dosages-of-propylene-glycol-in-dry-cows-and-cows-in-early-lactation
#12
Michaela Maurer, Walter Peinhopf, Jutta Gottschalk, Almut Einspanier, Gabor Koeller, Thomas Wittek
In this Research Paper we hypothesised that the temporary insulin resistance seen during the transition period in dairy cows may cause significant differences in the efficacy of PG at different sampling periods and that in some cases this effect will be dose dependent. Eighty four sampling sets were generated by studying 7 multiparous Holstein cows repeatedly at 4 sampling periods of 3 d length (dry cows: days 40, 39 and 38 antepartum; close up cows: days 10, 9 and 8 antepartum; fresh cows: days 3, 4 and 5 post-partum; lactating cows: days 38, 39 and 40 post-partum)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929808/ethanol-gel-sclerotherapy-of-venous-malformations-effectiveness-and-safety
#13
Veronika I Teusch, Walter A Wohlgemuth, Simone Hammer, Armin P Piehler, René Müller-Wille, Holger Goessmann, Wibke Uller
OBJECTIVE: In the treatment of venous malformations, ethanol may be administered in a gelified form to increase local effects and reduce systemic ones. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a commercially available viscous ethanol gel in the treatment of venous malformations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients (mean age, 23.4 years; age range, 6.6-46.5 years) with venous malformations were prospectively scheduled for two ethanol-gel sclerotherapy sessions...
September 20, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928948/virtual-screening-workflow-tutorials-and-prospective-results-from-the-teach-discover-treat-competition-2014-against-malaria
#14
Sereina Riniker, Gregory A Landrum, Floriane Montanari, Santiago D Villalba, Julie Maier, Johanna M Jansen, W Patrick Walters, Anang A Shelat
The first challenge in the 2014 competition launched by the Teach-Discover-Treat (TDT) initiative asked for the development of a tutorial for ligand-based virtual screening, based on data from a primary phenotypic high-throughput screen (HTS) against malaria. The resulting Workflows were applied to select compounds from a commercial database, and a subset of those were purchased and tested experimentally for anti-malaria activity. Here, we present the two most successful Workflows, both using machine-learning approaches, and report the results for the 114 compounds tested in the follow-up screen...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928740/microbiome-derived-lipopolysaccharide-enriched-in-the-perinuclear-region-of-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#15
Yuhai Zhao, Lin Cong, Vivian Jaber, Walter J Lukiw
Abundant clinical, epidemiological, imaging, genetic, molecular, and pathophysiological data together indicate that there occur an unusual inflammatory reaction and a disruption of the innate-immune signaling system in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Despite many years of intense study, the origin and molecular mechanics of these AD-relevant pathogenic signals are still not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that an intensely pro-inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), part of a complex mixture of pro-inflammatory neurotoxins arising from abundant Gram-negative bacilli of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, are abundant in AD-affected brain neocortex and hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928711/validation-of-a-step-detection-algorithm-during-straight-walking-and-turning-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-older-adults-using-an-inertial-measurement-unit-at-the-lower-back
#16
Minh H Pham, Morad Elshehabi, Linda Haertner, Silvia Del Din, Karin Srulijes, Tanja Heger, Matthis Synofzik, Markus A Hobert, Gert S Faber, Clint Hansen, Dina Salkovic, Joaquim J Ferreira, Daniela Berg, Álvaro Sanchez-Ferro, Jaap H van Dieën, Clemens Becker, Lynn Rochester, Gerhard Schmidt, Walter Maetzler
INTRODUCTION: Inertial measurement units (IMUs) positioned on various body locations allow detailed gait analysis even under unconstrained conditions. From a medical perspective, the assessment of vulnerable populations is of particular relevance, especially in the daily-life environment. Gait analysis algorithms need thorough validation, as many chronic diseases show specific and even unique gait patterns. The aim of this study was therefore to validate an acceleration-based step detection algorithm for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and older adults in both a lab-based and home-like environment...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926528/the-improving-rural-cancer-outcomes-trial-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-complex-intervention-to-reduce-time-to-diagnosis-in-rural-cancer-patients-in-western-australia
#17
Jon D Emery, Victoria Gray, Fiona M Walter, Shelley Cheetham, Emma J Croager, Terry Slevin, Christobel Saunders, Timothy Threlfall, Kirsten Auret, Anna K Nowak, Elizabeth Geelhoed, Max Bulsara, C D'Arcy J Holman
BACKGROUND: Rural Australians have poorer survival for most common cancers, due partially to later diagnosis. Internationally, several initiatives to improve cancer outcomes have focused on earlier presentation to healthcare and timely diagnosis. We aimed to measure the effect of community-based symptom awareness and general practice-based educational interventions on the time to diagnosis in rural patients presenting with breast, prostate, colorectal or lung cancer in Western Australia...
September 19, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926412/endoscopic-ultrasound-and-related-technologies-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pancreatic-disease-research-gaps-and-opportunities-summary-of-a-national-institute-of-diabetes-and-digestive-and-kidney-diseases-workshop
#18
Linda S Lee, Dana K Andersen, Reiko Ashida, William R Brugge, Mimi I Canto, Kenneth J Chang, Suresh T Chari, John DeWitt, Joo Ha Hwang, Mouen A Khashab, Kang Kim, Michael J Levy, Kevin McGrath, Walter G Park, Aatur Singhi, Tyler Stevens, Christopher C Thompson, Mark D Topazian, Michael B Wallace, Sachin Wani, Irving Waxman, Dhiraj Yadav, Vikesh K Singh
A workshop was sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases to address the research gaps and opportunities in pancreatic endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The event occurred on July 26, 2017 in 4 sessions: (1) benign pancreatic diseases, (2) high-risk pancreatic diseases, (3) diagnostic and therapeutics, and (4) new technologies. The current state of knowledge was reviewed, with identification of numerous gaps in knowledge and research needs. Common themes included the need for large multicenter consortia of various pancreatic diseases to facilitate meaningful research of these entities; to standardize EUS features of different pancreatic disorders, the technique of sampling pancreatic lesions, and the performance of various therapeutic EUS procedures; and to identify high-risk disease early at the cellular level before macroscopic disease develops...
September 18, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926198/serum-free-human-msc-medium-supports-consistency-in-human-but-not-in-equine-adipose-derived-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-culture
#19
Susanna Schubert, Walter Brehm, Aline Hillmann, Janina Burk
For clinical applications of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), serum-free culture is preferable to standardize cell products and prevent contamination with pathogens. In contrast to human MSCs, knowledge on serum-free culture of large animal MSCs is limited, despite its relevance for preclinical studies and development of veterinary cellular therapeutics. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of a commercially available serum-free human MSC medium for culturing equine adipose-derived MSCs in comparison with human adipose MSCs...
September 19, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926175/cobalt-versus-osmium-control-of-both-trans-and-cis-selectivity-in-construction-of-the-efg-rings-of-pectenotoxin-4
#20
Ahria Roushanbakhti, Yifan Liu, Paul Winship, Michael Tucker, Wasim Akhtar, Daryl Walter, Gail Wrigley, Timothy James Donohoe
Catalytic oxidative cyclisation reactions have been employed for the synthesis of the E and F rings of the complex natural product target pectenotoxin 4. The choice of metal catalyst (cobalt or osmium based) allowed for the formation of THF rings with either trans or cis stereoselectivity. Fragment union using a modified Julia reaction then enabled the synthesis of an advanced synthetic intermediate containing the EF and G rings of the target.
September 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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