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Siobhan S Proksell, Julia B Greer, Brian K Theisen, Peter L Davis, Joel R Rosh, David J Keljo, Alka Goyal, Samir A Shah, Myron H Brand, Hans H Herfarth, Raymond K Cross, Corey A Siegel, Walter A Koltun, Kim L Isaacs, Miguel D Regueiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Suresh Venkateswaran, Jarod Prince, David J Cutler, Urko M Marigorta, David T Okou, Sampath Prahalad, David Mack, Brendan Boyle, Thomas Walters, Anne Griffiths, Cary G Sauer, Neal LeLeiko, David Keljo, James Markowitz, Susan S Baker, Joel Rosh, Marian Pfefferkorn, Melvin B Heyman, Ashish Patel, Anthony Otley, Robert Baldassano, Joshua Noe, Paul Rufo, Maria Oliva-Hemker, Sonia Davis, Michael E Zwick, Greg Gibson, Lee A Denson, Jeffrey Hyams, Subra Kugathasan
Background: The genetic contributions to pediatric onset ulcerative colitis (UC), characterized by severe disease and extensive colonic involvement, are largely unknown. In adult onset UC, Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) has identified numerous loci, most of which have a modest susceptibility risk (OR 0.84-1.14), with the exception of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region on Chromosome 6 (OR 3.59). Method: To study the genetic contribution to exclusive pediatric onset UC, a GWAS was performed on 466 cases with 2099 healthy controls using UK Biobank array...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Daniel Souza Lima, Abdon José Murad Júnior, Márcio Alencar Barreira, Guilherme Cardoso Fernandes, Gustavo Rego Coelho, José Huygens Parente Garcia
BACKGROUND: The Amazon region is one of the main endemic areas of hepatitis delta in the world and the only one related to the presence of genotype 3 of the delta virus. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the profile, mortality and survival of cirrhotic patients submitted to liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis delta virus and compare with those transplanted by hepatitis B virus monoinfection. METHODS: Retrospective, observational and descriptive study...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Raquel Esteves Marques, Paulo Silva Guerra, David Cordeiro Sousa, Nuno Pinto Ferreira, Ana Inês Gonçalves, Ana Miguel Quintas, Walter Rodrigues
PURPOSE: To compare intracameral 20% sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) versus 100% air as tamponade for graft attachment in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). METHODS: Using an electronic database search on MEDLINE and CENTRAL from inception to December 2017, we performed a literature review and meta-analysis including all comparative studies of SF6 at a 20% concentration (20% SF6) versus pure air (100% air) for anterior chamber tamponade in DMEK. The primary outcome was the rebubbling rate at the final observation...
March 20, 2018: Cornea
Benjamin L Ricca, Gautham Venugopalan, Saori Furuta, Kandice Tanner, Walter A Orellana, Clay D Reber, Douglas G Brownfield, Mina J Bissell, Daniel A Fletcher
Non-malignant breast epithelial cells cultured in three-dimensional laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) form well organized, growth-arrested acini, whereas malignant cells form continuously growing disorganized structures. While the mechanical properties of the microenvironment have been shown to contribute to formation of tissue-specific architecture, how transient external force influences this behavior remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that brief transient compression applied to single malignant breast cells in lrECM stimulated them to form acinar-like structures, a phenomenon we term 'mechanical reversion...
March 21, 2018: ELife
Anna Kuehne, Barbara Hauer, Bonita Brodhun, Walter Haas, Lena Fiebig
BackgroundGermany has a low tuberculosis (TB) incidence. A relevant and increasing proportion of TB cases is diagnosed among asylum seekers upon screening. Aim: We aimed to assess whether cases identified by screening asylum seekers had equally successful and completely reported treatment outcomes as cases diagnosed by passive case finding and contact tracing in the general population. Methods: We analysed characteristics and treatment outcomes of pulmonary TB cases notified in Germany between 2002 and 2014, stratified by mode of case finding...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Keir McCutcheon, Andreas S Triantafyllis, Thomas Marynissen, Tom Adriaenssens, Johan Bennett, Christophe Dubois, Peter R Sinnaeve, Walter Desmet
BACKGROUND: The optimal therapeutic strategy for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients found to have multi-vessel disease (MVD) is controversial but recent data support complete revascularisation (CR). Whether CR should be completed during the index admission or during a second staged admission remains unclear. Our main objective was to measure rates of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) during the waiting period in STEMI patients selected for staged revascularisation (SR), in order to determine the safety of delaying CR...
March 21, 2018: Acta Cardiologica
Jennifer L Perret, Melanie C Matheson, Lyle C Gurrin, David P Johns, John A Burgess, Bruce R Thompson, Adrian J Lowe, James Markos, Stephen S Morrison, Christine F McDonald, Richard Wood-Baker, Cecilie Svanes, Paul S Thomas, John L Hopper, Graham G Giles, Michael J Abramson, E Haydn Walters, Shyamali C Dharmage
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has potential origins in childhood but an association between childhood measles and post-bronchodilator (BD) airflow obstruction (AO) has not yet been shown. We investigated whether childhood measles contributed to post-BD AO through interactions with asthma and/or smoking in a non-immunized middle-aged population. METHODS: The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) cohort born in 1961 (n = 8583) underwent spirometry in 1968 before immunization was introduced...
March 20, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Johann A R Roduit, Tobias Eichinger, Walter Glannon
The ethics of human enhancement has been a hotly debated topic in the last 15 years. In this debate, some advocate examining science fiction stories to elucidate the ethical issues regarding the current phenomenon of human enhancement. Stories from science fiction seem well suited to analyze biomedical advances, providing some possible case studies. Of particular interest is the work of screenwriter Andrew Niccol (Gattaca, S1m0ne, In Time, and Good Kill), which often focuses on ethical questions raised by the use of new technologies...
March 20, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Dean Calahan, Edward Osenbaugh, Walter Adey
Humanity is degrading multiple ecosystem services, potentially irreversibly. Two of the most important human impacts are excess agricultural nutrient loading in our fresh and estuarine waters and excess carbon dioxide in our oceans and atmosphere. Large-scale global intervention is required to slow, halt, and eventually reverse these stresses. Cultivating attached polyculture algae within controlled open-field photobioreactors is a practical technique for exploiting the ubiquity and high primary productivity of algae to capture and recycle the pollutants driving humanity into unsafe regimes of biogeochemical cycling, ocean acidification, and global warming...
February 2018: Heliyon
Xiaoxiao Lin, Christy A Itoga, Sharif Taha, Ming H Li, Ryan Chen, Kirolos Sami, Fulvia Berton, Walter Francesconi, Xiangmin Xu
Real-world stressors are complex and multimodal, involving physical, psychological, and social dimensions. However, the brain networks that mediate stress responses to these stimuli need to be further studied. We used c-Fos mapping in mice to characterize brain circuits activated by exposure to a single episode of multimodal stress (MMS), and compared these to circuits activated by electric foot shocks (EFS). We focused on characterizing c-Fos activity in stress-relevant brain regions including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Heather M O'Leary, Walter E Kaufmann, Katherine V Barnes, Kshitiz Rakesh, Kush Kapur, Daniel C Tarquinio, Nicole G Cantwell, Katherine J Roche, Suzanne A Rose, Alexandra C Walco, Natalie M Bruck, Grace A Bazin, Ingrid A Holm, Mark E Alexander, Lindsay C Swanson, Lauren M Baczewski, Juan M Mayor Torres, Charles A Nelson, Mustafa Sahin
Objective: To measure the efficacy of mecasermin (recombinant human insulin-like growth factor 1, rhIGF-1), for treating symptoms of Rett syndrome (RTT) in a pediatric population using a double-blind crossover study design. Methods: Thirty girls with classic RTT in postregression stage were randomly assigned to placebo or rhIGF-1 in treatment period 1 and crossed over to the opposite assignment for period 2 (both 20 weeks), separated by a 28-week washout period...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Ralph Witzgall
Primary cilia represent small, yet distinct compartments of the plasma membrane. They are speculated to exercise chemo- and mechanosensory functions and to serve as signaling hubs for crucial pathways such as the Wnt and hedgehog cascades. It is therefore necessary that specific integral membrane proteins, in particular sensors and receptors, are sorted to the cilium and not to the surrounding somatic plasma membrane upon being synthesized at the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Apparently no singular "zip code" for the primary cilium exists but rather several ciliary targeting signals whose biochemical and cell biological implications are just about being unravelled...
March 17, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Stefano Grazioli, Maurizio Paciaroni, Giancarlo Agnelli, Monica Acciarresi, Andrea Alberti, Cataldo D'Amore, Valeria Caso, Michele Venti, Luigina Guasti, Walter Ageno, Alessandro Squizzato
BACKGROUND: The association between stroke and cancer is well-known but insufficiently investigated. Aim of this multicentre retrospective cohort study was to estimate the prevalence of cancer-associated ischemic stroke, describe clinical outcomes in patients with cancer-associated ischemic stroke and investigate independent factors associated with active cancer. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke were included. Included patients were admitted in the Stroke Unit of the Hospital of Perugia, Italy, from March 2005 to March 2015, and in a medical unit of the Hospital of Varese, Italy, from January 2010 till December 2011...
March 15, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Andrew S Moon, Walter Smith, Sawyer Mullen, Brent A Ponce, Gerald McGwin, Ashish Shah, Sameer M Naranje
BACKGROUND: The association between marijuana use and surgical procedures is a matter of increasing societal relevance that has not been well studied in the literature. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between marijuana use and in-hospital mortality, as well as to assess associated comorbidities in patients undergoing commonly billed orthopedic surgeries. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2010 to 2014 was used to determine the odds ratios for the associations between marijuana use and in-hospital mortality, heart failure (HF), stroke, and cardiac disease (CD) in patients undergoing five common orthopedic procedures: hip (THA), knee (TKA), and shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), spinal fusion, and traumatic femur fracture fixation...
March 20, 2018: Substance Abuse
Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Walter C Prozialeck, Surash Ramanathan, Hadzliana Zainal, Sabariah Noor Harun
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is traditionally used in Southeast Asia for its medicinal value and psychoactive properties. Nonetheless, cessation from regular kratom use is reported to cause unpleasant dose-dependent withdrawal symptoms. This study aims to evaluate the severity of pain and sleep problems following the cessation of kratom tea/juice consumption among regular kratom users. A total of 170 regular users were recruited through snowball sampling for this cross-sectional study. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scales were administered to assess the severity of pain and sleep problems...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Giuseppe Amatulli, Sami Domisch, Mao-Ning Tuanmu, Benoit Parmentier, Ajay Ranipeta, Jeremy Malczyk, Walter Jetz
Topographic variation underpins a myriad of patterns and processes in hydrology, climatology, geography and ecology and is key to understanding the variation of life on the planet. A fully standardized and global multivariate product of different terrain features has the potential to support many large-scale research applications, however to date, such datasets are unavailable. Here we used the digital elevation model products of global 250 m GMTED2010 and near-global 90 m SRTM4.1dev to derive a suite of topographic variables: elevation, slope, aspect, eastness, northness, roughness, terrain roughness index, topographic position index, vector ruggedness measure, profile/tangential curvature, first/second order partial derivative, and 10 geomorphological landform classes...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Data
Bérénice Rault-Petit, Christine Do Cao, Serge Guyétant, Rosine Guimbaud, Vincent Rohmer, Catherine Julié, Eric Baudin, Bernard Goichot, Romain Coriat, Antoine Tabarin, Jeanne Ramos, Pierre Goudet, Valérie Hervieu, Jean-Yves Scoazec, Thomas Walter
OBJECTIVE: The primary endpoint was to analyze the predictive factors of lymph node involvement (LN+). BACKGROUND: Indications for additional right hemicolectomy (RHC) with lymph node (LN) resection after appendectomy for appendix neuroendocrine tumor (A-NET) remain controversial, especially for tumors between 1 and 2 cm in size. METHODS: National study including all patients with nonmetastatic A-NET diagnosed after January, 2010 in France...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Lelia Barks, Cynthia Garvan, Barbara Crane, Matthew Peterson, Lisa M Brown, Gail Powell-Cope
PURPOSE: Earlier, we reported development and initial testing of a rapid, low burden measure of wheelchair seated posture (the Seated Posture Scale [SPS]) for research and clinical use. The purpose of this study was to test the intrarater reliability, interrater reliability, and criterion related validity of the SPS. DESIGN: We used a descriptive design to test and develop the instrument. METHODS: We used the method described by Walter, Donner, and Eliasziw to determine 46 participants were needed, from two Veterans Administration nursing homes or CLCs (community living centers)...
March 19, 2018: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Emmanuel Igumbor, Okikiola Olaniyan, Edwin Mapasha, Helga Danga, Ezekiel Omotoso, Walter Meyer
Electrically active induced energy levels in semiconductor devices could be beneficial to the discovery of an enhanced p or n-type semiconductor. N implanted into 4H-SiC is a high energy process that produced high defect concentrations which could be removed during dopant activation annealing. On the other hand, B substituted for silicon in SiC causes a reduction in the number of defects. This scenario leads to a decrease in the dielectric properties and induced deep donor and shallow acceptor levels. Complexes formed by N, such as the N-vacancy centre, have been reported to play a significant role in the application of quantum bits...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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