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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352669/tms-of-primary-motor-cortex-with-a-biphasic-pulse-activates-two-independent-sets-of-excitable-neurones
#1
Martin Sommer, Matteo Ciocca, Raffaella Chieffo, Paul Hammond, Andreas Neef, Walter Paulus, John C Rothwell, Ricci Hannah
BACKGROUND: Biphasic pulses produced by most commercially available TMS machines have a cosine waveform, which makes it difficult to study the interaction between the two phases of stimulation. OBJECTIVE: We used a controllable pulse TMS (cTMS) device delivering quasi-rectangular pulse outputs to investigate whether monophasic are more effective than biphasic pulses. METHODS: Temporally symmetric ("biphasic") or highly asymmetric ("monophasic") charge-balanced biphasic stimuli were used to target the hand area of motor cortex in the anterior-posterior (AP) or posterior-anterior (PA) initial current direction...
January 5, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352562/cbs-mutations-are-good-predictors-for-b6-responsiveness-a-study-based-on-the-analysis-of-35-brazilian-classical-homocystinuria-patients
#2
Soraia Poloni, Fernanda Sperb-Ludwig, Taciane Borsatto, Giovana Weber Hoss, Maria Juliana R Doriqui, Emília K Embiruçu, Ney Boa-Sorte, Charles Marques, Chong A Kim, Carolina Fischinger Moura de Souza, Helio Rocha, Marcia Ribeiro, Carlos E Steiner, Carolina A Moreno, Pricila Bernardi, Eugenia Valadares, Osvaldo Artigalas, Gerson Carvalho, Hector Y C Wanderley, Johanna Kugele, Melanie Walter, Lorena Gallego-Villar, Henk J Blom, Ida Vanessa D Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Classical homocystinuria (HCU) is a monogenic disease caused by the deficient activity of cystathionine β-synthase (CβS). The objective of this study was to identify the CBS mutations in Brazilian patients with HCU. METHODS: gDNA samples were obtained for 35 patients (30 families) with biochemically confirmed diagnosis of HCU. All exons and exon-intron boundaries of CBS gene were sequenced. Gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR was performed in six patients...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352271/sex-disparity-in-cancer-roles-of-micrornas-and-related-functional-players
#3
REVIEW
Alessandra Carè, Maria Bellenghi, Paola Matarrese, Lucia Gabriele, Stefano Salvioli, Walter Malorni
A sexual dimorphism at the cellular level has been suggested to play a role in cancer onset and progression. In particular, very recent studies have unraveled striking differences between cells carrying XX or XY chromosomes in terms of response to stressful stimuli, indicating the presence of genetic and epigenetic differences determining sex-specific metabolic or phenotypic traits. Although this field of investigation is still in its infancy, available data suggest a key role of sexual chromosomes in determining cell life or death...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352015/sox2-is-required-for-olfactory-pit-formation-and-olfactory-neurogenesis-through-bmp-restriction-and-hes5-upregulation
#4
Tamilarasan K Panaliappan, Walter Wittmann, Vijay K Jidigam, Sara Mercurio, Jessica A Bertolini, Soufien Sghari, Raj Bose, Cedric Patthey, Silvia K Nicolis, Lena Gunhaga
The transcription factor Sox2 is necessary to maintain pluripotency of embryonic stem cells, and to regulate neural development. Neurogenesis in the vertebrate olfactory epithelium persists from embryonic stages through adulthood. The role Sox2 plays for the development of the olfactory epithelium and neurogenesis within has, however, not been determined. Here, by analysing Sox2 conditional knockout mouse embryos and chick embryos deprived of Sox2 in the olfactory epithelium using CRISPR-Cas9, we show that Sox2 activity is crucial for the induction of the neural progenitor gene Hes5 and for subsequent differentiation of the neuronal lineage...
January 19, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351374/fast-dynamic-docking-guided-by-adaptive-electrostatic-bias-the-md-binding-approach
#5
Andrea Spitaleri, Sergio Decherchi, Andrea Cavalli, Walter Rocchia
Engineering chemical entities to modify how pharmaceutical targets function, as it is done in drug design, requires a good understanding of molecular recognition and binding. In this context, the limitations of statically describing bimolecular recognition, as done in docking/scoring, call for insightful and efficient dynamical investigations. On the experimental side, the characterization of dynamical binding processes is still in its infancy. Thus, computer simulations, particularly molecular dynamics (MD), are compelled to play a prominent role, allowing a deeper comprehension of the binding process and its causes and thus a more informed compound selection, making more significant the computational contribution to drug discovery1...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351327/a-novel-risk-classification-system-for-30-day-mortality-in-children-undergoing-surgery
#6
Oguz Akbilgic, Max R Langham, Arianne I Walter, Tamekia L Jones, Eunice Y Huang, Robert L Davis
A simple, objective and accurate way of grouping children undergoing surgery into clinically relevant risk groups is needed. The purpose of this study, is to develop and validate a preoperative risk classification system for postsurgical 30-day mortality for children undergoing a wide variety of operations. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Project-Pediatric participant use file data for calendar years 2012-2014 was analyzed to determine preoperative variables most associated with death within 30 days of operation (D30)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351000/age-effects-on-cerebral-oxygenation-and-behavior-in-children-with-sleep-disordered-breathing
#7
Knarik Tamanyan, Lisa M Walter, Aidan Weichard, Margot J Davey, Gillian M Nixon, Sarah N Biggs, Rosemary Sc Horne
RATIONALE: Childhood sleep disordered breathing ranges in severity from primary snoring to obstructive sleep apnea and is associated with behavioral and neurocognitive deficits. It remains unknown why children with primary snoring, who do not experience peripheral oxygen desaturation or sleep fragmentation, experience similar daytime deficits as those with obstructive sleep apnea or why effects are age dependent. OBJECTIVE: To examine cerebral tissue oxygenation and oxygen extraction as an explanation for daytime deficits in children with primary snoring...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350558/synbiotics-for-improved-human-health-recent-developments-challenges-and-opportunities
#8
Janina A Krumbeck, Jens Walter, Robert W Hutkins
Research on combining pro- and prebiotics as synbiotics to enhance human and animal health has accelerated in the past 10 years, including many clinical trials that have assessed a diverse range of synbiotic formulations. In this review, we summarize these studies as well as the commercial applications of synbiotics that are available. In particular, we critically assess the claimed health benefits of synbiotic applications and the ecological and therapeutic factors to consider when designing synbiotics and discuss the implications of these concepts for future research in this fiel Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology Volume 9 is March 25, 2018...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349716/detection-of-bovine-carriers-of-leptospira-by-serological-bacteriological-and-molecular-tools
#9
Melissa H Pinna, Gabriel Martins, Ana Paula Loureiro, Walter Lilenbaum
Bovine leptospirosis is an important infectious disease that causes reproductive problems and economic risks, particularly in the tropics. The present study aimed to determine the extent of Leptospira infection among bovines on a slaughterhouse from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil via serological, bacteriological, and molecular tests. Two hundred eight bovines were examined in total, and we obtained 208 blood samples for serology, 198 urine samples collected via direct bladder puncture for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture, 208 kidney samples (one from each animal) for PCR and culture, and 92 vaginal fluid samples from sterile swabs for PCR and culture...
January 18, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349603/neoadjuvant-chemoradiation-for-esophageal-cancer-surgery-improves-locoregional-control-while-response-based-on-fdg-pet-ct-predicts-survival
#10
Nina-Sophie Hegemann, Rebecca Koepple, Franziska Walter, David Boeckle, Wolfgang P Fendler, Martin Kurt Angele, Stefan Boeck, Claus Belka, Falk Roeder
INTRODUCTION: To retrospectively analyze the outcome of patients with esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. METHODS: A total of 41 patients received neoadjuvant intent chemoradiation for esophageal cancer. Most patients had a locally advanced disease (T3/4: 82%, N+: 83%, M0: 100%) and squamous cell carcinoma (83%). All patients received concurrent chemotherapy with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil or mitomycin/5-fluorouracil. Median radiation dose was 50...
January 18, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349546/understanding-who-benefits-from-parenting-interventions-for-children-s-conduct-problems-an-integrative-data-analysis
#11
Patty Leijten, Maartje Raaijmakers, Leoniek Wijngaards, Walter Matthys, Ankie Menting, Maud Hemink-van Putten, Bram Orobio de Castro
Parenting interventions are an effective strategy to reduce children's conduct problems. For some families, that is, not all families benefit equally. Individual trials tend to be underpowered and often lack variability to differentiate between families how benefit less or more. Integrating individual family level data across trials, we aimed to provide more conclusive results about often presumed key family (parental education and ethnic background) and child characteristics (problem severity, ADHD symptoms and emotional problems) as putative moderators of parenting intervention effects...
January 18, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348601/exclusion-from-spheroid-formation-identifies-loss-of-essential-cell-cell-adhesion-molecules-in-colon-cancer-cells
#12
Mira Stadler, Martin Scherzer, Stefanie Walter, Silvio Holzner, Karoline Pudelko, Angelika Riedl, Christine Unger, Nina Kramer, Beatrix Weil, Jürgen Neesen, Markus Hengstschläger, Helmut Dolznig
Many cell lines derived from solid cancers can form spheroids, which recapitulate tumor cell clusters and are more representative of the in vivo situation than 2D cultures. During spheroid formation, a small proportion of a variety of different colon cancer cell lines did not integrate into the sphere and lost cell-cell adhesion properties. An enrichment protocol was developed to augment the proportion of these cells to 100% purity. The basis for the separation of spheroids from non-spheroid forming (NSF) cells is simple gravity-sedimentation...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348489/which-patients-are-not-included-in-the-english-cancer-waiting-times-monitoring-dataset-2009-2013-implications-for-use-of-the-data-in-research
#13
C Di Girolamo, S Walters, C Gildea, S Benitez Majano, M P Coleman, B Rachet, M Morris
BACKGROUND: Cancer waiting time targets are routinely monitored in England, but the Cancer Waiting Times monitoring dataset (CWT) does not include all eligible patients, introducing scope for bias. METHODS: Data from adults diagnosed in England (2009-2013) with colorectal, lung, or ovarian cancer were linked from CWT to cancer registry, mortality, and Hospital Episode Statistics data. We present demographic characteristics and net survival for patients who were and were not included in CWT...
January 18, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348469/treprostinil-inhibits-proliferation-and-extracellular-matrix-deposition-by-fibroblasts-through-camp-activation
#14
Christopher Lambers, Michael Roth, Peter Jaksch, Gabriella Muraközy, Michael Tamm, Walter Klepetko, Bahil Ghanim, Feng Zhao
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by peripheral lung fibrosis and increased interstitial extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. In IPF, tumor growth factor (TGF)-β1 which is the major stimulus of ECM deposition, and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB is a potent stimulus of fibrosis. Thus, the effect of Treprostinil on TGF-ß1 and PDGF-induced fibroblast proliferation and ECM deposition was investigated. Human peripheral lung fibroblasts of seven IPF patients and five lung donors were stimulated by PDGF, or TGF-β1, or the combination...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348190/pronounced-hyperactivity-cognitive-dysfunctions-and-bdnf-dysregulation-in-dopamine-transporter-knockout-rats
#15
Damiana Leo, Ilya Sukhanov, Francesca Zoratto, Placido Illiano, Lucia Caffino, Fabrizio Sanna, Giulia Messa, Marco Emanuele, Alessandro Esposito, Maria Dorofeikova, Evgeny A Budygin, Liudmila Mus, Evgenia E Efimova, Marco Niello, Stefano Espinoza, Tatyana D Sotnikova, Marius C Hoener, Gianni Laviola, Fabio Fumagalli, Walter Adriani, Raul R Gainetdinov
Dopamine (DA) controls many vital physiological functions and is critically involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The major function of the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is the rapid uptake of released DA into presynaptic nerve terminals leading to control of both the extracellular levels of DA and the intracellular stores of DA. Here, we present a newly developed strain of rats (DAT-knockout, DAT-KO rats) in which the gene encoding the DAT has been disrupted by using zinc finger nuclease technology (ZFN)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348166/clinical-evaluation-of-a-blood-assay-to-diagnose-paucibacillary-tuberculosis-via-bacterial-antigens
#16
Chang Liu, Christopher J Lyon, Yang Bu, Zaian Deng, Elisabetta Walters, Yan Li, Liqun Zhang, Anneke C Hesseling, Edward A Graviss, Ye Hu
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB)10 cases primarily relies on methods that detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli or their DNA in patient samples (e.g., mycobacterial culture and Xpert MTB/RIF assays), but these tests have low clinical sensitivity for patients with paucibacillary TB disease. Our goal was to evaluate the clinical performance of a newly developed assay that can rapidly diagnose active TB cases by direct detection of Mtb-derived antigens in patients' blood samples...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348138/development-and-validation-of-outcome-prediction-models-for-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-haemorrhage-the-sahit-multinational-cohort-study
#17
Blessing N R Jaja, Gustavo Saposnik, Hester F Lingsma, Erin Macdonald, Kevin E Thorpe, Muhammed Mamdani, Ewout W Steyerberg, Andrew Molyneux, Airton Leonardo de Oliveira Manoel, Bawarjan Schatlo, Daniel Hanggi, David Hasan, George K C Wong, Nima Etminan, Hitoshi Fukuda, James Torner, Karl L Schaller, Jose I Suarez, Martin N Stienen, Mervyn D I Vergouwen, Gabriel J E Rinkel, Julian Spears, Michael D Cusimano, Michael Todd, Peter Le Roux, Peter Kirkpatrick, John Pickard, Walter M van den Bergh, Gordon Murray, S Claiborne Johnston, Sen Yamagata, Stephan Mayer, Tom A Schweizer, R Loch Macdonald
OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a set of practical prediction tools that reliably estimate the outcome of subarachnoid haemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysms (SAH). DESIGN: Cohort study with logistic regression analysis to combine predictors and treatment modality. SETTING: Subarachnoid Haemorrhage International Trialists' (SAHIT) data repository, including randomised clinical trials, prospective observational studies, and hospital registries...
January 18, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347779/effective-viscosity-of-a-suspension-of-flagellar-beating-microswimmers-three-dimensional-modeling
#18
Levan Jibuti, Walter Zimmermann, Salima Rafaï, Philippe Peyla
Micro-organisms usually can swim in their liquid environment by flagellar or ciliary beating. In this numerical work, we analyze the influence of flagellar beating on the orbits of a swimming cell in a shear flow. We also calculate the effect of the flagellar beating on the rheology of a dilute suspension of microswimmers. A three-dimensional model is proposed for Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii swimming with a breaststroke-like beating of two anterior flagella modeled by two counter-rotating fore beads. The active swimmer model reveals unusual angular orbits in a linear shear flow...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347729/single-cone-finite-difference-schemes-for-the-2-1-dimensional-dirac-equation-in-general-electromagnetic-textures
#19
Walter Pötz
A single-cone finite-difference lattice scheme is developed for the (2+1)-dimensional Dirac equation in presence of general electromagnetic textures. The latter is represented on a (2+1)-dimensional staggered grid using a second-order-accurate finite difference scheme. A Peierls-Schwinger substitution to the wave function is used to introduce the electromagnetic (vector) potential into the Dirac equation. Thereby, the single-cone energy dispersion and gauge invariance are carried over from the continuum to the lattice formulation...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346921/orthotropic-hydraulic-permeability-of-arrays-of-parallel-cylinders
#20
Mohsen Maleki, Robert J Martinuzzi, Walter Herzog, Salvatore Federico
Approximate analytical methods are presented to calculate the overall orthotropic hydraulic permeability of a flow with low Reynolds number, passing through a bundle of parallel circular cylinders. Two particular distributions are considered: (i) arrays with ordered rectangular lattices and (ii) irregular nonrandom distributions for which the unit cell cross sections are elliptical. The standard unit cell models, originally developed by Happel and Kuwabara for a random distribution of cylinders, are adapted to the case of nonrandom distributions...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
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