Read by QxMD icon Read

Glucagon AND Supplement

Rika Fukumori, Yoji Masuda, Ayaka Takeuchi, Rina Yanai, Khurchabiling Atchalalt, Borjigin Sarentonglaga, Kazuko Ogata, Mio Yamaguchi, Asuka Hara, Akane Sato, Toshihisa Sugino, Yoshikazu Nagao
The aim of this study was to investigate how intra-duodenal infusions of fatty acids (FA) affect appetite-related gut peptides such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin in sheep. We hypothesized that these peptides can be highly reactive to unsaturated long-chain FA, because they are well known to decrease DMI. Four ewes were fitted with a duodenal cannula and a jugular vein catheter for a 6-h duodenal infusion of the nine FA (C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3) and water (control)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Seifu Mideksa, Sintayehu Ambachew
Polyunsaturated Fatty acids have multiple effects in peripheral tissues and pancreatic beta cell function. The n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids prevent and reverse high-fat-diet induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. Insulin secretion is stimulated by glucose, amino acids, and glucagon- like peptide-1 in tissue containing high levels of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids than lower level of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids. Also, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids led to decreased production of prostaglandin, which in turn contributed to the elevation of insulin secretion...
March 14, 2018: Adipocyte
Kwai Lam, Lauren Schwartz, Jennifer Batisti, Kishore R Iyer
BACKGROUND: Teduglutide is a glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analog that has been approved for the treatment of adult short bowel syndrome (SBS)-associated intestinal failure (IF; SBS-IF). Teduglutide increases villus height and crypt depth in the small bowel mucosa, promoting nutrition absorption and enteral independence from parenteral nutrition (PN). We aim to report our single-center experience with teduglutide in adult patients with SBS to provide real-world context to its use. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective analysis on patients managed within our tertiary-level intestinal rehabilitation program to identify patients with SBS-IF treated with teduglutide from 2009-2015...
January 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Rebecca K Campbell, Kerry J Schulze, Saijuddin Shaikh, Rubhana Raqib, Lee S F Wu, Hasmot Ali, Sucheta Mehra, Keith P West, Parul Christian
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and systemic inflammation (SI) are common in developing countries and may cause stunting. In Bangladesh, >40 % of preschool children are stunted, but EED and SI contributions are unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of EED and SI (assessed with multiple indicators) on growth in children (n 539) enrolled in a community-based randomised food supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. EED was defined with faecal myeloperoxidase, α-1 antitrypsin and neopterin and serum endotoxin core antibody and glucagon-like peptide-2, consolidated into gut inflammation (GI) and permeability (GP) scores, and urinary lactulose:mannitol α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) characterised SI...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Kishore Kumar, Madhavi Biyyam, Bharat Bajantri, Sureshkumar Nayudu
Calcium channel blocker (CCB ) overdose, whether intentional or accidental, is a common clinical scenario and can be very lethal. Conventional treatments for CCB overdose include intravenous (IV) fluids, calcium salts, dopamine, dobutamine, norepinephrine, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and glucagon. However, the conventional therapies are unsuccessful in reversing the cardiovascular toxicity of CCB, so they commonly fail to improve the hemodynamic condition of the patient. Blockade of the L-type calcium channels that mediate the antihypertensive effect of CCBs also decreases the release of insulin from pancreatic β-islet cells and reduces glucose uptake by tissues (insulin resistance)...
February 2018: Cardiology Research
Diana Obanda, Ryan Page, Justin Guice, Anne M Raggio, Claudia Husseneder, Brian Marx, Rhett W Stout, David A Welsh, Christopher M Taylor, Meng Luo, Eugene E Blanchard, Zach Bendiks, Diana Coulon, Michael J Keenan
OBJECTIVE: This study used CD obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats to examine how weight gain and fat accretion relate to fermentation levels and microbiota composition after feeding resistant starch (RS). METHODS: After feeding OP rats and OR rats a high-fat (HF) diet for 4 weeks, rats were stratified into three groups: they were fed either an HF diet (group 1: HF-HF) or were switched to a low-fat (LF) diet (group 2: HF-LF) or an LF diet supplemented with 20% RS by weight for 4 weeks (group 3: HF-LFRS)...
March 2018: Obesity
Wei Ying, Sumana Mahata, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Zhenqi Zhou, Joshua Wollam, Jessica Vu, Rafael Mayoral, Nai-Wen Chi, Nicholas J G Webster, Angelo Corti, Sushil K Mahata
The activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) and monocyte (Mc)-derived recruited macrophages (McMΦs) in the liver contributes to obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice treated with Chromogranin A (CgA) peptide catestatin (CST) showed several positive results. These included decreased hepatic/plasma lipids and plasma insulin, diminished expression of gluconeogenic genes, attenuated expression of pro-inflammatory genes, increased expression of anti-inflammatory genes in McMΦs, and inhibition of the infiltration of McMΦs resulting in improvement of insulin sensitivity...
February 6, 2018: Diabetes
Claudia Lennicke, Jette Rahn, Claudia Wickenhauser, Rudolf Lichtenfels, Andreas S Müller, Ludger A Wessjohann, Anna P Kipp, Barbara Seliger
The selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPx2) is expressed in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract, where it is thought to be involved in maintaining mucosal homeostasis. To gain novel insights into the role of GPx2, proteomic profiles of colonic tissues either derived from wild type (WT) or GPx2 knockout (KO) mice, maintained under selenium (Se) deficiency or adequate Se supplementation conditions were established and analyzed. Amongst the panel of differentially expressed proteins, the calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) was significantly down-regulated in GPx2 KO versus WT mice regardless of the given Se status...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Alvaro Pérez, Pamela Rojas, Fernando Carrasco, Karen Basfi-Fer, Francisco Pérez-Bravo, Juana Codoceo, Jorge Inostroza, Manuel Ruz
Glucagon dysregulation is an essential component in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Studies in vitro and in animal models have shown that zinc co-secreted with insulin suppresses glucagon secretion. Zinc supplementation improves blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes, although there is little information about how zinc supplementation may affect glucagon secretion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1-year zinc supplementation on fasting plasma glucagon concentration and in response to intravenous glucose and insulin infusion in patients with type 2 diabetes...
January 26, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Ann Bjørnshave, Jens Juul Holst, Kjeld Hermansen
Diabetic dyslipidemia with elevated postprandial triglyceride (TG) responses is characteristic in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Diet and meal timing can modify postprandial lipemia (PPL). The impact of a pre-meal of whey proteins (WP) on lipid metabolism is unidentified. We determined whether a WP pre-meal prior to a fat-rich meal influences TG and apolipoprotein B-48 (ApoB-48) responses differentially in patients with and without T2D. Two matched groups of 12 subjects with and without T2D accomplished an acute, randomized, cross-over trial...
January 25, 2018: Nutrients
Caroline Giezenaar, Yonta van der Burgh, Kylie Lange, Seva Hatzinikolas, Trygve Hausken, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. We reported previously that the suppression of energy intake by whey protein is less in older than younger adults. The aim was to determine the effects of substitution, and adding of carbohydrate and fat to whey protein, on ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180-210 min), gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography), plasma gut hormone concentrations (0-180 min) and appetite (visual analogue scales), in healthy older men...
January 23, 2018: Nutrients
Caroline Giezenaar, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Amy T Hutchison, Scott Standfield, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the prevention and management of malnutrition in older people. We have reported that healthy older, compared to younger, adults have less suppression of energy intake by whey-protein-effects on appetite-related hormones are unknown. The objective was to determine the effects of intraduodenally administered whey-protein on glucose, gut hormone, and amino acid concentrations, and their relation to subsequent ad libitum energy intake at a buffet meal, in healthy older and younger men...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
Xu Si, Wenting Shang, Zhongkai Zhou, Guanghou Shui, Sin Man Lam, Chris Blanchard, Padraig Strappe
In this study, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enriched rice bran (ERB) was supplemented to obese rats to investigate the attenuation of metabolic syndromes induced by high-fat diet. ERB-containing diet stimulated butyrate and propionate production by promoting Anaerostipes, Anaerostipes sp., and associated synthesizing enzymes. This altered short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) distribution further enhanced circulatory levels of leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1, controlling food intake by downregulating orexigenic factors...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Wilhelmina A C Koekkoek, Arthur R H Van Zanten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent relevant studies regarding refeeding syndrome (RFS) in critically ill patients and provide recommendations for clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent knowledge regarding epidemiology of refeeding syndrome among critically ill patients, how to identify ICU patients at risk, and strategies to reduce the potential negative impact on outcome are discussed. SUMMARY: RFS is a potentially fatal acute metabolic derangement that ultimately can result in marked morbidity and even mortality...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
David Val-Laillet, Sylvie Guérin, Nicolas Coquery, Isabelle Nogret, Michèle Formal, Véronique Romé, Laurence Le Normand, Paul Meurice, Gwénaëlle Randuineau, Paul Guilloteau, Charles-Henri Malbert, Patricia Parnet, Jean-Paul Lallès, Jean-Pierre Segain
Butyrate can improve gut functions, whereas histone deacetylase inhibitors might alleviate neurocognitive alterations. Our aim was to assess whether oral butyrate could modulate brain metabolism and plasticity and if this would relate to gut function. Sixteen pigs were subjected to sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation via beverage water or water only [control (C)]. All pigs had blood sampled after 2 and 3 wk of treatment, and were subjected to a brain positron emission tomography after 3 wk. Animals were euthanized after 4 wk to sample pancreas, intestine, and brain for gut physiology and anatomy measurements, as well as hippocampal histology, Ki67, and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry...
December 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jun Yang, Chao Huang, Shanshan Wu, Yang Xu, Ting Cai, Sanbao Chai, Zhirong Yang, Feng Sun, Siyan Zhan
AIM: The association between dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is), a class of anti-diabetes, and bone fracture in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is unknown. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate the effects of DPP-4is on bone fracture in T2DM patients. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline and from inception through April 28th, 2016 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared DPP-4is with placebo or other anti-diabetes in T2DM patients...
2017: PloS One
Xiangbing Mao, Xiangjun Xiao, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Jun He, Hao Chen, Xuechun Xiao, Junqiu Luo, Yuheng Luo, Gang Tian, Jianping Wang
Rotavirus can lead to decreasing gut barrier function and diarrhea of children and young animals. Apple pectic oligosaccharide treatment reduced diarrhea in rotavirus-infected piglets. This study was conducted to explore whether apple pectic oligosaccharide administration could protect gut barrier function of piglets against rotavirus infection. A total of 28 crossbred weaned barrows were allotted into 2 treatments fed the diets supplementing 0 and 200 mg/kg apple pectic oligosaccharide. Half of pigs in each diet treatment were challenged by rotavirus on d 15...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
J J Gross, L Grossen-Rösti, R Héritier, A Tröscher, R M Bruckmaier
Supplementation of dairy cows with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) allows nutrient repartitioning despite an energy deficiency in early lactation, which might be a benefit for the immune system, too. In this study, we investigated potential nutrient sparing effects of CLA in early lactating cows with low plasma glucose concentrations exposed to an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows were exposed to an intramammary LPS challenge in week 4 p.p. Eight cows (CLA) were supplemented daily with 70 g of lipid-encapsulated CLA (6...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
N Yacoubi, L Saulnier, E Bonnin, E Devillard, V Eeckhaut, L Rhayat, R Ducatelle, F Van Immerseel
Carbohydrate-degrading multi-enzyme preparations (MEP) are used to improve broiler performances. Their mode of action is complex and not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effect of water-soluble fractions isolated at the pilot scale from wheat grain incubated with (WE) and without (WC) MEP. The fractions were incorporated in a wheat-based diet (0.1% w/w) to feed Ross PM3 broilers and compared with a non-supplemented control group (NC). The body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) until d 14 were determined...
November 10, 2017: Poultry Science
Xiaoqian Ma, Cejun Yang, Juan Zhang, Jia Wang, Wei Li, Chang Xu, Pengfei Rong, Bin Ye, Minghua Wu, Jianhui Jiang, Shounan Yi, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Neonatal pig islet-like cell clusters (NICC) are an attractive source of insulin-producing tissue for potential transplantation treatment of type 1 diabetic patients. However, a considerable loss of NICC after their transplantation due to apoptosis resulted from islet isolation and instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction remains to be overcome. METHODS: EGM2 medium depleted with hydrocortisone and supplemented with 50 mmol/L isobutylmethylxanthine, 10 mmol/L nicotinamide, and 10 mmol/L glucose was used to culture NICC at day 1, the day after isolation and changed every other day...
November 12, 2017: Xenotransplantation
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"