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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768476/treatment-with-specific-soluble-factors-promotes-the-functional-maturation-of-transcription-factor-mediated-pancreatic-transdifferentiated-cells
#1
Hiroaki Motoyama, Akira Kobayashi, Takahide Yokoyama, Akira Shimizu, Hiroshi Sakai, Tsuyoshi Notake, Kentaro Fukushima, Shin-Ichi Miyagawa
Pancreatic lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs) display instructive roles in converting adult cells to endocrine pancreatic cells through a process known as transdifferentiation. However, little is known about potential factors capable of accelerating transdifferentiation following transduction to achieve the functional maturation of transdifferentiated cells. In this study, we demonstrated, using adult liver-derived progenitor cells, that soluble factors utilized in pancreatic differentiation protocols of pluripotent stem cells promote functional maturation of TFs-mediated transdifferentiated cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693362/comparison-of-low-dose-liraglutide-use-versus-other-glp-1-receptor-agonists-in-patients-without-type-2-diabetes
#2
Eric T Wittbrodt, James M Eudicone, Sepehr Farahbakhshian, Carrie McAdam-Marx
OBJECTIVES: The objective was to compare the use of low-dose liraglutide (LD-L) (Victoza) to the other glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) in patients without a type 2 diabetes (T2D) diagnosis in the post approval period for high-dose liraglutide (HD-L) (Saxenda), which is not indicated for T2D. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective, repeated cross-sectional, cohort study. METHODS: Adult patients with T2D with more than 1 prescription for a GLP-1 RA in the Optum Humedica database between December 2014 and March 2016 were included...
April 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672196/the-effects-of-synbiotic-supplementation-on-body-mass-index-metabolic-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-appetite-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-triple-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Samira Rabiei, Mehdi Hedayati, Bahram Rashidkhani, Navid Saadat, Rahebeh Shakerhossini
It has been shown recently that metabolic syndrome is associated with gut dysbiosis. The gut microbiota may be the main target for prevention or treatment of metabolic syndrome. We investigated the effects of synbiotic supplementation on metabolic syndrome. In this triple-blinded clinical trial, 46 Iranian patients with metabolic syndrome, from both sexes, aged 25-70 years, who fulfilled inclusion criteria were randomly categorized to receive either the synbiotic or a placebo capsule, twice a day for three months, plus a weight-loss diet using stratified random sampling based on body mass index (BMI)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619796/overnight-fasting-compromises-exercise-intensity-and-volume-during-sprint-interval-training-but-improves-high-intensity-aerobic-endurance
#4
Tasuku Terada, Saeed R Toghi Eshghi, Yilina Liubaoerjijin, Michael Kennedy, Etienne Myette-Côté, Kevin Fletcher, Normand G Boulé
BACKGROUND: The combined effects of sprint interval training (SIT) and exercising in the fasted state are unknown. We compared the effects of SIT with exogenous carbohydrate supplementation (SITCHO) and SIT following overnight fast (SITFast) on aerobic capacity (peak oxygen consumption: V̇ O2peak) and high-intensity aerobic endurance (time-to-exhaustion at 85% V̇ O2peak [T85%]). METHODS: Twenty male cyclists were randomized to SITCHO and SITFast. Both groups performed 30-second all-out cycling followed by 4-minute active recovery 3 times per week for 4 weeks, with the number of sprint bouts progressing from 4 to 7...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608464/how-to-feed-patients-with-gastrointestinal-mucositis
#5
Jann Arends
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal mucositis is a frequent side effect of systemic anticancer treatment and radiotherapy. The occurrence endangers body resources by decreasing food intake and absorption. This review highlights new developments in treatment and prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent clinical practice guidelines recommend supplying adequate amounts of energy and nutrients to cancer patients undergoing anticancer treatments. This requires repeated screening for risk of malnutrition and in at-risk patients, assessment of food intake and nutritional status, followed by nutritional interventions targeted at individual deficiencies and tolerance to oral, enteral or parenteral feeding...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605225/histomorphological-changes-in-the-pancreas-and-kidney-and-histopathological-changes-in-the-liver-in-male-wistar-rats-on-antiretroviral-therapy-and-melatonin-treatment
#6
Danélle Truter, Nireshni Chellan, Hans Strijdom, Ingrid Webster, Jordyn Rawstorne, Sanet H Kotzé
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has shown to cause inflammation, cellular injury and oxidative stress, whereas melatonin has been successful in reducing these effects. The aim of the study was to determine potential morphometric changes caused by cART in combination with melatonin supplementation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-free rats. Tissue samples (N = 40) of the pancreas, liver and kidney from a control (C/ART-/M-), cART group (C/ART + ), melatonin (C/M + ) and experimental group (ART+/M + ) were collected and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and evaluated for histopathology...
March 28, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562369/valeric-acid-glyceride-esters-in-feed-promote-broiler-performance-and-reduce-the-incidence-of-necrotic-enteritis
#7
Lonneke Onrust, Karolien Van Driessche, Richard Ducatelle, Koen Schwarzer, Freddy Haesebrouck, Filip Van Immerseel
Valeric acid is a C5 fatty acid, naturally produced in low concentrations by specific members of the microbiota of the lower intestinal tract. Effects of valeric acid on intestinal health have been poorly investigated. Valeric acid derivatives can be produced as glyceride esters and added to broiler feed. In the current study, experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of valeric acid glycerides (GVA) on growth performance, on the morphology of the small intestinal mucosa and on protection against necrotic enteritis...
March 16, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547963/duodenal-infusion-of-fatty-acids-differentially-affects-plasma-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-ghrelin-concentrations-in-sheep
#8
Rika Fukumori, Yoji Masuda, Ayaka Takeuchi, Rina Yanai, Khurchabiling Atchalalt, Borjigin Sarentonglaga, Kazuko Ogata, Mio Yamaguchi, Asuka Hara, Akane Sato, Toshihisa Sugino, Yoshikazu Nagao
The aim of this study was to investigate how intraduodenal infusions of fatty acids (FA) affect appetite-related gut peptides such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin in sheep. We hypothesized that these peptides can be highly reactive to unsaturated long-chain FA, because they are well known to decrease dry matter intake (DMI). Four ewes were fitted with a duodenal cannula and a jugular vein catheter for a 6-h duodenal infusion of the 9 FA (C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3) and water (control)...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537934/the-role-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-n-3-pufas-on-the-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-insulin-action
#9
Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Seifu Mideksa, Sintayehu Ambachew
Polyunsaturated Fatty acids have multiple effects in peripheral tissues and pancreatic beta cell function. The n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids prevent and reverse high-fat-diet induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. Insulin secretion is stimulated by glucose, amino acids, and glucagon- like peptide-1 in tissue containing high levels of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids than lower level of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids. Also, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids led to decreased production of prostaglandin, which in turn contributed to the elevation of insulin secretion...
March 14, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505151/single-center-experience-with-the-use-of-teduglutide-in-adult-patients-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#10
Kwai Lam, Lauren Schwartz, Jennifer Batisti, Kishore R Iyer
BACKGROUND: Teduglutide is a glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analog that has been approved for the treatment of adult short bowel syndrome (SBS)-associated intestinal failure (IF; SBS-IF). Teduglutide increases villus height and crypt depth in the small bowel mucosa, promoting nutrition absorption and enteral independence from parenteral nutrition (PN). We aim to report our single-center experience with teduglutide in adult patients with SBS to provide real-world context to its use. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective analysis on patients managed within our tertiary-level intestinal rehabilitation program to identify patients with SBS-IF treated with teduglutide from 2009-2015...
January 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498344/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-and-systemic-inflammation-predict-reduced-weight-but-not-length-gain-in-rural-bangladeshi-children
#11
Rebecca K Campbell, Kerry J Schulze, Saijuddin Shaikh, Rubhana Raqib, Lee S F Wu, Hasmot Ali, Sucheta Mehra, Keith P West, Parul Christian
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and systemic inflammation (SI) are common in developing countries and may cause stunting. In Bangladesh, >40 % of preschool children are stunted, but EED and SI contributions are unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of EED and SI (assessed with multiple indicators) on growth in children (n 539) enrolled in a community-based randomised food supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. EED was defined with faecal myeloperoxidase, α-1 antitrypsin and neopterin and serum endotoxin core antibody and glucagon-like peptide-2, consolidated into gut inflammation (GI) and permeability (GP) scores, and urinary lactulose:mannitol α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) characterised SI...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479386/critical-management-of-severe-hypotension-caused-by-amlodipine-toxicity-managed-with-hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia-therapy-supplemented-with-calcium-gluconate-intravenous-glucagon-and-other-vasopressor-support-review-of-literature
#12
Kishore Kumar, Madhavi Biyyam, Bharat Bajantri, Sureshkumar Nayudu
Calcium channel blocker (CCB ) overdose, whether intentional or accidental, is a common clinical scenario and can be very lethal. Conventional treatments for CCB overdose include intravenous (IV) fluids, calcium salts, dopamine, dobutamine, norepinephrine, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and glucagon. However, the conventional therapies are unsuccessful in reversing the cardiovascular toxicity of CCB, so they commonly fail to improve the hemodynamic condition of the patient. Blockade of the L-type calcium channels that mediate the antihypertensive effect of CCBs also decreases the release of insulin from pancreatic β-islet cells and reduces glucose uptake by tissues (insulin resistance)...
February 2018: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464911/cd-obesity-prone-rats-but-not-obesity-resistant-rats-robustly-ferment-resistant-starch-without-increased-weight-or-fat-accretion
#13
Diana Obanda, Ryan Page, Justin Guice, Anne M Raggio, Claudia Husseneder, Brian Marx, Rhett W Stout, David A Welsh, Christopher M Taylor, Meng Luo, Eugene E Blanchard, Zach Bendiks, Diana Coulon, Michael J Keenan
OBJECTIVE: This study used CD obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats to examine how weight gain and fat accretion relate to fermentation levels and microbiota composition after feeding resistant starch (RS). METHODS: After feeding OP rats and OR rats a high-fat (HF) diet for 4 weeks, rats were stratified into three groups: they were fed either an HF diet (group 1: HF-HF) or were switched to a low-fat (LF) diet (group 2: HF-LF) or an LF diet supplemented with 20% RS by weight for 4 weeks (group 3: HF-LFRS)...
March 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432123/catestatin-inhibits-obesity-induced-macrophage-infiltration-and-inflammation-in-the-liver-and-suppresses-hepatic-glucose-production-leading-to-improved-insulin-sensitivity
#14
Wei Ying, Sumana Mahata, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Zhenqi Zhou, Joshua Wollam, Jessica Vu, Rafael Mayoral, Nai-Wen Chi, Nicholas J G Webster, Angelo Corti, Sushil K Mahata
The activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) and monocyte-derived recruited macrophages (McMΦs) in the liver contributes to obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO mice) treated with chromogranin A peptide catestatin (CST) showed several positive results. These included decreased hepatic/plasma lipids and plasma insulin, diminished expression of gluconeogenic genes, attenuated expression of proinflammatory genes, increased expression of anti-inflammatory genes in McMΦs, and inhibition of the infiltration of McMΦs resulting in improvement of insulin sensitivity...
May 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416634/loss-of-epithelium-specific-gpx2-results-in-aberrant-cell-fate-decisions-during-intestinal-differentiation
#15
Claudia Lennicke, Jette Rahn, Claudia Wickenhauser, Rudolf Lichtenfels, Andreas S Müller, Ludger A Wessjohann, Anna P Kipp, Barbara Seliger
The selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPx2) is expressed in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract, where it is thought to be involved in maintaining mucosal homeostasis. To gain novel insights into the role of GPx2, proteomic profiles of colonic tissues either derived from wild type (WT) or GPx2 knockout (KO) mice, maintained under selenium (Se) deficiency or adequate Se supplementation conditions were established and analyzed. Amongst the panel of differentially expressed proteins, the calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) was significantly down-regulated in GPx2 KO versus WT mice regardless of the given Se status...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374382/zinc-supplementation-does-not-affect-glucagon-response-to-intravenous-glucose-and-insulin-infusion-in-patients-with-well-controlled-type-2-diabetes
#16
Alvaro Pérez, Pamela Rojas, Fernando Carrasco, Karen Basfi-Fer, Francisco Pérez-Bravo, Juana Codoceo, Jorge Inostroza, Manuel Ruz
Glucagon dysregulation is an essential component in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Studies in vitro and in animal models have shown that zinc co-secreted with insulin suppresses glucagon secretion. Zinc supplementation improves blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes, although there is little information about how zinc supplementation may affect glucagon secretion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1-year zinc supplementation on fasting plasma glucagon concentration and in response to intravenous glucose and insulin infusion in patients with type 2 diabetes...
January 26, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370144/pre-meal-effect-of-whey-proteins-on-metabolic-parameters-in-subjects-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#17
Ann Bjørnshave, Jens Juul Holst, Kjeld Hermansen
Diabetic dyslipidemia with elevated postprandial triglyceride (TG) responses is characteristic in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Diet and meal timing can modify postprandial lipemia (PPL). The impact of a pre-meal of whey proteins (WP) on lipid metabolism is unidentified. We determined whether a WP pre-meal prior to a fat-rich meal influences TG and apolipoprotein B-48 (ApoB-48) responses differentially in patients with and without T2D. Two matched groups of 12 subjects with and without T2D accomplished an acute, randomized, cross-over trial...
January 25, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360778/effects-of-substitution-and-adding-of-carbohydrate-and-fat-to-whey-protein-on-energy-intake-appetite-gastric-emptying-glucose-insulin-ghrelin-cck-and-glp-1-in-healthy-older-men-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Caroline Giezenaar, Yonta van der Burgh, Kylie Lange, Seva Hatzinikolas, Trygve Hausken, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. We reported previously that the suppression of energy intake by whey protein is less in older than younger adults. The aim was to determine the effects of substitution, and adding of carbohydrate and fat to whey protein, on ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180-210 min), gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography), plasma gut hormone concentrations (0-180 min) and appetite (visual analogue scales), in healthy older men...
January 23, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329233/dose-dependent-effects-of-randomized-intraduodenal-whey-protein-loads-on-glucose-gut-hormone-and-amino-acid-concentrations-in-healthy-older-and-younger-men
#19
Caroline Giezenaar, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Amy T Hutchison, Scott Standfield, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the prevention and management of malnutrition in older people. We have reported that healthy older, compared to younger, adults have less suppression of energy intake by whey-protein-effects on appetite-related hormones are unknown. The objective was to determine the effects of intraduodenally administered whey-protein on glucose, gut hormone, and amino acid concentrations, and their relation to subsequent ad libitum energy intake at a buffet meal, in healthy older and younger men...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327584/gamma-aminobutyric-acid-enriched-rice-bran-diet-attenuates-insulin-resistance-and-balances-energy-expenditure-via-modification-of-gut-microbiota-and-short-chain-fatty-acids
#20
Xu Si, Wenting Shang, Zhongkai Zhou, Guanghou Shui, Sin Man Lam, Chris Blanchard, Padraig Strappe
In this study, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enriched rice bran (ERB) was supplemented to obese rats to investigate the attenuation of metabolic syndromes induced by high-fat diet. ERB-containing diet stimulated butyrate and propionate production by promoting Anaerostipes, Anaerostipes sp., and associated synthesizing enzymes. This altered short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) distribution further enhanced circulatory levels of leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1, controlling food intake by downregulating orexigenic factors...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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