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Glucagon AND Supplement

P Baskaran, V Krishnan, K Fettel, P Gao, Z Zhu, J Ren, B Thyagarajan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: An imbalance between energy intake and expenditure leads to obesity. Increasing metabolism and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) can help in overcoming obesity. Here, we investigated the effect of activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) in the upregulation of thermogenic proteins in BAT to counter diet-induced obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) on the expression of metabolically important thermogenic proteins in BAT of wild type and TRPV1(-/-) mice that received either a normal chow or high fat (±capsaicin; TRPV1 activator) diet by immunoblotting...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Bhawna Chandravanshi, Ramesh Ramchandra Bhonde
In the present study we focused on the improvisation of islet survival in hypoxia.The Islet like cell aggregates (ICAs) derived from wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ MSC) were cultured with and without WJ MSC for 48h in hypoxia and normoxia and tested for their direct trophic effect on β cell survival. The WJ MSCs themselves secreted insulin upon glucose challenge and expressed the pancreatic markers at both transcription and translational level (C-peptide, Insulin,Glucagon and Glut 2). Direct contact of MSCs with ICAs facilitated highest viability under hypoxia as evidenced by fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT) assay...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Eva-Lena Stenblom, Björn Weström, Caroline Linninge, Peter Bonn, Mary Farrell, Jens F Rehfeld, Caroline Montelius
Green-plant thylakoids increase satiety by affecting appetite hormones such as ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The objective of this study was to investigate if thylakoids also affect gastrointestinal (GI) passage and microbial composition. To analyse the effects on GI passage, 16 rats were gavage-fed a control or thylakoid-supplemented high-fat diet (HFD) 30 min before receiving Evans blue. Another 16 rats were fed a control HFD or thylakoid HFD for two weeks prior to the intragastric challenge with Evans blue...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Zhongwei Zhang, Xiaodong Wu, Lili Cao, Zhengdong Zhong, Yan Zhou
We aimed to assess the feasibility of enhancing the intestinal development of weaned rats using glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2)-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). GLP-2-expressing S. cerevisiae (GLP2-SC) was generated using a recombinant approach. The diet of weaned rats was supplemented with the GLP2-SC strain. The average daily gain (ADG), the intestinal morphology and the activities of the digestive enzymes in the jejunum were tested to assess the influence of the GLP2-SC strain on intestinal development...
September 19, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Kristen Datte, Julien Guillaumin, Susan Barrett, Andrea Monnig, Edward Cooper
OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of glucagon infusion for adjunctive treatment of hypoglycemia in dogs. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective case series. SETTING: One university and 1 private veterinary referral hospital. ANIMALS: Dogs were included if they were hospitalized and received glucagon therapy for hypoglycemia, defined as blood glucose concentration (BG) <60 mg/dL. A total of 9 dogs were included from September 2005 to May 2014...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Rachel L Adams, Kenneth Shane Broughton
BACKGROUND: The insulinotropic effect of whey protein is not fully understood and has clinical implications in the regulation of chronic and acute hyperglycemia. SUMMARY: This review describes the composition of whey protein and potential mechanisms through which whey exerts an insulinotropic effect, including increasing the gastric emptying rate, effect on incretin hormones particularly gastric inhibitory peptide and glucagon-like polypeptide-1, and whey's role as a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor...
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Piotr A Mroz, Diego Perez-Tilve, Fa Liu, Vasily Gelfanov, Richard D DiMarchi, John P Mayer
Glucagon (Gcg) 1 serves a seminal physiological role in buffering against hypoglycemia, but its poor biophysical properties severely complicate its medicinal use. We report a series of novel glucagon analogues of enhanced aqueous solubility and stability at neutral pH, anchored by Gcg[Aib16]. Incorporation of 3- and 4-pyridyl-alanine (3-Pal and 4-Pal) enhanced aqueous solubility of glucagon while maintaining biological properties. Relative to native hormone, analogue 9 (Gcg[3-Pal6,10,13, Aib16]) demonstrated superior biophysical character, better suitability for medicinal purposes, and comparable pharmacology against insulin-induced hypoglycemia in rats and pigs...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Darline Garibay, Anne K McGavigan, Seon A Lee, James V Ficorilli, Amy L Cox, M Dodson Michael, Kyle W Sloop, Bethany P Cummings
Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) produces high rates of type 2 diabetes remission; however, the mechanisms responsible for this remain incompletely defined. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone that contributes to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and is elevated after VSG. VSG-induced increases in postprandial GLP-1 secretion have been proposed to contribute to the glucoregulatory benefits of VSG; however, previous work has been equivocal. In order to test the contribution of enhanced β-cell GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling we used a β-cell-specific tamoxifen-inducible GLP-1R knockout mouse model...
September 2016: Endocrinology
Sebastian Steven, Kerstin Jurk, Maximilian Kopp, Swenja Kröller-Schön, Yuliya Mikhed, Kathrin Schwierczek, Siyer Roohani, Fatemeh Kashani, Matthias Oelze, Thomas Klein, Sergey Tokalov, Sven Danckwardt, Susanne Strand, Philip Wenzel, Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Excessive inflammation in sepsis causes microvascular thrombosis and thrombocytopenia associated with organ dysfunction and high mortality. The present studies aimed to investigate whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition and supplementation with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues improves endotoxaemia-associated microvascular thrombosis via immunomodulatory effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Endotoxaemia was induced in C57BL/6 J mice by single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (17...
July 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Sara Ramos-Romero, Eunice Molinar-Toribio, Jara Pérez-Jiménez, Núria Taltavull, Gabriel Dasilva, Marta Romeu, Isabel Medina, Josep Lluís Torres
It has been suggested that food components such as ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) and (poly)phenols counteract diet-induced metabolic alterations by common or complementary mechanisms. To examine the effects of a combination of ω-3 PUFAs and (poly)phenols on such alterations, adult Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed an obesogenic high-fat high-sucrose diet supplemented, or not, for 24 weeks with: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 1 : 1 (16.6 g kg(-1) feed); proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract (GSE, 0...
August 10, 2016: Food & Function
Lara Pizzorno
As discussed in Part 1, obesity is now a global epidemic affecting a significant and rapidly increasing number of adults, adolescents, and children. As the incidence of obesity has increased, so has the use of bariatric surgery to treat it. A growing number of recently published studies have reported that, despite calcium and vitamin D supplementation, the most frequently performed types of bariatric surgery, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and the sleeve gastrectomy (SG), cause significant, ongoing bone loss...
April 2016: Integrative Medicine
A J Scheen
Dulaglutide (Trulicity®) is a new once-weekly agonist of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Phase III clinical trials in AWARD programme demonstrated the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes treated by diet and exercise, metformin, a combination of metformin and a sulfonylurea or metformin and pioglitazone or even by supplements of prandial insulin. In the AWARD programme, dulaglutide (subcutaneous 0.75 or 1.5 mg once weekly) exerted a greater glucose-lowering activity than metformin, sitagliptin, exenatide or insulin glargine, and was non-inferior to liraglutide 1...
March 2016: Revue Médicale de Liège
Dan J Siskind, Janni Leung, Anthony W Russell, Daniel Wysoczanski, Steve Kisely
BACKGROUND: Although clozapine is the gold-standard for treatment refractory schizophrenia, it has the worst metabolic profile of all antipsychotics. This is partly mediated by clozapine's impact on glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1). There is an absence of robust evidence for effective treatments for clozapine associated weight gain and metabolic syndrome. Metformin, with its role in increasing GLP-1 may aid weight loss among people on clozapine. METHODS: We conducted a systematic-review and meta-analysis of metformin versus placebo for change in weight and metabolic syndrome for people on clozapine without diabetes mellitus...
2016: PloS One
Hui Diao, Zengbing Gao, Bing Yu, Ping Zheng, Jun He, Jie Yu, Zhiqing Huang, Daiwen Chen, Xiangbing Mao
BACKGROUND: As a organic acid, benzoic acid has become one of the most important alternatives for antibiotics, and its beneficial effect on performance in animals has been proven for a decade. However, knowledge of the effects of benzoic acid on jejunal digestive physiology, especially the antioxidant capacity and mucosal glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) concentrations is lacking. METHODS: A total of 20 barrows [Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace)] with an average body weight (BW) of 18...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Wilfredo Rosario, Inderroop Singh, Arnaud Wautlet, Christa Patterson, Jonathan Flak, Thomas C Becker, Almas Ali, Natalia Tamarina, Louis H Philipson, Lynn W Enquist, Martin G Myers, Christopher J Rhodes
The brain influences glucose homeostasis, partly by supplemental control over insulin and glucagon secretion. Without this central regulation, diabetes and its complications can ensue. Yet, the neuronal network linking to pancreatic islets has never been fully mapped. Here, we refine this map using pseudorabies virus (PRV) retrograde tracing, indicating that the pancreatic islets are innervated by efferent circuits that emanate from the hypothalamus. We found that the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), ventromedial nucleus (VMN), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) significantly overlap PRV and the physiological glucose-sensing enzyme glucokinase...
September 2016: Diabetes
Éva A Csajbók, Gábor Tamás
Recent results suggest that insulin is synthesised by a subpopulation of neurons in the cerebral cortex and neural progenitor cells of the hippocampus. Supplementing the slow supply of insulin to the brain by pancreatic beta cells, the insulin locally released by neurons provides a rapid means of regulating local microcircuits, effectively modulating synaptic transmission and on-demand energy homeostasis of neural networks. Modulation of insulin production by brain neurons via glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists might be useful in counteracting diabetes, obesity and neurodegenerative diseases...
August 2016: Diabetologia
J J Castro, S Y Morrison, A Hosseinni, J J Loor, J K Drackley, I R Ipharraguerre
Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a peptide released by the lower gut that has potent trophic and restorative effects on the intestinal epithelium. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of feeding rate and either metabolizable or nonmetabolizable glucose supplementation on GLP-2 concentrations in plasma and intestinal development in Holstein calves. In the first experiment, 48 newborn calves were assigned to 12 treatments (n=4) corresponding to the factorial combination of 4 milk feeding amounts [1...
July 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Qiu Hong Deng, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Zheng Li Chen, Xiao Ling Chen, Guang Mang Liu, Kang Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a potent epithelium-specific intestinal growth factor. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the prolonged effect of GLP-2 on the growth performance of weaned piglets. Forty piglets weaned at the age of 28 d with an average BW of 6.8 ± 0.4 kg were assigned to four treatments: (i) non-challenged control; (ii) LPS-challenged control; (iii) LPS + low GLP-2; and (iv) LPS + high GLP-2. Piglets in groups (i), (ii), and (iv) were s...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Priyankar K Datta, Dilip K Pawar, Dalim K Baidya, Souvik Maitra, Ajisha Aravindan, Maddur Srinivas, Ramakrishnan Lakshmy, Nandita Gupta, Minu Bajpai, Veereshwar Bhatnagar, Sandeep Agarwala
BACKGROUND: Glucose requirement in neonates during surgery and the impact of glucose supplementation on neonatal metabolism remain unclear. AIM: This study was designed to identify an appropriate perioperative fluid regimen in neonates which maintains carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis. METHODS: Forty-five neonates undergoing primary repair of a trachea-esophageal fistula were randomly allocated into three groups. During surgery, the neonates received either 1% dextrose in Ringer lactate (RL) (group D1) at 10 ml·kg(-1) ·h(-1) , or 2% dextrose in RL (group D2) at 10 ml·kg(-1) ·h(-1) , or 10% dextrose in N/5 saline at 4 ml·kg(-1) ·h(-1) and replacement fluid with 6 ml·kg(-1) ·h(-1) of RL (group D4)...
June 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Lara Pizzorno
Obesity is now a global epidemic affecting a significant and rapidly increasing number of adults, adolescents, and children. As the incidence of obesity has increased, so has the use of bariatric surgery as a medical solution. A growing number of studies now report that, despite calcium and vitamin D supplementation, the most frequently performed types of bariatric surgery, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the sleeve gastrectomy, cause significant ongoing bone loss. In resources available to the general public and to physicians, this adverse outcome is rarely mentioned or is attributed solely to reduced calcium absorption...
March 2016: Integrative Medicine
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