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Poly I:C

Wen Meng, Shi-Chong Han, Cui-Cui Li, Hui-Jun Dong, Jian-Yu Chang, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang, Xiao-Jia Wang
NOP53 is a tumor suppressor protein located in the nucleolus and is translocated to the cytoplasm during infection by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), as shown in our previous study. Cytoplasmic NOP53 interacts with the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) to remove its K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to attenuation of type I interferon IFN-β. In the present study, we found no obvious translocation of NOP53 in infection by a mutant virus lacking ICP4 (HSV-1/d120, replication inadequate)...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
Sara Benedé, Evan Cody, Charuta Agashe, M Cecilia Berin
PURPOSE: It is well appreciated that mast cells (MCs) demonstrate tissue-specific imprinting, with different biochemical and functional properties between connective tissue MCs (CTMCs) and mucosal MCs (MMCs). Although in vitro systems have been developed to model these different subsets, there has been limited investigation into the functional characteristics of the 2 major MC subsets. Here, we report the immunologic characterization of 2 MCs subsets developed in vitro from bone marrow progenitors modeling MMCs and CTMCs...
May 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Jolanta Artym, Maja Kocięba, Ewa Zaczyńska, Iwona Kochanowska, Michał Zimecki, Wojciech Kałas, Anna Fiedorowicz, Alicja Pawlak, Leon Strządała, Małgorzata Jeleń, Beata Morak-Młodawska, Krystian Pluta, Katarzyna Kaleta-Kuratewicz, Jan P Madej, Piotr Kuropka, Jan Kuryszko
The therapeutic efficacy of topically applied azaphenothiazine derivatives: 9-chloro-6-acetylaminobutylquinobenzo[3,2-b][1,4]thiazine (compound 4) and 6-chloroethylureidoethyldiquino[3,2-b;2';3'-e][1,4]thiazine (compound 5) in the amelioration of inflammatory symptoms of imiquimod-induced psoriasis in mice was investigated. Clobederm®, containing clobetasol propioniate, served as a reference drug. The application of the compounds led to thinning of the epidermis and reduction of the cell layers. The suppressive actions of the compounds were even stronger with regard to pathological changes of the dermis...
April 16, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Wuxiyar Otkur, Weiwei Liu, Jinda Wang, Xingfan Jia, Dianchao Huang, Fang Wang, Toshihiko Hayashi, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Satoshi Onodera, Takashi Ikejima
Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation exerts multiple effects on skin cells, inducing apoptosis, senescence and carcinogenesis. Toll-like receptor 3, a member of pattern recognition receptors, is reported to initiate inflammation by recognizing double-strand RNA (dsRNA) released from UVB-irradiated cells. It has not been studied, however, whether apoptosis induction in UVB irradiation is attributed to TLR3 activation. Here, we report on the pro-apoptotic role of TLR3 in UVB-irradiated epidermal cells. Poly I:C, an analogue of dsRNA that activates TLR3, was used in combination with sub-lethal UVB (4...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Naveen Surendran, Andrea Simmons, Michael E Pichichero
Each year millions of neonates die due to vaccine preventable infectious diseases. Our study seeks to develop novel neonatal vaccines and improve immunogenicity of early childhood vaccines by incorporating TLR agonist-adjuvant combinations that overcome the inherent neonatal Th2 bias and stimulate Th1 polarizing response from neonatal APCs. We systematically stimulated cord blood mononuclear cells with single and multiple combinations of TLR agonists and measured levels of IL-12p70, IFN-γ, IFN-α, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β from cell culture supernatants...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
Betânia Rodrigues Santos, Sheila Bunecker Lecke, Poli Mara Spritzer
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder determined by polygenic traits as well as environmental factors. Lower vitamin D levels have been detected in PCOS women and related to hormone and metabolic disturbances. Vitamin D acts in tissues through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR gene variants have been associated with worse metabolic profile in the general population. We investigated the genotype and haplotype distribution of the Bsm-I (rs1544410), Apa-I (rs7975232), and Taq-I (rs731236) VDR gene polymorphisms in PCOS and non-hirsute women from southern Brazil...
April 18, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Lanlan Liu, Huamei He, Ruijing Liang, Huqiang Yi, Xiaoqing Meng, Zhikuan Chen, Hong Pan, Yifan Ma, Lintao Cai
One approach to cancer immunotherapy is the repolarization of immunosuppressive tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to anti-tumor M1 macrophages. The present study developed galactose-functionalized zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) grafted poly(L-lysine)-b-poly(ethyleneglycol) polypeptide micelles (ZnPP PM ) for TAM-targeted immunopotentiator delivery, which aimed at in vivo repolarization of TAMs to anti-tumor M1 macrophages. The outcomes revealed that ROS-inducing ZnPP PM demonstrated specificity for the in vitro and in vivo targeting of macrophages, elevated the level of ROS, and lowered STAT3 expression in BM-TAMs...
April 18, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Razieh Bigdeli, Mohammad Reza Younesi, Erfan Panahnejad, Vahid Asgary, Samaneh Heidarzadeh, Hoda Mazaheri, Samira Louni Aligoudarzi
Miscarriage is the most common complication in pregnancy. Considering the importance of the problem thrombophilia in pregnant women and its association with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), analysis of polymorphisms of genes involved in thrombophilia can be useful. We investigated the frequency and association between ten polymorphisms of seven thrombophilia genes and RPL in an Iranian population. This case-control study was conducted on 200 women with recurrent pregnancy loss and also on 200 women with at least one successful pregnancy as the control group...
April 15, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Nathalie Barroca, Ana Marote, Sandra I Vieira, Abílio Almeida, Maria H V Fernandes, Paula M Vilarinho, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva
Tissue engineering is evolving towards the production of smart platforms exhibiting stimulatory cues to guide tissue regeneration. This work explores the benefits of electrical polarization to produce more efficient neural tissue engineering platforms. Poly (l-lactic) acid (PLLA)-based scaffolds were prepared as solvent cast films and electrospun aligned nanofibers, and electrically polarized by an in-lab built corona poling device. The characterization of the platforms by thermally stimulated depolarization currents reveals a polarization of 60 × 10-10 C cm-2 that is stable on poled electrospun nanofibers for up to 6 months...
March 30, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Yuki Suzuki, Hidemine Furuya
In this study, the transition process of the helix-sense inversion of poly(β-phenethyl-L-aspartate) was investigated by Raman scattering and 2-dimensional correlation spectroscopy. Temperature-dependent Raman spectra were obtained during the helix-sense inversion. The results of 2-dimensional correlation analysis in the spectral regions of 1600-1800 and 3200-3400 cm-1 showed that the intensity changes of the side-chain ester C═O stretching bands occurred prior to those of amide A and amide I bands in the unwinding process of αR-helix on heating...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Idan Milo, Ronnie Blecher-Gonen, Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Raz Bar-Ziv, Orna Tal, Irina Gurevich, Tali Feferman, Ingo Drexler, Ido Amit, Philippe Bousso, Guy Shakhar
The bone marrow hosts NK cells whose distribution, motility and response to systemic immune challenge are poorly understood. At steady state, two-photon microscopy of the bone marrow in Ncr1gfp/+ mice captured motile NK cells interacting with dendritic cells. NK cells expressed markers and effector molecules of mature cells. Following poly (I:C) injection, RNA-Seq of NK cells revealed three phases of transcription featuring immune response genes followed by posttranscriptional processes and proliferation. Functionally, poly (I:C) promoted upregulation of granzyme B, enhanced cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, and, in the same individual cells, triggered proliferation...
April 6, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Xiuqin Yang, Xiaoyan Jing, Yanfang Song, Caixia Zhang, Di Liu
IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 2 (IFIT2) plays important roles in host defense against viral infection as revealed by studies in humans and mice. However, little is known on porcine IFIT2 (pIFIT2). Here, we performed molecular cloning, expression profile, and transcriptional regulation analysis of pIFIT2. pIFIT2 gene, located on chromosome 14, is composed of two exons and have a complete coding sequence of 1407 bp. The encoded polypeptide, 468 aa in length, has three tetratricopeptide repeat motifs...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Halise Inci Gul, Cem Yamali, Merve Bulbuller, Petek Ballar Kirmizibayrak, Mustafa Gul, Andrea Angeli, Silvia Bua, Claudiu T Supuran
In this study, new dibenzensulfonamides, 7-9, having the chemical structure 4,4'-(5'-chloro-3'-methyl-5-aryl-3,4-dihydro-1'H,H-[3,4'-bipyrazole]-1',2-diyl)dibenzenesulfonamide were synthesized in five steps to develop new anticancer drug candidates. Their chemical structures were confirmed by1 H NMR,13 C NMR and HRMS spectra. Cytotoxicities of the dibenzensulfonamides were investigated towards HCC1937, MCF7, HeLa, A549 as tumor cell lines and towards MRC5 and Vero as non-tumor cells. Carbonic anhydrase (CAs, EC 4...
March 30, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Gemma Campbell, Rebecca Fisher, Alan R Kennedy, Nathan L C King, Rebecca Spiteri
The structures of four salt forms of sulfadiazine (SDH) with alkali metal cations are presented. Three contain the deprotonated SD anion (C10 H9 N4 O2 S). These are the discrete complex diaqua{4-[(pyrimidin-2-ylazanidyl-κN1 )sulfonyl-κO]aniline}lithium(I), [Li(SD)(H2 O)2 ], (I), and the coordination polymers poly[{μ3 -4-[(pyrimidin-2-ylazanidyl)sulfonyl]aniline}sodium(I)], [Na(SD)]n , (II), and poly[diaqua{μ3 -4-[(pyrimidin-2-ylazanidyl)sulfonyl]aniline}potassium(I)], [K(SD)(H2 O)2 ]n , (III). Na complex (II) is a three-dimensional coordination polymer, whilst K complex (III) has two crystallographically independent [K(SD)(H2 O)2 ] units per asymmetric unit (Z' = 2) and gives a two-dimensional coordination polymer whose layers propagate parallel to the crystallographic ab plane...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Tyler W Hulett, Shawn M Jensen, Phillip A Wilmarth, Ashok P Reddy, Carmen Ballesteros-Merino, Michael E Afentoulis, Christopher Dubay, Larry L David, Bernard A Fox
BACKGROUND: One of today's greatest hurdles for cancer immunotherapy is the absence of information regarding which tumor antigens are already recognized by patients receiving immunotherapies, and whether those therapies then boost or generate an immune response against tumor proteins. For CD8+ T cells in particular, patient-specific immune recognition and responses at the level of individual tumor antigens are rarely characterized. Because of this, some immunologists have turned to serum antibodies as an alternative measure of antigen-specific anti-tumor immunity...
April 5, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Anshu Malik, Manish Gupta, Rajesh Mani, Himanshu Gogoi, Rakesh Bhatnagar
Anthrax is an era old deadly disease against which there are only two currently available licensed vaccines named anthrax vaccine adsorbed and precipitated (AVP). Though they can provide a protective immunity, their multiple side-effects owing to their ill-defined composition and presence of toxic proteins (LF and EF) of Bacillus anthracis , the causative organism of anthrax, in the vaccine formulation makes their widespread use objectionable. Hence, an anthrax vaccine that contains well-defined and controlled components would be highly desirable...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Zhongwei Wang, Aislinn Dunne, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Pascal E Saikaly
Saline wastewater is known to affect the performance of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process. However, studies comparing the effect of salinity on different PAO clades are lacking. In this study, 'Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis' Clade I and II (hereafter referred to as PAOI and PAOII) were highly enriched (∼90% in relative abundance as determined by quantitative FISH) in the form of granules in two sequencing batch reactors. Anaerobic and aerobic batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of salinity on the kinetics and stoichiometry of PAOI and PAOII...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andrew Higham, Declan Bostock, George Booth, Josiah V Dungwa, Dave Singh
Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are used to help smoking cessation. However, these devices contain harmful chemicals, and there are safety concerns. We have investigated the effects of e-cigs on the inflammatory response and viability of COPD bronchial epithelial cells (BECs). Methods: BECs from COPD patients and controls were exposed to e-cig vapor extract (ECVE) and the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, C-X-C motif ligand 8 (CXCL8), and lactate dehydrogenase release were measured...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Jennifer M Cassano, Lauren V Schnabel, Margaret B Goodale, Lisa A Fortier
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory licensed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to promote functional tissue repair. This study specifically sought to understand how the recipient tissue environment reciprocally affects MSC function. Inflammatory polarized macrophages, modeling an injured tissue environment, were exposed to licensed MSCs, and the resultant effects of MSC immunomodulation and functionality of the MSC secretome on chondrocyte homeostasis were studied. METHODS: Inflammatory licensed MSCs were generated through priming with either IFN-γ or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C)...
April 3, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Haisheng Xu, Jing Zhao, Yiyi Zou, Binjie Lu, Hanxiang Chen, Wanrong Zhang, Yue Wu, Jinjin Yang
Pelodiscus sinensis, which is one of the important reptile species in the aquaculture industry in China, frequently suffers from serious infectious diseases caused by viruses. However, there is a lack of biological knowledge about its antiviral innate immunity. In this study, we identified and characterized the open reading frame (ORF) of PsMAVS cDNA in P. sinensis. It consisted of 2691 nucleotides encoding a protein of 896 amino acid residues, which were composed of an N-terminal CARD, a central proline-rich domain and a C-terminal TM domain...
March 30, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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