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Poly I:C

Mengmeng Lu, Chuanyan Yang, Meijia Li, Qilin Yi, Guangxia Lu, Yichen Wu, Chen Qu, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), a family of transcription factors with a novel helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif, play important roles in regulating the expression of interferons (IFNs) and IFN-stimulated genes. In the present study, an interferon regulation factor 1 was identified from oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated CgIRF-1), and its immune function was characterized to understand the regulatory mechanism of interferon system against viral infection in invertebrates. The open reading frame (ORF) of CgIRF-1 was 993 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 330 amino acids with a typical IRF domain (also known as DNA-binding domain)...
February 16, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shaoqing Zang, Xin Zhang, Jingcheng Zhang, Chen Li, Jingguang Wei, Qiwei Qin
The eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha subunit (eIF2α) is a key translation regulator that plays an important role in different cellular pressures and stimuli, including virus infection. In the present study, an eIF2α homolog (EceIF2α) from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was cloned and its roles during fish viral infection were characterized. EceIF2α encodes a putative protein of 315 amino acid residues, and shares a high degree of similarity with eIF2αs from other species. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that EceIF2α was distributed in all examined tissues...
February 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mei Jiang, Dan-Dan Tu, Wen-Bin Gu, Yi-Lian Zhou, Qi-Hui Zhu, Xiao-Ling Guo, Miao-An Shu
IKK (inhibitor of NF-κB kinase) is the core regulator for NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) pathway against pathogenic invasion in vertebrates or invertebrates. However, the IKK from crab species has not yet been identified. In the present study, three full-length cDNA sequences of IKKs from mud crab Scylla paramamosain, designated as SpIKKβ, SpIKKε1 and SpIKKε2, were firstly cloned through RT-PCR and RACE methods. This is also the first report about the identification of two IKKε genes in mud crab and even in crustaceans...
February 15, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jessica H Brown, Prativa Das, Michael D DiVito, David Ivancic, Lay Poh Tan, Jason A Wertheim
A major challenge of maintaining primary hepatocytes in vitro is progressive loss of hepatocyte-specific functions, such as protein synthesis and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) catalytic activity. We developed a three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous scaffold made from poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer using a newlyoptimizedwet electrospinning techniquethat resulted in a highly porous structure that accommodated inclusion of primary human hepatocytes. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (type I collagen or fibronectin) at varying concentrations were chemically linked to electrospun PLGA using amine coupling to develop an in vitro culture system containing the minimal essential ECM components of the liver micro-environment that preserve hepatocyte function in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Jennifer J Donegan, Angela M Boley, Daniel J Lodge
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by disruptions in three core behavioral domains: deficits in social interaction, impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior or thought. There are currently no drugs available for the treatment of the core symptoms of ASD and drugs that target comorbid symptoms often have serious adverse side effects, suggesting an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies. The neurobiology of autism is complex, but converging evidence suggests that ASD involves disruptions in the inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmitter system...
February 7, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ted G Graber, Brandy L Rawls, Bing Tian, William J Durham, Camille R Brightwell, Allan R Brasier, Blake B Rasmussen, Christopher S Fry
Due to immunosenescence, older adults are particularly susceptible to lung-based viral infections, with increased severity of symptoms in those with underlying chronic lung disease. Repeated respiratory viral infections produce lung maladaptations, accelerating pulmonary dysfunction. Toll like 3 receptor (TLR3) is a membrane protein that senses exogenous double-stranded RNA to activate the innate immune response to a viral infection. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] mimics double stranded RNA and has been shown to activate TLR3...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Mark Lötzerich, Pascal S Roulin, Karin Boucke, Robert Witte, Oleg Georgiev, Urs F Greber
Apoptosis and programmed necrosis (necroptosis) determine cell fate, and antagonize infection. Execution of these complementary death pathways involves the formation of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) containing complexes. RIPK1 binds to adaptor proteins, such as TRIF (Toll-IL-1 receptor-domain-containing-adaptor-inducing interferon-beta factor), FADD (Fas-associated-protein with death domain), NEMO (NF-κB regulatory subunit IKKγ), SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1/p62), or RIPK3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3), which are involved in RNA sensing, NF-κB signaling, autophagosome formation, apoptosis, and necroptosis...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
You-Sheng Yu, Xiang Lu, Hong-Ming Ding, Yu-Qiang Ma
Fast, low-cost and reliable DNA sequencing is one of the most desirable innovations in recent years, which can pave the way for high throughput, label-free and inexpensive personalized genome sequencing techniques. Although graphene-based nanopore devices hold great promise for next-generation DNA sequencing, it is still a challenging problem to detect different DNA sequences efficiently and accurately. In the present work, the translocation of four homogeneous DNA strands (i.e., poly(A) 20 , poly(C) 20 , poly(G) 20 , and poly(T) 20 ) through the functionalized graphene nanopores is investigated by all-atom molecular dynamic simulations...
February 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Sitakant Satapathy, Palani Prabakaran, Edamana Prasad
Smart single component materials with versatile functions requires pre-programming of a higher order molecular assembly. The contribution here introduces an electroactive supergelator (c = 0.07 wt%), i.e., triphenyl amine core appended poly(aryl ether) dendron (TPAPAE), where the substantial dendritic effect improves the order and crystallinity by switching the local minimum from self-assembled molecular wires to thermodynamically favourable global minimum of ordered crystals, ripened within the fibers. Controlled in situ phase change at room temperature ultimately stabilized the mixed valence states in the single component supramolecular assembly with an amplified photoluminescence and photoinduced charge transport by two orders of magnitude...
February 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Gaowei Hu, Wenlv Zheng, Ao Li, Yaru Mu, Mingyu Shi, Tuofan Li, Haitao Zou, Hongxia Shao, Aijian Qin, Jianqiang Ye
Cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) is a promising cargo for delivering bioactive molecules. In this study, the N terminus of VP1 from chicken anemia virus, designated as CVP1, was found to carry enriched arginine residues with α-helix. By confocal imaging, flow cytometry and MTT assay, we identified CVP1 as a novel, safe and efficient CPP. CVP1-FITC peptide could entry different types of cells tested with dose dependence, but without cytotoxic effects. Compared with TAT-FITC peptide, the CVP1-FITC peptide showed much higher cell-penetrating activity...
February 13, 2018: Veterinary Research
Xiafei Guo, Faqiong Zhao, Baizhao Zeng
We report the electrochemical fabrication of a poly(2,2-bithiophene-co-3-methylthiophene)-graphene composite coating and its application in the headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography determination of benzenes (i.e., bromobenzene, 4-bromotoluene, 2-nitrotoluene, 3-nitrotoluene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene). The coating was uniform and showed cauliflower-like microstructure. It had high thermal stability (up to 375°C) and could be used for at least 180 times of solid-phase microextraction without a decrease of extraction performance...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Hongjun Bian, Shanshan Gao, Di Zhang, Qi Zhao, Feifei Li, Xiao Li, Shuohuan Sun, Shouyang Song, Tao Li, Qiang Zhu, Wanhua Ren, Chengyong Qin, Jianni Qi
Muscle RING-finger (MuRF) proteins are E3 ubiquitin ligases that are expressed in striated muscle. MuRF2 is an important member of this family, but whether it is expressed in tissues other than striated muscle has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. In this study, we determined that MuRF2 is also expressed in other vital organs, including liver, lung, brain, spleen and kidney. Moreover, we show that the level of MuRF2 expression is significantly decreased in hepatic mononuclear cells of mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine-induced hepatitis and negatively correlated with the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in these mice...
February 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Mojca Frank-Bertoncelj, David S Pisetsky, Christoph Kolling, Beat A Michel, Renate E Gay, Astrid Jüngel, Steffen Gay
Extracellular vesicles (EV) can modulate the responses of cells to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation; conversely, TLR ligands such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can enhance the release of EV and influence of the composition and functions of EV cargos. Inflamed synovial joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are rich in EV and extracellular RNA; besides, RNA released from necrotic synovial fluid cells can activate the TLR3 signaling in synovial fibroblasts (SFs) from patients with RA. Since EV occur prominently in synovial joints in RA and may contribute to the pathogenesis, we questioned whether EV can interact with dsRNA, a TLR3 ligand, and modify its actions in arthritis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jinxiang Liu, Dandan Cao, Yuezhong Liu, Zan Li, Yu Si, Zhigang Wang, Quanqi Zhang, Haiyang Yu, Xubo Wang
Being a key adaptor protein in NOD1/2 and NF-κB signaling pathways, receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 (RIP2) plays an important role in innate immune response in vertebrates. In this study, we identified and characterized the Paralichthys olivaceus RIP2 gene (PoRIP2). Phylogenetic, alignment, and genomic analysis of PoRIP2 were conducted to determine its conservation and evolutionary relationship with other RIP2 in vertebrates. qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of PoRIP2 was high in the spleen and head kidney...
February 9, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shuo Li, Gaixiang Hao, Yaqi Xu, Nan Wang, Jiafang Li, Xuyun Geng, Jinsheng Sun
G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors activated by extracellular nucleotides play important roles under different physiological and pathophysiological conditions in mammals. To investigate the immunological relevance of P2Y receptors in fish, we identified and characterized the P2Y2 and P2Y12 receptors in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The P. olivaceus P2Y2 and P2Y12 receptors harbor seven transmembrane domains but share only 24% sequence identity. Real-time PCR analysis revealed the constitutive but unequal mRNA expression pattern of P2Y2R and P2Y12R in normal Japanese flounder tissues with the dominant expression of P2Y2R in head kidney and blood and P2Y12R in hepatopancreas...
February 9, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zubair Ahmed Laghari, Shan Nan Chen, Li Li, Bei Huang, Zhen Gan, Ying Zhou, Hui Jun Huo, Jing Hou, Pin Nie
Teleost fish are unique in having type I and type II interferons (IFNs) only, and the type I IFNs are classified into Group one and Group two based on the presence of two or four cysteines respectively, and are further classified into seven subgroups. In the present study, three distinct type I IFNs, IFNc, IFNd and IFNh, have been identified in the genome sequences of a perciform fish, the mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi. These IFNs are induced following the stimulation of Polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) and Resiquimod (R848) either in vivo or in vitro...
February 9, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Laura C E da Silva, Luiz G L Germiniani, Tomás S Plivelic, Maria C Gonçalves
Biocompatible chemically cross-linked organic-inorganic (O-I) hybrid nanocomposites were developed using a new atoxic, simple and fast, solvent-free pathway. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), which are both biocompatible, were used as the organic moieties (at different PCL/PEG ratios), while in situ synthesized polysilsesquioxanes made up the inorganic moiety. The O-I hybrid nanocomposites' molecular structures were characterized using solid-state 29Si NMR, TGA and ATR-IR. Results showed an unusually high condensation yield of approximately 90% and two distinct silsesquioxane structures...
February 12, 2018: Soft Matter
Pheng Saray, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Tanapat Pangeson, Amnat Phetrungnapha
Gel-enhanced liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) was used to analyze the proteome of Macrobrachium rosenbergii hepatopancreas responded to Poly (I:C). GeLC-MS/MS analysis identified 515 differentially-expressed proteins with ≥1.5 and ≤ -0.5 log2 fold change. Of these, 195 differentially-expressed proteins were significantly matched to known proteins in the database, of which 102 proteins were up-regulated and 93 proteins were down-regulated. These proteins were classified into 21 categories, i...
February 7, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shisheng Chen, Mingfen Lv, Shan Fang, Wenxia Ye, Yu Gao, Yunsheng Xu
Dendritic cell (DC)-derived exosomes (Dexo) has been confirmed to be able to induce the specific anti-tumor immune response ex vivo and in vivo. Here, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the antigen-pulsed Dexo as a new vaccination platform in immunotherapy for cervical cancer. The immunogenic profile of the different Dexo was assessed by the cell proliferation, cytokines secretion and effector functions of CD8+ T cells and the splenocytes from Dexo-vaccinated mice. Furthermore, the anti-tumor immunity elicited by Dexo was further compared in cervical cancer-bearing mice...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
D J Milne, C Campoverde, K B Andree, X Chen, J Zou, C J Secombes
Type I interferons (IFN) play an important role in anti-viral responses. In teleost fish multiple genes exist, that are classified by group/subgroup. That multiple subgroups are present in Acanthopterygian fish has only become apparent recently, and 3 subgroups are now known to be expressed, including a new subgroup termed IFNh. However, the potential to express multiple IFN subgroups and their interplay is not well defined. Hence this study aims to clarify the situation and undertook the first in-depth analysis into the nature and expression of IFNc, IFNd and IFNh in the perciform fish, meagre...
February 6, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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