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Alexander K Andrianov, Alexander Marin, Thomas R Fuerst
Two macromolecular immunoadjuvants - poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene], PCPP and poly[di(carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene], PCEP have been investigated for their molecular interactions with model and bio-pharmaceutically important proteins in solutions, as well as for their TLR stimulatory effects and pH-dependent membrane disruptive activity in cellular assays. Solution interactions between polyphosphazenes and proteins, including antigens and soluble immune receptor proteins, have been studied using Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation (AF4) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) at near physiological conditions - phosphate buffered saline, pH 7...
October 17, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Zhikuan Zhang, Umeharu Ohto, Takuma Shibata, Elena Krayukhina, Masato Taoka, Yoshio Yamauchi, Hiromi Tanji, Toshiaki Isobe, Susumu Uchiyama, Kensuke Miyake, Toshiyuki Shimizu
Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) sensor in innate immunity and also responds to guanosine and chemical ligands, such as imidazoquinoline compounds. However, TLR7 activation mechanism by these ligands remain largely unknown. Here, we generated crystal structures of three TLR7 complexes, and found that all formed an activated m-shaped dimer with two ligand-binding sites. The first site conserved in TLR7 and TLR8 was used for small ligand-binding essential for its activation. The second site spatially distinct from that of TLR8 was used for a ssRNA-binding that enhanced the affinity of the first-site ligands...
October 5, 2016: Immunity
Mallesh Beesu, Hari Prasad Kokatla, Sunil A David
Human toll-like receptor (hTLR)-8 is expressed in myeloid dendritic cells, monocytes, and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Engagement by TLR8 agonists evokes a distinct cytokine profile which favors the development of type 1 helper T cells. Focused exploration of structure-activity relationships in the imidazoquinolines has led to the identification of several novel human TLR8-specific agonists. The synthetic procedures for best-in-class analogues encompassing four chemotypes are described.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Bradley J Monk, Andrea Facciabene, William E Brady, Carol Aghajanian, Paula M Fracasso, Joan Walker, Heather A Lankes, Kristi L Manjarrez, Gwenn Danet-Desnoyers, Katherine M Bell-McGuinn, Carolyn K McCourt, Alexander Malykhin, Robert M Hershberg, George Coukos
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy is an emerging paradigm for the treatment of cancer, but the potential efficacy of many drugs cannot be sufficiently tested in the mouse. We sought to develop a rational combination of motolimod-a novel Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) agonist that stimulates robust innate immune responses in humans but diminished responses in mice-with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), a chemotherapeutic that induces immunogenic cell death. METHODS: We followed an integrative pharmacologic approach including healthy human volunteers, non-human primates, NSG-HIS ("humanized immune system") mice reconstituted with human CD34+ cells, and cancer patients to test the effects of motolimod and to assess the combination of motolimod with PLD for the treatment of ovarian cancer...
October 4, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Yan Wang, Jingxia Zhao, Tingting Di, Mingxing Wang, Zhitong Ruan, Lu Zhang, Xiangjiang Xie, Yujiao Meng, Yan Lin, Xin Liu, Ning Wang, Ping Li
β,β-dimethylacryloyl alkannin (DMA) is a key component of Lithospermum and possesses good efficacy for treating psoriasis. DMA inhibits activated dendritic cells (DCs), but the mechanism is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the modulation of the TLR7/8 pathway by DMA in psoriasis-activated DCs. Models of psoriasis-like skin lesions were established using BALB/c mice; 8 mice were treated with DMA (2.5mg/kg). Bone marrow cells were isolated and induced into DCs using R848, a TLR7/8 agonist. Splenic CD11c+ cells were detected by flow cytometry...
September 30, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Mariana Renovato Martins, Maria Eline Matheus, Isadora Ramos de Andrade, João Alfredo Moraes, Simone Vargas da Silva, Marta Citelli Dos Reis, Antônio Augusto Peixoto de Souza, César Cláudio da Silva, Eliete Bouskela, Christina Barja-Fidalgo
Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue (AT) is a hallmark of the chronic inflammatory response in obesity and is supported by an intense monocyte migration towards AT. Although it has been detected an increased proportion of circulating CD16(+) monocyte subsets in obese subjects, the mechanisms underlying this effect and the contribution of these cells to the inflamed profile of obese AT are still poorly understood. We investigated whether factors secreted by human obese omental AT could polarize monocytes to CD16(+) enriched phenotype, and how these changes could modify their migratory capacity towards adipose tissue itself...
September 25, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Andriana I Papaioannou, Aris Spathis, Konstantinos Kostikas, Petros Karakitsos, Spyros Papiris, Christos Rossios
Asthma is a heterogeneous inflammatory disease caused by association of genetic and environmental factors and its incidence has significantly increased over the latest years. The clinical manifestations of asthma are the result of airway hyper-reactivity to a variety of triggers such as aeroallergens, viral and bacterial components. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pathogen associated molecular pattern receptors, which are also expressed in the lung tissue as well as in several cells of the innate and adaptive immune system...
September 24, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Fabrizio Conti, Francesca Romana Spinelli, Simona Truglia, Francesca Miranda, Cristiano Alessandri, Fulvia Ceccarelli, Michele Bombardieri, Konstantinos Giannakakis, Guido Valesini
Objective. The study aimed at locating and quantifying Toll Like Receptor (TLR) 3, 7, 8, and 9 expression in kidney of patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and correlating them with clinicopathological features. Methods. Kidney sections from 26 LN patients and 4 controls were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using anti-human TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 polyclonal antibodies; the number of TLR-positive nuclei/mm(2) was evaluated on digitalized images. Results. Compared to controls, LN showed a significantly higher amount of glomerular and tubulointerstitial TLR9 (p = 0...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Xiaoyu Dong, Baofeng Su, Shun Zhou, Mei Shang, Hao Yan, Fengqiao Liu, Chengbin Gao, Fenghua Tan, Chao Li
Mucosal immune system is one of the most important components in the innate immunity and constitutes the front line of host defense against infection, especially for teleost, which are living in the pathogen-rich aquatic environment. The pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), which can recognize the conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of bacteria, are considered as one of the most important component for pathogen recognition and immune signaling pathways activation in mucosal immunity. In this regard, we sought to identify TLR8 and TLR9 in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), as well as their mucosal expression patterns following different bacterial infection in mucosal tissues for the first time...
September 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Karina Stein, Stephanie Brand, André Jenckel, Anna Sigmund, Zhijian James Chen, Carsten J Kirschning, Marion Kauth, Holger Heine
BACKGROUND: Bacterial cowshed isolates are allergy protective in mice; however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We examined the ability of Lactococcus lactis G121 to prevent allergic inflammatory reactions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify the ligands and pattern recognition receptors through which L lactis G121 confers allergy protection. METHODS: L lactis G121-induced cytokine release and surface expression of costimulatory molecules by untreated or inhibitor-treated (bafilomycin and cytochalasin D) human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), bone marrow-derived mouse dendritic cells (BMDCs), and moDC/naive CD4(+) T-cell cocultures were analyzed by using ELISA and flow cytometry...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Han-Ha Chai, Dajeong Lim, Jae Eun Suk, Bong-Hwan Choi, Yong-Min Cho
In the absence of an experimental bTLR8 structure, recent studies have called attention to the fact that bTLR8 can also be activated by hTLR7/hTLR8 agonist, such as antiviral imidazoquinoline derivatives of resiquimod (R848) and imiquimod (R837) as well as some guanine nucleotide analogs with a scaffold structure related to the nucleic acids of ssRNA virus. In particular, the known small agonists (namely CL075, CL097 and R848) have been targeted to determine distinguishable deciding factors in complex with dimeric bTLR8-ECDs in comparison to ligand-induced activated hTLR8-ECDs...
November 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mallesh Beesu, Alex C D Salyer, Kathryn L Trautman, Justin K Hill, Sunil A David
Activation of human toll-like receptor-8 (TLR8) evokes a distinct cytokine profile favoring the generation of Type 1 helper T cells. A multiplexed high-throughput screen had led to the identification of N(4)-butyl-5-iodo-6-methylpyrimidine-2,4-diamine as a pure TLR8 agonist, and a detailed structure-activity relationship study of this chemotype was undertaken. A butyl substituent at N(4) was optimal, and replacement of the 5-iodo group with chloro, bromo, or fluoro groups led to losses in potency, as did the introduction of aromatic bulk...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Julia Schad, Christian C Voigt
Recently, bats have gained attention as potential reservoir hosts for emerging zoonotic single-stranded (ssRNA) viruses that may prove fatal for humans and other mammals. It has been hypothesized that some features of their innate immune system may enable bats to trigger an efficient early immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent a first line defense within the innate immune system and lie directly at the host-pathogen interface in targeting specific microbe-molecular patterns. However, the direction and strength of selection acting on TLRs are largely unknown for bats...
November 2016: Immunogenetics
Kirsi Nuolivirta, Sari Törmänen, Johanna Teräsjärvi, Juho Vuononvirta, Petri Koponen, Matti Korppi, Merja Helminen, Ville Peltola, Qiushui He
Innate immunity receptors play a critical role in host defence, as well as in allergy and asthma. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate whether there are associations between TLR7 rs179008, TLR8 rs2407992, TLR9 rs187084 or TLR10 rs4129009 polymorphisms and viral findings, clinical characteristics or subsequent wheezing in infants with bronchiolitis. In all, 135 full-term infants were hospitalized for bronchiolitis at age less than 6 months: 129 of them were followed-up until the age of 1.5 years...
2016: Scientific Reports
Y Xing, R Cao, H-M Hu
Autophagosomes derived from tumor cells, also referred to as defective ribosomal products in blebs (DRibbles), have been previously shown to stimulate potent T-cell responses and mediate tumor regression when used as therapeutic cancer vaccines in multiple preclinical cancer models. In this report, we investigated the underlining mechanisms by which DRibbles induced T-cell activation, particularly how DRibbles activated antigen-presenting cells (APCs). We found that DRibbles could induce a rapid differentiation of monocytes and DC precursor (pre-DC) cells into functional APCs...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
María Victoria Nieto Farias, Pamela Anahí Lendez, Maia Marin, Silvina Quintana, Lucía Martínez-Cuesta, María Carolina Ceriani, Guillermina Laura Dolcini
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is widespread mainly in dairy cattle and 5-10% of infected animals will die due to lymphosarcoma; most cattle remain asymptomatic but 30% develop persistent lymphocytosis (PL). BLV transmission depends on infected cell exchange and thus, proviral load is determinant. Understanding the mechanisms which govern the control of viral dissemination will be desirable for the design of effective therapeutic or preventive strategies for BLV. The development of high proviral load (HPL) or low proviral load (LPL) might be associated to genetic factors and humoral immune responses, however cellular responses are not fully described...
August 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Anna Gmiterek, Anna Kłopot, Halina Wójtowicz, Soraya C Trindade, Mariusz Olczak, Teresa Olczak
The main etiologic agent and a key pathogen responsible for initiation and progression of chronic periodontitis is Porphyromonas gingivalis. We examined the role of P. gingivalis, with particular interest to HmuY protein, in expression of genes involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced signaling pathways using cell-based infection model. U937 and THP-1 cells differentiated toward macrophages by PMA treatment responded to P. gingivalis-caused infection in slightly different gene expression pattern, mainly by higher expression of genes encoding NF-κB, TLR7, TLR2, TLR8, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and chemokines (CCL3L1, CCL4, CXCL10, CXCL11, PTX3)...
July 22, 2016: Immunobiology
Olli Helminen, Heikki Huhta, Petri P Lehenkari, Juha Saarnio, Tuomo J Karttunen, Joonas H Kauppila
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are immunological receptors recognizing various microbial and endogenous ligands, such as DNA, RNA, and other microbial and host components thus activating immunological responses. The expression of TLRs in esophageal adenocarcinoma is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate expression patterns of those TLRs that sense nucleic acids in Barrett's esophagus with and without dysplasia and in esophageal adenocarcinoma. TLRs 3, 7 and 8 were stained immunohistochemically and evaluated in a cohort of patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma or dysplasia...
May 2016: Oncoimmunology
Gregory N Dietsch
A novel approach to immunotherapy is the activation of toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8). Motolimod, a selective TLR8 agonist can act in concert with approved immunotherapies to sensitize T cells and augment natural killer (NK) cell function. Despite treatment with chemotherapeutic agents and advance disease, cancer patients remain sensitive to motolimod.
May 2016: Oncoimmunology
Michael Camilleri, Paula Carlson, Nelson Valentin, Andres Acosta, Jessica O'Neill, Deborah Eckert, Roy Dyer, Jie Na, Eric W Klee, Joseph A Murray
Prior studies in with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) patients showed immune activation, secretion, and barrier dysfunction in jejunal or colorectal mucosa. We measured mRNA expression by RT-PCR of 91 genes reflecting tight junction proteins, chemokines, innate immunity, ion channels, transmitters, housekeeping genes, and controls for DNA contamination and PCR efficiency in small intestinal mucosa from 15 IBS-D and 7 controls (biopsies negative for celiac disease). Fold change was calculated using 2((-ΔΔCT)) formula...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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