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Yun-Fen Hung, Chiung-Ya Chen, Yi-Chun Shih, Hsin-Yu Liu, Chiao-Ming Huang, Yi-Ping Hsueh
Neuroinflammation is associated with diverse neurological disorders. Endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) including TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8 cell-autonomously regulate neuronal differentiation. However, the mechanisms by which these three TLRs affect neuronal morphology are unclear. In this study, we compare these TLRs in mouse neurons. By combining in vitro neuronal cultures, in utero electroporation, and transcriptomic profiling, we show that TLR8, TLR7, and TLR3 promote dendritic pruning via MYD88 signaling...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Dwi Eva Nirmagustina, Yongshou Yang, Thanutchaporn Kumrungsee, Noriyuki Yanaka, Norihisa Kato
Colon diseases can be affected by several factors such as gender difference and dietary supplemental vitamin B6 (B6 ). The nutritional status of B6 is affected by gender difference, leading us to hypothesize that gender difference affects colon luminal environment, which is dependent on B6 status. To investigate this hypothesis, we fed male and female rats a diet containing 1 mg, 7 mg, or 35 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg diet for 6 wk. We found significantly higher fecal mucin levels in female rats compared to those in male rats...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Dashdavaa Batkhishig, Khurelbaatar Bilguun, Purevjav Enkhbayar, Hiroki Miyashita, Robert H Kretsinger, Norio Matsushima
Leucine rich repeats (LRRs) are present in over 100,000 proteins from viruses to eukaryotes. The LRRs are 20-30 residues long and occur in tandem. LRRs form parallel stacks of short β-strands and then assume a super helical arrangement called a solenoid structure. Individual LRRs are separated into highly conserved segment (HCS) with the consensus of LxxLxLxxNxL and variable segment (VS). Eight classes have been recognized. Bacterial LRRs are short and characterized by two prolines in the VS; the consensus is xxLPxLPxx with Nine residues (N-subtype) and xxLPxxLPxx with Ten residues (T-subtype)...
April 12, 2018: Protein Journal
Umeharu Ohto, Hanako Ishida, Takuma Shibata, Ryota Sato, Kensuke Miyake, Toshiyuki Shimizu
Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes DNA containing CpG motifs derived from bacteria and viruses and activates the innate immune response to eliminate them. TLR9 is known to bind to CpG DNA, and here, we identified another DNA binding site in TLR9 that binds DNA containing cytosine at the second position from the 5' end (5'-xCx DNA). 5'-xCx DNAs bound to TLR9 in the presence of CpG DNA and cooperatively promoted dimerization and activation of TLR9. Binding at both sites was important for efficient activation of TLR9...
March 24, 2018: Immunity
Caroline Keegan, Stephan Krutzik, Mirjam Schenk, Philip O Scumpia, Jing Lu, Yan Ling Joy Pang, Brandon S Russell, Kok Seong Lim, Scarlet Shell, Erin Prestwich, Dan Su, David Elashoff, Robert M Hershberg, Barry R Bloom, John T Belisle, Sarah Fortune, Peter C Dedon, Matteo Pellegrini, Robert L Modlin
Upon recognition of a microbial pathogen, the innate and adaptive immune systems are linked to generate a cell-mediated immune response against the foreign invader. The culture filtrate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains ligands, such as M. tuberculosis tRNA, that activate the innate immune response and secreted Ags recognized by T cells to drive adaptive immune responses. In this study, bioinformatics analysis of gene-expression profiles derived from human PBMCs treated with distinct microbial ligands identified a mycobacterial tRNA-induced innate immune network resulting in the robust production of IL-12p70, a cytokine required to instruct an adaptive Th1 response for host defense against intracellular bacteria...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Mariam Choudry, Xiaolei Tang, Tiffany Santorian, Samiksha Wasnik, Jidong Xiao, Weirong Xing, K-H William Lau, Subburaman Mohan, David J Baylink, Xuezhong Qin
In the past there have been a multitude of studies that ardently support the role of Arginase II (Arg II) in vascular and endothelial disorders however, the regulation and function of Arg II in autoimmune diseases has thus far remained unclear. Here we report that a global Arg II null mutation in mice suppressed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. During EAE both Arg I and Arg II were induced in spinal cords, but only Arg II was induced in spleens and splenic DCs...
March 25, 2018: Immunology
Stuart G Tangye
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Nature Immunology
Matteo Ugolini, Jenny Gerhard, Sanne Burkert, Kristoffer Jarlov Jensen, Philipp Georg, Friederike Ebner, Sarah M Volkers, Shruthi Thada, Kristina Dietert, Laura Bauer, Alexander Schäfer, Elisa T Helbig, Bastian Opitz, Florian Kurth, Saubashya Sur, Nickel Dittrich, Sumanlatha Gaddam, Melanie L Conrad, Christine S Benn, Ulrike Blohm, Achim D Gruber, Andreas Hutloff, Susanne Hartmann, Mark V Boekschoten, Michael Müller, Gregers Jungersen, Ralf R Schumann, Norbert Suttorp, Leif E Sander
Live attenuated vaccines are generally highly efficacious and often superior to inactivated vaccines, yet the underlying mechanisms of this remain largely unclear. Here we identify recognition of microbial viability as a potent stimulus for follicular helper T cell (TFH cell) differentiation and vaccine responses. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) distinguished viable bacteria from dead bacteria through Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8)-dependent detection of bacterial RNA. In contrast to dead bacteria and other TLR ligands, live bacteria, bacterial RNA and synthetic TLR8 agonists induced a specific cytokine profile in human and porcine APCs, thereby promoting TFH cell differentiation...
April 2018: Nature Immunology
Shanmao Cao, Lijie Zhu, Hongtao Nie, Minghao Yin, Gang Liu, Xiwu Yan
Crassadoma gigantea is an important commercial marine bivalve species in Baja California and Mexico. In this study, we have applied RNA-Seq technology to profile the transcriptome of the C. gigantea for the first time. A total of 80,832,518 raw reads were produced from a Illumina HiSeq4000 platform, and 77,306,198 (95.64%) clean reads were generated after trimming the adaptor sequences. The transcriptome assembled into 158,855 transcripts with an N50 size of 1995 bp and an average size of 1008 bp. A number of DNA repair related genes, such as MSH3, EGF, TGF, IGF, FGF, encoding different groups of growth factors were found in the transcriptome data of C...
June 5, 2018: Gene
Martí Cortey, Gaston Arocena, Tahar Ait-Ali, Anna Vidal, Yanli Li, Gerard Martín-Valls, Alison D Wilson, Allan L Archibald, Enric Mateu, Laila Darwich
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection alters the host's cellular and humoral immune response. Immunity against PRRSv is multigenic and vary between individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare several genes that encode for molecules involved in the immune response between two groups of vaccinated pigs that experienced short or long viremic periods after PRRSv challenge. These analyses include the sequencing of four SLA Class I, two Class II allele groups, and CD163, plus the analysis by quantitative realtime qRT-PCR of the constitutive expression of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 mRNA and other molecules in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Research
Hock-Liew Eng, Yuan-Ying Hsu, Tsun-Mei Lin
The recognition of single-stranded RNA by TLR7/8 leads to the production of NF-κB-mediated cytokines and type I IFNs. However, the role of TLR7/8 activation in monocytes and macrophages is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the activation of TLR7/8 between these two cell types. Microarray analysis, qRT-PCR and flow cytometry were used to analyse TLR7/8 signalling pathways in monocytes and macrophages after stimulation with agonists. Our data indicated that TLR8 agonists activated the NF-κB- and IRF-mediated pathways in THP-1 cells, whereas TLR7 agonists did not...
February 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yufeng Wang, Shu Shang, Qianqian Sun, Junjun Chen, Guanhuan Du, Hong Nie, Xiaozhe Han, Guoyao Tang
OBJECTIVE: Investigation of dendritic cell (DC) subsets and expression patterns of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) was conducted to understand the pathogenesis in oral lichen planus (OLP). STUDY DESIGN: Blood, OLP lesion, and control samples were collected. Four DC subsets (CD11c+ CD123- myeloid DC1 [mDC1], CD141+ mDC2, CD11c- CD123+ plasmacytoid DC [pDC], and CD1a+ CD207+ Langerhans cells [LC]) were investigated via flow cytometry (FCM) and immunohistochemical staining...
December 18, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
D Martínez, D Díaz-Ibarrola, C Vargas-Lagos, R Oyarzún, J P Pontigo, J L P Muñoz, A J Yáñez, L Vargas-Chacoff
Eleginops maclovinus is an endemic fish to Chile that lives in proximity to salmonid culture centers, feeding off of uneaten pellet and salmonid feces. Occurring in the natural environment, this interaction between native and farmed fish could result in the horizontal transmission of pathogens affecting the aquaculture industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the innate and adaptive immune responses of E. maclovinus challenged with P. salmonis. Treatment injections (in duplicate) were as follows: control (100 μL of culture medium), wild type LF-89 strain (100 μL, 1 × 108 live bacteria), and antibiotic resistant strain Austral-005 (100 μL, 1 × 108 live bacteria)...
April 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mehmet O Atli, Mehmet Kose, Mustafa Hitit, M Salih Kaya, Faruk Bozkaya
The aim of this study was to elucidate the expression profiles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the ovine corpus luteum (CL) during early pregnancy and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)-induced luteolysis. For this purpose, multiparous Anatolian Merino ewes were selected and randomly allotted into cyclic (including those in the induced luteolysis group, n = 20) and pregnant (n = 12) groups. All of the ewes were scheduled to be slaughtered for predetermined days/hour during the estrous cycle, early pregnancy, and PGF2α induced luteolysis...
April 15, 2018: Theriogenology
Hui Han, Jie Yin, Bin Wang, Xingguo Huang, Jiming Yao, Jie Zheng, Wenjun Fan, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lysine restriction on inflammatory responses in piglets. 38 male piglets with similar body weight of 9.62 kg were randomly divided into control group (basal diet) and lysine-restricted group (diet containing 70% lysine of the control diet). The results showed that lysine restriction increased the serum concentration of IgG an IgM. Piglets fed the lysine-restricted diet exhibited overexpression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the kidney (P < 0.05) and IL-6 and IL-4 in the spleen (P < 0...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yushe Dang, Zina J Rutnam, Gregory Dietsch, Hailing Lu, Yi Yang, Robert Hershberg, Mary L Disis
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in tumors and the peripheral blood of cancer patients and demonstrate cancer-promoting activity across multiple tumor types. A limited number of agents are known to impact MDSC activity. TLR8 is expressed in myeloid cells. We investigated expression of TLR8 on MDSC and the effect of a TLR8 agonist, motolimod, on MDSC survival and function. TLR8 was highly expressed in monocytic MDSC (mMDSC) but absent in granulocytic MDSC (gMDSC). Treatment of human PBMC with motolimod reduced the levels of mMDSC in volunteers and cancer donors versus control (P < 0...
January 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Frances E Pearson, Karshing Chang, Yoshihito Minoda, Ingrid M Leal Rojas, Oscar L Haigh, Ghazal Daraj, Kirsteen M Tullett, Kristen J Radford
Mice reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells are valuable models to study aspects of the human immune system in vivo. We describe a humanized mouse model (hu mice) in which fully functional human CD141+ and CD1c+ myeloid and CD123+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC) develop from human cord blood CD34+ cells in immunodeficient mice. CD141+ DC are the human equivalents of murine CD8+ /CD103+ DC which are essential for the induction of tumor-inhibitory cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, making them attractive targets to exploit for the development of new cancer immunotherapies...
January 18, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Huanle Luo, Evandro R Winkelmann, Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas, Li Li, Sandra V Mayer, Rogelio Danis-Lozano, Rosa Ma Sanchez-Casas, Nikos Vasilakis, Robert Tesh, Alan D Barrett, Scott C Weaver, Tian Wang
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus associated with severe neonatal birth defects, but the causative mechanism is incompletely understood. ZIKV shares sequence homology and early clinical manifestations with yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus (DENV) and are all transmitted in urban cycles by the same species of mosquitoes. However, YFV and DENV have been rarely reported to cause congenital diseases. Here, we compared infection with a contemporary ZIKV strain (FSS13025) to YFV17D and DENV-4 in human monocytic cells (THP-1) and first-trimester trophoblasts (HTR-8)...
March 2018: Antiviral Research
Marie Dominique Ah Kioon, Claudio Tripodo, David Fernandez, Kyriakos A Kirou, Robert F Spiera, Mary K Crow, Jessica K Gordon, Franck J Barrat
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem life-threatening fibrosing disorder that lacks effective treatment. The link between the inflammation observed in organs such as the skin and profibrotic mechanisms is not well understood. The plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) is a key cell type mediating Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced inflammation in autoimmune disease patients, including lupus and skin diseases with interface dermatitis. However, the role of pDCs in fibrosis is less clear. We show that pDCs infiltrate the skin of SSc patients and are chronically activated, leading to secretion of interferon-α (IFN-α) and CXCL4, which are both hallmarks of the disease...
January 10, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Fu-Kai Zhang, Jun-Ling Hou, Ai-Jiang Guo, Ai-Ling Tian, Zhao-An Sheng, Wen-Bin Zheng, Wei-Yi Huang, Hany M Elsheikha, Xing-Quan Zhu
Infection of ruminants and humans with Fasciola gigantica is attracting increasing attention due to its economic impact and public health significance. However, little is known of innate immune responses during F. gigantica infection. Here, we investigated the expression profiles of genes involved in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) signaling pathways in buffaloes infected with 500F. gigantica metacercariae. Serum, liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected from infected and control buffaloes at 3, 10, 28, and 70days post infection (dpi)...
February 2018: Molecular Immunology
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