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Bone and Soft tissue pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775983/classification-and-microvascular-flap-selection-for-anterior-cranial-fossa-reconstruction
#1
James D Vargo, Wojciech Przylecki, Paul J Camarata, Brian T Andrews
BACKGROUND:  Microvascular reconstruction of the anterior cranial fossa (ACF) creates difficult challenges. Reconstructive goals and flap selection vary based on the defect location within the ACF. This study evaluates the feasibility and reliability of free tissue transfer for salvage reconstruction of low, middle, and high ACF defects. METHODS:  A retrospective review was performed. Reconstructions were anatomically classified as low (anterior skull base), middle (frontal bar/sinus), and high (frontal bone/soft tissue)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774178/effects-of-local-application-of-nano-silver-on-osteomyelitis-and-soft-tissue-infections-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#2
Bahattin Kemah, Gökçer Uzer, Yalçın Turhan, Burak Özturan, Bülent Kılıç, Bilge Sümbül Gültepe, Ayşe Bahar Ceyran, Selim Ertürk, Burak Aksoylu, Özlem Şenaydın, Korhan Özkan
Purpose : Bone and soft tissue infections are among the least desired complications after orthopaedic surgery. This study analysed the in vivo effects of the local application of nano-silver particles (AgNPs) [1nm = 1 billionth of a meter] in soft tissue infections. Materials-Method : An experimental osteomyelitis model was formed by inoculating both tibias of 24 rats with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . The rats were followed without treatment for 21 days. Blood samples and tibial x-rays at day 21 confirmed the development of infection...
2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771826/pediatric-nasal-traumas-contribution-of-epidemiological-features-to-detect-the-distinction-between-nasal-fractures-and-nasal-soft-tissue-injuries
#3
Taliye Cakabay, Selin Ustun Bezgin
OBJECTIVES: Nasal bone is prone to injury due of its prominent position on the face. Epidemiologic surveys are necessary to investigate nasal traumas. The aim of the present study is to examine the distribution of trauma etiologies according to age, sex, and seasonality in pediatric patients who present with nasal trauma, and to classify the pathologies according to their etiology as nasal fractures or nasal soft tissue injuries. METHODS: A total of 200 pediatric patients aged between 0 and 18 years who were admitted to the emergency room with sustained nasal trauma between September 1, 2015 and August 1, 2016 and who were diagnosed with an either nasal fracture or nasal soft tissue injury were retrospectively analyzed...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752089/hucmsc-derived-exosomes-promote-functional-recovery-in-spinal-cord-injury-mice-via-attenuating-inflammation
#4
Guodong Sun, Guangqiang Li, Dehai Li, Wanjun Huang, Renwen Zhang, Hua Zhang, Yuanyuan Duan, Baocheng Wang
The exploration of effective spinal cord injury (SCI) healing still remain a great challenge due to the high morbidity, complex pathology and unclear targets. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSC) play an important role in tissue regeneration. However, transplanting stem cells has a potential risk of teratogenicity. Recent studies have suggested that exosomes secreted by stem cells may contribute to tissue injury repair. We hypothesized that the application of hucMSC derived exosomes may be a potential way for SCI treatment...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740534/genomic-dna-methylation-derived-algorithm-enables-accurate-detection-of-malignant-prostate-tissues
#5
Erfan Aref-Eshghi, Laila C Schenkel, Peter Ainsworth, Hanxin Lin, David I Rodenhiser, Jean-Claude Cutz, Bekim Sadikovic
Introduction: The current methodology involving diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) relies on the pathology examination of prostate needle biopsies, a method with high false negative rates partly due to temporospatial, molecular, and morphological heterogeneity of prostate adenocarcinoma. It is postulated that molecular markers have a potential to assign diagnosis to a considerable portion of undetected prostate tumors. This study examines the genome-wide DNA methylation changes in PCa in search of genomic markers for the development of a diagnostic algorithm for PCa screening...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721455/full-field-in-vitro-investigation-of-hard-and-soft-tissue-strain-in-the-spine-by-means-of-digital-image-correlation
#6
REVIEW
Maria Luisa Ruspi, Marco Palanca, Cesare Faldini, Luca Cristofolini
Introduction: The spine deserves careful biomechanical investigation, because of the different types of degeneration deriving from daily stress, trauma, and hard and soft tissue pathologies. Many biomechanical studies evaluated the range of motion, structural stiffness of spine segments under different loading conditions, without addressing the strain distribution. Strain gauges have been used to measure strain in the vertebral body, in a pointwise way.What is currently missing is a method to measure the distribution of strain in the soft tissues (intervertebral discs and ligaments), and an integration between measurements in the hard and soft tissues...
October 2017: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713425/follow-up-of-mri-bone-marrow-edema-in-the-treated-diabetic-charcot-foot-a-review-of-patient-charts
#7
Ernst-A Chantelau, Sofia Antoniou, Brigitte Zweck, Patrick Haage
Background : Ill-defined areas of water-like signal on bone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), characterized as bone marrow edema or edema-equivalent signal-changes (EESC), is a hallmark of active-stage pedal neuro-osteoarthropathy (Charcot foot) in painless diabetic neuropathy, and is accompanied by local soft-tissue edema and hyperthermia. The longitudinal effects on EESC of treating the foot in a walking cast were elucidated by reviewing consecutive cases of a diabetic foot clinic. Study design : Retrospective observational study, chart review Material and methods : Cases with active-stage Charcot foot were considered, in whom written reports on baseline and follow-up MRI studies were available for assessment...
2018: Diabetic Foot & Ankle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705812/imaging-assisted-diagnosis-and-characteristics-of-suspected-spinal-brucellosis-a-retrospective-study-of-72-cases
#8
Laiyong Tu, Xinmei Liu, Wenfei Gu, Zhenbin Wang, Enfeng Zhang, Aikenmu Kahar, Ge Chu, Jiang Zhao
BACKGROUND We clarified the imaging features of Brucella spondylitis to enhance our understanding of the disease and to minimize misdiagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Imaging data (X-ray, computed tomography [CT], and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] data) of 72 Brucella spondylitis patients treated from 2010 to 2017 were retrospectively analyzed; diagnoses was made by evaluating laboratory and pathological data. RESULTS X-ray films revealed changes in intervertebral space heights, the number of lateral osteophytes, and bone destruction, which were more severe in the following order: lumbosacral vertebrae (56 cases, 77...
April 29, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703011/desmoplastic-small-round-cell-tumor-of-the-middle-ear-a-case-report
#9
Jing Xu, Mengwei Yao, Xinxin Yang, Tao Liu, Shaohua Wang, Dengdian Ma, Xiaoyu Li
RATIONALE: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare, aggressive and malignant tumor. This report describes a case involving DSRCT of the middle ear which no case has been reported in the literature till date. PATIENT CONCERN: A 59-year-old Chinese man with a 40-year history of repeated suppuration of his right ear and 1-year history of drooping of the angle of mouth. The CT of the middle ear and brain scan and enhanced MRI showed space occupying lesion in the right middle ear...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702989/the-application-of-x-ray-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-on-22-pediatric-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-patients-with-long-bone-involvement-a-retrospective-analysis
#10
Xiaojun Zhang, Jing Zhou, Xuee Chai, Guiling Chen, Bin Guo, Lei Ni, Peng Wu
The studies focusing on x-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in pediatric Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) patients were still rare. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the application of x-ray, CT, and MRI in pediatric LCH patients with long bone involvement.Total 22 pediatric LCH patients were included in this study. The diagnosis of LCH was confirmed by pathological examination. All patients were followed up for 3 years. X-ray, CT, or MRI was performed and the results were recorded for further analyses...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693010/ct-and-mri-findings-of-soft-tissue-adult-fibrosarcoma-in-extremities
#11
Hexiang Wang, Pei Nie, Cheng Dong, Jie Li, Yonghua Huang, Dapeng Hao, Wenjian Xu
Objective: To characterize and evaluate CT and MRI features of extremity soft tissue adult fibrosarcoma. Methods: CT and MRI images from 10 adult patients with pathologically proven fibrosarcomas were retrospectively analyzed with regard to tumor location, size, number, shape, margins, attenuation, signal intensity, and enhancement patterns on MR images. Additionally, the relationships between lesions, deep fascia, and change in adjacent bones were also assessed...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682386/extraosseous-intradural-chondrosarcoma-of-the-cervical-spine-a-case-report-with-brief-review-of-literature
#12
Elizabeth Presutto, Sejal Patel, Joseph Fullmer, Sajeev Ezhapilli
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (MCS) is a malignant cancer of the cartilage that accounts for less than 1% of all chondrosarcomas and typically occurs within the bone. One-third of all mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are extraosseous soft tissue sarcomas, rendering this as an uncommon entity. We report a rare case of an extraosseous chondrosarcoma with the cervical spinal canal in a 21-year-old male. The purpose of this case report is to discuss the imaging characteristics of this pathology proven diagnosis.
2018: Case Reports in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678325/does-hearing-in-response-to-soft-tissue-stimulation-involve-skull-vibrations-a-within-subject-comparison-between-skull-vibration-magnitudes-and-hearing-thresholds
#13
Shai Chordekar, Ronen Perez, Cahtia Adelman, Haim Sohmer, Liat Kishon-Rabin
Hearing can be elicited in response to bone as well as soft-tissue stimulation. However, the underlying mechanism of soft-tissue stimulation is under debate. It has been hypothesized that if skull vibrations were the underlying mechanism of hearing in response to soft-tissue stimulation, then skull vibrations would be associated with hearing thresholds. However, if skull vibrations were not associated with hearing thresholds, an alternative mechanism is involved. In the present study, both skull vibrations and hearing thresholds were assessed in the same participants in response to bone (mastoid) and soft-tissue (neck) stimulation...
April 3, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662775/relationship-between-heterotopic-ossification-and-traumatic-brain-injury-why-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-increases-the-risk-of-heterotopic-ossification
#14
REVIEW
Huan Huang, Wen-Xiang Cheng, Yi-Ping Hu, Jian-Hai Chen, Zheng-Tan Zheng, Peng Zhang
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a pathological phenomenon in which ectopic lamellar bone forms in soft tissues. HO involves many predisposing factors, including congenital and postnatal factors. Postnatal HO is usually induced by fracture, burn, neurological damage (brain injury and spinal cord injury) and joint replacement. Recent studies have found that patients who suffered from bone fracture combined with severe traumatic brain injury (S-TBI) are at a significantly increased risk for HO occurrence. Thus, considerable research focused on the influence of S-TBI on fracture healing and bone formation, as well as on the changes in various osteogenic factors with S-TBI occurrence...
January 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661713/review-with-novel-markers-facilitates-precise-categorization-of-41-cases-of-diagnostically-challenging-undifferentiated-small-round-cell-tumors-a-clinicopathologic-immunophenotypic-and-molecular-analysis
#15
Isidro Machado, Akihiko Yoshida, María Gema Nieto Morales, Lucas Faria Abrahão-Machado, Samuel Navarro, Julia Cruz, Javier Lavernia, Antonina Parafioriti, Piero Picci, Antonio Llombart-Bosch
BACKGROUND: Despite extensive immunohistochemical (IHC) and molecular studies combined with morphologic findings, a group of round/ovoid cell tumors histologically similar to Ewing sarcomas (ES) but lacking EWSR1-rearrangements may remain unclassifiable. DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed 41 Ewing-like tumors (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded) previously determined as negative or non-informative for EWSR1-rearrangements by FISH and/or RT-PCR. A new histopathology revision and additional IHC and molecular analyses were carried out in order to investigate whether additional IHC and/or molecular testing in combination with the morphological findings may help in reaching a definitive diagnosis...
November 29, 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659384/tumor-induced-osteomalacia-caused-by-a-parotid-basal-cell-adenoma-detected-by-68ga-dotanoc-pet-ct
#16
Qiao He, Zeqing Xu, Bing Zhang, Wanming Hu, Xiangsong Zhang
Tumor-induced osteomalacia is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome, usually caused by small benign mesenchymal tumors. The tumors most arise within the extremities, whereas occurrence within the parotid gland is quite rare. A 54-year-old woman who presented with bone pain and muscle weakness for 2 years was clinically suspected of having tumor-induced osteomalacia. A Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT was performed for localization of the causative tumor. The images demonstrated intense radiotracer accumulation in a soft tissue nodule in deep lobe of the right parotid gland...
June 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628687/megaprosthesis-versus-allograft-prosthesis-composite-for-massive-skeletal-defects
#17
REVIEW
Deepak Gautam, Rajesh Malhotra
Massive skeletal defects are encountered in the setting of tumors necessitating excision, failed total hip arthroplasty with periprosthetic bone loss, periprosthetic fracture, complex trauma, multiple failed osteosynthesis and infection. Reconstruction of the segmental defects poses a tremendous challenge to the orthopaedic surgeons. The goal of osseous reconstruction of these defects is to restore the bone length and function. Currently the most commonly employed methods for reconstruction are either a megaprosthesis or an Allograft Prosthesis Composite (APC)...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627152/three-dimensional-radiographic-evaluation-of-root-migration-patterns-4-8-5-years-after-lower-third-molar-coronectomy-a-cone-beam-computed-tomography-study
#18
A W K Yeung, N S M Wong, M M Bornstein, Y Y Leung
This prospective study in patients with a follow-up of 4-8.5years aimed to describe the long-term, three-dimensional changes of coronectomized lower third molar roots. Pre- and postoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were compared. The distance of root migration, the direction of root translation and rotation, and the amount of bone regeneration at the adjacent second molar and superficially to the third molar root were recorded. Age, gender, time elapsed following surgery, the status of the retained root including, impaction pattern and depth of impaction were tested to check if they were influencing factors for the above outcomes...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626545/hypoxia-selective-allosteric-destabilization-of-activin-receptor-like-kinases-a-potential-therapeutic-avenue-for-prophylaxis-of-heterotopic-ossification
#19
Guorong Lu, Mary R Tandang-Silvas, Alyssa C Dawson, Trenton J Dawson, Jay C Groppe
Heterotopic ossification (HO), the pathological extraskeletal formation of bone, can arise from blast injuries, severe burns, orthopedic procedures and gain-of-function mutations in a component of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway, the ACVR1/ALK2 receptor serine-threonine (protein) kinase, causative of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP). All three ALKs (-2, -3, -6) that play roles in bone morphogenesis contribute to trauma-induced HO, hence are well-validated pharmacological targets...
April 4, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625584/temporomandibular-joint-regeneration-proposal-of-a-novel-treatment-for-condylar-resorption-after-orthognathic-surgery-using-transplantation-of-autologous-nasal-septum-chondrocytes-and-the-first-human-case-report
#20
Ricardo de Souza Tesch, Esther Rieko Takamori, Karla Menezes, Rosana Bizon Vieira Carias, Cláudio Leonardo Milione Dutra, Marcelo de Freitas Aguiar, Tânia Salgado de Sousa Torraca, Alexandra Cristina Senegaglia, Cármen Lúcia Kuniyoshi Rebelatto, Debora Regina Daga, Paulo Roberto Slud Brofman, Radovan Borojevic
BACKGROUND: Upon orthognathic mandibular advancement surgery the adjacent soft tissues can displace the distal bone segment and increase the load on the temporomandibular joint causing loss of its integrity. Remodeling of the condyle and temporal fossa with destruction of condylar cartilage and subchondral bone leads to postsurgical condylar resorption, with arthralgia and functional limitations. Patients with severe lesions are refractory to conservative treatments, leading to more invasive therapies that range from simple arthrocentesis to open surgery and prosthesis...
April 7, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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