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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749244/radiation-protection-and-mitigation-potential-of-phenylbutyrate-delivered-via-oral-administration
#1
Alexandra C Miller, Rafael Rivas, Robert McMahon, Karvelisse Miller, Leonard Tesoro, Vilmar Villa, Daminik Yanushkevich, Paul Lison
PURPOSE: Phenylbutyrate (PB), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) has demonstrated radiation protection in both in vitro and in vivo models. Studies previously demonstrated that PB and other HDAC inhibitors could inhibit radiation lethality in vivo by subcutaneous (s.c) injection. The objective of this study was to test the ability of oral PB treatment to protect against or to mitigate acute gamma radiation-induced lethality in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human osteoblasts cells were used to evaluate radiation survival when PB was delivered pre- or post-radiation...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747687/protected-surface-state-in-stepped-fe-0-18-1
#2
Manuel Izquierdo, Piero Torelli, Jun Fujii, Giancarlo Panaccione, Ivana Vobornik, Giorgio Rossi, Fausto Sirotti
Carbon (C) surface segregation from bulk stabilizes the Fe(0 18 1) vicinal surface by forming a c(3[Formula: see text] × [Formula: see text] reconstruction with C zig-zag chains oriented at 45° with respect to the iron surface steps. The iron surface electronic states as measured by high resolution ARPES at normal emission with polarized synchrotron radiation split in two peaks that follow distinct energy dispersion curves. One peak follows the dispersion of the carbon superstructure and is photoexcited only when the polarization vector is parallel to the steps, the second peak disperses similarly to the pristine Fe(0 0 1) surface...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745930/what-does-the-eggshell-cuticle-do-a-functional-comparison-of-avian-eggshell-cuticles
#3
Liliana D'Alba, Roxana Torres, Geoffrey I N Waterhouse, Chad Eliason, Mark E Hauber, Matthew D Shawkey
The avian eggshell is a highly ordered structure with several layers (mammillae, palisades, and vertical crystal layer) composed of calcium carbonate (∼96%) and minerals within an organic matrix. The cuticle is a noncalcified layer that covers the eggshells of most bird species. Eggshells are multifunctional structures that have evolved in response to diverse embryonic requirements and challenges, including protection from microbial infection, nest flooding, and exposure to solar radiation. However, experimental evidence for these functions across diverse taxa is currently limited...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745870/anti-uv-radiation-textiles-designed-by-embracing-with-nano-mil-ti-in-metal-organic-framework
#4
Hossam E Emam, Reda M Abdelhameed
Protective textiles against harmful solar radiation are quite important materials for outdoor workers to secure their skin from several diseases. Current report focuses on production of anti-ultraviolet radiation (UVR) textiles by incorporation of nano metal organic frameworks (n-MOFs). Two different MIL-MOFs namely, MIL-68(In)-NH2 and MIL-125(Ti)-NH2 were immediately formed inside natural textiles (cotton & silk) matrix in nano size using quite simple and one-pot process. The formation of n-MIL-MOFs inside textiles were confirmed by using electron microscope and X-ray diffraction...
July 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744863/classification-of-changes-occurring-in-lung-patient-during-radiotherapy-using-relative-%C3%AE-analysis-and-hidden-markov-models
#5
Nicolas Varfalvy, Ophelie Piron, Marc François Cyr, Anne Dagnault, Louis Archambault
PURPOSE: to present a new automated patient classification method based on relative gamma analysis and hidden Markov models (HMM) to identify patients undergoing important anatomical changes during radiation therapy. METHODS: daily EPID images of every treatment field were acquired for 52 patients treated for lung cancer. In addition, CBCT were acquired on a regular basis. Gamma analysis was performed relative to the first fraction given that no significant anatomical change was observed on the CBCT of the first fraction compared to the planning CT...
July 26, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743100/studies-on-secondary-metabolite-profiling-anti-inflammatory-potential-in-vitro-photoprotective-and-skin-aging-related-enzyme-inhibitory-activities-of-malaxis-acuminata-a-threatened-orchid-of-nutraceutical-importance
#6
Biswajit Bose, Hiranjit Choudhury, Pramod Tandon, Suman Kumaria
Malaxis acuminata D. Don., a small, terrestrial orchid, is endemic to tropical Himalayas at an altitude of 1200-2000m asl. The dried pseudobulbs are important ingredients of century old ayurvedic drug 'Ashtavarga' and a polyherbal immune-booster nutraceutical 'Chyavanprash', known to restore vigour, vitality and youthfulness. Considering tremendous medicinal importance of this threatened orchid species, a detailed study was undertaken for the first time to address its antioxidant potential, secondary metabolite contents and biological activities against skin-aging related enzymes (anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, anti-tyrosinase and xanthine oxidase) and anti-inflammatory activity (5-lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase) in different plant parts of wild and in vitro-derived plants of M...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742468/single-ct-scan-prolongs-survival-by-extending-cancer-latency-in-trp53-heterozygous-mice
#7
Jennifer A Lemon, Nghi Phan, Douglas R Boreham
There is growing concern over the effects of medical diagnostic procedures on cancer risk. Although numerous studies have demonstrated that low doses of ionizing radiation can have protective effects including reduced cancer risk and increasing lifespan, the hypothesis that any radiation exposure increases cancer risk still predominates. In this study, we investigated cancer development and longevity of cancer-prone Trp53(+/-) mice exposed at 7-8 weeks of age to a single 10 mGy dose from either a diagnostic CT scan or gamma radiation...
July 25, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742310/radon-as-a-risk-factor-of-lung-cancer
#8
Ewa Gawełek, Bogna Drozdzowska, Anna Fuchs
Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. Indoor radon concentration poses a significant and potentially subject to the prevention risk factor of lung cancer development. The paper present the history of studies assessing occupational and indoor radon exposure and an impact of international organizations for raise public and political awareness about the consequences of long term exposure to residential radon, resulting in the European Directive 2013/59/Euratom of 5 December 2013 laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742230/allopatric-speciation-despite-historical-gene-flow-divergence-and-hybridization-in-carex-furva-and-c-lucennoiberica-cyperaceae-inferred-from-plastid-and-nuclear-rad-seq-data
#9
E Maguilla, M Escudero, A L Hipp, M Luceño
Gene flow among incipient species can act as a creative or destructive force in the speciation process, generating variation on which natural selection can act while, potentially, undermining population divergence. The flowering plant genus Carex exhibits a rapid and relatively recent radiation with many species limits still unclear. This is the case with the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) endemic C. lucennoiberica, which lay unrecognized within Carex furva until its recent description as a new species...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741861/parvularia-atlantis-gen-et-sp-nov-a-nucleariid-filose-amoeba-holomycota-opisthokonta
#10
David López-Escardó, Purificación López-García, David Moreira, Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo, Guifré Torruella
The opisthokonts constitute a eukaryotic supergroup divided into two main clades: the holozoans, which include animals and their unicellular relatives, and the holomycotans, which include fungi, opisthosporidians and nucleariids. Nucleariids are phagotrophic filose amoebae that phenotypically resemble more their distant holozoan cousins than their holomycotan phylogenetic relatives. Despite their evolutionary interest, the diversity and internal phylogenetic relationships within the nucleariids remain poorly studied...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741683/a-clinical-trial-of-a-novel-emulsion-for-potential-use-as-a-saliva-substitute-in-patients-with-radiation-induced-xerostomia
#11
Olivia Apperley, Natalie Medlicott, Alison Rich, Sara Hanning, Maggie-Lee Huckabee
AIM: Researchers have recently developed a novel oily formulation for potential use as a saliva substitute for the treatment of dry mouth. The aim of this randomised, cross-over study was to compare this new formulation to a currently available saliva substitute and a control of water on measures of mastication, subjective feeling of oral dryness and product acceptability. METHODS: Forty participants treated with radiotherapy to the head and neck and experiencing xerostomia were invited to participate in the trial...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736930/technical-note-mobile-accelerator-guidance-using-an-optical-tracker-during-docking-in-ioert-procedures
#12
Eugenio Marinetto, Juan González Victores, Mónica García-Sevilla, Mercedes Muñoz, Felipe Ángel Calvo, Carlos Balaguer, Manuel Desco, Javier Pascau
PURPOSE: Intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) involves the delivery of a high radiation dose during tumor resection in a shorter time than other radiation techniques, thus improving local control of tumors. However, a linear accelerator device is needed to produce the beam safely. Mobile linear accelerators have been designed as dedicated units that can be moved into the operating room and deliver radiation in situ. Correct and safe dose delivery is a key concern when using mobile accelerators...
July 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736864/brain-tumor-segmentation-using-holistically-nested-neural-networks-in-mri-images
#13
Ying Zhuge, Andra V Krauze, Holly Ning, Jason Y Cheng, Barbara C Arora, Kevin Camphausen, Robert W Miller
PURPOSE: Gliomas are rapidly progressive, neurologically devastating, largely fatal brain tumors. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a widely used technique employed in the diagnosis and management of gliomas in clinical practice. MRI is also the standard imaging modality used to delineate the brain tumor target as part of treatment planning for the administration of radiation therapy. Despite more than 20 years of research and development, computational brain tumor segmentation in MRI images remains a challenging task...
July 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735741/apigenin-prevents-ultraviolet-b-radiation-induced-cyclobutane-pyrimidine-dimers-formation-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts
#14
S Mary Britto, D Shanthakumari, B Agilan, T Radhiga, G Kanimozhi, N Rajendra Prasad
Exposure to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation leads to the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). We investigated the protective effect of apigenin against UVB-induced CPDs formation in human dermal fibroblasts cells (HDFa). For this purpose, HDFa cells were treated with apigenin (15μM) prior to UVB irradiation (20mJ/cm(2)); DNA damage and subsequent molecular end points were observed. Exposure to UVB radiation increased significant CPDs formation in HDFa cells and the frequencies of CPDs were reduced by treatment with apigenin (15μM)...
September 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735740/dna-damage-and-the-bystander-response-in-tumor-and-normal-cells-exposed-to-x-rays
#15
M Subhashree, R Venkateswarlu, K Karthik, V Shangamithra, P Venkatachalam
Monolayer and suspension cultures of tumor (BMG-1, CCRF-CEM), normal (AG1522, HADF, lymphocytes) and ATM-mutant (GM4405) human cells were exposed to X-rays at doses used in radiotherapy (high dose and high dose-rate) or radiological imaging (low dose and low dose-rate). Radiation-induced DNA damage, its persistence, and possible bystander effects were evaluated, based on DNA damage markers (γ-H2AX, p53(ser15)) and cell-cycle-specific cyclins (cyclin B1 and cyclin D1). Dose-dependent DNA damage and a dose-independent bystander response were seen after exposure to high dose and high dose-rate radiation...
September 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733989/detecting-ancient-co-dispersals-and-host-shifts-by-double-dating-of-host-and-parasite-phylogenies-application-in-proctophyllodid-feather-mites-associated-with-passerine-birds
#16
Pavel B Klimov, Sergey V Mironov, Barry M OConnor
Inferring co-phylogeographic events requires matching the timing of these events on both host and symbiont (e.g., parasites) phylogenies because divergences of hosts and their symbionts may not temporally coincide, and host switches may occur. We investigate a large radiation of birds (Passeriformes) and their permanent symbionts, the proctophyllodid feather mites (117 species from 116 bird species; 6 genes, 11,468 nt aligned) using two time-calibration strategies for mites: fossils only and host phylogeography only...
July 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732406/quantifying-deforestation-and-forest-degradation-with-thermal-response
#17
Hua Lin, Yajun Chen, Qinghai Song, Peili Fu, James Cleverly, Vincenzo Magliulo, Beverly E Law, Christopher M Gough, Lukas Hörtnagl, Filippo Di Gennaro, Giorgio Matteucci, Leonardo Montagnani, Pierpaolo Duce, Changliang Shao, Tomomichi Kato, Damien Bonal, Eugénie Paul-Limoges, Jason Beringer, John Grace, Zexin Fan
Deforestation and forest degradation cause the deterioration of resources and ecosystem services. However, there are still no operational indicators to measure forest status, especially for forest degradation. In the present study, we analysed the thermal response number (TRN, calculated by daily total net radiation divided by daily temperature range) of 163 sites including mature forest, disturbed forest, planted forest, shrubland, grassland, savanna vegetation and cropland. TRN generally increased with latitude, however the regression of TRN against latitude differed among vegetation types...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732383/radiation-alters-pd-l1-nkg2d-ligand-levels-in-lung-cancer-cells-and-leads-to-immune-escape-from-nk-cell-cytotoxicity-via-il-6-mek-erk-signaling-pathway
#18
Ming Jing Shen, Li Jun Xu, Li Yang, Ying Tsai, Peter C Keng, Yongbing Chen, Soo Ok Lee, Yuhchyau Chen
We investigated whether radiation influences the susceptibility of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to NK cell mediated cytotoxicity. We found radiation treatment increased expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), but decreased NK group 2, member D (NKG2D) ligand expressions in A549 and H157 NSCLC cells. Both types of changes would have protected tumor cells from the cytotoxic action of NK cells. Consistently, we detected similar alteration in these molecules in radioresistant A549R26-1 and H157R24-1 subline cells...
July 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732024/4-nitrophenylsulfonyl-piperazines-mitigate-radiation-damage-to-multiple-tissues
#19
Ewa D Micewicz, Kwanghee Kim, Keisuke S Iwamoto, Josephine A Ratikan, Genhong Cheng, Gayle M Boxx, Robert D Damoiseaux, Julian P Whitelegge, Piotr Ruchala, Christine Nguyen, Prabhat Purbey, Joseph Loo, Gang Deng, Michael E Jung, James W Sayre, Andrew J Norris, Dörthe Schaue, William H McBride
Our ability to use ionizing radiation as an energy source, as a therapeutic agent, and, unfortunately, as a weapon, has evolved tremendously over the past 120 years, yet our tool box to handle the consequences of accidental and unwanted radiation exposure remains very limited. We have identified a novel group of small molecule compounds with a 4-nitrophenylsulfonamide (NPS) backbone in common that dramatically decrease mortality from the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (hARS). The group emerged from an in vitro high throughput screen (HTS) for inhibitors of radiation-induced apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730646/prospective-observational-study-of-carbon-ion-radiotherapy-for-non-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#20
Katsuyuki Shirai, Jun-Ichi Saitoh, Atsushi Musha, Takanori Abe, Daijiro Kobayashi, Takeo Takahashi, Tomoaki Tamaki, Hidemasa Kawamura, Yukihiro Takayasu, Masato Shino, Minoru Toyoda, Katsumasa Takahashi, Junko Hirato, Satoshi Yokoo, Kazuaki Chikamatsu, Tatsuya Ohno, Takashi Nakano
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbon-ion radiotherapy for non-squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Thirty-five patients were enrolled in this prospective study. The primary endpoint was the 3-year local control rate, while secondary endpoints included the 3-year overall survival rate and adverse events. Acute and late adverse events were evaluated according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The median follow-up time for all patients was 39 months. Thirty-two and 3 patients received 64...
July 21, 2017: Cancer Science
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