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Radiation protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331062/benefits-of-increasing-transpiration-efficiency-in-wheat-under-elevated-co2-for-rainfed-regions
#1
Brendan Christy, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Michael Tausz, Richard Richards, Greg Rebetzke, Anthony Condon, Terry Mclean, Glenn Fitzgerald, Maryse Bourgault, Garry O'Leary
Higher transpiration efficiency (TE) has been proposed as a mechanism to increase crop yields in dry environments where water availability usually limits yield. The application of a coupled radiation and transpiration efficiency simulation model shows wheat yield advantage of a high TE cultivar (cv. Drysdale) over its almost identical low TE parent line (Hartog), from about -7 to 558 kg ha-1 (mean 187 kg ha-1 ) over the rainfed cropping region in Australia (221 to 1351 mm annual rainfall), under the present-day climate...
January 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329926/characterization-of-selenoprotein-p-cdna-of-the-antarctic-toothfish-dissostichus-mawsoni-and-its-role-under-cold-pressure
#2
Yan Li, Juntao Luo, Qiongqiong Xu, Yanwen Hou, Penglei Jiang, Yutian Sun, Hanxu Lu, Bingshe Han, Junfang Zhang
Our previous study using comparative genome analysis revealed a significant gene copy number gain of Dissostichus mawsoni selenoprotein P (Dm-SEPP) during the evolutionary radiation of Antarctic notothenioids, suggesting that Dm-SEPP contribute to this process, but the detailed structure and function of this gene product remain unclear. In the present study, the Dm-SEPP cDNA was cloned and characterized. The Dm-SEPP cDNA contains 17 selenocysteines (Sec) encoded by TGA codons and 2 typical SECIS elements located in the 3'-UTR...
January 9, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329308/modeling-the-effect-of-boost-timing-in-murine-irradiated-sporozoite-prime-boost-vaccines
#3
Cristina Fernandez-Arias, Clemente F Arias, Min Zhang, Miguel A Herrero, Francisco J Acosta, Moriya Tsuji
Vaccination with radiation-attenuated sporozoites has been shown to induce CD8+ T cell-mediated protection against pre-erythrocytic stages of malaria. Empirical evidence suggests that successive inoculations often improve the efficacy of this type of vaccines. An initial dose (prime) triggers a specific cellular response, and subsequent inoculations (boost) amplify this response to create a robust CD8+ T cell memory. In this work we propose a model to analyze the effect of T cell dynamics on the performance of prime-boost vaccines...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328968/in-vitro-examination-of-an-oleosome-based-sun-protection-product-on-the-influence-of-uvb-induced-inflammation-markers-in-human-epidermal-skin-equivalent-tissue-model
#4
James V Gruber, Robert Holtz, Soo In Yang
In vitro human epidermal skin equivalent tissues (MatTek EpiDerm™) were employed to examine the influence of UVB radiation on various established inflammation markers in the presence of topically applied sunscreens. MatTek EpiDerm™ tissues were treated with 2.0mg/cm2 of an Experimental oleosome-based SPF 30 product or a commercial SPF 30 beach product. Tissues were irradiated with 300mJ/cm2 of UVB radiation. Inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-8 as well as arachidonic acid cascade marker PGE2 were examined via ELISA-based antibody detection...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328192/near-quantum-noise-limited-and-absolute-frequency-stabilized-1083%C3%A2-%C3%A2-nm-single-frequency-fiber-laser
#5
Qilai Zhao, Kaijun Zhou, Zisheng Wu, Changsheng Yang, Zhouming Feng, Huihui Cheng, Jiulin Gan, Mingying Peng, Zhongmin Yang, Shanhui Xu
The Earth's magnetic field has significant effects that protect us from cosmic radiation and provide navigation for biological migration. However, slow temporal variations originating in the liquid outer core invariably exist. To understand the working mechanism of the geomagnetic field and improve accuracy of navigation systems, a high-precision magnetometer is essential to measure the absolute magnetic field. A helium optically pumping magnetometer is an advanced approach, but its sensitivity and accuracy are directly limited by the low-frequency relative intensity noise and frequency stability characteristics of a light source...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327260/lifetime-study-in-mice-after-acute-low-dose-ionizing-radiation-a-multifactorial-study-with-special-focus-on-cataract-risk
#6
Claudia Dalke, Frauke Neff, Savneet Kaur Bains, Scott Bright, Deborah Lord, Peter Reitmeir, Ute Rößler, Daniel Samaga, Kristian Unger, Herbert Braselmann, Florian Wagner, Matthias Greiter, Maria Gomolka, Sabine Hornhardt, Sarah Kunze, Stefan J Kempf, Lillian Garrett, Sabine M Hölter, Wolfgang Wurst, Michael Rosemann, Omid Azimzadeh, Soile Tapio, Michaela Aubele, Fabian Theis, Christoph Hoeschen, Predrag Slijepcevic, Munira Kadhim, Michael Atkinson, Horst Zitzelsberger, Ulrike Kulka, Jochen Graw
Because of the increasing application of ionizing radiation in medicine, quantitative data on effects of low-dose radiation are needed to optimize radiation protection, particularly with respect to cataract development. Using mice as mammalian animal model, we applied a single dose of 0, 0.063, 0.125 and 0.5 Gy at 10 weeks of age, determined lens opacities for up to 2 years and compared it with overall survival, cytogenetic alterations and cancer development. The highest dose was significantly associated with increased body weight and reduced survival rate...
January 11, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325596/late-normal-tissue-response-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-after-carbon-ion-irradiation
#7
Maria Saager, Peter Peschke, Thomas Welzel, Lifi Huang, Stephan Brons, Rebecca Grün, Michael Scholz, Jürgen Debus, Christian P Karger
BACKGROUND: The present work summarizes the research activities on radiation-induced late effects in the rat spinal cord carried out within the "clinical research group ion beam therapy" funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG, KFO 214). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Dose-response curves for the endpoint radiation-induced myelopathy were determined at 6 different positions (LET 16-99 keV/μm) within a 6 cm spread-out Bragg peak using either 1, 2 or 6 fractions of carbon ions...
January 11, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325132/dark-tea-extract-mitigates-hematopoietic-radiation-injury-with-antioxidative-activity
#8
Wei Long, Guanghui Zhang, Yinping Dong, Deguan Li
The hematopoietic system is widely studied in radiation research. Tea has been proved to have antioxidative activity. In the present study, we describe the protective effects of dark tea extract (DTE) on radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. DTE administration significantly enhanced the survival rate of mice after 7.0 and 7.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI). The results showed that DTE not only markedly increased the numbers and cloning potential of hematopoietic cells, but also decreased DNA damages after mice were exposed to 6...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323733/photo-induced-toxicity-following-exposure-to-crude-oil-and-ultraviolet-radiation-in-two-australian-fishes
#9
Lauren E Sweet, Andrew T Revill, Joanna Strzelecki, Sharon E Hook, Jeffrey M Morris, Aaron P Roberts
Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a component of crude oil, are known to cause increased toxicity when organisms are co-exposed with ultraviolet radiation, resulting in photo-induced toxicity. The photodynamic characteristic of some PAHs are of particular concern to places like Australia with high ultraviolet radiation levels. The objective of this study was to characterize the photo-induced toxicity of an Australian Northwest Shelf oil to early life stage yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri)...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319919/outcomes-and-toxicities-in-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer-patients-treated-with-brachytherapy-alone-or-brachytherapy-and-supplemental-external-beam-radiation-therapy
#10
Emily Schlussel Markovic, Michael Buckstein, Nelson N Stone, Richard G Stock
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cancer control outcomes and long-term treatment-related morbidity of brachytherapy as well as combination brachytherapy and EBRT in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted in a prospectively collected database of patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who were treated either with brachytherapy or brachytherapy and EBRT, with or without ADT, from 1990-2014. Urinary and erectile dysfunction symptoms are measured using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the Mount Sinai erectile function scale, and the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM), respectively...
January 10, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319883/trait-specific-processes-of-convergence-and-conservatism-shape-ecomorphological-evolution-in-ground-dwelling-squirrels
#11
Bryan S McLean, Kristofer M Helgen, H Thomas Goodwin, Joseph A Cook
Our understanding of mechanisms operating over deep timescales to shape phenotypic diversity often hinges on linking variation in one or few trait(s) to specific evolutionary processes. When distinct processes are capable of similar phenotypic signatures, however, identifying these drivers is difficult. We explored ecomorphological evolution across a radiation of ground-dwelling squirrels whose history includes convergence and constraint, two processes that can yield similar signatures of standing phenotypic diversity...
January 10, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319336/operator-safety-during-the-acquisition-of-intraoral-images-with-a-handheld-and-portable-x-ray-device
#12
Dennis Rottke, Lisa Gohlke, Robert Schrödel, Stefan Hassfeld, Dirk Schulze
OBJECTIVES: The present study aims at investigating different radiation protection issues and dose values while acquiring intraoral images with a handheld X-ray device. METHODS: An Aribex NOMAD Pro 2TM, a RANDO® male head phantom, a consistency testing body (CTB), a PTW NOMEX® Multimeter, and a PTW Farmer® Ionization Chamber Type 30010 were used to investigate: (1) dose area products (DAP); (2) the expansion of the control area (CA); (3) the scattering pattern; and (4) the potential risk for operators of the X-ray device...
January 10, 2018: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318768/use-of-instrumented-indentation-for-determination-of-mechanical-properties-of-human-cornea-after-uva-crosslinking
#13
Jiri Nohava, Michael Swain, Stefan J Lang, Philip Maier, Sonja Heinzelmann, Thomas Reinhard, Philipp Eberwein
UVA-crosslinking is used for treatment of corneal diseases such as keratoconus in order to stabilize the corneal tissue by crosslinking of the collagen fibers. It has been shown that the crosslinking treatment leads to a stiffening of the central corneal tissue. However, knowledge of lateral extent of the corneal stiffening as well as a systematic study of the mechanical response of human cornea is still missing. In our study we measured the stiffness (elastic modulus) of the anterior surface of healthy and crosslinked human corneas by instrumented indentation using a spherical indenter...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317239/protective-effect-of-mitochondrial-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq-against-iron-ion-56fe-radiation-induced-brain-injury-in-mice
#14
Lu Gan, Zhenhua Wang, Jing Si, Rong Zhou, Chao Sun, Yang Liu, Yancheng Ye, Yanshan Zhang, Zhiyuan Liu, Hong Zhang
Exposure to iron ion 56Fe radiation (IR) during space missions poses a significant risk to the central nervous system and radiation exposure is intimately linked to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MitoQ is a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant that has been shown to decrease oxidative damage and lower mitochondrial ROS in a number of animal models. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate role of the mitochondrial targeted antioxidant MitoQ against 56Fe particle irradiation-induced oxidative damage and mitochondria dysfunction in the mouse brains...
January 6, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316698/impaired-skin-barrier-due-to-sebaceous-gland-atrophy-in-the-latent-stage-of-radiation-induced-skin-injury-application-of-non-invasive-diagnostic-methods
#15
Hyosun Jang, Hyunwook Myung, Janet Lee, Jae Kyung Myung, Won-Suk Jang, Sun-Joo Lee, Chang-Hwan Bae, Hyewon Kim, Sunhoo Park, Sehwan Shim
Radiation-induced skin injury can take the form of serious cutaneous damage and have specific characteristics. Asymptomatic periods are classified as the latent stage. The skin barrier plays a critical role in the modulation of skin permeability and hydration and protects the body against a harsh external environment. However, an analysis on skin barrier dysfunction against radiation exposure in the latent stage has not been conducted. Thus, we investigated whether the skin barrier is impaired by irradiation in the latent stage and aimed to identify the molecules involved in skin barrier dysfunction...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316366/impact-of-radiation-therapy-on-scleroderma-and-cancer-outcomes-in-scleroderma-patients-with-breast-cancer
#16
Dhaval J Shah, Ram Hirpara, Corrie L Poelman, Adrianne Woods, Laura K Hummers, Fredrick M Wigley, Jean L Wright, Arti Parekh, Virginia D Steen, Robyn T Domsic, Ami A Shah
OBJECTIVES: We examined SSc patients with breast cancer to 1) identify the prevalence of radiation complications and 2) examine SSc outcomes in SSc patients who received radiation therapy (RT) as part of their cancer treatment. METHODS: Patients with SSc and breast cancer were identified from the Johns Hopkins and University of Pittsburgh Scleroderma Center databases. We examined whether erythema, blistering, ulceration, or thickening of the skin developed in the RT port...
January 5, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316134/dosimetric-benefit-of-adaptive-radiotherapy-in-the-neoadjuvant-management-of-canine-and-feline-thymoma-an-exploratory-case-series
#17
C Rohrer Bley, V Meier, U Schneider
While surgery is the treatment of choice for thymomas, complete excision is not possible in a significant proportion of cases. For these patients, radiotherapy can be used as neoadjunctive, post-operative adjunctive or sole therapy. During radiotherapy, rapid biological clearance of tumour cells is often observed, requiring adaptation of the treatment plan. Adaptive radiation therapy (RT) is a dynamic process, whereby the treatment plan is altered throughout the treatment course due to changes in morphologic, functional or positioning changes...
January 8, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315745/aspergillus-niger-mutants-affected-in-conidial-pigmentation-do-not-have-an-increased-susceptibility-to-water-stress-during-growth-at-low-water-activity
#18
Frank J J Segers, Han A B Wösten, Jan Dijksterhuis
Aspergillus niger forms conidia that contain melanin in their cell wall. This black pigment has been shown to protect fungi against UV-radiation and experimental evidence has indicated that it also protects against drought and high salt concentrations. In this study, growth of A. niger was evaluated at low water activity (aw ) and after changes in relative humidity (RH). In addition, deletion strains of A. niger affected in the melanin synthesis pathway were compared. Germination of conidia of the wild-type and deletion strains was observed at 0...
January 8, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315607/the-solar-ultraviolet-environment-at-the-ocean
#19
Curtis D Mobley, Brian L Diffey
Atmospheric and oceanic radiative transfer models were used to compute spectral radiances between 285 and 400 nm onto horizontal and vertical plane surfaces over water. The calculations kept track of the contributions by the sun's direct beam, by diffuse sky radiance, by radiance reflected from the sea surface, and by water-leaving radiance. Clear, hazy, and cloudy sky conditions were simulated for a range of sun zenith angles, wind speeds, and atmospheric ozone concentrations. The radiances were used to estimate erythemal exposures due to the sun and sky, as well as from radiation reflected by the sea surface and backscattered from the water column...
January 8, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315606/photochemistry-and-photophysics-of-shinorine-dimethyl-ester
#20
Dalila E Orallo, M Florencia Fangio, Martin Poblet, Mario O Carignan, Luis Bernal, José I Carreto, Sonia G Bertolotti, M Sandra Churio
The photostability and photophysical properties of the dimethyl ester of the mycosporine-like amino acid shinorine have been experimentally evaluated in aqueous solution and in the presence of direct micelles prepared with a cationic or an anionic detergent, respectively. In comparison with shinorine, the ester molecule increases the photostability, the fluorescence quantum yield and the fluorescence lifetime in water as well as in the micellar solutions. The effects are more pronounced in sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions and suggest that the electrostatic attractions with the micellar interface contribute to limit the movement of the molecules and influence the relative rate of their deactivation channels...
January 6, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
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