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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777583/predicting-phototoxicity-of-alkylated-pahs-pahs-mixtures-and-water-accommodated-fractions-of-neat-and-weathered-petroleum-with-the-phototoxic-target-lipid-model
#1
Solmaz Marzooghi, Bryson E Finch, William A Stubblefield, Dominic M Di Toro
The toxicity of petroleum can increase considerably when exposed to solar radiation. It occurs when certain components in the mixture, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), absorb light in ultraviolet and visible portions of the solar radiation spectrum. A phototoxic target lipid model (PTLM), previously developed to predict phototoxicity of single PAHs, is validated for four species: Americamysis bahia, Rhepoxynius abronius, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas exposed to 12 compounds that are components of petroleum, including alkylated PAHs and dibenzothiophene...
May 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775616/amelioration-of-uvb-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-fat-1-transgenic-mouse-skin
#2
Hye-Won Yum, Seong Hoon Kim, Jing X Kang, Young-Joon Surh
ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in some fish oils, are known to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals and increase host immunoresponsiveness. As UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in apoptotic cell death, this study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic capacity of fat-1 transgenic mice capable of converting ω-6 to ω-3 PUFAs. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and fat-1 mice were maintained on the AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10% safflower oil rich in ω-6 PUFAs for 5 weeks...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775393/proactive-strategy-for-long-term-biological-research-aimed-at-low-dose-radiation-risk-in-korea
#3
Ki Moon Seong, TaeWoo Kwon, Jina Park, BuHyun Youn, Hyuck-Jin Cha, Yonghwan Kim, Changjong Moon, Seung-Sook Lee, Young Woo Jin
PURPOSE: Since the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, Korean radiation experts have agreed that reliable data on health risks of low-dose radiation (LDR) are needed to ease the anxiety of lay people. The intent of this study was to devise a sustainable biological program suited for the research environment in Korea and aimed at the health effects of radiation exposures <100 millisieverts (mSv). To address pressing public concerns over LDR risk, we investigated the current understanding of LDR effects by analyzing the previous reports of international authorities for radiation protection and research publications that appeared after the Chernobyl accident...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775210/the-effect-of-simulated-space-radiation-on-the-n-glycosylation-of-human-immunoglobulin-g1
#4
Mate Szarka, Szabolcs Szilasi, Boglarka Donczo, Daniel Sarkozy, Istvan Rajta, Andras Guttman
On a roundtrip to Mars, astronauts are expectedly exposed to an approximate amount of radiation that exceeds the lifetime limits on Earth. This elevated radiation dose is mainly due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE). Specific patterns of the N-glycosylation of human immunoglobulins have already been associated with various ailments such as autoimmune diseases, malignant transformation, chronic inflammation and ageing. The focus of our work was to investigate the effect of low-energy proton irradiation on the IgG N-glycosylation profile with the goal if disease associated changes could be detected during space travel and not altered by space radiation...
May 18, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772874/spatial-electromagnetic-field-intensity-modelling-of-global-system-for-mobile-communication-base-stations-in-the-istanbul-technical-university-ayazaga-campus-area
#5
Kubra Boz, Hayri Hakan Denli
The rapid development of the global system for mobile communication services and the consequent increased electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure to the human body have generated debate on the potential danger with respect to human health. The many research studies focused on this subject have, however, not provided any certain evidence about harmful consequences due to mobile communication systems. On the other hand, there are still views suggesting such exposure might affect the human body in different ways...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772077/a-feature-alignment-score-for-online-cone-beam-ct-based-image-guided-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#6
Catriona Hargrave, Timothy Deegan, Michael Poulsen, Tomasz Bednarz, Fiona Harden, Kerrie Mengersen
PURPOSE: To develop a method for scoring online cone-beam CT (CBCT)-to-planning CT image feature alignment to inform prostate image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) decision-making. The feasibility of incorporating volume variation metric thresholds, predictive of delivering planned dose into weighted functions, was investigated. METHODS: Radiation therapists and radiation oncologists participated in workshops where they reviewed prostate CBCT-IGRT case examples and completed a paper-based survey of image feature matching practices...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772065/isodose-feature-preserving-voxelization-ifpv-for-radiation-therapy-treatment-planning
#7
Hongcheng Liu, Lei Xing
PURPOSE: Inverse planning involves iterative optimization of a large number of parameters and is known to be a labor-intensive procedure. To reduce the scale of computation and improve characterization of isodose plan, this paper presents an isodose feature-preserving voxelization (IFPV) framework for radiation therapy applications and demonstrate an implementation of inverse planning in the IFPV domain. METHODS: A dose distribution in IFPV scheme is characterized by partitioning the voxels into subgroups according to their geometric and dosimetric values...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772064/impact-of-inter-patient-variability-on-organ-dose-estimates-according-to-mird-schema-uncertainty-and-variance-based-sensitivity-analysis
#8
Alexandra Zvereva, Florian Kamp, Helmut Schlattl, Maria Zankl, Katia Parodi
PURPOSE: Variance-based sensitivity analysis (SA) is described and applied to the radiation dosimetry model proposed by the Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) for the organ-level absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine. The uncertainties in the dose coefficients thus calculated are also evaluated. METHODS: A Monte Carlo approach was used to compute first-order and total-effect SA indices, which rank the input factors according to their influence on the uncertainty in the output organ doses...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772057/a-4d-global-respiratory-motion-model-of-the-thorax-based-on-ct-images-a-proof-of-concept
#9
H Fayad, M Gilles, T Pan, D Visvikis
PURPOSE: Respiratory motion reduces the sensitivity and specificity of medical images especially in the thoracic and abdominal areas. It may affect applications such as cancer diagnostic imaging and/or radiation therapy (RT). Solutions to this issue include modelling of the respiratory motion in order to optimize both diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. Personalised motion modeling required patient specific four dimensional (4D) imaging which in the case of 4D computed tomography (4D CT) acquisition is associated with an increased dose...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770536/combination-of-ifitm1-knockdown-and-radiotherapy-inhibits-the-growth-of-oral-cancer
#10
Jie Yang, Lei Li, Yan Xi, Ruimei Sun, Hu Wang, Yanxin Ren, Liufang Zhao, Xiaoli Wang, Xiaojiang Li
This research aimed to analyze the effect of IFITM1 on the radioresistance of oral neoplasm. IFITM1 emerged using multi-group heat map from GSE9716 analysis of GEO database as the relevant radioresistance gene. IFITM1 was screened by TCGA database before its expression was analyzed. IFITM1 expression was quantified by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in 19 paired oral neoplasm cases. The effects of time and dose of radiation on IFITM1 expression level in CAL27 and TSCC1 cell lines was tested via qRT-PCR. Oral neoplasm cells were transfected with siRNA after radiotherapy to disturb IFITM1 expression...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770473/icotinib-enhances-lung-cancer-cell-radiosensitivity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-inhibiting-mapk-erk-and-akt-activation
#11
Yonghong Fu, Sen Zhang, Dongjie Wang, Jing Wang
Icotinib hydrochloride is a small epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that was developed by Chinese scientists. While clinical trials have revealed its efficacy in the treatment of lung cancer, very little is known about its role in enhancing radiosensitivity. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Icotinib in enhancing lung cancer cell radiosensitivity and have detailed its underlying molecular mechanism. The lung cancer cell line H1650 was pretreated with or without Icotinib for 24 hours before radiation, and clonogenic survival assay was performed...
May 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769516/staying-safe-from-radiation-exposure-in-cath-lab-a-review
#12
K Pasha, H R Khan, A A Sumon
A successful cardiac catheterization Laboratory radiation safety program must manage patient and staff safety by reducing exposure to ionizing radiation to a level that is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The first step in radiation safety is to avoid unnecessary use of ionizing radiation by justification of exposure, one of the basic principles of radiation protection. All individuals involved in fluoroscopic imaging procedures should familiarize themselves to the measures to protect themselves from exposure to unsafe doses of ionizing radiation...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768725/kinetics-thermodynamics-and-modelling-of-amido-black-dye-photodegradation-in-water-using-co-tio-2-nanoparticles
#13
Imran Ali, Omar M L Alharbi, Zeid A Alothman, Ahmad Yacine Badjah
Titanium oxide nanoparticles were doped with copper and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM and SEM. The surface morphology was spherical with 15-26 nm as particle size. The doped titanium oxide (Co/TiO2 ) nanomaterial was used for photodegradation of amido black dye in water. The maximum photodegradation of amido black obtained was 90%. The values of free energy, and enthalpy were negative, indicating spontaneous photodegradation of amido black dye. The photodegradation of amido black dye obeyed first order kinetic model...
May 16, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768722/genoprotective-effect-of-phyllanthus-orbicularis-extract-against-uva-uvb-and-solar-radiation
#14
Marioly Vernhes Tamayo, André Passaglia Schuch, Teiti Yagura, Luis Baly Gil, Carlos Frederico Martins Menck, Angel Sánchez-Lamar
One approach to protect the human skin against harmful effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is to use natural products as photoprotectors. In this work, the extract from specie Phyllanthus orbicularis K was evaluated as a protective agent against the photodamage by UVB, UVA artificial lamps and environmental sunlight exposure. The plasmid DNA solutions were exposed to radiations using the DNA-dosimeter system in presence of plant extract. The DNA repair enzymes, E. coli Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and T4 bacteriophage endonuclease V (T4-endo V), were employed to discriminate oxidized DNA damage and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) respectively...
May 16, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768539/evaluation-of-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-effects-of-sildenafil-on-acute-radiation-proctitis-in-rats
#15
Erkan Yavuz, Gulcin Ercan, Onur Olgac Karagulle, Busra Yaprak Bayrak, Aytac Biricik, Candas Ercetin, Berk Gokcek, Hakan Yigitbas, Ramazan Kusaslan, Atilla Celik, Osman Bilgin Gulcicek
PURPOSE: To investigate the prophylactic and therapeutical effects of sildenafil in a model of acute radiation proctitis (ARP). METHODS: All experimental procedures of this study was examined by histopathological, immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscopic analysis. RESULTS: Our histopathological evaluations indicated significant increases in lesion severity, cryptic apsis, cryptitis, cryptic distortion, reactive atypia and infiltration depth of the control (proctitis) group...
April 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763967/machine-learning-algorithms-for-outcome-prediction-in-chemo-radiotherapy-an-empirical-comparison-of-classifiers
#16
Timo M Deist, Frank J W M Dankers, Gilmer Valdes, Robin Wijsman, I-Chow Hsu, Cary Oberije, Tim Lustberg, Johan van Soest, Frank Hoebers, Arthur Jochems, Issam El Naqa, Leonard Wee, Olivier Morin, David R Raleigh, Wouter Bots, Johannes H Kaanders, José Belderbos, Margriet Kwint, Timothy Solberg, René Monshouwer, Johan Bussink, Andre Dekker, Philippe Lambin
PURPOSE: Machine learning classification algorithms (classifiers) for prediction of treatment response are becoming more popular in radiotherapy literature. General machine learning literature provides evidence in favor of some classifier families (random forest, support vector machine, gradient boosting) in terms of classification performance. The purpose of this study is to compare such classifiers specifically for (chemo)radiotherapy datasets and to estimate their average discriminative performance for radiation treatment outcome prediction...
May 15, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763564/inhibitors-of-melanogenesis-an-updated-review
#17
Thanigaimalai Pillaiyar, Vigneshwaran Namasivayam, Manoj Manickam, Sang Hun Jung
Melanins are pigment molecules that determine the skin, eye, and hair color of the human subject to its amount, quality and distribution. Melanocytes synthesize melanin and provide epidermal protection from various stimuli, such as harmful ultraviolet radiation, through the complex process called melanogenesis. However, a serious dermatological problems occur when the excessive production of melanin in different parts of the human body. These include freckles, melasma, senile lentigo, pigmented acne scars and cancer...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761824/impact-of-cardio-synchronous-brain-pulsations-on-monte-carlo-calculated-doses-for-synchrotron-micro-and-mini-beam-radiation-therapy
#18
Francisco Manchado de Sola, Manuel Vilches, Yolanda Prezado, Antonio M Lallena
PURPOSE: To assess the effects of brain movements induced by heartbeat on dose distributions in synchrotron micro- and mini-beam radiaton therapy and to develop a model to help guide decisions and planning for future clinical trials. METHODS: The Monte Carlo code PENELOPE was used to simulate the irradiation of a human head phantom with a variety of micro- and mini-beam arrays, with beams narrower than 100 μm and above 500 μm, respectively, and with radiation fields of 1cm × 2cm and 2cm × 2cm...
May 15, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761266/evaluation-of-thyroid-gland-as-an-organ-at-risk-after-breast-cancer-radiotherapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
L Darvish, M Ghorbani, S Hosseini Teshnizi, N Roozbeh, F Seif, M Reza Bayatiani, C Knaup, A Amraee
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy can often lead to thyroid dysfunction. Some studies demonstrated that treatment of breast cancer by RT can expose thyroid gland to high doses of radiation. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate consideration of thyroid gland as an organ at risk. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis to select initial studies, a comprehensive search by two independent reviewers was performed. Electronical databases following: Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, Elsevier, Embase, ProQuest and Persian databases such as Iranmedex, Magiran, and SID were searched...
May 14, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760046/dual-hdac-and-pi3k-inhibition-abrogates-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-foxm1-mediated-dna-damage-response-to-radiosensitize-pediatric-high-grade-gliomas
#20
Sharmistha Pal, David Kozono, Xiaodong Yang, Wojciech Fendler, Whitney Fitts, Jing Ni, John A Alberta, Jean Zhao, Kevin X Liu, Jie Bian, Nathalene Truffaux, William A Weiss, Adam C Resnick, Pratiti Bandopadhayay, Keith L Ligon, Steven G Dubois, Sabine Mueller, Dipanjan Chowdhury, Daphne A Haas-Kogan
Aberrant chromatin remodeling and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway have been identified as important mediators of pediatric high-grade glioma (pHGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) pathogenesis. As inhibition of these pathways are promising therapeutic avenues and radiation is the only modality to prolong survival of DIPG patients, we sought to explore radiosensitizing functions of such inhibition and explore mechanisms of action of such agents. Here we demonstrate that combined treatment with radiotherapy and CUDC-907, a novel first-in-class dual inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDAC) and PI3K, evokes a potent cytotoxic response in pHGG and DIPG models...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Research
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