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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925218/insights-into-light-driven-dna-repair-by-photolyases-challenges-and-opportunities-for-electronic-structure-theory
#1
Shirin Faraji, Andreas Dreuw
UV radiation causes two of the most abundant mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts. (6-4) photolyases are light-activated enzymes that selectively bind to DNA and trigger repair of mutagenic 6-4 photoproducts via photoinduced electron transfer from flavin adenine dinucleotide anion (FADH(-) ) to the lesion triggering repair. This review provides an overview of the sequential steps of the repair process, i.e. light absorption and resonance energy transfer, photo-induced electron transfer, and electron-induced splitting mechanisms, with an emphasis on the role of theory and computation...
December 7, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923704/il-17-receptor-signaling-in-oral-epithelial-cells-is-critical-for-protection-against-oropharyngeal-candidiasis
#2
Heather R Conti, Vincent M Bruno, Erin E Childs, Sean Daugherty, Joseph P Hunter, Bemnet G Mengesha, Danielle L Saevig, Matthew R Hendricks, Bianca M Coleman, Lucas Brane, Norma Solis, J Agustin Cruz, Akash H Verma, Abhishek V Garg, Amy G Hise, Jonathan P Richardson, Julian R Naglik, Scott G Filler, Jay K Kolls, Satrajit Sinha, Sarah L Gaffen
Signaling through the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) is required to prevent oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in mice and humans. However, the IL-17-responsive cell type(s) that mediate protection are unknown. Using radiation chimeras, we were able to rule out a requirement for IL-17RA in the hematopoietic compartment. We saw remarkable concordance of IL-17-controlled gene expression in C. albicans-infected human oral epithelial cells (OECs) and in tongue tissue from mice with OPC. To interrogate the role of the IL-17R in OECs, we generated mice with conditional deletion of IL-17RA in superficial oral and esophageal epithelial cells (Il17ra(ΔK13))...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922333/environmentally-relevant-chronic-low-dose-tritium-and-gamma-exposures-do-not-increase-somatic-intrachromosomal-recombination-in-pkz1-mouse-spleen
#3
Laura Bannister, Mandy Serran, Lindsey Bertrand, Dmitry Klokov, Heather Wyatt, Melinda Blimkie, Yann Gueguen, Nicholas Priest, Jean-René Jourdain, Pamela Sykes
The toxicity of tritium is a public health concern given its presence and mobility in the environment. For risk predictions using radiological protection models, it is essential to allocate an appropriate radiation weighting factor (WR). This in turn should be consistent with the observed relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium beta radiation. Although the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently recommends a WR of 1 for the calculation of committed effective dose for X rays, gamma rays and electrons of all energies, including tritium energies, there are concerns that tritium health risks are underestimated and that current regulatory tritium drinking water standards need revision...
December 6, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922162/nonmelanoma-skin-cancer-in-mountain-guides-high-prevalence-and-lack-of-awareness-warrant-development-of-evidence-based-prevention-tools
#4
Alexander Zink, Elisabeth Koch, Florian Seifert, Markus Rotter, Christoph D Spinner, Tilo Biedermann
AIMS OF THE STUDY: Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer in Switzerland and Europe. The main causative factor is exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which puts outdoor workers in general at a higher risk of developing NMSC than indoor workers. However, few studies have clinically examined the risk of developing NMSC to outdoor workers, especially mountain guides. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of NMSC and corresponding precancerous lesions, and the associated risk behaviour of mountain and ski guides in order to develop future prevention programmes...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922153/-radioiodine-therapy-for-benign-thyroid-diseases-version-5-german-guideline
#5
Markus Dietlein, Frank Grünwald, Matthias Schmidt, Peter Schneider, Frederik A Verburg, Markus Luster
The version 5 of the guideline for radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disorders is an update of the version 4, which was published by the German Society of Nuclear Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin, DGN) in co-ordination with the German Society of Endocrinology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Endokrinologie, DGE, Sektion Schilddrüse) and the German Society of General- and Visceral-Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Allgemein- und Viszeralchirurgie, DGAV) in 2007. This guideline was harmonized with the recommendations of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)...
December 6, 2016: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919623/assessment-of-the-neutron-dose-field-around-a-biomedical-cyclotron-fluka-simulation-and-experimental-measurements
#6
Angelo Infantino, Gianfranco Cicoria, Giulia Lucconi, Davide Pancaldi, Sara Vichi, Federico Zagni, Domiziano Mostacci, Mario Marengo
In the planning of a new cyclotron facility, an accurate knowledge of the radiation field around the accelerator is fundamental for the design of shielding, the protection of workers, the general public and the environment. Monte Carlo simulations can be very useful in this process, and their use is constantly increasing. However, few data have been published so far as regards the proper validation of Monte Carlo simulation against experimental measurements, particularly in the energy range of biomedical cyclotrons...
December 2, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919335/cataractogenesis-following-high-let-radiation-exposure
#7
Nobuyuki Hamada, Tatsuhiko Sato
Biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation differs with its linear energy transfer (LET) such that high-LET radiation is more effective for various biological endpoints than low-LET radiation. Human exposure to high-LET radiation occurs in cancer patients, nuclear workers, aviators, astronauts and other space travellers. From the radiation protection viewpoint, the ocular lens is among the most radiosensitive tissues in the body, and cataract (a clouding of the normally transparent lens) is classified as tissue reactions (formerly called nonstochastic or deterministic effects) with a threshold below which no effect would occur...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919334/ionizing-radiation-induced-cataracts-recent-biological-and-mechanistic-developments-and-perspectives-for-future-research
#8
Elizabeth A Ainsbury, Stephen Barnard, Scott Bright, Claudia Dalke, Miguel Jarrin, Sarah Kunze, Rick Tanner, Joseph R Dynlacht, Roy A Quinlan, Jochen Graw, Munira Kadhim, Nobuyuki Hamada
The lens of the eye has long been considered as a radiosensitive tissue, but recent research has suggested that the radiosensitivity is even greater than previously thought. The 2012 recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to substantially reduce the annual occupational equivalent dose limit for the ocular lens has now been adopted in the European Union and is under consideration around the rest of the world. However, ICRP clearly states that the recommendations are chiefly based on epidemiological evidence because there are a very small number of studies that provide explicit biological, mechanistic evidence at doses <2Gy...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919333/radiation-and-cataract-risk-impact-of-recent-epidemiologic-studies-on-icrp-judgments
#9
Roy E Shore
In its 2012 report on tissue reactions, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) made several key assumptions regarding radiation risk to the lens of the eye, including that radiation-related minor opacities will progress to become vision-impairing cataracts, that protracted irradiation confers as much risk per unit dose as an acute exposure, and that there is a dose threshold for cataract effects at about 0.5Gy. The few studies available provide only limited support for the ICRP assumption that radiation-related minor opacities are predictive of vision-impairing cataracts; further longitudinal data are clearly needed...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918775/association-between-myopia-ultraviolet-b-radiation-exposure-serum-vitamin-d-concentrations-and-genetic-polymorphisms-in-vitamin-d-metabolic-pathways-in-a-multicountry-european-study
#10
Katie M Williams, Graham C G Bentham, Ian S Young, Ann McGinty, Gareth J McKay, Ruth Hogg, Christopher J Hammond, Usha Chakravarthy, Mati Rahu, Johan Seland, Gisele Soubrane, Laura Tomazzoli, Fotis Topouzis, Astrid E Fletcher
Importance: Myopia is becoming increasingly common globally and is associated with potentially sight-threatening complications. Spending time outdoors is protective, but the mechanism underlying this association is poorly understood. Objective: To examine the association of myopia with ultraviolet B radiation (UVB; directly associated with time outdoors and sunlight exposure), serum vitamin D concentrations, and vitamin D pathway genetic variants, adjusting for years in education...
December 1, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917480/evolutionary-processes-and-its-environmental-correlates-in-the-cranial-morphology-of-western-chipmunks-tamias
#11
Ana Paula A Assis, Daniela M Rossoni, James L Patton, Gabriel Marroig
The importance of the environment in shaping phenotypic evolution lies at the core of evolutionary biology. Chipmunks of the genus Tamias (subgenus Neotamias) are part of a very recent radiation, occupying a wide range of environments with marked niche partitioning among species. One open question is if and how those differences in environments affected phenotypic evolution in this lineage. Herein we examine the relative importance of genetic drift versus natural selection in the origin of cranial diversity exhibited by clade members...
December 5, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916554/activating-akt-to-inhibit-jnk-by-troxerutin-antagonizes-radiation-induced-pten-activation
#12
Ping Xu, Wen-Bo Zhang, Xin-Hua Cai, Pei-Yong Qiu, Ming-Hua Hao, Dan-Dan Lu
Radiotherapy is one of the most effective non-surgical treatments for many tumors. However, radiation damage remains a major negative consequence of radiotherapy. At present, radio-protective effect of troxerutin has been confimed, but the mechanism of this radioprotection has not been elucidated. Here, this study showed that troxerutin protected thymus tissue of irradiated mice, and its radio-protective effect on thymocytes was significant in the range of 0.625-10μg/ml. Troxerutin significantly inhibited apoptosis of irradiated thymocytes at the concentration of 10μg/ml...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916111/justification-of-ct-for-individual-health-assessment-of-asymptomatic-persons-a%C3%A2-world-health-organization-consultation
#13
Jim Malone, Maria Del Rosario Perez, Eva Godske Friberg, Mathias Prokop, Seung Eun Jung, Jurgen Griebel, Steve Ebdon-Jackson
An international expert consultation was convened by the World Health Organization (WHO). The purpose of the meeting was to review the use of CT in examining asymptomatic people. This is often referred to as individual health assessment (IHA). IHA was identified as a global phenomenon unenthusiastically tolerated, and not actively promoted, structured, or regulated in most countries. This paper identifies the state of the art for IHA and some considerations in relation to its justification, in different regions of the world...
December 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914775/assessment-of-background-gamma-radiation-levels-using-airborne-gamma-ray-spectrometer-data-over-uranium-deposits-cuddapah-basin-india-a-comparative-study-of-dose-rates-estimated-by-agrs-and-pgrs
#14
D Srinivas, V Ramesh Babu, I Patra, Shailesh Tripathi, M S Ramayya, A K Chaturvedi
The Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) has conducted high-resolution airborne gamma ray spectrometer (AGRS), magnetometer and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) surveys for uranium exploration, along the northern margins of Cuddapah Basin. The survey area includes well known uranium deposits such as Lambapur-Peddagattu, Chitrial and Koppunuru. The AGRS data collected for uranium exploration is utilised for estimating the average absorbed rates in air due to radio-elemental (potassium in %, uranium and thorium in ppm) distribution over these known deposit areas...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914102/examining-temporal-effects-on-cancer-risk-in-the-international-nuclear-workers-study-inworks
#15
Robert D Daniels, Stephen J Bertke, David B Richardson, Elisabeth Cardis, Michael Gillies, Jacqueline A O'Hagan, Richard Haylock, Dominique Laurier, Klervi Leuraud, Monika Moissonnier, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Ausrele Kesminiene, Mary K Schubauer-Berigan
The paper continues the series of publications from the International Nuclear Workers Study cohort (INWORKS) that comprises 308,297 workers from France, the United Kingdom and the United States, providing 8.2 million person-years of observation from a combined follow-up period (at earliest 1944 to at latest 2005). These workers' external radiation exposures were primarily to photons, resulting in an estimated average career absorbed dose to the colon of 17.4 milligray. The association between cumulative ionizing radiation dose and cancer mortality was evaluated in general relative risk models that describe modification of the excess relative risk (ERR) per gray (Gy) by time since exposure and age at exposure...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913582/bremsstrahlung-dose-yield-for-high-intensity-short-pulse-laser-solid-experiments
#16
Taiee Liang, Johannes M Bauer, James C Liu, Sayed H Rokni
A bremsstrahlung source term has been developed by the Radiation Protection (RP) group at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for high-intensity short-pulse laser-solid experiments between 10(17) and 10(22) W cm(-2) This source term couples the particle-in-cell plasma code EPOCH and the radiation transport code FLUKA to estimate the bremsstrahlung dose yield from laser-solid interactions. EPOCH characterizes the energy distribution, angular distribution, and laser-to-electron conversion efficiency of the hot electrons from laser-solid interactions, and FLUKA utilizes this hot electron source term to calculate a bremsstrahlung dose yield (mSv per J of laser energy on target)...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911910/molecular-markers-of-radiation-induced-attenuation-in-intrahepatic-plasmodium-falciparum-parasites
#17
Miranda S Oakley, Nitin Verma, Hong Zheng, Vivek Anantharaman, Kazuyo Takeda, Yamei Gao, Timothy G Myers, Phuong Thao Pham, Babita Mahajan, Nirbhay Kumar, Davison Sangweme, Abhai K Tripathi, Godfree Mlambo, L Aravind, Sanjai Kumar
Experimental immunization with radiation attenuated sporozoites (RAS) and genetically attenuated sporozoites has proved to be a promising approach for malaria vaccine development. However, parasite biomarkers of growth attenuation and enhanced immune protection in response to radiation remain poorly understood. Here, we report on the effect of an attenuating dose of γ-irradiation (15 krad) on the Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) ultrastructure by electron microscopy, growth rate of liver stage P. falciparum in liver cell cultures, and genome-wide transcriptional profile of liver stage parasites by microarray...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910437/design-calculations-for-a-xenon-plasma-x-ray-shield-to-protect-the-nif-optical-thomson-scattering-diagnostic
#18
G F Swadling, J S Ross, P Datte, J Moody, L Divol, O Jones, O Landen
An Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic is currently being developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This diagnostic is designed to make measurements of the hohlraum plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the density, during inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. NIF ICF experiments present a very challenging environment for optical measurements; by their very nature, hohlraums produce intense soft x-ray emission, which can cause "blanking" (radiation induced opacity) of the radiation facing optical components...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909158/off-site-emergency-planning-at-uk-nuclear-licensed-sites
#19
Paul Leonard, Gareth Thomas
Nuclear emergency planning arrangements in the UK are continually kept under review. This work proposes to outline how experience from nuclear exercises and undertaking emergency response duties can be based on radiological knowledge of specific sites and utilised in the future. In 2014, the UK regulator, the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) revised their principles for the determination of off-site emergency planning areas around nuclear sites where predetermined countermeasures and other protection measures are applied to protect those people who may be affected by a radiation emergency...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909154/towards-a-novel-modular-architecture-for-cern-radiation-monitoring
#20
Hamza Boukabache, Michel Pangallo, Gael Ducos, Nicola Cardines, Antonio Bellotta, Ciarán Toner, Daniel Perrin, Doris Forkel-Wirth
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has the legal obligation to protect the public and the people working on its premises from any unjustified exposure to ionising radiation. In this context, radiation monitoring is one of the main concerns of the Radiation Protection Group. After 30 y of reliable service, the ARea CONtroller (ARCON) system is approaching the end of its lifecycle, which raises the need for new, more efficient radiation monitors with a high level of modularity to ensure better maintainability...
November 30, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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