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Radiation protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636202/squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-temporal-bone-in-30-patients-difference-in-presentation-and-treatment-of-post-irradiation-and-de-novo-disease
#1
Ho Yee Sun, Raymond K Tsang
Squamous cell carcinoma temporal bone (SCCTB) is a rare malignancy with incidence of around 1 to 1.2 case per million populations per year. Risk factors included chronic otitis media and chronic irritation of the skin and mucosa of the external and middle ear. A rare but important aetoloigy is radiation to the region for treatment of head and neck malignancies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 21, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636099/spectators-or-participants-how-can-setac-become-more-engaged-in-international-climate-change-research-programs
#2
Ralph G Stahl, Jennifer L Stauber, William H Clements
Environmental toxicologists and chemists have been crucial to evaluating the chemical fate and toxicological effects of environmental contaminants, including chlorinated pesticides, before and after Rachel Carson's publication of Silent Spring in 1962. Like chlorinated pesticides previously, global climate change is widely considered to be one of the most important environmental challenges of our time. Over the past 30 yr, climate scientists and modelers have shown that greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 cause radiative forcing (climate forcing) and lead to increased global temperatures...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635637/a-short-term-biological-indicator-for-long-term-kidney-damage-after-radionuclide-therapy-in-mice
#3
Giovanni Pellegrini, Klaudia Siwowska, Stephanie Haller, Daniel J Antoine, Roger Schibli, Anja Kipar, Cristina Müller
Folate receptor (FR)-targeted radionuclide therapy using folate radioconjugates is of interest due to the expression of the FR in a variety of tumor types. The high renal accumulation of radiofolates presents, however, a risk of radionephropathy. A potential option to address this challenge would be to use radioprotectants, such as amifostine. Methods for early detection of kidney damage that-in this case-cannot be predicted based on dose estimations, would facilitate the development of novel therapies. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess potentially changing levels of plasma and urine biomarkers and to determine DNA damage at an early stage after radiofolate application...
June 21, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635554/summary-of-the-bill-morgan-memorial-symposium-part-1-biology-epidemiology-and-radiation-protection
#4
Kathryn D Held, Nobuyuki Hamada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632552/comparative-study-of-c-arms-for-intraoperative-3-dimensional-imaging-and-navigation-in-minimally-invasive-spine-surgery-part-ii-radiation-exposure
#5
Jan-Helge Klingler, Ronen Sircar, Christian Scheiwe, Evangelos Kogias, Marie T Krüger, Christoph Scholz, Ulrich Hubbe
STUDY DESIGN: A radiation exposure study in vitro. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the radiation exposure of 2 different 3-dimensional (3D) C-arm devices on an anthropomorphic phantom. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Minimally invasive pedicle screw placement requires intraoperative imaging techniques for visualization of the unexposed spine. Mobile 3D C-arms compose a 3D image data set out of multiple successive fluoroscopic images. METHODS: We compared the 3D C-arm devices Siremobil Iso-C 3D (Siemens Sector Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) and Vision FD Vario 3D (Ziehm Imaging, Nuremberg, Germany) regarding their radiation exposure...
July 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632529/respiratory-system-mechanics-during-low-versus-high-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-in-open-abdominal-surgery-a-substudy-of-provhilo-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Davide D'Antini, Robert Huhle, Jacob Herrmann, Demet S Sulemanji, Jun Oto, Pasquale Raimondo, Lucia Mirabella, Sabrine N T Hemmes, Marcus J Schultz, Paolo Pelosi, David W Kaczka, Marcos Francisco Vidal Melo, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Gilda Cinnella
BACKGROUND: In the 2014 PROtective Ventilation using HIgh versus LOw positive end-expiratory pressure (PROVHILO) trial, intraoperative low tidal volume ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP = 12 cm H2O) and lung recruitment maneuvers did not decrease postoperative pulmonary complications when compared to low PEEP (0-2 cm H2O) approach without recruitment breaths. However, effects of intraoperative PEEP on lung compliance remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that higher PEEP leads to a dominance of intratidal overdistension, whereas lower PEEP results in intratidal recruitment/derecruitment (R/D)...
June 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631848/impact-of-solar-ultraviolet-radiation-on-atopic-dermatitis-symptoms-in-young-children-a-longitudinal-study
#7
Young-Min Kim, Jihyun Kim, Ji Young Lee, Minji Kim, Hyunmi Kim, Kwon Jung, Soomi Eo, Mijin Ahn, Kangmo Ahn
BACKGROUND: There are controversial data about the effects of sun exposure on atopic dermatitis (AD). We evaluated the association between solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and AD symptoms in children. METHODS: Eighty two children under 6 years (48 boys and 34 girls) with AD living in Seoul, Korea were enrolled and followed for 12 months between September 2013 and August 2014. Daily symptoms were recorded to describe the degree of itching, sleep disturbance, erythema, dryness, oozing and edema...
June 20, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631426/hsp90%C3%AE-regulates-atm-and-nbn-functions-in-sensing-and-repair-of-dna-double-strand-breaks
#8
Rosa Pennisi, Antonio Antoccia, Stefano Leone, Paolo Ascenzi, Alessandra di Masi
The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90α) regulates cells proteostasis and mitigates the harmful effects of endogenous and exogenous stressors on the proteome. Indeed, the inhibition of Hsp90α ATPase activity affects the cellular response to ionizing radiation (IR). Although the interplay between Hsp90α and several DNA damage response (DDR) proteins has been reported, its role in the DDR is still unclear. Here, we show that ATM and NBN, but not 53BP1, RAD50, and MRE11, are Hsp90α clients as the Hsp90α inhibitor 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) induces ATM and NBN polyubiquitination and proteosomal degradation in normal fibroblasts and lymphoblastoid cells lines...
June 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631363/experimental-evolution-of-bacillus-subtilis
#9
REVIEW
Daniel R Zeigler, Wayne L Nicholson
The endospore-forming bacteria have persisted on earth perhaps 3Ga, leveraging the flexibility of their distinctive lifestyle to adapt to a remarkably wide range of environments. This process of adaptation can be investigated through the simple but powerful technique of laboratory evolution. Evolved strains can be analyzed by whole genome sequencing and an array of omics technologies. The intensively studied, genetically tractable endospore-former, Bacillus subtilis, is an ideal subject for laboratory evolution experiments...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630925/buckyball-sandwiches
#10
Rasim Mirzayev, Kimmo Mustonen, Mohammad R A Monazam, Andreas Mittelberger, Timothy J Pennycook, Clemens Mangler, Toma Susi, Jani Kotakoski, Jannik C Meyer
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have considerably expanded the field of materials science in the past decade. Even more recently, various 2D materials have been assembled into vertical van der Waals heterostacks, and it has been proposed to combine them with other low-dimensional structures to create new materials with hybridized properties. We demonstrate the first direct images of a suspended 0D/2D heterostructure that incorporates C60 molecules between two graphene layers in a buckyball sandwich structure...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630886/review-of-the-current-status-of-radiation-protection-in-diagnostic-radiology-in-africa
#11
REVIEW
Wilbroad Muhogora, Madan M Rehani
The aim of this paper is to review the available published studies from African countries on patient doses and medical radiation protection and identify strengths, weaknesses, and challenges. Papers on radiation doses to patients published until 2016 pertaining to studies in African countries were reviewed. Radiography, interventional radiology, computed tomography (CT), and mammography modalities were covered. In radiography, the entrance surface air kerma values were below the established diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency, European Commission, and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630770/knowledge-on-irradiation-medical-imaging-prescriptions-and-clinical-imaging-referral-guidelines-among-physicians-in-a-sub-saharan-african-country-cameroon
#12
Boniface Moifo, Ulrich Tene, Jean Roger Moulion Tapouh, Odette Samba Ngano, Justine Tchemtchoua Youta, Augustin Simo, Joseph Gonsu Fotsin
BACKGROUND: Clinical imaging guidelines (CIGs) are suitable tools to enhance justification of imaging procedures. OBJECTIVE: To assess physicians' knowledge on irradiation, their self-perception of imaging prescriptions, and the use of CIGs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire of 21 items was self-administered between July and August 2016 to 155 referring physicians working in seven university-affiliated hospitals in Yaoundé and Douala (Cameroon)...
2017: Radiology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627007/optical-molecular-imaging-guided-radiation-therapy-part-1-integrated-x-ray-and-bioluminescence-tomography
#13
Junwei Shi, Thirupandiyur S Udayakumar, Zhiqun Wang, Nesrin Dogan, Alan Pollack, Yidong Yang
PURPOSE: X-ray CT faces challenges in differentiating tumors from surrounding healthy tissues. A bioluminescence tomography (BLT) system which can directly reconstruct the internal luminescent tumors, was developed and integrated with CT system to accurately guide radiation dose delivery. METHODS: The BLT system, employing a lens-coupled CCD camera, was physically registered with an onboard cone beam CT system in an image guided small animal arc radiation treatment system (iSMAART)...
June 19, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626920/experimental-verification-of-egsnrc-monte-carlo-calculated-depth-doses-within-a-realistic-parallel-magnetic-field-in-a-polystyrene-phantom
#14
Andrei Ghila, Stephen Steciw, B Gino Fallone, Satyapal Rathee
PURPOSE: Integrating a linac with a magnetic resonance imager (MRI) will revolutionize the accuracy of external beam radiation treatments. Irradiating in the presence of a strong magnetic field, however, will modify the dose distribution. These dose modifications have been investigated previously, mainly using Monte Carlo simulations. The purpose of this work is to experimentally verify the use of the EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) package for calculating percent depth doses (PDDs) in a homogeneous phantom, in the presence of a realistic parallel magnetic field...
June 19, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626876/optical-molecular-imaging-guided-radiation-therapy-part-2-integrated-x-ray-and-fluorescence-molecular-tomography
#15
Junwei Shi, Thirupandiyur S Udayakumar, Zhiqun Wang, Nesrin Dogan, Alan Pollack, Yidong Yang
PURPOSE: Differentiating tumor from its surrounding soft tissues is challenging for x-ray computed tomography (CT). Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can directly localize the internal tumors targeted with specific fluorescent probes. A FMT system was developed and integrated onto a CT guided irradiator to improve tumor localization for image guided radiation. METHODS: The FMT system was aligned orthogonal to the cone beam CT onboard our previously developed image guided small animal arc radiation treatment system (iSMAART)...
June 19, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624737/optical-properties-of-the-human-lens-constituents
#16
Ekaterina A Zelentsova, Lyudmila V Yanshole, Anjella Zh Fursova, Yuri P Tsentalovich
The absorption and fluorescence properties of the metabolomic (MET), water-soluble and urea-soluble protein fractions from the middle-age, aged, and cataractous human lenses have been measured. At 280nm and 300nm the major lens absorbers are crystallins, which absorb more than 90% of light in the UV-B region (280-315nm). In middle-aged lenses, the absorption at 360nm is mostly provided by UV filters contained in the MET fraction. With aging, and especially with the cataract development, the absorption of MET fraction in UV-A region (315-400nm) decreases due to the drop of the UV filter concentration, while the absorption of protein fractions increases due to the accumulation of post-translational modifications...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624329/the-bebig-valencia-type-skin-applicators-dosimetric-study-and-implementation-of-a-dosimetric-hybrid-technique
#17
Georgios Anagnostopoulos, Michael Andrássy, Dimos Baltas
PURPOSE: To determine the relative dose rate distribution in water for the Bebig 20 mm and 30 mm skin applicators and report results in a form suitable for potential clinical use. Results for both skin applicators are also provided in the form of a hybrid Task Group 43 (TG-43) dosimetry technique. Furthermore, the radiation leakage around both skin applicators from the radiation protection point of view and the impact of the geometrical source position uncertainties are studied and reported...
June 14, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623514/the-potential-roles-of-bacteria-to-improve-radiation-treatment-outcome
#18
REVIEW
E Kouhsari, A Ghadimi-Daresajini, H Abdollahi, N Amirmozafari, S R Mahdavi, S Abbasian, S H Mousavi, H F Yaseri, M Moghaderi
Many combined therapies have been proposed to enhance radiotherapy outcome, but they have several limitations. As a new feasible strategy, combination of radiotherapy with bacteria showed a significant positive impact on the tumor treatment and metastasis inhibition. Although probiotic bacteria and radiotherapy alone can be effective in the treatment of different cancers, the combination of these two therapies seems to enhance therapeutic outcome and is cost-effective. Bacterial cells can act as therapeutic/gene/drug delivery vehicles as well as theranostic agents...
June 16, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622024/comparison-of-radiation-exposure-from-fixed-table-fluoroscopy-to-a-portable-c-arm-during-ureteroscopy
#19
Fernando Cabrera, Richard Shin, Kyle Waisanen, Giao Nguyen, Charles D Scales, Michael N Ferrandino, Glenn M Preminger, Terry T Yoshizumi, Michael Eric Lipkin
INTRODUCTION: Fluoroscopy is widely used during endourologic procedures and is associated with treatment required radiation exposure. Our objective was to estimate patient radiation exposure during fluoroscopy with either a fixed table or portable C-arm using a validated anthropomorphic adult male model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A validated male anthropomorphic model was placed supine on both a cystoscopy operating room table and a fixed fluoroscopy table unit. Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor dosimeters were placed at 20 organ-specific locations in the model to measure organ specific dosages...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621734/the-roles-of-spinochromes-in-four-shallow-water-tropical-sea-urchins-and-their-potential-as-bioactive-pharmacological-agents
#20
Lola Brasseur, Elise Hennebert, Laurence Fievez, Guillaume Caulier, Fabrice Bureau, Lionel Tafforeau, Patrick Flammang, Pascal Gerbaux, Igor Eeckhaut
Spinochromes are principally known to be involved in sea urchin pigmentation as well as for their potentially interesting pharmacological properties. To assess their biological role in sea urchin physiology, experiments are undertaken on crude extracts from four species and on four isolated spinochromes in order to test their antibacterial, antioxidant, inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. First, the antibacterial assays show that the use of crude extracts as representatives of antibacterial effects of spinochromes are inaccurate...
June 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
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