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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053638/neuroprotective-surgical-strategies-in-parkinson-s-disease-role-of-preclinical-data
#1
REVIEW
Napoleon Torres, Jenny Molet, Cecile Moro, John Mitrofanis, Alim Louis Benabid
Although there have been many pharmacological agents considered to be neuroprotective therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, neurosurgical approaches aimed to neuroprotect or restore the degenerative nigrostriatal system have rarely been the focus of in depth reviews. Here, we explore the neuroprotective strategies involving invasive surgical approaches (NSI) using neurotoxic models 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which have led to clinical trials. We focus on several NSI approaches, namely deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, glial neurotrophic derived factor (GDNF) administration and cell grafting methods...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052614/narp-mediates-antidepressant-like-effects-of-electroconvulsive-seizures
#2
Andrew D Chang, Punit V Vaidya, Edward P Retzbach, Sunho J Chung, Urian Kim, Kathryn Baselice, Kristen Maynard, Alec Stepanian, Melissa Staley, Lan Xiao, Ashley Blouin, Sungho Han, JongAh Lee, Paul F Worley, Kellie L Tamashiro, Barbara L Hempstead, Keri Martinowich, Mary Ann Wilson, Jay M Baraban, Irving M Reti
Growing recognition of persistent cognitive defects associated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a highly effective and commonly used antidepressant treatment, has spurred interest in identifying its mechanism of action to guide development of safer treatment options. However, as repeated seizure activity elicits a bewildering array of electrophysiological and biochemical effects, this goal has remained elusive. We have examined whether deletion of Narp, an immediate early gene induced by electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), blocks its antidepressant efficacy...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052529/evaluating-a-multi-component-community-based-program-to-improve-adherence-and-retention-in-care-among-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-zimbabwe-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Webster Mavhu, Nicola Willis, Juliet Mufuka, Collin Mangenah, Kudzanayi Mvududu, Sarah Bernays, Walter Mangezi, Tsitsi Apollo, Ricardo Araya, Helen A Weiss, Frances M Cowan
BACKGROUND: World Health Organization (WHO) adolescent HIV-testing and treatment guidelines recommend community-based interventions to support antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and retention in care, while acknowledging that the evidence to support this recommendation is weak. This cluster randomized controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a psychosocial, community-based intervention on HIV-related and psychosocial outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: We are conducting the trial in two districts...
October 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052453/review-of-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-common-primary-psychiatric-causes-of-cutaneous-disease
#4
J A Krooks, A G Weatherall, P J Holland
Approximately half of all patients presenting to dermatologists exhibit signs and symptoms of psychiatric conditions that are either primary or secondary to cutaneous disease. Because patients typically resist psychiatric consult, dermatologists often are on the front line in evaluating and treating these patients. Accordingly, distinguishing the specific underlying or resulting psychiatric condition is essential for effective treatment. The etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and first-line treatment of specific primary psychiatric causes of dermatologic conditions, including delusional infestation, Morgellons syndrome, olfactory reference syndrome, body dysmorphic disorder, excoriation disorder, trichotillomania, and dermatitis artefacta are discussed here, followed by a discussion of the recommended treatment approach with an overview of the different first-line therapies discussed in this review, specifically cognitive behavioral therapy, atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052337/magnetic-stimulus-responsive-vancomycin-drug-delivery-system-based-on-chitosan-microbeads-embedded-with-magnetic-nanoparticles
#5
Ankita Mohapatra, Michael A Harris, David LeVine, Madhav Ghimire, Jessica A Jennings, Bashir I Morshed, Warren O Haggard, Joel D Bumgardner, Sanjay R Mishra, Tomoko Fujiwara
Local antibiotic delivery can overcome some of the shortcomings of systemic therapy, such as low local concentrations and delivery to avascular sites. A localized drug delivery system (DDS), ideally, could also use external stimuli to modulate the normal drug release profile from the DDS to provide efficacious drug administration and flexibility to healthcare providers. To achieve this objective, chitosan microbeads embedded with magnetic nanoparticles were loaded with the antibiotic vancomycin and stimulated by a high frequency alternating magnetic field...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052049/photophysicochemical-calf-thymus-dna-binding-and-in-vitro-photocytotoxicity-properties-of-tetra-morpholinoethoxy-substituted-phthalocyanines-and-their-water-soluble-quaternized-derivatives
#6
Halit Koçan, Kerem Kaya, İbrahim Özçeşmeci, B Şebnem Sesalan, Meltem Göksel, Mahmut Durmuş, Ayfer Kalkan Burat
In this study, morpholinoethoxy-substituted metal-free (3), zinc(II) (4) and indium(III) (5) phthalocyanines were synthesized. These phthalocyanines were converted to their water-soluble quaternized derivatives (3Q-5Q) using excess methyl iodide as a quaternization agent. All these phthalocyanines (Pcs) were characterized by elemental analysis and different spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, (1)H NMR, UV-Vis and mass spectrometry. The photophysical and photochemical properties such as fluorescence and generation of singlet oxygen were investigated for determination of these phthalocyanines as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052031/do-pharmaceuticals-improve-driving-in-individuals-with-adhd-a-review-of-the-literature-and-evidence-for-clinical-practice
#7
REVIEW
Craig B H Surman, Ronna Fried, Lauren Rhodewalt, Heidi Boland
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as a disorder of impaired attention and/or behavioral control. Studies suggest that the condition can dispose individuals to a higher risk of automobile accidents. ADHD symptoms respond to pharmacotherapy in a majority of uncomplicated cases. Evidence on how pharmacotherapies for ADHD impact driving behavior or outcomes could allow clinicians to support on-road safety rationally. We therefore undertook a review to identify the evidence base to date indicating positive or negative effects of pharmacotherapies on driving behavior in individuals with ADHD...
October 19, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051123/knowledge-behavior-and-attitudes-of-dental-practitioners-towards-photodynamic-therapy-use-in-dental-practice
#8
Fahim Vohra, Ishfaq A Bukhari, Saeed A Sheikh, Refal Albaijan, Abdul Hakeem Qureshi, Zaeem Arif, Zohaib Akram
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to assess knowledge, behavior and attitudes of dental practitioners (DPs) towards photodynamic therapy (PDT) in dental clinical practice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed and a 13-item survey questionnaire was given to DPs practicing in 13 different teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Questions were aimed at exploring the knowledge of DPs regarding PDT and their attitude towards PDT and perceptions that may influence clinical practices...
October 16, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051091/theta-phase-closed-loop-stimulation-induces-motor-paradoxical-responses-in-the-rat-model-of-parkinson-disease
#9
Ivan Cordon, María Jesús Nicolás, Sandra Arrieta, Manuel Alegre, Julio Artieda, Miguel Valencia
BACKGROUND: High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widespread therapy used in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and other diseases. Although it has proved beneficial, much recent attention has been centered around the potential of new closed-loop DBS implementations. OBJECTIVE: Here we present a new closed-loop DBS scheme based on the phase of the theta activity recorded from the motor cortex. By testing the implementation on freely moving 6-OHDA lesioned and control rats, we assessed the behavioral and neurophysiologic effects of this implementation and compared it against the classical high-frequency DBS...
October 13, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050915/decellularized-matrix-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-enhanced-retinal-progenitor-cell-proliferation-via-the-akt-erk-pathway-and-neuronal-differentiation
#10
Jing Ji, Dandan Zhang, Wei Wei, Bingqiao Shen, Yi Zhang, Yuyao Wang, Zhimin Tang, Ni Ni, Hao Sun, Jiaqiang Liu, Xianqun Fan, Ping Gu
BACKGROUND AIMS: Retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) are a promising cell therapy treatment for retinal degenerative diseases. However, problems with limited proliferation ability and differentiation preference toward glia rather than neurons restrict the clinical application of these RPCs. The extracellular matrix (ECM) has been recognized to provide an appropriate microenvironment to support stem cell adhesion and direct cell behaviors, such as self-renewal and differentiation. METHODS: In this study, decellularized matrix of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (DMA) was manufactured using a chemical agent method (0...
October 16, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050838/three-children-of-meningoencephalitis-with-kikuchi-necrotizing-lymphadenitis
#11
Joung-Hee Byun, Su Eun Park, Sang Ook Nam, Young A Kim, Young Mi Kim, Gyu Min Yeon, Yun-Jin Lee
BACKGROUND: Kikuchi necrotizing lymphadenitis (KNL) is a rare and benign cause of lymphadenopathy, most often cervical. The etiology of KNL remains unknown. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, such as in meningoencephalitis, is a very rare clinical manifestation of KNL, especially in children. CASE REPORTS: A 12-year-old boy presented with unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and fever. Histopathological findings led to the diagnosis of KNL. He revisited due to severe headache and vomiting one week later...
October 16, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050660/the-fortuitous-discovery-of-the-olin-eilobi-breathing-techniques-a-case-study
#12
Sarah Graham, Emily Deardorff, Kristina Johnston, J Tod Olin
Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is the term for the condition previously named vocal cord dysfunction and paradoxical vocal fold motion. It is defined by glottic or supraglottic obstruction during periods of intense exercise. Not all patients respond to conventional therapy with speech-language pathology, behavioral health interventions, and treatment of contributing conditions. In this edition of Journal of Voice, the authors describe a novel series of respiratory retraining techniques, now called Olin EILOBI (EILO biphasic inspiratory) breathing techniques, specifically designed for athletes with EILO...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050194/update-on-the-pathophysiology-and-management-of-anorectal-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Tanisa Patcharatrakul, Satish S C Rao
Anorectal disorders are common and present with overlapping symptoms. They include several disorders with both structural and functional dysfunction(s). Because symptoms alone are poor predictors of the underlying pathophysiology, a diagnosis should only be made after evaluating symptoms and physiologic and structural abnormalities. A detailed history, a thorough physical and digital rectal examination and a systematic evaluation with high resolution and/or high definition three-dimensional (3D) anorectal manometry, 3D anal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance defecography and neurophysiology tests are essential to correctly identify these conditions...
October 23, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049902/emotion-dysregulation-moderates-the-effect-of-cognitive-behavior-therapy-with-prolonged-exposure-for-co-occurring-ptsd-and-substance-use-disorders
#14
Denise A Hien, Teresa Lopez-Castro, Santiago Papini, Bernard Gorman, Lesia M Ruglass
A goal of clinical trials is to identify unique baseline characteristics that can inform treatment planning. One such target is emotion dysregulation (ED), which contributes to the maintenance of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) and may be a potential moderator of treatment response. We examined the moderating impact of ED severity on treatment outcomes in an urban, socioeconomically disadvantaged, and racially/ethnically diverse sample with complex trauma and severe SUDs...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049421/complementary-religious-and-spiritual-interventions-in-physical-health-and-quality-of-life-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials
#15
Juliane Piasseschi de Bernardin Gonçalves, Giancarlo Lucchetti, Paulo Rossi Menezes, Homero Vallada
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether religious and spiritual interventions (RSIs) can promote physical health and quality of life in individuals. METHODS: The following databases were used to conduct a systematic review: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and Scielo. Randomized controlled trials that evaluated RSIs regarding physical health outcomes and/or quality of life in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. RSI protocols performed at a distance (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049331/hiv-dynamics-linked-to-memory-cd4-t-cell-homeostasis
#16
John M Murray, John Zaunders, Sean Emery, David A Cooper, William J Hey-Nguyen, Kersten K Koelsch, Anthony D Kelleher
The dynamics of latent HIV is linked to infection and clearance of resting memory CD4+ T cells. Infection also resides within activated, non-dividing memory cells and can be impacted by antigen-driven and homeostatic proliferation despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated whether plasma viral level (pVL) and HIV DNA dynamics could be explained by HIV's impact on memory CD4+ T cell homeostasis. Median total, 2-LTR and integrated HIV DNA levels per μL of peripheral blood, for 8 primary (PHI) and 8 chronic HIV infected (CHI) individuals enrolled on a raltegravir (RAL) based regimen, exhibited greatest changes over the 1st year of ART...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049120/a-contemporary-medicolegal-analysis-of-outpatient-medication-management-in-chronic-pain
#17
Christopher R Abrecht, Ethan Y Brovman, Penny Greenberg, Ellen Song, James P Rathmell, Richard D Urman
BACKGROUND: Opioids are frequently used in chronic pain management but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in some patient populations. An important avenue for identifying complications-including serious or rare complications-is the study of closed malpractice claims. The present study is intended to complement the existing closed claims literature by drawing on claims from a more recent timeframe through a partnership with a large malpractice carrier, the Controlled Risk Insurance Company (CRICO)...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049041/the-impact-of-lifestyle-intervention-on-atrial-fibrillation
#18
Kathryn L Hong, Benedict M Glover
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, attributable to several factors that may be amenable through lifestyle modification. There is emerging evidence to suggest that the successful management of several cardiovascular risk factors [obesity, hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)] can lead to fewer complications and atrial fibrillation prevention. However, the long-term sustainability and reproducibility of these effects have yet to be explored in larger studies...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048966/text-messaging-for-improving-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-no-effects-after-1-year-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-among-adolescents-and-young-adults
#19
Sebastian Linnemayr, Haijing Huang, Jill Luoto, Andrew Kambugu, Harsha Thirumurthy, Jessica Haberer, Glenn Wagner, Barbara Mukasa
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of Short Message Service (SMS) reminder messages on antiretroviral and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis adherence among HIV-positive youths as well as the relative effectiveness of SMS with and without a response option. METHODS: Eligible HIV-positive patients aged 15 to 22 years at 2 HIV clinics in Kampala, Uganda, participated in a year-long parallel individual-randomized controlled trial and were assigned in a 1-to-1-to-1 ratio to a weekly SMS message group, weekly SMS message with response option group, or a usual-care control group...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048878/atrp-fabricated-and-short-chain-polyethyleneimine-grafted-redox-sensitive-polymeric-nanoparticles-for-co-delivery-of-anticancer-drug-and-sirna-in-cancer-therapy
#20
Chetan Nehate, Aji Alex Moothedathu Raynold, Veena Koul
To overcome the limitations of conventional chemotherapy, nanoparticle mediated combinatorial delivery of siRNA and drug represents a new approach to overcome its associated side effects. Designing safe and efficient vehicles for their co-delivery has emerged as a potential challenge in the clinical translation of these formulations. Herein, we have demonstrated a novel "two in one" polyplex nanosystem developed from redox sensitive, short chain polyethyleneimine modified poly[(poly(ethylene)glycol methacrylate]-s-s-polycaprolactone copolymer synthesised by ATRP, which can deliver doxorubicin and polo like kinase I siRNA, simultaneously for enhanced chemotherapeutic effect...
October 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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