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Behavior Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936374/testing-a-matching-hypothesis-for-emerging-adults-in-project-match-during-treatment-and-one-year-outcomes
#1
Jordan P Davis, Brandon G Bergman, Douglas C Smith, John F Kelly
OBJECTIVE: Compared with older adults, emerging adults (18-29 years old) entering treatment typically have less severe alcohol use consequences. Also, their unique clinical presentations (e.g., modest initial abstinence motivation) and developmental contexts (e.g., drinking-rich social networks) may make a straightforward implementation of treatments developed for adults less effective. Yet, this has seldom been examined empirically. This study was a secondary analysis of Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity) data examining (a) overall differences between emerging adults and older adults (≥30 years old) on outcomes during treatment and at 1-year follow-up, and (b) whether emerging adults had poorer outcomes on any of the three Project MATCH treatments in particular...
January 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936076/angiogenic-capacity-of-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-pretreated-with-deferoxamine-and-or-fibroblast-growth-factor-2
#2
Jessica Ratajczak, Petra Hilkens, Pascal Gervois, Esther Wolfs, Reinhilde Jacobs, Ivo Lambrichts, Annelies Bronckaers
Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) represent a good source of multipotent cells for cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine. The success rate of these treatments is severely dependent on the establishment of adequate vasculature in order to provide oxygen and nutrients to the transplanted cells. Pharmacological preconditioning of stem cells has been proposed as a promising method to augment their therapeutic efficacy. In this study, the aim was to improve the intrinsic angiogenic properties of PDLSCs by in vitro pretreatment with deferoxamine (DFX; 100μM), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2; 10ng/mL) or both substances combined...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935825/microglia-activation-in-a-pediatric-rabbit-model-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#3
Elizabeth W Tucker, Supriya Pokkali, Zhi Zhang, Vincent P DeMarco, Mariah Klunk, Elizabeth S Smith, Alvaro A Ordonez, Marie-France Penet, Zaver Bhujwalla, Sanjay K Jain, Sujatha Kannan
Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB and disproportionately affects young children where the developing brain has a unique host response. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis via subarachnoid inoculation at postnatal day 4-8 and evaluated until 4-6 weeks post-infection. Control and infected rabbit kits were assessed for the development of neurological deficits, bacterial burden, and postmortem microbiologic and pathologic changes...
December 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933855/mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-with-large-pores-for-the-encapsulation-and-release-of-proteins
#4
Jing Tu, Aimee L Boyle, Heiner Friedrich, Paul H H Bomans, Jeroen Bussmann, Nico A J M Sommerdijk, Wim Jiskoot, Alexander Kros
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been explored extensively as solid supports for proteins in biological and medical applications. Small (<200 nm) MSNs with ordered large pores (>5 nm), capable of encapsulating therapeutic small molecules suitable for delivery applications in vivo, are rare however. Here we present small, elongated, cuboidal, MSNs with average dimensions of 90 × 43 nm that possess disk-shaped cavities, stacked on top of each other, which run parallel to the short axis of the particle...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931905/ethnic-differences-in-the-effectiveness-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-combined-with-medication-comparing-asian-american-and-white-psychiatric-patients
#5
Jennifer Y Tang, Chieh Li, Rachel F Rodgers, Mary Ballou
Several meta-analyses have demonstrated the effectiveness of treatment utilizing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) combined with medication. There is, however, a paucity of research comparing the effectiveness of this combined treatment with psychiatric patients from different ethnic backgrounds. This study is the first of its kind to compare the effectiveness of CBT combined with medication for Asian American and White patients' psychiatric symptom severity levels of depression, anxiety, psychological well-being, and quality of life...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931506/neural-stem-cells-derived-from-human-parthenogenetic-stem-cells-engraft-and-promote-recovery-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model-of-parkinsons-disease
#6
Rodolfo Gonzalez, Ibon Garitaonandia, Maxim Poustovoitov, Tatiana Abramihina, Caleb McEntire, Ben Culp, Jordan Attwood, Alexander Noskov, Trudy Christiansen-Weber, Marwa Khater, Sergio Mora-Castilla, Cuong To, Andrew Crain, Glenn Sherman, Andrey Semechkin, Louise C Laurent, John D Elsworth, John Sladek, Evan Y Snyder, D Eugene Redmond, Russell A Kern
Cell therapy has attracted considerable interest as a promising therapeutic alternative for patients with Parkinsons disease (PD). Clinical studies have shown that grafted fetal neural tissue can achieve considerable biochemical and clinical improvements in PD. However, the source of fetal tissue grafts is limited and ethically controversial. Human parthenogenetic stem cells offer a good alternative because they are derived from unfertilized oocytes without destroying potentially viable human embryos and can be used to generate an unlimited supply of neural cells for transplantation...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931232/retention-in-georgia-opioid-substitution-therapy-program-and-associated-factors
#7
Ekaterine Ruadze, Khatuna Todadze
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse has been considered as a growing challenge in Georgia that is closely linked with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C transmission due to unsafe injection and other uncontrolled behaviors. Methadone maintenance therapy is one of the major treatment options for opioid-dependent individuals. It has proven efficacy in decreasing illegal opioid consumption and criminal behavior as well as reducing the level of HIV infection, mortality, HCV infection, and increasing social functioning...
December 8, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930939/guided-parent-delivered-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-childhood-anxiety-predictors-of-treatment-response
#8
Kerstin Thirlwall, Peter Cooper, Cathy Creswell
BACKGROUND: Guided Parent-delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (GPD-CBT) is a brief, effective treatment for childhood anxiety disorders, however not all children respond favourably. AIMS: To examine predictors of response to GPD-CBT. METHODS: Parents of 125 children (7-12 years) with an anxiety disorder received GPD-CBT over 2.6 or 5.3h. Recovery was measured post treatment and six months later. RESULTS: Younger children and those with primary Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) improved more post treatment, but older children and those without primary GAD had better outcomes at six month follow up...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930901/a-longitudinal-study-of-persistent-smoking-among-hiv-positive-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-primary-relationships
#9
Kristi E Gamarel, Torsten B Neilands, Amy A Conroy, Samantha E Dilworth, Nadra Lisha, Jonelle M Taylor, Lynae A Darbes, Mallory O Johnson
INTRODUCTION: We examined the stability of smoking behaviors, and factors associated with persistent smoking in a longitudinal study of HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in primary relationships. METHODS: A sample of 377 HIV-positive men on antiretroviral therapy and their same-sex partners completed five assessments over two years. Participants completed semi-structured interviews which assessed smoking status, sociodemographic factors, relationship dynamics, and HIV-related disease characteristics...
November 18, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930606/a-framework-for-health-communication-across-the-hiv-treatment-continuum
#10
Stella Babalola, Lynn M Van Lith, Elizabeth C Mallalieu, Zoe R Packman, Emily Myers, Kim Seifert Ahanda, Emily Harris, Tilly Gurman, Maria-Elena Figueroa
BACKGROUND: As test and treat rolls out, effective interventions are needed to address the determinants of outcomes across the HIV treatment continuum and ensure that people infected with HIV are promptly tested, initiate treatment early, adhere to treatment, and are virally suppressed. Communication approaches offer viable options for promoting relevant behaviors across the continuum. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: This article introduces a conceptual framework, which can guide the development of effective health communication interventions and activities that aim to impact behaviors across the HIV treatment continuum in low- and medium-income countries...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929661/an-evaluation-of-parent-child-interaction-therapy-with-and-without-motivational-enhancement-to-reduce-attrition
#11
Haley J Webb, Rae Thomas, Leanne McGregor, Elbina Avdagic, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck
Although many interventions for child externalizing behavior report promising outcomes for families, high attrition prior to program completion remains a problem. Many programs report dropout rates of 50% or higher. In this trial we sought to reduce attrition and improve outcomes by augmenting a well-known evidence-based intervention, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), with a 3-session individual motivational enhancement component. Participants were 192 Australian caregivers (91.7% female; Mage = 34...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928433/psychopathology-and-psychotherapeutic-intervention-in-diabetes-particularities-challenges-and-limits
#12
REVIEW
Popa-Velea O, Bubulac L, Petrescu L, Purcarea Rm
Diabetes is a problem of great public health importance, creating a considerable burden to the affected individuals and society. The psychological approach of this disease implies the early acknowledging of behavioral symptoms and the construction of effective psychotherapeutic interventions. Regarding the psychological symptoms, cognitive malfunctions in diabetes include a slowing of information processing, attention, memory, and concentration, which, in turn, can significantly diminish motivation for therapy, compliance, and ability for self-care...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926449/the-role-of-dopamine-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-apathy
#13
T T-J Chong, M Husain
Disorders of diminished motivation, such as apathy, are common and prevalent across a wide range of medical conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, stroke, depression, and schizophrenia. Such disorders have a significant impact on morbidity and quality of life, yet their management lacks consensus and remains unsatisfactory. Here, we review laboratory and clinical evidence for the use of dopaminergic therapies in the treatment of apathy. Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that regulates motivated decision making in humans and other species...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926447/motivation-and-attention-following-hemispheric-stroke
#14
E Olgiati, C Russell, D Soto, P Malhotra
Spatial neglect (SN) is an extremely common disorder of attention; it is most frequently a consequence of stroke, especially to the right cerebral hemisphere. The current view of SN is that it is not a unitary deficit but a multicomponent syndrome. Crucially, it has been repeatedly shown that it has a considerable negative impact on rehabilitation outcome. Although a number of behavioral and pharmacological therapies have been developed, none of these appears to be applicable to all patients with SN or has proved unequivocally successful in clinical trials...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925652/inclusion-of-a-rest-period-in-diaphragmatic-breathing-increases-high-frequency-heart-rate-variability-implications-for-behavioral-therapy
#15
Matthew E B Russell, April B Scott, Ian A Boggero, Charles R Carlson
Heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with positive physiological and psychological effects. HRV is affected by breathing parameters, yet debate remains regarding the best breathing interventions for strengthening HRV. The objective of the current study was to test whether the inclusion of a postexhalation rest period was effective at increasing HRV, while controlling for breathing rate. A within-subject crossover design was used with 40 participants who were assigned randomly to a breathing pattern including a postexhalation rest period or a breathing pattern that omitted the postexhalation rest period...
December 7, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925607/therapeutic-touch-in-the-management-of-responsive-behavior-in-patients-with-dementia
#16
Ananthavalli Kumarappah, Helen Senderovich
Patients with dementia experience various behavioral symptoms in the course of their illnesses, which greatly affect their quality of life. Current treatment modalities are not always effective, and, thus, nonpharmacological approaches are the preferred first-line therapy for managing such symptoms. They generally address the basic needs of the person with dementia and provide humane care, often producing noticeable improvements in symptoms. Thus, such therapies should precede pharmacological interventions...
October 2016: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925451/improving-access-and-systems-of-care-for-evidence-based-childhood-obesity-treatment-conference-key-findings-and-next-steps
#17
REVIEW
Denise E Wilfley, Amanda E Staiano, Myra Altman, Jeanne Lindros, Angela Lima, Sandra G Hassink, William H Dietz, Stephen Cook
OBJECTIVE: To improve systems of care to advance implementation of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for childhood obesity treatment (i.e., clinicians offer/refer children with obesity to intensive, multicomponent behavioral interventions of >25 h over 6 to 12 months to improve weight status) and to expand payment for these services. METHODS: In July 2015, 43 cross-sector stakeholders attended a conference supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, American Academy of Pediatrics Institute for Healthy Childhood Weight, and The Obesity Society...
December 7, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925268/therapists-assessments-in-treating-sex-addiction-and-their-relationship-to-clients-gender-relationship-status-and-exclusivity-status
#18
Geoffrey T Reddick, Katie M Heiden-Rootes, Andrew S Brimhall
A total of 208 therapists and therapists-in-training were surveyed to better understand if clinical assessments and recommendations regarding "sex addiction" changed based upon a client's gender, relationship status, or exclusivity status. Using clinical vignettes, this study examined the clinical assessment and recommendations of licensed mental health providers (n = 92) and mental health providers in-training (n = 116). Results indicated that professional ratings differed based on relationship exclusivity and gender; specifically, female nonmonogamous behavior was rated more negatively than male nonmonogamous behavior, while male monogamous behavior was rated more negatively than female monogamous behavior...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925052/night-eating-syndrome-how-to-treat-it
#19
Thisciane Ferreira Pinto, Francisco Girleudo Coutinho da Silva, Veralice Meireles Sales de Bruin, Pedro Felipe Carvalhedo de Bruin
Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by caloric intake ≥ 25% of total daily after dinner and/or by two or more weekly nocturnal awakenings accompanied by food ingestion. Causes of NES are not entirely clear and seem to involve a desynchronization between the circadian rhythms of food ingestion and sleep, resulting in a delayed pattern of food intake. Estimates of the prevalence of NES in the general population are around 1.5%, and although much higher frequencies have been described in obese individuals, a causal relationship between NES and obesity is not clearly established...
October 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924679/effect-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-as-adjunctive-therapy-to-methylphenidate-on-adhd-symptoms-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
Nakisa Mohammadpour, Shima Jazayeri, Mehdi Tehrani-Doost, Mahmoud Djalali, Mostafa Hosseini, Mohammad Effatpanah, Rozita Davari-Ashtiani, Elham Karami
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that serum levels of vitamin D were lower in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children compared to healthy controls. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation as adjunctive therapy to methylphenidate on symptoms of children with ADHD. METHODS: Sixty-two children aged 5-12 years with a diagnosis of ADHD based on DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 2000IU vitamin D or placebo in addition to methylphenidate for 8 weeks...
December 7, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
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