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Clobazam and oxcarbazepine

Marília Silveira de Almeida Campos, Lorena Rocha Ayres, Manuela Roque Siane Morelo, Fabiana Angelo Marques, Leonardo Régis Leira Pereira
Several newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been introduced into clinical practice, offering choices for individualizing the treatment of epilepsy since AEDs have different efficacy and tolerability profiles. In particular, questions exist regarding which AEDs are the best options for the monotherapy of focal epilepsy. Is carbamazepine (CBZ), which is considered the standard treatment for focal epilepsy, still the best option for monotherapy of focal epilepsy, despite the emergence of new AEDs? In this systematic review, we compared the relative tolerability of all available AEDs for monotherapy of all types of epilepsy as well as their efficacy in the monotherapy of focal epilepsy...
December 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Rolla Shbarou
The management of early-onset, genetically determined epilepsies is often challenging. First-line anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) often include phenobarbital, phenytoin, oxcarbazepine, carbamazepine, clonazepam, levetiracetam, and valproic acid. Combinations of medications are used in these patients with often intractable seizures, and they include topiramate, clobazam, felbamate, lacosamide, lamotrigine, rufinamide, vigabatrin, ACTH, oral steroids, and the ketogenic diet. Vagus nerve stimulator therapy offers some relief in selected patients...
October 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Elaine C Wirrell
Dravet syndrome is among the most challenging electroclinical syndromes. There is a high likelihood of recurrent status epilepticus; seizures are medically refractory; and patients have multiple co-morbidities, including intellectual disability, behaviour and sleep problems, and crouch gait. Additionally, they are at significant risk of sudden unexplained death. This review will focus predominantly on the prophylactic medical management of seizures, addressing both first-line therapies (valproate and clobazam) as well as second-line (stiripentol, topiramate, ketogenic diet) or later options (levetiracetam, bromides, vagus nerve stimulation)...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Albert Aldenkamp, Frank Besag, Giuseppe Gobbi, Rochelle Caplan, David W Dunn, Matti Sillanpää
The literature was evaluated for cognitive and more general behavioural effects. We distinguished the older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), from the newer and newest AEDs. The striking finding was the lack of information on children. From the available evidence it would appear that there may be negative cognitive effects with phenobarbital, phenytoin, topiramate and zonisamide, and adverse behavioural effects with phenobarbital, valproate, gabapentin, topiramate, levetiracetam and zonisamide. There is inconclusive data on ethosuximide, clobazam, vigabatrin, felbamate, pregabalin, stiripentol, rufinamide, lacosamide and retigabine...
May 16, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Oneeb Majid, Antonio Laurenza, Jim Ferry, Ziad Hussein
AIMS: To evaluate the impact of perampanel and demographics on clearance of concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures. METHODS: Pooled data from three Phase III clinical studies with adjunctive perampanel were used. Blood samples for evaluation of 11 concomitant AEDs were taken during baseline (before perampanel initiation), and at weeks 10, 14, and 19 during the maintenance phase of perampanel treatment (2-12 mg/day, once daily at bedtime)...
August 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Derek J Chong, Andrew M Lerman
Since 2010, the Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of four new anti-epilepsy drugs (AEDs) for the treatment of epilepsy in the USA: clobazam (Onfi), ezogabine (Potiga), perampanel (Fycompa), and eslicarbazepine (Aptiom) as well as two extended release formulations, topiramate ER (Qudexy XR and Trokendi) and oxcarbazepine ER (Oxtellar). This not only provides practitioners ample choice to match medication profiles to their patients' preferences and co-morbidities better, but also challenges us to be proficient in the use of all...
April 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Eun-Kee Bae, Jongtae Lee, Jung-Won Shin, Jangsup Moon, Keon-Joo Lee, Yong-Won Shin, Tae-Joon Kim, Dongseong Shin, In-Jin Jang, Sang Kun Lee
PURPOSE: To identify the factors influencing topiramate pharmacokinetics (PK) in a large population of adult patients with epilepsy using population PK analysis. METHODS: Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 550 adult patients with epilepsy treated using topiramate. Nonlinear mixed effects modeling software (NONMEM, version 7.2) was used to fit the plasma concentration to a one-compartment PK model. Demographic and clinical variables tested as potential covariates were age, sex, body weight, height, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance (CLcr), total bilirubin, prothrombin time, albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), daily dose (DOSE), and concomitant medications (phenytoin [PHT], clobazam, carbamazepine [CBZ], valproic acid, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine [OXC], pregabalin, clonazepam, and phenobarbital [PB])...
April 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Edoardo Spina, Francesco Pisani, Jose de Leon
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are frequently co-prescribed with new antidepressants (ADs) or new antipsychotics (APs). A PubMed search with no time limit was used to update the review of the clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) drug interactions DIs (DIs) between AEDs with new ADs and APs. Our best interpretation of what to expect regarding dosing changes in the average patient after combining AEDs with new ADs or new APs is summarized on updated tables that integrate the information on in vitro metabolism studies, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) studies, case report/series and prospective studies...
April 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Margrete L Burns, Arton Baftiu, Mimi S Opdal, Svein I Johannessen, Cecilie Johannessen Landmark
BACKGROUND: Clobazam (CLB) has been used as an antiepileptic drug for several decades. There is still insufficient data regarding its pharmacokinetic variability in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate pharmacokinetic variability of CLB with emphasis on the impact of age and comedication in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Serum concentration measurements of CLB and its metabolite N-desmethylclobazam (NCLB), as well as demographic and clinical data were retrieved from the routine therapeutic drug monitoring service at the National Center for Epilepsy, Norway, 2009-2013...
June 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Dwain Tolbert, Ihor Bekersky, Hui-May Chu, Ene I Ette
A metabolic mechanism-based characterization of antiepileptic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with clobazam in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) was performed using a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) approach. To characterize potential DDIs with clobazam, pharmacokinetic (PK) data from 153 patients with LGS in study OV-1012 (NCT00518713) and 18 healthy participants in bioavailability study OV-1017 were pooled. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were grouped based on their effects on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes responsible for the metabolism of clobazam and its metabolite, N-desmethylclobazam (N-CLB): CYP3A inducers (phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine), CYP2C19 inducers (valproic acid, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine), or CYP2C19 inhibitors (felbamate, oxcarbazepine)...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Jose de Leon
The literature on inducers in epilepsy and bipolar disorder is seriously contaminated by false negative findings. This is part i of a comprehensive review on antiepileptic drug (AED) inducers using both mechanistic pharmacological and evidence-based medicine to provide practical recommendations to neurologists and psychiatrists concerning how to control for them. Carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin, are clinically relevant AED inducers; correction factors were calculated for studied induced drugs. These correction factors are rough simplifications for orienting clinicians, since there is great variability in the population regarding inductive effects...
April 2015: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
M Kverneland, E Taubøll, K K Selmer, P O Iversen, K O Nakken
BACKGROUND: Modified Atkins diet is a treatment option for patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy that is not suitable for surgery. In the last few years, we have tried dietary treatment added to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in adult patients with severe epilepsy. AIM OF THE STUDY: To examine a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between the modified Atkins diet and AEDs. METHODS: In four patients, AED serum concentrations were measured before onset and after 4 and 12 weeks on the diet...
March 2015: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Domenico Italiano, Edoardo Spina, Jose de Leon
INTRODUCTION: Antiepileptic-antidepressant combinations are frequently used by clinicians; their pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) drug interactions (DIs) have not been well studied but are frequently likely to be clinically relevant. AREAS COVERED: This article provides a comprehensive review of PK DIs between antiepileptics and antidepressants. In the absence of PD DI studies, PD information on pharmacological mechanisms and studies on efficacy and safety of individual drugs are reviewed...
November 2014: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Hui Jeen Tan, Jaspal Singh, Rajat Gupta, Christian de Goede
BACKGROUND: Benign Epilepsy with Centro Temporal Spikes (BECTS) is a common epilepsy syndrome with onset in childhood which almost always remits by adolescence. It is characterised by focal seizures associated with motor signs and somatosensory symptoms, at times progressing to become generalised. The characteristic interictal EEG shows normal background activity with centrotemporal spikes which are more prominent in sleep. The prognosis is good though subtle cognitive impairment has been implicated...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Matthew D Krasowski, Gwendolyn A McMillin
In the past twenty-one years, 17 new antiepileptic drugs have been approved for use in the United States and/or Europe. These drugs are clobazam, ezogabine (retigabine), eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, perampanel, pregabalin, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin and zonisamide. Therapeutic drug monitoring is often used in the clinical dosing of the newer anti-epileptic drugs. The drugs with the best justifications for drug monitoring are lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, stiripentol, and zonisamide...
September 25, 2014: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Barbara Miziak, Barbara Błaszczyk, Magdalena Chrościńska-Krawczyk, Grzegorz Danilkiewicz, Ewa Jagiełło-Wójtowicz, Stanisław J Czuczwar
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder associated with recurrent seizures. Therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) helps achieve seizure remission in approximately 70% of epileptic patients. Treatment with AEDs is frequently lifelong and there are reports suggesting its negative influence on bone health. This is especially important in terms of general occurrence of osteoporosis, affecting over 50 million people worldwide. AREAS COVERED: This study refers to two main groups of AEDs: hepatic enzyme inducers (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone and topiramate) and non-inducers (clobazam, clonazepam, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, pregabalin, tiagabine, valproate, vigabatrin and zonisamide)...
July 2014: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Wilma S W Wichards, Alfred F A M Schobben, Frans S S Leijten
A common problem in brain and abdominal surgery is the perioperative substitution of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) when patients are temporarily unable to take these drugs orally. We searched the literature for clinical trials with patients or healthy volunteers in whom non-oral formulations of AEDs as substitution were tested. Different search engines, handbooks, expert opinion and our own experience, were used. Pharmaceutical companies were approached for recommendations. This led to three categories of replacement: 1...
November 2013: Journal of Neurology
Ravindra Arya, Tracy A Glauser
BACKGROUND: Partial-onset seizures contribute the bulk of seizure burden in childhood epilepsy. The therapeutic decision making involves consideration of factors specific to drug, patient and socioeconomic situation. OBJECTIVES: This paper systematically reviews the available efficacy/effectiveness evidence for various anti-epileptic drugs (AED) as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures in children. DATA SOURCES: Relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were identified by a structured PubMed search, supplemented by an additional hand search of reference lists and authors' files...
April 2013: CNS Drugs
Dawn Craig, Stephen Rice, Fiona Paton, David Fox, Nerys Woolacott
The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of retigabine (GlaxoSmithKline) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of this drug for the treatment of adults with partial-onset seizures in epilepsy, with and without secondary generalization, as part of the Institute's single technology appraisal (STA) process. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG undertakes a critical review of the clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence of the technology based upon the manufacturer's submission to NICE...
February 2013: PharmacoEconomics
Philip N Patsalos, Dave J Berry
Blood (serum/plasma) antiepileptic drug (AED) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has proven to be an invaluable surrogate marker for individualizing and optimizing the drug management of patients with epilepsy. Since 1989, there has been an exponential increase in AEDs with 23 currently licensed for clinical use, and recently, there has been renewed and extensive interest in the use of saliva as an alternative matrix for AED TDM. The advantages of saliva include the fact that for many AEDs it reflects the free (pharmacologically active) concentration in serum; it is readily sampled, can be sampled repetitively, and sampling is noninvasive; does not require the expertise of a phlebotomist; and is preferred by many patients, particularly children and the elderly...
February 2013: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
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