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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330897/cyclodextrin-assisted-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-for-the-preconcentration-of-carbamazepine-and-clobazam-with-subsequent-sweeping-micellar-electrokinetic-chromatography
#1
Szu-Ying Chen, Wen-Chi Chen, Sarah Y Chang
A new version of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, namely, cyclodextrin-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, with subsequent sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography has been developed for the preconcentration and sensitive detection of carbamazepine and clobazam. α-Cyclodextrin and chloroform were used as the dispersive agent and extraction solvent, respectively. After the extraction, carbamazepine and clobazam were analyzed using micellar electrokinetic chromatography with ultraviolet detection...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282644/a-case-of-nephrogenic-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuresis-caused-by-carbamazepine
#2
Naoko Sekiya, Midori Awazu
We report a case of nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis caused by carbamazepine (CBZ). CBZ, an antiepileptic drug, is known to cause hyponatremia. The mechanism is generally considered to be inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, whereas an experimental study suggests a direct effect of CBZ on the kidney by stimulating vasopressin receptor. An 18-year-old male with atypical autism and epilepsy has been treated with CBZ and clobazam since age 9 and 10 years, respectively. At age 11, he was found to have asymptomatic hyponatremia...
December 27, 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218701/a-longitudinal-cohort-study-on-the-impact-of-the-clobazam-shortage-on-patients-with-epilepsy
#3
Sara Lukmanji, Khara M Sauro, Colin B Josephson, K Chelsea Altura, Samuel Wiebe, Nathalie Jetté
OBJECTIVE: Drug shortages are occurring at an increasing rate. From May to October 2016, there was a shortage of a level I critical antiepileptic drug, clobazam. We aimed to study the impact of this shortage on patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Adult patients from Calgary's Comprehensive Epilepsy Program who were taking clobazam were approached to participate in the study. Baseline data from the clinic prospective registry included clinical variables and presurvey patient-reported outcomes (PROs) such as the Global Assessment of Severity of Epilepsy, the Global Assessment of Disability Associated with Seizures, and the Quality of Life in Epilepsy questionnaire...
December 7, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202277/optimizing-clobazam-treatment-in-patients-with-lennox-gastaut-syndrome
#4
Jouko Isojarvi, Barry E Gidal, Steve Chung, Robert T Wechsler
Given the complexities managing Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS)-comorbid conditions, multiple associated seizure types that tend to be refractory to treatment-dosage optimization of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment is a challenge. In the absence of clinical trial data on optimization of AED dosage in patients with LGS, dose titration is guided by personal experience, anecdotal evidence, and specific patient factors (age, comorbid conditions and medications, seizure types, etc.). The goal of this study was to determine whether a 20% increase in adjunctive clobazam was a reasonable benchmark for improved seizure response in patients with LGS who had responded to adjunctive clobazam treatment during a 12-week lead-in trial...
December 1, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168169/response-to-clobazam-in-continuous-spike-wave-during-sleep
#5
Clemente Vega, Ivan Sánchez Fernández, Jurriaan Peters, Maria S Thome-Souza, Michele Jackson, Masanori Takeoka, Greta N Wilkening, Phillip L Pearl, Kevin Chapman, Tobias Loddenkemper
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of clobazam treatment in reducing epileptiform discharges and modifying neuropsychological function in continuous spike-wave during slow wave sleep. METHOD: We performed a prospective clinical trial in patients with continuous spike-wave during sleep aged 4 to 10 years. Patients underwent neuropsychological assessment and overnight electroencephalographic monitoring before treatment, and subsequent repeat assessment and overnight electroencephalographic monitoring 3 months after treatment...
November 23, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141279/efficacy-of-stiripentol-in-dravet-syndrome-with-or-without-scn1a-mutations
#6
Min Jung Cho, Soon Sung Kwon, Ara Ko, Seung Tae Lee, Young Mock Lee, Heung Dong Kim, Hee Jung Chung, Se Hee Kim, Joon Soo Lee, Dae Sung Kim, Hoon Chul Kang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of stiripentol (STP) add-on therapy to valproate and clobazam in patients with Dravet syndrome (DS) according to the presence of mutations in the sodium channel alpha-1 subunit gene (SCN1A). METHODS: We performed direct sequencing to analyze SCN1A mutations in 32 patients with clinically confirmed with DS, and classified them into mutation (pathogenic or likely pathogenic) and nonmutation groups based on American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127345/the-synthetic-neuroactive-steroid-sge-516-reduces-seizure-burden-and-improves-survival-in-a-dravet-syndrome-mouse-model
#7
Nicole A Hawkins, Michael Lewis, Rebecca S Hammond, James J Doherty, Jennifer A Kearney
Dravet syndrome is an infant-onset epileptic encephalopathy with multiple seizure types that are often refractory to conventional therapies. Treatment with standard benzodiazepines like clobazam, in combination with valproate and stiripentol, provides only modest seizure control. While benzodiazepines are a first-line therapy for Dravet syndrome, they are limited by their ability to only modulate synaptic receptors. Unlike benzodiazepines, neuroactive steroids potentiate a wider-range of GABAA receptors. The synthetic neuroactive steroid SGE-516 is a potent positive allosteric modulator of both synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124439/lennox-gastaut-syndrome-a-comprehensive-review
#8
Ali A Asadi-Pooya
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is considered an epileptic encephalopathy and is defined by a triad of multiple drug-resistant seizure types, a specific EEG pattern showing bursts of slow spike-wave complexes or generalized paroxysmal fast activity, and intellectual disability. The prevalence of LGS is estimated between 1 and 2% of all patients with epilepsy. The etiology of LGS is often divided into two groups: identifiable (genetic-structural-metabolic) in 65 to 75% of the patients and LGS of unknown cause in others...
November 9, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101905/conversion-factors-for-assessment-of-driving-impairment-after-exposure-to-multiple-benzodiazepines-z-hypnotics-or-opioids
#9
Maren Cecilie Strand, Jørg Mørland, Lars Slørdal, Bettina Riedel, Cato Innerdal, Trond Aamo, Grete Mathisrud, Vigdis Vindenes
AIMS: Norway has introduced legal concentration limits in blood for 28 non-alcohol drugs in driving under the influence cases. As of 2016 this legislation also regulates the assessment of combined effects of multiple benzodiazepines and opioids. We herein describe the employed methodology for the equivalence tables for concentrations of benzodiazepines/z-hypnotics and opioids implemented in the Norwegian Road Traffic Act. METHODS: Legislative limits corresponding to impairment at blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0...
December 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095797/influence-of-renal-function-on-pharmacokinetics-of-antiepileptic-drugs-metabolized-by-cyp3a4-in-a-patient-with-renal-impairment
#10
Yoshiaki Yamamoto, Naotaka Usui, Takuji Nishida, Miho Mori, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Katsumi Imai, Yoshiyuki Kagawa, Yushi Inoue
BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that renal impairment not only decreases renal clearance, but also hepatic clearance of medications that are CYP3A4 substrates. We evaluated the influence of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) metabolized by CYP3A4. METHODS: We retrospectively calculated the concentration/dose ratio (CD ratio) for topiramate and clobazam in an epilepsy patient with renal impairment. In addition, we determined the CD ratio of perampanel in 17 patients with normal renal function and compared it with that in the patient with renal impairment...
October 31, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076421/seizures-and-anticonvulsants-in-brain-tumours-frequency-mechanisms-and-anti-epileptic-management
#11
Charles Vecht, Louis Royer-Perron, Caroline Houillier, Gilles Huberfeld
In cancer, epilepsy can be the manifestation of a primary brain tumour, metastatic disease, vascular or surgical complications, opportunistic infection or secondary to anti-tumour therapy. Seizures are frequently the first symptom of a brain tumour. The epilepsy is related to elevated extracellular glutamate stimulating NMDA- and AMPA-receptors and to the formation of D-2HG which resembles glutamate in IDH1 mutated gliomas. Epilepsy as presenting sign is associated with a longer survival in low- and high- grade gliomas, particularly with the IDH1 mutation...
October 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027197/the-risk-of-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-in-new-users-of-antiepileptic-drugs
#12
Noel Frey, Michael Bodmer, Andreas Bircher, Stephan Rüegg, Susan S Jick, Christoph R Meier, Julia Spoendlin
OBJECTIVE: Older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are known to cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). However, evidence for newer AED is sparse. We quantified risks of SJS/TEN in association with use of all AEDs in the United Kingdom. METHODS: In a matched case-control study of 480 previously validated SJS/TEN cases (1995-2013) we used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and calculated absolute risks of SJS/TEN within separate cohorts of new users of 28 AEDs...
December 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958437/a-thorough-qt-qtc-study-of-clobazam-in-healthy-volunteers
#13
Dwain Tolbert, Judy Gordon, Stuart Harris, Mark Walzer, Ihor Bekersky, Susan Reid
PURPOSE: A thorough QT study was conducted to assess the proarrhythmic potential of clobazam and its active metabolite, N-desmethylclobazam (N-CLB). METHODS: In this Phase I, single-site, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group study, healthy participants were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment groups: clobazam 40 mg/d (maximum therapeutic dosage), clobazam 160 mg/d (supratherapeutic dosage), placebo, or moxifloxacin 400 mg (active control). FINDINGS: Of 280 enrolled participants (n = 70 per treatment arm), 250 (92%) completed the study; 194 were included in the pharmacokinetics population (clobazam 40 mg/d, n = 66; clobazam 160 mg/d, n = 62; and moxifloxacin, n = 66)...
September 25, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951835/effect-of-plasmapheresis-on-serum-levels-of-clobazam-levetiracetam-and-topiramate
#14
To Harmony Hau Man, Chang Richard Shek-Kwan, Chan Angel On-Kei, Chan Phoebe Wing Lam
A 27-year-old man with a diagnosis of new onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) was treated with five anti-seizure drugs (ASDs) including clobazam, levetiracetam and topiramate. He received plasma exchange (PE) for presumed autoimmune etiology. Serum ASD levels were serially monitored in two sessions. Levels of clobazam, levetiracetam and topiramate were significant reduced by PE. Serum clobazam level dropped down to at least 85% and 75% of the baseline during and after the procedure respectively; levetiracetam dropped down to 83% and 83%; and topiramate dropped to 86% and 79%...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943819/evaluation-of-safety-in-exceeding-maximum-adult-doses-of-commonly-used-second-generation-antiepileptic-drugs-in-pediatric-patients
#15
Mindl M Messinger, Sunita N Misra, Gary D Clark, Shannon M DiCarlo
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric patients often require larger doses of antiepileptic drug (AED) than adults in order to attain therapeutic serum concentrations and/or achieve seizure control. Safety and efficacy data are often extrapolated from adult literature; hence, optimal dosage may only be determined anecdotally or based on expert opinion. With limited pediatric dosing guidelines, milligrams per day that are based on weight may exceed the maximum adult dose. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the safety of exceeding maximum doses as specified by the US Food and Drug Administration or manufacturers of commonly used AEDs in pediatric patients...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931473/psychiatric-and-behavioral-side-effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-adults-with-epilepsy
#16
Baibing Chen, Hyunmi Choi, Lawrence J Hirsch, Austen Katz, Alexander Legge, Richard Buchsbaum, Kamil Detyniecki
PURPOSE: Psychiatric and behavioral side effects (PBSEs) are common, undesirable effects associated with antiepileptic drug (AED) use. The objective of the study was to compare the PBSE profiles of older and newer AEDs in a large specialty practice-based sample of patients diagnosed with epilepsy. METHODS: As part of the Columbia and Yale AED Database Project, we reviewed patient records including demographics, medical history, AED use, and side effects for 4085 adult patients (age: 18 years) newly started on an AED regimen...
November 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861514/an-update-on-safety-and-side-effects-of-cannabidiol-a-review-of-clinical-data-and-relevant-animal-studies
#17
REVIEW
Kerstin Iffland, Franjo Grotenhermen
Introduction: This literature survey aims to extend the comprehensive survey performed by Bergamaschi et al. in 2011 on cannabidiol (CBD) safety and side effects. Apart from updating the literature, this article focuses on clinical studies and CBD potential interactions with other drugs. Results: In general, the often described favorable safety profile of CBD in humans was confirmed and extended by the reviewed research. The majority of studies were performed for treatment of epilepsy and psychotic disorders...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859122/effects-of-arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide-acea-on-the-protective-action-of-various-antiepileptic-drugs-in-the-6-hz-corneal-stimulation-model-in-mice
#18
Jarogniew J Luszczki, Pawel Patrzylas, Miroslaw Zagaja, Marta Andres-Mach, Katarzyna Zaluska, Maria W Kondrat-Wrobel, Monika Szpringer, Jaroslaw Chmielewski, Magdalena Florek-Luszczki
Accumulating evidence indicates that cannabinoid CB1 receptor ligands play a pivotal role in seizures, not only in preclinical studies on animals, but also in clinical settings. This study was aimed at characterizing the influence of arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA-a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist) co-administered with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) on the anticonvulsant potency of various antiepileptic drugs (clobazam, lacosamide, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, tiagabine and valproate) in the 6-Hz corneal stimulation model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857179/comparative-effectiveness-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ganna Androsova, Roland Krause, Mojgansadat Borghei, Merel Wassenaar, Pauls Auce, Andreja Avbersek, Felicitas Becker, Bianca Berghuis, Ellen Campbell, Antonietta Coppola, Ben Francis, Stefan Wolking, Gianpiero L Cavalleri, John Craig, Norman Delanty, Bobby P C Koeleman, Wolfram S Kunz, Holger Lerche, Anthony G Marson, Josemir W Sander, Graeme J Sills, Pasquale Striano, Federico Zara, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Chantal Depondt
OBJECTIVE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is a common epilepsy syndrome that is often poorly controlled by antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. Comparative AED effectiveness studies in this condition are lacking. We report retention, efficacy, and tolerability in a cohort of patients with MTLE-HS. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from a European database of patients with epilepsy. We estimated retention, 12-month seizure freedom, and adverse drug reaction (ADR) rates for the 10 most commonly used AEDs in patients with MTLE-HS...
October 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819726/population-pharmacokinetics-of-stiripentol-in-paediatric-patients-with-dravet-syndrome-treated-with-stiripentol-valproate-and-clobazam-combination-therapy
#20
Sophie Peigné, Stéphanie Chhun, Michel Tod, Elisabeth Rey, Christelle Rodrigues, Catherine Chiron, Gérard Pons, Vincent Jullien
AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of stiripentol in children with Dravet syndrome and to determine the concentrations of stiripentol achieved in this population for the usual 25 mg/kg twice-daily dose. METHODS: Thirty-five children with epilepsy were included in a prospective population pharmacokinetic study (using MONOLIX software). Four blood samples were drawn per patient. Stiripentol area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) values and trough concentrations were simulated for 7000 theoretical children weighing between 10 and 70 kg for the 25 mg/kg twice-daily dose...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
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