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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648006/-0-5-gy-x-ray-radiation-promotes-osteoblast-differentiation-by-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#1
M Chen, Q R Dong, Q Huang, C She, W Xu
Objective: To investigate the important roles of Wnt signaling in the processes of 0.5Gy X-ray promoting osteoblast differentiation, and make clear the molecular mechanisms involved. Methods: Flow cytometry was employed to detect the apoptosis after osteoblast exposure to 0.5 Gy X-ray radiation.The protein level of osteoblast differentiation markers, such as collagen Iα (Col1α), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), were detected by Western-blot and ALP activity staining was performed. Real-time PCR and Western-blot were utilized to evaluate the variations of key factors in Wnt signaling pathways, while specific inhibitor of Wnt/β-Catenin, XAV939 was used to block the Wnt signaling...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647834/influence-of-multi-leaf-collimator-leaf-transmission-on-head-and-neck-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-and-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-planning
#2
Motoharu Sasaki, Masahide Tominaga, Takeshi Kamomae, Hitoshi Ikushima, Motonori Kitaoka, Ryota Bando, Kanako Sakuragawa, Masataka Oita
The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) with different leaf widths on the planning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Toward this objective, dose transmission through a high-definition 120-leaf MLC (HD120MLC) and 120-leaf Millennium MLC (M120MLC) was investigated, using it with a test case and clinical case studies. In test case, studies with IMRT and VMAT plans, the difference in MLC leaf width had a limited effect on planning target volumes (PTVs)...
June 24, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647462/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-macular-features-after-proton-beam-radiotherapy-for-small-choroidal-melanoma
#3
Alexandre Sellam, Florence Coscas, Livia Lumbroso-Le Rouic, Rémi Dendale, Marco Lupidi, Gabriel Coscas, Laurence Desjardins, Nathalie Cassoux
PURPOSE: To describe the macular features of patients treated with proton beam therapy for choroidal melanoma (CM), using the optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCTA). DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. METHODS: This study included patients treated with proton beam radiotherapy (PBR) for a small CM. Only patients that had received 100% of the dose 60 GyEBR to the macular area were included in the analysis. All the patients have undergone a full ophthalmological examination including: visual acuity, OCT B-scan and OCTA...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646736/cell-damage-caused-by-ultraviolet-b-radiation-in-the-desert-cyanobacterium-phormidium-tenue-and-its-recovery-process
#4
Gaohong Wang, Songqiang Deng, Jiafeng Liu, Chaoran Ye, Xiangjun Zhou, Lanzhou Chen
Phormidium tenue, a cyanobacterium that grows in the topsoil of biological soil crusts (BSCs), has the highest recovery rate among desert crust cyanobacteria after exposure to ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation. However, the mechanism underlying its recovery process is unclear. To address this issue, we measured chlorophyll a fluorescence, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and repair of DNA breakage in P. tenue following exposure to UV-B. We found that UV-B radiation at all doses tested reduced photosynthesis and induced cell damage in P...
June 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646463/patterns-of-failure-after-radical-prostatectomy-in-prostate-cancer-implications-for-radiation-therapy-planning-after-68-ga-psma-pet-imaging
#5
Kilian Schiller, K Sauter, S Dewes, M Eiber, T Maurer, J Gschwend, S E Combs, G Habl
BACKGROUND: Salvage radiotherapy (SRT) after radical prostatectomy (RPE) and lymphadenectomy (LAE) is the appropriate radiotherapy option for patients with persistent/ recurrent prostate cancer (PC). (68)Ga-PSMA-PET imaging has been shown to accurately detect PC lesions in a primary setting as well as for local recurrence or for lymph node (LN) metastases. OBJECTIVE: In this study we evaluated the patterns of recurrence after RPE in patients with PC, putting a highlight on the differentiation between sites that would have been covered by a standard radiation therapy (RT) field in consensus after the RTOG consensus and others that would have not...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646251/cardiac-dose-sparing-effects-of-deep-inspiration-breath-hold-in-left-breast-irradiation-is-imrt-more-beneficial-than-vmat
#6
Mazen Sakka, Leonie Kunzelmann, Martin Metzger, Gerhard G Grabenbauer
BACKGROUND: Given the reduction in death from breast cancer, as well as improvements in overall survival, adjuvant radiotherapy is considered the standard treatment for breast cancer. However, left-sided breast irradiation was associated with an increased rate of fatal cardiovascular events due to incidental irradiation of the heart. Recently, considerable efforts have been made to minimize cardiac toxicity of left-sided breast irradiation by new treatment methods such as deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and new radiation techniques, particularly intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)...
June 23, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646133/effects-of-energetic-ion-irradiation-on-wse2-sic-heterostructures
#7
Tan Shi, Roger C Walker, Igor Jovanovic, Joshua A Robinson
The remarkable electronic properties of layered semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) make them promising candidates for next-generation ultrathin, low-power, high-speed electronics. It has been suggested that electronics based upon ultra-thin TMDs may be appropriate for use in high radiation environments such as space. Here, we present the effects of irradiation by protons, iron, and silver ions at MeV-level energies on a WSe2/6H-SiC vertical heterostructure studied using XPS and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645711/proteome-dynamics-during-post-desiccation-recovery-reveal-convergence-of-desiccation-and-gamma-radiation-stress-response-pathways-in-deinococcus-radiodurans
#8
Aman Kumar Ujaoney, Mahesh Kumar Padwal, Bhakti Basu
Deinococcus radiodurans is inherently resistant to both ionizing radiation and desiccation. Fifteen months of desiccation was found to be the LD50 dose for D. radiodurans. Desiccated cells of D. radiodurans entered 6h of growth arrest during post-desiccation recovery (PDR). Proteome dynamics during PDR were mapped by resolving cellular proteins by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. At least 41 proteins, represented by 51 spots on proteome profiles, were differentially expressed throughout PDR...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645672/percutaneous-pedicle-screw-placement-under-single-dimensional-fluoroscopy-with-a-designed-pedicle-finder-a-technical-note-and-case-series
#9
Fon-Yih Tsuang, Chia-Hsien Chen, Yi-Jie Kuo, Wei-Lung Tseng, Yuan-Shen Chen, Chin-Jung Lin, Chun-Jen Liao, Feng-Huei Lin, Chang-Jung Chiang
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Minimally invasive spine surgery has become increasingly popular in clinical practice, and it offers patients the potential benefits of reduced blood loss, wound pain, and infection risk and also diminishes the loss of working time and length of hospital stay. However, surgeons require more intraoperative fluoroscopy and ionizing radiation exposure during minimally invasive spine surgery for localization, especially for guidance in instrumentation placement. In addition, computer navigation is not accessible in some facility-limited institutions...
June 20, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645457/diagnostic-medical-imaging-in-pediatric-patients-and-subsequent-cancer-risk
#10
REVIEW
David J Mulvihill, Sachin Jhawar, John B Kostis, Sharad Goyal
The use of diagnostic medical imaging is becoming increasingly more commonplace in the pediatric setting. However, many medical imaging modalities expose pediatric patients to ionizing radiation, which has been shown to increase the risk of cancer development in later life. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the available data regarding the risk of cancer development following exposure to ionizing radiation from diagnostic medical imaging. Attention is paid to modalities such as computed tomography scans and fluoroscopic procedures that can expose children to radiation doses orders of magnitude higher than standard diagnostic x-rays...
June 20, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645274/buccal-mucosa-micronuclei-counts-in-relation-to-exposure-to-low-dose-rate-radiation-from-the-chornobyl-nuclear-accident-and-other-medical-and-occupational-radiation-exposures
#11
D Bazyka, S C Finch, I M Ilienko, O Lyaskivska, I Dyagil, N Trotsiuk, N Gudzenko, V V Chumak, K M Walsh, J Wiemels, M P Little, L B Zablotska
BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation is a well-known carcinogen. Chromosome aberrations, and in particular micronuclei represent an early biological predictor of cancer risk. There are well-documented associations of micronuclei with ionizing radiation dose in some radiation-exposed groups, although not all. That associations are not seen in all radiation-exposed groups may be because cells with micronuclei will not generally pass through mitosis, so that radiation-induced micronuclei decay, generally within a few years after exposure...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645182/stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-brainstem-arteriovenous-malformations-a-multicenter-study
#12
Or Cohen-Inbar, Robert M Starke, Cheng-Chia Lee, Hideyuki Kano, Paul Huang, Douglas Kondziolka, Inga S Grills, Danilo Silva, Mohmoud Abbassy, Symeon Missios, Gene H Barnett, L Dade Lunsford, Jason P Sheehan
BACKGROUND: The management of brainstem arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) is a formidable challenge. bAVMs harbor higher morbidity and mortality compared to other locations. OBJECTIVE: To review the outcomes following stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of bAVMs in a multicenter study. METHODS: Six medical centers contributed data from 205 patients through the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Median age was 32 yr (6-81). Median nidus volume was 1...
June 21, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644913/supplement-2-for-the-2004-update-of-the-aapm-task-group-no-43-report-joint-recommendations-by-the-aapm-and-gec-estro
#13
Mark J Rivard, Facundo Ballester, Wayne M Butler, Larry A DeWerd, Geoffrey S Ibbott, Ali S Meigooni, Christopher S Melhus, Michael G Mitch, Ravinder Nath, Panagiotis Papagiannis
Since publication of the 2004 update to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 Report (TG-43U1) and its 2007 supplement (TG-43U1S1), several new low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy sources have become available. Many of these sources have satisfied the AAPM prerequisites for routine clinical purposes and are posted on the Brachytherapy Seed Registry managed jointly by the AAPM and the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston Quality Assurance Center (IROC Houston)...
June 23, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644765/radioactivity-measurements-and-dosimetric-evaluation-in-meat-of-wild-birds
#14
Carla Roselli, Donatella Desideri, Chiara Cantaluppi, Federica Ceccotto, Laura Feduzi, Maria Assunta Meli
The aim of this study was to determine the background activity concentration of natural radionuclides and (137)Cesium (Cs) in meat of 14 migratory birds originating from central and northern Europe. This meat is largely consumed by the Italian population. (40)K, (210)Pb, and (137)Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry and (210)Po by alpha spectrometry. The mean (40)K activity concentration detected was 490 ± 117 Bq/kgdw. In all the samples, (210)Pb was below the limit of detection (LOD), and therefore it was not possible to calculate the ratio (210)Po/(210)Pb...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644558/current-understanding-of-cancer-stem-cells-review-of-their-radiobiology-and-role-in-head-and-neck-cancers
#15
REVIEW
Paul Ambrose Reid, Puthenparampil Wilson, Yanrui Li, Loredana Gabriela Marcu, Eva Bezak
Evidence of cancer cells that bear attributes analogous to those of normal stem cells has developed a hierarchical model of cancer's architecture and progression. This subset of cancer stem cells (CSCs) drives the progression and therapy resistance of cancers. Research to identify the phenotypes of these CSCs presents evidence of a subpopulation that is more resistant to therapy and may proliferate in response. Literature shows that CSCs typically represent around 1%-10% of cell populations in head and neck cancer but this proportion may increase in response to a therapeutic radiation dose...
June 23, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644075/spine-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-metastatic-sarcoma-patterns-of-failure-and-radiation-treatment-volume-considerations
#16
Andrew J Bishop, Randa Tao, B Ashleigh Guadagnolo, Pamela K Allen, Neal C Rebueno, Xin A Wang, Behrang Amini, Claudio E Tatsui, Laurence D Rhines, Jing Li, Eric L Chang, Paul D Brown, Amol J Ghia
OBJECTIVE Given the relatively lower radiosensitivity of sarcomas and the locally infiltrative patterns of spread, the authors sought to investigate spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SSRS) outcomes for metastatic sarcomas and to analyze patterns of failure. METHODS The records of 48 patients with 66 sarcoma spinal metastases consecutively treated with SSRS between 2002 and 2013 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate rates of overall survival (OS) and local control (LC). Local recurrences were categorized as occurring infield (within the 95% isodose line [IDL]), marginally (between the 20% and 95% IDLs), or out of field...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643747/leiomyosarcoma-of-scrotum-a-rare-in-field-second-malignancy-in-a-previously-irradiated-carcinoma-of-prostate-and-review-of-literature
#17
Chelakkot G Prameela, Rahul Ravind
BACKGROUND: Curative intent treatments for malignancies using radiation therapy while achieving longer disease-free survivals, may also lead to solid second malignancies, a dreaded late complication. Both in-field as well as out-field second malignancies are encountered and lead to diagnostic dilemma, and delay in treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Details of a case of rare, in-field, radiation induced leiomyosarcoma, a rare soft tissue sarcoma, in a treated case of high risk carcinoma of prostate, who presented to our tertiary care centre was retrieved and analysed...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643745/adjuvant-hypofractionated-radiation-in-carcinoma-breast-photon-versus-electron-comparison-of-treatment-outcome
#18
G Prameela Chelakkot, Rahul Ravind, K Sruthi, Namrata Chigurupati, Sanketh Kotne, Raghavendra Holla, Ram Madhavan, M Dinesh
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer tissue is sensitive to hypofractionation. This is an analysis of patients treated with hypofractionated protocols since 2009, at our tertiary cancer center. METHODS: Details of breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) from January 2009 to December 2014 were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: One thousand seven hundred and eighty patients received adjuvant EBRT during this period...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643737/changes-in-pharyngeal-constrictor-volumes-during-head-and-neck-radiation-therapy-implications-for-dose-delivery
#19
Akila Kumarasiri, Chang Liu, Mona Kamal, Correen Fraser, Stephen Brown, Indrin J Chetty, Jinkoo Kim, Farzan Siddiqui
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical changes and associated dosimetric consequences to pharyngeal constrictor muscles (PCMs) that occur during head and neck (H and N) radiotherapy (RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 13 oropharyngeal cancer patients with daily cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was retrospectively studied. On every 5th CBCT image, PCM was manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. The anterior-posterior PCM thickness was measured at the midline level of C3 vertebral body...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643731/cardiotoxic-effects-of-radiotherapy-and-strategies-to-reduce-them-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-an-overview
#20
REVIEW
Katarzyna Rygiel
Cardiotoxicity of various anticancer therapies, including radiotherapy (RT), can lead to cardiovascular (CV) complications, and their severity depends on many factors, including the site of action, the applied dose, the method of administration, the presence of pre-existing CV diseases, or CV risk factors, the individual patient characteristics, and the current or previous use of antineoplastic therapies. Cardiotoxicity can occur immediately upon administration of the anticancer therapy or it may have a delayed onset (months or years after the treatment)...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
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