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Radiation dose

Zakaria Aboulbanine, Naïma El Khayati
The use of phase space in medical linear accelerator Monte Carlo (MC) simulations significantly improves the execution time and leads to results comparable to those obtained from full calculations. The classical representation of phase space stores directly the information of millions of particles, producing bulky files. This paper presents a virtual source model (VSM) based on a reconstruction algorithm, taking as input a compressed file of roughly 800 kb derived from phase space data freely available in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) database...
March 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Kotaro Ozasa, Eric J Grant, Kazunori Kodama
Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors-including those exposed in utero-and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
Vassilis Kouloulias, Evridiki Patriki, Eftychia Mosa, Kalliopi Platoni, John Georgakopoulos, Anna Zygogianni, Maria Dilvoi, George Patatoukas, Christos Antypas, Christina Armpilia, Nikolaos Trogkanis, Eyfrosini Kypraiou, Stella Nikoloudi, George Giannakouras, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos Kelekis, John Kouvaris
PURPOSE: To evaluate in an observational way the clinical impact of a hypofractionated irradiation schedule in patients with unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Forty elderly patients (24 men/16 women) diagnosed with unresectable stage IIIb/IV NSCLC unfit for chemotherapy, were treated with once-a-week hypofractionation schedule. All patients had a poor performance status. A dose of 255 Gy in 3 weekly fractions was prescribed while a 3D conformal technique (3D-CRT) was used for irradiation...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Benedito Jamilson Araújo Pereira, Antônio Nogueira de Almeida, Wellingson Silva Paiva, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Suely Kazue Nagahashi Marie
Evaluate whether radiotherapy (RT) after the neurosurgical treatment of atypical meningiomas (AM) has an impact on the reduction rate of recurrence. A Medline search through October 2017 using "atypical meningioma" returned 1277 papers for initial review. Inclusion criteria were as follows. We analyzed the database and included articles in which the anatomic pathological classification of atypical meningiomas was in accordance with WHO 2007 or WHO 2016 criteria, patients > 18 years of age, and there was postoperative external beam radiation to the tumor bed...
March 19, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Chenxue Jiang, Shuiyun Han, Wucheng Chen, Xiaozhen Ying, He Wu, Yaoyao Zhu, Guodong Shi, Xiaojiang Sun, Yaping Xu
Background: and purpose: This retrospective study aimed to investigate the feasibility of shrinking field radiotherapy during chemoradiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods: Ninety-seven patients with stage III NSCLC who achieved a good response to chemoradiation were analyzed. Computed tomography was performed after 40-50 Gy dose radiation to evaluate curative effect. Patients in the shrinking field group underwent resimulation CT scans and shrinking field radiotherapy...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Couger Jimenez Jaramillo, John Wojcik, Kristy Weber, Ronnie Sebro
Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumors (PHATs) are rare mesenchymal soft tissue tumors of uncertain lineage and intermediate malignancy. The present study assesses two cases of PHAT and discusses the histological and immunophenotypical features, as well as the imaging appearance of these tumors on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/CT scans. The current study also reviews the literature and discusses the clinical management of these tumors. Wide local excision with tumor free margins is the current recommended treatment for PHAT...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Rohit Gunan Ganju, Mindi TenNapel, Nicholas Mahan, Amir Zahra, Xinglei Shen
Background: There is little data regarding the effectiveness of palliative radiation with conventional fractionation for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which has been described as radioresistant. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with metastatic bony disease from RCC treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Methods: Forty patients with histologically confirmed RCC with a total of 53 treatment courses were included. Pain response after radiotherapy was recorded and freedom from progression was generated using posttreatment radiographs...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Kimberly M Arnold, Nicole J Flynn, Adam Raben, Lindsay Romak, Yan Yu, Adam P Dicker, Firas Mourtada, Jennifer Sims-Mourtada
In addition to inducing lethal DNA damage in tumor and stromal cells, radiation can alter the interactions of tumor cells with their microenvironment. Recent technological advances in planning and delivery of external beam radiotherapy have allowed delivery of larger doses per fraction (hypofractionation) while minimizing dose to normal tissues with higher precision. The effects of radiation on the tumor microenvironment vary with dose and fractionation schedule. In this review, we summarize the effects of conventional and hypofractionated radiation regimens on the immune system and tumor stroma...
2018: Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Stefanie Klein, Marc Wegmann, Luitpold V R Distel, Winfried Neuhuber, Carola Kryschi
Silicon nanoparticles with sizes between were synthesized through wet-chemistry procedures using diverse phase transfer reagents. On the other hand, the preparation of iron-doped silicon nanoparticles was carried out using the precursor Na4 Si4 containing 5% Fe. Biocompatibility of all silicon nanoparticle samples was achieved by surface-stabilizing with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. These surface structures provided positive surface charges which facilitated electrostatic binding to the negatively charged biological membranes...
March 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Marleen Vonder, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Merel A Kaatee, Carlijn M van der Aalst, Peter M A van Ooijen, Geertruida H de Bock, Jan Willem Gratama, Dirkjan Kuijpers, Harry J de Koning, Matthijs Oudkerk
BACKGROUND: To determine the impact of high-pitch spiral acquisition on radiation dose and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification by coronary artery calcium (CAC) assessment with computed tomography in individuals with a high heart rate. METHODS: Of the ROBINSCA trial, 1990 participants with regular rhythm and heart rates >65 beats per minute (bpm) were included. As reference, 390 participants with regular heart rates ≤65 bpm were used. All participants underwent prospectively electrocardiographically(ECG)-triggered imaging of the coronary arteries using dual source CT at 120 kVp, 80 ref mAs using both high-pitch spiral mode and sequential mode...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Vadim V Chumak, Sergiy V Klymenko, Horst Zitzelsberger, Christina Wilke, Lyudmila A Rybchenko, Elena V Bakhanova
The Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986 has caused significant exposure to ionizing radiation of the Ukrainian population, in particular clean-up workers and evacuees from the exclusion zones. A study aiming at the discovery of radiation markers of the breast cancer was conducted from 2008 to 2015 within a collaborative project by HZM, LMU, and NRCRM. In this study, post-Chernobyl breast cancer cases both in radiation-exposed female patients diagnosed at age less than 60 from 1992 to 2014 and in non-exposed controls matched for residency, tumor type, age at diagnosis, TNM classification as well as tumor grading were investigated for molecular changes with special emphasis to copy number alterations and miRNA profiles...
March 17, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Karl A Hujsak, Eric W Roth, William Kellogg, Yue Li, Vinayak P Dravid
Technological advances in electron microscopy, particularly improved detectors and aberration correctors, have led to higher throughput and less invasive imaging of materials and biological structures by enhancing signal-to-noise ratios at lower electron exposures. Analytical methods, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS), have also benefitted and offer a rich set of local elemental and bonding information with nano-or atomic resolution. However, spatially resolved spectrum imaging with EELS and EDS continue to be difficult to scale due to limited detector collection angles or high signal background, requiring hours or even days for full maps...
March 10, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Chenbin Liu, Steven E Schild, Joe Y Chang, Zhongxing Liao, Shawn Korte, Jiajian Shen, Xiaoning Ding, Yanle Hu, Yixiu Kang, Sameer R Keole, Terence T Sio, William W Wong, Narayan Sahoo, Martin Bues, Wei Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate how spot size and spacing affect plan quality, robustness, and interplay effects of robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for lung cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two robustly optimized IMPT plans were created for 10 lung cancer patients: first by a large-spot machine with in-air energy-dependent large spot size at isocenter (σ: 6-15 mm) and spacing (1.3 σ), and second by a small-spot machine with in-air energy-dependent small spot size (σ: 2-6 mm) and spacing (5 mm)...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
L Bua, E Tibaldi, L Falcioni, M Lauriola, L De Angelis, F Gnudi, M Manservigi, F Manservisi, I Manzoli, I Menghetti, R Montella, S Panzacchi, D Sgargi, V Strollo, A Vornoli, D Mandrioli, F Belpoggi
BACKGROUND: Up to now, experimental studies on rodents have failed to provide definitive confirmation of the carcinogenicity of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFEMF). Two recent studies performed in our laboratory on Sprague-Dawley rats reported a statistically significant increase in malignant tumors of different sites (mammary gland, C-cells carcinoma, hemolymphoreticular neoplasia, and malignant heart Schwannoma) when ELFEMF exposure was associated with exposure to formaldehyde (50 mg/l) or acute low dose of γ-radiation (0...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Research
Jinbo Yue, Qiuling Shi, Ting Xu, Melenda Jeter, Ting-Yu Chen, Ritsuko Komaki, Daniel R Gomez, Tinsu Pan, Charles S Cleeland, Zhongxing Liao, Xin Shelley Wang
PURPOSE: Clinician ratings of concurrent chemoradiation (CRT)-induced radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are based on both imaging and patient-reported lung symptoms. We compared the value of patient-reported outcomes versus normal-lung uptake of18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose in positron emission computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) during the last week of treatment, for indicating the development of grade ≥ 2 RP within 4 months of CRT completion...
March 16, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Mel O'Leary, Daria Boscolo, Nicole Breslin, Jeremy M C Brown, Igor P Dolbnya, Chris Emerson, Catarina Figueira, Oliver J L Fox, David Robert Grimes, Vladimir Ivosev, Annette K Kleppe, Aaron McCulloch, Ian Pape, Chris Polin, Nathan Wardlow, Fred J Currell
Absolute measurements of the radiolytic yield of Fe3+ in a ferrous sulphate dosimeter formulation (6 mM Fe2+), with a 20 keV x-ray monoenergetic beam, are reported. Dose-rate suppression of the radiolytic yield was observed at dose rates lower than and different in nature to those previously reported with x-rays. We present evidence that this effect is most likely to be due to recombination of free radicals radiolytically produced from water. The method used to make these measurements is also new and it provides radiolytic yields which are directly traceable to the SI standards system...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jorge Vilar-Palop, Ildefonso Hernandez-Aguado, María Pastor-Valero, José Vilar, Isabel González-Alvarez, Blanca Lumbreras
OBJECTIVES: To determine the appropriateness of medical imaging examinations involving radiation and to estimate the effective radiation dose and costs associated. DESIGN: Cross-sectional retrospective study. SETTING: Two Spanish public tertiary hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 2022 medical imaging tests were extracted from the radiology information system in February and March of 2014. MRI and ultrasound examinations were excluded...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Ronan L McDermott, John G Armstrong, Pierre Thirion, Mary Dunne, Marie Finn, Cormac Small, Mary Byrne, Carmel O'Shea, Lydia O'Sullivan, Aoife Shannon, Emma Kelly, Dayle J Hacking
TITLE: Cancer Trials Ireland (ICORG) 06-34: A multi-centre clinical trial using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy to reduce the toxicity of palliative radiation for lung cancer. NCT01176487. BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Trials of radiation therapy for the palliation of intra-thoracic symptoms from locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have concentrated on optimising fractionation and dose schedules. In these trials, the rates of oesophagitis induced by this "palliative" therapy have been unacceptably high...
March 13, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Katherine S Chen, Scott M Glaser, Allison E Garda, John A Vargo, M Saiful Huq, Dwight E Heron, Sushil Beriwal
BACKGROUND: Clinical pathways outline criteria for dose homogeneity and critical organ dosimetry. Based upon an internal audit showing suboptimal compliance with dosimetric parameters in whole breast irradiation (WBI), we conducted a mandatory web-based teaching conference for the network. This study reports the impact of this initiative on subsequent treatment plans. METHODS: Radiation treatment plans were collected for the 10 most recent patients receiving WBI at 16 institutions within the UPMC Hillman Cancer Center network...
March 16, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Sarah Löw, Tracy T Batchelor
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma limited to the brain, spinal cord, leptomeninges, and eyes. The majority of patients are immunocompetent, with a median age of 65 years at diagnosis. Historically, whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) was the first and sole treatment for PCNSL. Today, due to the recognized neurotoxicity of WBRT, this modality is usually avoided in the treatment. Most chemotherapy regimens are based on high-dose methotrexate plus the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab, leading to high response rates, but 5-year survival is still poor at approximately 30% compared with other extranodal lymphomas...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
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