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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088237/association-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Balewgizie Sileshi Tegegne, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold, Melkamu Merid Mengesha, Johannes G M Burgerhof
INTRODUCTION: Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a challenge to global tuberculosis (TB) control and remains a major public health concern in many countries. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an increasingly recognized comorbidity that can both accelerate TB disease and complicate its treatment. The aim of this study is to summarize available evidence on the association of DM and MDR-TB among TB patients and to provide a pooled estimate of risks. METHODS: All studies published in English before October 2016 will be searched using comprehensive search strings through PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and WHO Global Health Library databases which have reported the association of DM and MDR-TB in adults with TB (age > =15)...
January 14, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079771/advanced-research-and-data-methods-in-women-s-health-big-data-analytics-adaptive-studies-and-the-road-ahead
#2
Christian R Macedonia, Clark T Johnson, Indika Rajapakse
Technical advances in science have had broad implications in reproductive and women's health care. Recent innovations in population-level data collection and storage have made available an unprecedented amount of data for analysis while computational technology has evolved to permit processing of data previously thought too dense to study. "Big data" is a term used to describe data that are a combination of dramatically greater volume, complexity, and scale. The number of variables in typical big data research can readily be in the thousands, challenging the limits of traditional research methodologies...
January 9, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079723/toward-automating-hiv-identification-machine-learning-for-rapid-identification-of-hiv-related-social-media-data
#3
Sean D Young, Wenchao Yu, Wei Wang
INTRODUCTION: "Social big data" from technologies such as social media, wearable devices, and online searches continue to grow and can be used as tools for HIV research. Although researchers can uncover patterns and insights associated with HIV trends and transmission, the review process is time consuming and resource intensive. Machine learning methods derived from computer science might be used to assist HIV domain experts by learning how to rapidly and accurately identify patterns associated with HIV from a large set of social data...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074900/physical-controllability-of-complex-networks
#4
Le-Zhi Wang, Yu-Zhong Chen, Wen-Xu Wang, Ying-Cheng Lai
A challenging problem in network science is to control complex networks. In existing frameworks of structural or exact controllability, the ability to steer a complex network toward any desired state is measured by the minimum number of required driver nodes. However, if we implement actual control by imposing input signals on the minimum set of driver nodes, an unexpected phenomenon arises: due to computational or experimental error there is a great probability that convergence to the final state cannot be achieved...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071974/from-ancient-greece-to-the-cognitive-revolution-a-comprehensive-view-of-physical-rehabilitation-sciences
#5
David Martínez-Pernía, Óscar González-Castán, David Huepe
The development of rehabilitation has traditionally focused on measurements of motor disorders and measurements of the improvements produced during the therapeutic process; however, physical rehabilitation sciences have not focused on understanding the philosophical and scientific principles in clinical intervention and how they are interrelated. The main aim of this paper is to explain the foundation stones of the disciplines of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech/language therapy in recovery from motor disorder...
January 10, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071731/in-silico-experiments-of-zebrafish-behaviour-modeling-swimming-in-three-dimensions
#6
Violet Mwaffo, Sachit Butail, Maurizio Porfiri
Zebrafish is fast becoming a species of choice in biomedical research for the investigation of functional and dysfunctional processes coupled with their genetic and pharmacological modulation. As with mammals, experimentation with zebrafish constitutes a complicated ethical issue that calls for the exploration of alternative testing methods to reduce the number of subjects, refine experimental designs, and replace live animals. Inspired by the demonstrated advantages of computational studies in other life science domains, we establish an authentic data-driven modelling framework to simulate zebrafish swimming in three dimensions...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068491/bioavailabilty-of-nutrients-and-micronutrients-advances-in-modeling-and-in-vitro-approaches
#7
Sébastien Marze
The bioavailability of food nutrients and microconstituents is recognized as a determinant factor for optimal health status. However, human and animal studies are expensive and limited by the large amount of potential food bioactive compounds. The search for alternatives is very active and raises many questions.Onone hand, in vitro digestion systems are good candidates, but to date only bioaccessibility has been correctly assessed. To go further, to what degree should natural processes be reproduced? What techniques can be used to measure the changes in food properties and structures in situ in a noninvasive way? On the other hand, modeling approaches have good potential, but their development is time-consuming...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068484/informatics-and-data-analytics-to-support-exposome-based-discovery-for-public-health
#8
Arjun K Manrai, Yuxia Cui, Pierre R Bushel, Molly Hall, Spyros Karakitsios, Carolyn J Mattingly, Marylyn Ritchie, Charles Schmitt, Denis A Sarigiannis, Duncan C Thomas, David Wishart, David M Balshaw, Chirag J Patel
The complexity of the human exposome-the totality of environmental exposures encountered from birth to death-motivates systematic, high-throughput approaches to discover the environmental determinants of disease. In this review, we describe the state of science in analyzing the human exposome and provide recommendations for the public health community to consider in dealing with analytic challenges of exposome-based biomedical research. We describe extant and novel analytic methods needed to associate the exposome with critical health outcomes and contextualize the data-centered challenges by drawing parallels to other research endeavors such as human genomics research...
December 23, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067266/quantification-of-network-structural-dissimilarities
#9
Tiago A Schieber, Laura Carpi, Albert Díaz-Guilera, Panos M Pardalos, Cristina Masoller, Martín G Ravetti
Identifying and quantifying dissimilarities among graphs is a fundamental and challenging problem of practical importance in many fields of science. Current methods of network comparison are limited to extract only partial information or are computationally very demanding. Here we propose an efficient and precise measure for network comparison, which is based on quantifying differences among distance probability distributions extracted from the networks. Extensive experiments on synthetic and real-world networks show that this measure returns non-zero values only when the graphs are non-isomorphic...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061884/treeman-an-r-package-for-efficient-and-intuitive-manipulation-of-phylogenetic-trees
#10
Dominic J Bennett, Mark D Sutton, Samuel T Turvey
BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic trees are hierarchical structures used for representing the inter-relationships between biological entities. They are the most common tool for representing evolution and are essential to a range of fields across the life sciences. The manipulation of phylogenetic trees-in terms of adding or removing tips-is often performed by researchers not just for reasons of management but also for performing simulations in order to understand the processes of evolution. Despite this, the most common programming language among biologists, R, has few class structures well suited to these tasks...
January 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061043/an-overview-of-r-in-health-decision-sciences
#11
Hawre Jalal, Petros Pechlivanoglou, Eline Krijkamp, Fernando Alarid-Escudero, Eva Enns, M G Myriam Hunink
As the complexity of health decision science applications increases, high-level programming languages are increasingly adopted for statistical analyses and numerical computations. These programming languages facilitate sophisticated modeling, model documentation, and analysis reproducibility. Among the high-level programming languages, the statistical programming framework R is gaining increased recognition. R is freely available, cross-platform compatible, and open source. A large community of users who have generated an extensive collection of well-documented packages and functions supports it...
January 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060718/woce-a-framework-for-clustering-ensemble-by-exploiting-the-wisdom-of-crowds-theory
#12
Muhammad Yousefnezhad, Sheng-Jun Huang, Daoqiang Zhang
The wisdom of crowds (WOCs), as a theory in the social science, gets a new paradigm in computer science. The WOC theory explains that the aggregate decision made by a group is often better than those of its individual members if specific conditions are satisfied. This paper presents a novel framework for unsupervised and semisupervised cluster ensemble by exploiting the WOC theory. We employ four conditions in the WOC theory, i.e., diversity, independency, decentralization, and aggregation, to guide both constructing of individual clustering results and final combination for clustering ensemble...
January 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056093/efficient-switches-in-biology-and-computer-science
#13
Luca Cardelli, Rosa D Hernansaiz-Ballesteros, Neil Dalchau, Attila Csikász-Nagy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049518/an-ontological-analysis-of-medical-bayesian-indicators-of-performance
#14
Adrien Barton, Jean-François Ethier, Régis Duvauferrier, Anita Burgun
BACKGROUND: Biomedical ontologies aim at providing the most exhaustive and rigorous representation of reality as described by biomedical sciences. A large part of medical reasoning deals with diagnosis and is essentially probabilistic. It would be an asset for biomedical ontologies to be able to support such a probabilistic reasoning and formalize Bayesian indicators of performance: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. In doing so, one has to consider that not only the positive and negative predictive values, but also sensitivity and specificity depend upon the group under consideration: this is the "spectrum effect"...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048893/mo-de-209-01-primer-on-tomosynthesis
#15
A Maidment
: Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) is rapidly replacing mammography as the standard of care in breast cancer screening and diagnosis. DBT is a form of computed tomography, in which a limited set of projection images are acquired over a small angular range and reconstructed into tomographic data. The angular range varies from 15° to 50° and the number of projections varies between 9 and 25 projections, as determined by the equipment manufacturer. It is equally valid to treat DBT as the digital analog of classical tomography - that is, linear tomography...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048882/su-f-p-25-dosimetric-changes-of-brainstem-caused-by-weight-loss-during-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#16
W Hu, C Yu, Y Cai, X Zhou, W Wang, H Yang
PURPOSE: To explore dosimetric effects of brainstem (BS) caused by weight loss during the course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: Seventy-seven patients who were diagnosed with NPC by pathology biopsy have been enrolled. Every patients should receive weight measurement weekly and three times of computed tomography (CT) scans and replanning, at the 15th and 25th fraction during the treatment, respectively...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048858/su-f-i-07-cbct-denoising-based-on-adaptive-dictionary-learning-algorithms
#17
Shaohua Qin, Juan Yin, Hongsheng Li, Jinhu Chen, Yong Yin, Dengwang Li
PURPOSE: We proposed a new dictionary learning algorithm (AK-SVD) based on K-SVD. AK-SVD can denoise the CBCT image, and did not need the noise information as prior knowledge. METHODS: The AK-SVD had two steps: signal sparse representation, and then dictionary optimization. The CBCT image was sparse, and there were limited big coefficients. The other coefficients were zero or near zero. In the sparse representation step of traditional K-SVD, the noise variance was used as a threshold to select the big representation coefficients...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048844/su-f-j-70-monte-carlo-study-on-a-cone-beam-computed-tomography-using-a-cross-type-carbon-fiber-antiscatter-grid
#18
K Usui, T Inoue, C Kurokawa, S Sugimoto, K Sasai, K Ogawa
PURPOSE: If a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image can be used for adaptive radiotherapy (ART), an irradiated actual dose distribution can be verified on every treatment day. However, a CBCT image is commonly degraded by scattered photons and thus cannot be directly used for dose calculation. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate whether a cross-type carbon fiber antiscatter grid improves CBCT image quality using a Monte Carlo (MC) method for achieving CBCT-based ART. METHODS: We designed a new carbon fiber (C6 H10 O5 ) interspaced grid, which allows the grid ratio to be increased while maintaining the transmission of primary photons...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048813/mo-fg-209-04-dbt-applications-of-feature-adaptive-visual-search-model-oberver
#19
M Das
: This symposium will review recent advances in the simulation methods for evaluation of novel breast imaging systems - the subject of AAPM Task Group TG234. Our focus will be on the various approaches to development and validation of software anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in the statistical assessment of novel imaging systems using such phantoms along with computational models for the x-ray image formation process. Due to the dynamic development and complex design of modern medical imaging systems, the simulation of anatomical structures, image acquisition modalities, and the image perception and analysis offers substantial benefits of reduced cost, duration, and radiation exposure, as well as the known ground-truth and wide variability in simulated anatomies...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048805/su-f-r-42-association-of-radiomic-and-metabolic-tumor-volumes-in-radiation-treatment-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#20
C Lopez, N Nagornaya, N Parra, D Kwon, F Ishkanian, A Markoe, A Maudsley, R Stoyanova
PURPOSE: High-throughput extraction of imaging and metabolomic quantitative features from MRI and MR Spectroscopy Imaging (MRSI) of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) results in tens of variables per patient. In radiotherapy (RT) of GBM, the relevant metabolic tumor volumes (MTVs) are related to aberrant levels of N-acetyl Aspartate (NAA) and Choline (Cho). Corresponding Clinical Target Volumes (CTVs) for RT planning are based on Contrast Enhancing T1-weighted MRI (CE-T1w) and T2-weighted/Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) MRI...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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