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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445129/tea-consumption-and-the-risk-of-ovarian-cancer-a-meta-analysis-of-epidemiological-studies
#1
Xin Zhan, Jie Wang, Shufen Pan, Caijuan Lu
A large number of epidemiological studies have provided conflicting results about the relationship between tea consumption and ovarian cancer. This study aimed to clarify the association between tea consumption and ovarian cancer. A literature search of the MEDICINE, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science databases was performed in April 2016. A total of 18 (11 case-control and 7 cohort) studies, representing data for 701,857 female subjects including 8,683 ovarian cancer cases, were included in the meta-analysis...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444384/e-science-technologies-in-a-workflow-for-personalized-medicine-using-cancer-screening-as-a-case-study
#2
Ola Spjuth, Andreas Karlsson, Mark Clements, Keith Humphreys, Emma Ivansson, Jim Dowling, Martin Eklund, Alexandra Jauhiainen, Kamila Czene, Henrik Grönberg, Pär Sparén, Fredrik Wiklund, Abbas Cheddad, Þorgerður Pálsdóttir, Mattias Rantalainen, Linda Abrahamsson, Erwin Laure, Jan-Eric Litton, Juni Palmgren
Objective: We provide an e-Science perspective on the workflow from risk factor discovery and classification of disease to evaluation of personalized intervention programs. As case studies, we use personalized prostate and breast cancer screenings. Materials and Methods: We describe an e-Science initiative in Sweden, e-Science for Cancer Prevention and Control (eCPC), which supports biomarker discovery and offers decision support for personalized intervention strategies...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443654/quantifying-the-self-assembly-behavior-of-anisotropic-nanoparticles-using-liquid-phase-transmission-electron-microscopy
#3
Binbin Luo, John W Smith, Zihao Ou, Qian Chen
For decades, one of the overarching objectives of self-assembly science has been to define the rules necessary to build functional, artificial materials with rich and adaptive phase behavior from the bottom-up. To this end, the computational and experimental efforts of chemists, physicists, materials scientists, and biologists alike have built a body of knowledge that spans both disciplines and length scales. Indeed, today control of self-assembly is extending even to supramolecular and molecular levels, where crystal engineering and design of porous materials are becoming exciting areas of exploration...
April 26, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443653/borophane-as-a-bench-mate-of-graphene-a-potential-2d-material-for-anode-of-li-and-na-ion-batteries
#4
Naresh K Jena, Rafael B Araujo, Vivekanand Shukla, Rajeev Ahuja
Borophene, single atomic-layer sheet of boron (Science, 2015, 350, 1513), is a rather new entrant into the burgeoning class of 2D materials. Borophene exhibits anisotropic metallic properties whereas its hydrogenated counterpart borophane is reported to be a gapless Dirac material lying on the same bench with the celebrated graphene. Interestingly, this transition of borophane also rendered stability to it considering the fact that borophene was synthesized under ultra-high vacuum conditions on a metallic (Ag) substrate...
April 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441746/high-performance-prediction-of-human-estrogen-receptor-agonists-based-on-chemical-structures
#5
Yuki Asako, Yoshihiro Uesawa
Many agonists for the estrogen receptor are known to disrupt endocrine functioning. We have developed a computational model that predicts agonists for the estrogen receptor ligand-binding domain in an assay system. Our model was entered into the Tox21 Data Challenge 2014, a computational toxicology competition organized by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. This competition aims to find high-performance predictive models for various adverse-outcome pathways, including the estrogen receptor...
April 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441482/the-value-of-nmr-parameters-and-dft-calculations-for-quantum-information-processing-utilizing-phosphorus-heterocycles
#6
Jessica Boreli Dos Reis Lino, Eduardo P Rocha, Teodorico Castro Ramalho
Quantum computing is the field of science that uses quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. The fundamental information unit used in quantum computing is the quantum bit or qubit. It is well-known that quantum computers could theoretically be able to solve problems much more quickly than any classical computers. Currently, the first and still the most successful implementations of quantum information processing (QIP) have been based on nuclear spins in liquids...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441481/best-practices-of-computer-aided-drug-discovery-cadd-lessons-learned-from-the-development-of-a-preclinical-candidate-for-prostate-cancer-with-a-new-mechanism-of-action
#7
Fuqiang Ban, Kush Dalal, Huifang Li, Eric LeBlanc, Paul S Rennie, Artem Cherkasov
Small-molecule drug design is a complex and iterative decision-making process relying on pre-existing knowledge and driven by experimental data. Low molecular weight chemicals represent an attractive therapeutic option as they are readily accessible to organic synthesis and can easily be characterized.1 Their potency, as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties can be systematically and rationally investigated, and ultimately optimized via expert science behind medicinal chemistry and methods of computer-aided drug design (CADD)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435877/design-and-function-of-biomimetic-multilayer-water-purification-membranes
#8
Shengjie Ling, Zhao Qin, Wenwen Huang, Sufeng Cao, David L Kaplan, Markus J Buehler
Multilayer architectures in water purification membranes enable increased water throughput, high filter efficiency, and high molecular loading capacity. However, the preparation of membranes with well-organized multilayer structures, starting from the nanoscale to maximize filtration efficiency, remains a challenge. We report a complete strategy to fully realize a novel biomaterial-based multilayer nanoporous membrane via the integration of computational simulation and experimental fabrication. Our comparative computational simulations, based on coarse-grained models of protein nanofibrils and mineral plates, reveal that the multilayer structure can only form with weak interactions between nanofibrils and mineral plates...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434193/mediators-of-socioeconomic-differences-in-adiposity-among-youth-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
M K Gebremariam, N Lien, R A Nianogo, O A Arah
BACKGROUND: Youth with a low socioeconomic position in developed countries are at a disproportionately higher risk of being overweight or obese than their counterparts. Tackling these inequalities requires that the mechanisms behind them are well understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to summarize existing evidence regarding the factors that mediate or contribute to the explanation of the relationship between socioeconomic position and adiposity among youth...
April 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433822/programming-experience-promotes-higher-stem-motivation-among-first-grade-girls
#10
Allison Master, Sapna Cheryan, Adriana Moscatelli, Andrew N Meltzoff
The gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) engagement is large and persistent. This gap is significantly larger in technological fields such as computer science and engineering than in math and science. Gender gaps begin early; young girls report less interest and self-efficacy in technology compared with boys in elementary school. In the current study (N=96), we assessed 6-year-old children's stereotypes about STEM fields and tested an intervention to develop girls' STEM motivation despite these stereotypes...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432850/a-detailed-experimental-study-of-a-dna-computer-with-two-endonucleases
#11
Sebastian Sakowski, Tadeusz Krasiński, Joanna Sarnik, Janusz Blasiak, Jacek Waldmajer, Tomasz Poplawski
Great advances in biotechnology have allowed the construction of a computer from DNA. One of the proposed solutions is a biomolecular finite automaton, a simple two-state DNA computer without memory, which was presented by Ehud Shapiro's group at the Weizmann Institute of Science. The main problem with this computer, in which biomolecules carry out logical operations, is its complexity - increasing the number of states of biomolecular automata. In this study, we constructed (in laboratory conditions) a six-state DNA computer that uses two endonucleases (e...
April 22, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431197/serum-c-reactive-protein-procalcitonin-and-lactate-dehydrogenase-for-the-diagnosis-of-pancreatic-necrosis
#12
REVIEW
Oluyemi Komolafe, Stephen P Pereira, Brian R Davidson, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: The treatment of people with pancreatic necrosis differs from that of people with oedematous pancreatitis. It is important to know the diagnostic accuracy of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum procalcitonin, and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a triage test for the detection of pancreatic necrosis in people with acute pancreatitis, so that an informed decision can be made as to whether the person with pancreatic necrosis needs further investigations such as computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and treatment for pancreatic necrosis started...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428762/gendered-pathways-how-mathematics-ability-beliefs-shape-secondary-and-postsecondary-course-and-degree-field-choices
#13
REVIEW
Lara Perez-Felkner, Samantha Nix, Kirby Thomas
Do mathematics ability beliefs explain gender gaps in the physical science, engineering, mathematics, and computer science fields (PEMC) and other science fields? We leverage U.S. nationally representative longitudinal data to estimate gendered differences in girls' and boys' perceptions of mathematics ability with the most difficult or challenging material. Our analyses examine the potentially interacting effects of gender and these ability beliefs on students' pathways to scientific careers. Specifically, we study how beliefs about ability with challenging mathematics influence girls' and boys' choices to pursue PEMC degrees, evaluating educational milestones over a 6-year period: advanced science course completion in secondary school and postsecondary major retention and selection...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427925/effect-of-home-and-community-based-physical-activity-interventions-on-physical-function-among-cancer-survivors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Maria C Swartz, Zakkoyya H Lewis, Elizabeth J Lyons, Kristofer Jennings, Addie Middleton, Rachel R Deer, Demi Arnold, Kaitlin Dresser, Kenneth J Ottenbacher, James S Goodwin
OBJECTIVE: We reviewed randomized trials to examine the effect of home and community-based physical activity interventions on physical functioning among cancer survivors based on the most prevalent physical function measures. DATA SOURCES: Five electronic databases-Medline Ovid, Pubmed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PsychINFO-were searched from inception to March 2016 for relevant articles. STUDY SELECTION: Search terms included: community-based interventions, physical functioning, and cancer survivors...
April 17, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426839/medical-history-in-the-hellenic-journal-of-nuclear-medicine
#15
EDITORIAL
Andreas Otte, Byeong Cheol Ahn
The Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine is about to celebrate its 20th anniversary end of 2017. On board of the editorial team since 2003, this journal has influenced me like a good friend over the many past years. From time to time, the journal has published interesting and valuable historical notes. They show that nuclear medicine has a history and that medicine is its basis. They also teach us today, and some of the ancient perspectives and approaches are still valid. The reader of HJNM may be interested in these historical contributions, as they are timeless...
January 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425568/libkedf-an-accelerated-library-of-kinetic-energy-density-functionals
#16
Johannes M Dieterich, William C Witt, Emily A Carter
Kinetic energy density functionals (KEDFs) approximate the kinetic energy of a system of electrons directly from its electron density. They are used in electronic structure methods that lack direct access to orbitals, for example, orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) and certain embedding schemes. In this contribution, we introduce libKEDF, an accelerated library of modern KEDF implementations that emphasizes nonlocal KEDFs. We discuss implementation details and assess the performance of the KEDF implementations for large numbers of atoms...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424457/vertex-coloring-of-graphs-via-phase-dynamics-of-coupled-oscillatory-networks
#17
Abhinav Parihar, Nikhil Shukla, Matthew Jerry, Suman Datta, Arijit Raychowdhury
While Boolean logic has been the backbone of digital information processing, there exist classes of computationally hard problems wherein this paradigm is fundamentally inefficient. Vertex coloring of graphs, belonging to the class of combinatorial optimization, represents one such problem. It is well studied for its applications in data sciences, life sciences, social sciences and technology, and hence, motivates alternate, more efficient non-Boolean pathways towards its solution. Here we demonstrate a coupled relaxation oscillator based dynamical system that exploits insulator-metal transition in Vanadium Dioxide (VO2) to efficiently solve vertex coloring of graphs...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423800/project-peach-at-uclh-student-projects-in-healthcare-computing
#18
Navin Ramachandran, Dean Mohamedally, Paul Taylor
A collaboration between clinicians at UCLH and the Dept of Computer Science at UCL is giving students of computer science the opportunity to undertake real healthcare computing projects as part of their education. This is enabling the creation of a significant research computing platform within the Trust, based on open source components and hosted in the cloud, while providing a large group of students with experience of the specific challenges of health IT.
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423704/prognostic-and-clinicopathological-role-of-long-non-coding-rna-uca1-in-various-carcinomas
#19
Xiaoxiong Wang, Fei Peng, Liang Cheng, Guang Yang, Daming Zhang, Jiaqi Liu, Xin Chen, Shiguang Zhao
Urothelial cancer associated 1 (UCA1) as an oncogenic long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) was aberrantly upregulated in various solid tumors. Numerous studies have demonstrated overexpression of UCA1 is an unfavorable prognostic indicator in cancer patients. This study aimed to further explore the prognosis role and clinical significance of UCA1 in cancer. Eligible studies were recruited by a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. A total of 19/16 studies with 1587/1291 cancer patients were included to evaluate the association between UCA1 expression and overall survival (OS) and clinicopathological factors of malignancies by computing hazard ratio (HR), odds ratios (OR) and confidence interval (CI)...
March 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423049/inmap-a-model-for-air-pollution-interventions
#20
Christopher W Tessum, Jason D Hill, Julian D Marshall
Mechanistic air pollution modeling is essential in air quality management, yet the extensive expertise and computational resources required to run most models prevent their use in many situations where their results would be useful. Here, we present InMAP (Intervention Model for Air Pollution), which offers an alternative to comprehensive air quality models for estimating the air pollution health impacts of emission reductions and other potential interventions. InMAP estimates annual-average changes in primary and secondary fine particle (PM2...
2017: PloS One
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