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Computational science

Tamar Mendelson, William W Eaton
PURPOSE: Prevention of mental disorders is a rapidly growing area of research with substantial potential benefits for population health. This paper reviews the evidence base for prevention of depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. METHODS: We synthesized evidence from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between 2013 and 2018 on prevention of depression, anxiety, and first-episode psychosis. We included reviews of randomized controlled trials testing psychological, psychosocial, and pharmacological preventive interventions...
March 15, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Sami S AlAbdulwahab, Shaji John Kachanathu, Abdullah Saad AlSaeed
[Purpose] Academic performance of college students can be impacted by the efficacy of students' ability and teaching methods. It is important to assess the progression of college students' cognitive abilities among different college majors and as they move from junior to senior levels. However, dearth of studies have been examined the role of cognitive ability tests as a tool to determine the aptitude of the perspective students. Therefore, this study assessed cognitive abilities of computer science and ART students...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Shuai Zhang, Burkhard Militzer, Lorin X Benedict, François Soubiran, Philip A Sterne, Kevin P Driver
Carbon-hydrogen plasmas and hydrocarbon materials are of broad interest to laser shock experimentalists, high energy density physicists, and astrophysicists. Accurate equations of state (EOSs) of hydrocarbons are valuable for various studies from inertial confinement fusion to planetary science. By combining path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) results at high temperatures and density functional theory molecular dynamics results at lower temperatures, we compute the EOSs for hydrocarbons from simulations performed at 1473 separate (ρ, T)-points distributed over a range of compositions...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Alberto Gómez, Manuel Nieto-Díaz, Ángela Del Águila, Enrique Arias
Transparency in science is increasingly a hot topic. Scientists are required to show not only results but also evidence of how they have achieved these results. In experimental studies of spinal cord injury, there are a number of standardized tests, such as the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale for rats and Basso Mouse Scale for mice, which researchers use to study the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury and to evaluate the effects of experimental therapies. Although the standardized data from the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale and the Basso Mouse Scale are particularly suited for storage and sharing in databases, systems of data acquisition and repositories are still lacking...
March 2, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Brian D Segal, Thomas Braun, Michael R Elliott, Hui Jiang
Researchers in genetics and other life sciences commonly use permutation tests to evaluate differences between groups. Permutation tests have desirable properties, including exactness if data are exchangeable, and are applicable even when the distribution of the test statistic is analytically intractable. However, permutation tests can be computationally intensive. We propose both an asymptotic approximation and a resampling algorithm for quickly estimating small permutation p-values (e.g., <10-6) for the difference and ratio of means in two-sample tests...
March 2018: Biometrics
Saeedullah Jan, Abid Hussain, Muhammad Ibrahim, Sarah Saeed
This study was planned to examine the hard and soft form of learning resources available on the internet accessed by the teaching faculty. This study was conducted at the Peshawar Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan from January 2to April 2017. As the target population was not too large, no sampling technique was employed and census-based approach was adopted. For data collection, the pre-tested questionnaire was distributed among 115 faculty members of both basic and clinical sciences groups with a response rate of 66(57...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Yu Moriguchi, Dae-Sung Lee, Ryota Chijimatsu, Khair Thamina, Kazuto Masuda, Dai Itsuki, Hideki Yoshikawa, Satoshi Hamaguchi, Akira Myoui
In the physiochemical sciences, plasma is used to describe an ionized gas. Previous studies have implicated plasma surface treatment in the enhancement of hydrophilicity of implanted musculoskeletal reconstructive materials. Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics, widely used in bone tissue regeneration, have made great advancements to skeletal surgery. In the present study, we investigate the impact of low-pressure plasma on the interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA) both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, when used with oxygen, can augment the hydrophilicity of non-porous HA surfaces and the osteoconductivity of the IP-CHA disc via increased water penetration of inner porous structures, as demonstrated through microfocus computed tomography (μCT) assay...
2018: PloS One
Sagaren Govender, Cecile N Gerwel Proches, Abdulla Kader
Background: Four public hospitals in South Africa, which render both specialized and nonspecialized services to thousands of patients, were examined to determine the impact of leadership on health care service delivery. These hospitals were inundated by various problems that were impacting negatively on health care service delivery. Purpose: This research study aimed to gain a comprehensive understanding of the challenges, complexities and constraints facing public health care in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and to examine leadership as a strategy to enhance healthcare service delivery with a particular focus on four regional hospitals in the KZN Province...
2018: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Hermann Blessberger, Juergen Kammler, Hans Domanovits, Oliver Schlager, Brigitte Wildner, Danyel Azar, Martin Schillinger, Franz Wiesbauer, Clemens Steinwender
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials have yielded conflicting results regarding the ability of beta-blockers to influence perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus routine prescription of these drugs in unselected patients remains a controversial issue. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to systematically analyse the effects of perioperatively administered beta-blockers for prevention of surgery-related mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing any type of surgery while under general anaesthesia...
March 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Meixun Zheng, Daniel Bender
Computer-based testing (CBT) has made progress in health sciences education. In 2015, the authors led implementation of a CBT system (ExamSoft) at a dental school in the U.S. Guided by the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the purposes of this study were to (a) examine dental students' acceptance of ExamSoft; (b) understand factors impacting acceptance; and (c) evaluate the impact of ExamSoft on students' learning and exam performance. Survey and focus group data revealed that ExamSoft was well accepted by students as a testing tool and acknowledged by most for its potential to support learning...
March 13, 2018: Medical Teacher
Victoria Stodden, Jennifer Seiler, Zhaokun Ma
A key component of scientific communication is sufficient information for other researchers in the field to reproduce published findings. For computational and data-enabled research, this has often been interpreted to mean making available the raw data from which results were generated, the computer code that generated the findings, and any additional information needed such as workflows and input parameters. Many journals are revising author guidelines to include data and code availability. This work evaluates the effectiveness of journal policy that requires the data and code necessary for reproducibility be made available postpublication by the authors upon request...
March 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dominic B Dwyer, Carlos Cabral, Lana Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Rachele Sanfelici, Joseph Kambeitz, Vince Calhoun, Peter Falkai, Christos Pantelis, Eva Meisenzahl, Nikolaos Koutsouleris
Identifying distinctive subtypes of schizophrenia could ultimately enhance diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. We aimed to uncover neuroanatomical subtypes of chronic schizophrenia patients to test whether stratification can enhance computer-aided discrimination of patients from control subjects. Unsupervised, data-driven clustering of structural MRI (sMRI) data was used to identify 2 subtypes of schizophrenia patients drawn from a US-based open science repository (n = 71) and we quantified classification improvements compared to controls (n = 74) using supervised machine learning...
February 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Anussara Prayongrat, Kikuo Umegaki, Arjen van der Schaaf, Albert C Koong, Steven H Lin, Thomas Whitaker, Todd McNutt, Naruhiro Matsufuji, Edward Graves, Masahiko Mizuta, Kazuhiko Ogawa, Hiroyuki Date, Kensuke Moriwaki, Yoichi M Ito, Keiji Kobashi, Yasuhiro Dekura, Shinichi Shimizu, Hiroki Shirato
Particle beam therapy (PBT), including proton and carbon ion therapy, is an emerging innovative treatment for cancer patients. Due to the high cost of and limited access to treatment, meticulous selection of patients who would benefit most from PBT, when compared with standard X-ray therapy (XRT), is necessary. Due to the cost and labor involved in randomized controlled trials, the model-based approach (MBA) is used as an alternative means of establishing scientific evidence in medicine, and it can be improved continuously...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Jinbo Chen, Uwe Scholz, Ruonan Zhou, Matthias Lange
In order to access and filter content of life-science databases, full text search is a widely applied query interface. But its high flexibility and intuitiveness is paid for with potentially imprecise and incomplete query results. To reduce this drawback, query assistance systems suggest those combinations of keywords with the highest potential to match most of the relevant data records. Widespread approaches are syntactic query corrections that avoid misspelling and support expansion of words by suffixes and prefixes...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Isaac R Galatzer-Levy, Kelly Ruggles, Zhe Chen
Diverse environmental and biological systems interact to influence individual differences in response to environmental stress. Understanding the nature of these complex relationships can enhance the development of methods to: (1) identify risk, (2) classify individuals as healthy or ill, (3) understand mechanisms of change, and (4) develop effective treatments. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative provides a theoretical framework to understand health and illness as the product of multiple inter-related systems but does not provide a framework to characterize or statistically evaluate such complex relationships...
January 2018: Chronic Stress
Stefan Iglauer, Maxim Lebedev
Physical, chemical and mechanical pore-scale (i.e. micrometer-scale) mechanisms in rock are of key importance in many, if not all, subsurface processes. These processes are highly relevant in various applications, e.g. hydrocarbon recovery, CO2 geo-sequestration, geophysical exploration, water production, geothermal energy production, or the prediction of the location of valuable hydrothermal deposits. Typical examples are multi-phase flow (e.g. oil and water) displacements driven by buoyancy, viscous or capillary forces, mineral-fluid interactions (e...
December 28, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Hossein Jamali, Herman W Barkema, Mario Jacques, Eve-Marie Lavallée-Bourget, François Malouin, Vineet Saini, Henrik Stryhn, Simon Dufour
Clinical mastitis (CM) is one of the most frequent and costly diseases in dairy cows. A frustrating aspect of CM is its recurrent nature. This review was conducted to synthesize knowledge on risk of repeated cases of CM, effects of recurrent CM cases, and risk factors for CM recurrence. A systematic review methodology was used to identify articles for this narrative review. Searches were performed to identify relevant scientific literature published after 1989 in English or French from 2 databases (PubMed and CAB Abstracts) and 1 search platform (Web of Science)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Cassidy A Gutner, Eric R Pedersen, Sean P A Drummond
Inclusion of consumer preferences to disseminate evidence-based psychosocial treatment (EBPT) is crucial to effectively bridge the science-to-practice quality chasm. We examined this treatment gap for insomnia, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and comorbid symptoms in a sample of 622 young adult veterans through preference in symptom focus, treatment modality, and related gender differences among those screening positive for each problem. Data were collected from veteran drinkers recruited through targeted Facebook advertisements as part of a brief online alcohol intervention...
March 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Xiaoling Yu, Xiaosheng Cheng, Ning Dai, Hu Chen, Changjiang Yu, Yuchun Sun
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In dentistry, the complete denture is a conventional treatment for edentulous patients. The computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has been applied on the digital complete denture which is developed rapidly. Tooth selection and arrangement is one of the most important parts in digital complete denture. In this paper, we propose a new method of personalized teeth arrangement. METHODS: This paper presents a method of arranging teeth virtually for a complete denture...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
M Saba Rahim, Himanshu Sharma, Afsana Parveen, Joy K Roy
Previously, association mapping (AM) methodology was used to unravel genetic complications in animal science by measuring the complex traits for candidate and non-candidate genes. Nowadays, this statistical approach is widely used to clarify the complexity in plant breeding program-based genome-wide breeding strategies, marker development, and diversity analysis. This chapter is particularly focused on methodologies with limitations and provides an overview of AM models and software used up to now. Association or linkage disequilibrium mapping has become a very popular method for discovering candidate and non-candidate genes and confirmation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) on various parts of the genome and in marker-assisted selection for breeding...
March 7, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
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