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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425433/prior-context-in-audition-informs-binding-and-shapes-simple-features
#1
Claire Chambers, Sahar Akram, Vincent Adam, Claire Pelofi, Maneesh Sahani, Shihab Shamma, Daniel Pressnitzer
A perceptual phenomenon is reported, whereby prior acoustic context has a large, rapid and long-lasting effect on a basic auditory judgement. Pairs of tones were devised to include ambiguous transitions between frequency components, such that listeners were equally likely to report an upward or downward 'pitch' shift between tones. We show that presenting context tones before the ambiguous pair almost fully determines the perceived direction of shift. The context effect generalizes to a wide range of temporal and spectral scales, encompassing the characteristics of most realistic auditory scenes...
April 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418532/auditory-environment-across-the-life-span-of-cochlear-implant-users-insights-from-data-logging
#2
Tobias Busch, Filiep Vanpoucke, Astrid van Wieringen
Purpose: We describe the natural auditory environment of people with cochlear implants (CIs), how it changes across the life span, and how it varies between individuals. Method: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of Cochlear Nucleus 6 CI sound-processor data logs. The logs were obtained from 1,501 people with CIs (ages 0-96 years). They covered over 2.4 million hr of implant use and indicated how much time the CI users had spent in various acoustical environments...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379608/neural-mechanisms-for-integrating-consecutive-and-interleaved-natural-events
#3
Juha M Lahnakoski, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
To understand temporally extended events, the human brain needs to accumulate information continuously across time. Interruptions that require switching of attention to other event sequences disrupt this process. To reveal neural mechanisms supporting integration of event information, we measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 18 participants while they viewed 6.5-minute excerpts from three movies (i) consecutively and (ii) as interleaved segments of approximately 50-s in duration...
April 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372080/auditory-salience-using-natural-soundscapes
#4
Nicholas Huang, Mounya Elhilali
Salience describes the phenomenon by which an object stands out from a scene. While its underlying processes are extensively studied in vision, mechanisms of auditory salience remain largely unknown. Previous studies have used well-controlled auditory scenes to shed light on some of the acoustic attributes that drive the salience of sound events. Unfortunately, the use of constrained stimuli in addition to a lack of well-established benchmarks of salience judgments hampers the development of comprehensive theories of sensory-driven auditory attention...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343958/simultanagnosia-does-not-affect-processes-of-auditory-gestalt-perception
#5
Johannes Rennig, Anna Lena Bleyer, Hans-Otto Karnath
Simultanagnosia is a neuropsychological deficit of higher visual processes caused by temporo-parietal brain damage. It is characterized by a specific failure of recognition of a global visual Gestalt, like a visual scene or complex objects, consisting of local elements. In this study we investigated to what extend this deficit should be understood as a deficit related to specifically the visual domain or whether it should be seen as defective Gestalt processing per se. To examine if simultanagnosia occurs across sensory domains, we designed several auditory experiments sharing typical characteristics of visual tasks that are known to be particularly demanding for patients suffering from simultanagnosia...
March 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283370/reduced-multimodal-integration-of-memory-features-following-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-of-angular-gyrus
#6
Yasemin Yazar, Zara M Bergström, Jon S Simons
BACKGROUND: Lesions of the angular gyrus (AnG) region of human parietal cortex do not cause amnesia, but appear to be associated with reduction in the ability to consciously experience the reliving of previous events. OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: We used continuous theta burst stimulation to test the hypothesis that the cognitive mechanism implicated in this memory deficit might be the integration of retrieved sensory event features into a coherent multimodal memory representation...
March 1, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275060/echo-acoustic-flow-shapes-object-representation-in-spatially-complex-acoustic-scenes
#7
Wolfgang Greiter, Uwe Firzlaff
Echolocating bats use echoes of their sonar emissions to determine the position and distance of objects or prey. Target distance is represented as a map of echo delay in the auditory cortex (AC) of bats. During a bat's flight through a natural complex environment, echo streams are reflected from multiple objects along its flight path. Separating such complex streams of echoes or other sounds is a challenge for the auditory system of bats as well as other animals. We investigated the representation of multiple echo streams in the AC of anaesthetized bats (Phyllostomus discolor) and tested the hypothesis, if neurons can lock on echoes from specific objects in a complex echo-acoustic pattern while the representation of surrounding objects is suppressed...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243537/using-visuo-kinetic-virtual-reality-to-induce-illusory-spinal-movement-the-moovi-illusion
#8
Daniel S Harvie, Ross T Smith, Estin V Hunter, Miles G Davis, Michele Sterling, G Lorimer Moseley
BACKGROUND: Illusions that alter perception of the body provide novel opportunities to target brain-based contributions to problems such as persistent pain. One example of this, mirror therapy, uses vision to augment perceived movement of a painful limb to treat pain. Since mirrors can't be used to induce augmented neck or other spinal movement, we aimed to test whether such an illusion could be achieved using virtual reality, in advance of testing its potential therapeutic benefit. We hypothesised that perceived head rotation would depend on visually suggested movement...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238657/frogs-exploit-statistical-regularities-in-noisy-acoustic-scenes-to-solve-cocktail-party-like-problems
#9
Norman Lee, Jessica L Ward, Alejandro Vélez, Christophe Micheyl, Mark A Bee
Noise is a ubiquitous source of errors in all forms of communication [1]. Noise-induced errors in speech communication, for example, make it difficult for humans to converse in noisy social settings, a challenge aptly named the "cocktail party problem" [2]. Many nonhuman animals also communicate acoustically in noisy social groups and thus face biologically analogous problems [3]. However, we know little about how the perceptual systems of receivers are evolutionarily adapted to avoid the costs of noise-induced errors in communication...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235893/single-neurons-in-the-avian-auditory-cortex-encode-individual-identity-and-propagation-distance-in-naturally-degraded-communication-calls
#10
Solveig C Mouterde, Julie E Elie, Nicolas Mathevon, Frédéric E Theunissen
One of the most complex tasks performed by sensory systems is "scene analysis": the interpretation of complex signals as behaviorally relevant objects. The study of this problem, universal to species and sensory modalities, is particularly challenging in audition, where sounds from various sources and localizations, degraded by propagation through the environment, sum to form a single acoustical signal. Here we investigated in a songbird model, the zebra finch, the neural substrate for ranging and identifying a single source...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217264/eight-essential-foods-in-iranian-traditional-medicine-and-their-role-in-health-promotion-and-well-being
#11
REVIEW
Mehrdad Zeinalian, Mehdi Eshaghi, Mahdi Hadian, Homayoun Naji, Sayed Mohammad Masoud Marandi, Sedigheh Asgary
Eight essential foods (EEF) described in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) have a determinant role to balance human temperament insuring health and well-being. EEF included oral, imaginary, auditory, visual, olfactory, touch, sexual, and familiarity food. Oral foods should be halal, compatible with individual temper, consumed up twice a day, and compatible with different seasons and geographic conditions. Imaginary food consists of the individual thought content which is directly related to mental and physical fitness...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199022/recent-advances-in-exploring-the-neural-underpinnings-of-auditory-scene-perception
#12
Joel S Snyder, Mounya Elhilali
Studies of auditory scene analysis have traditionally relied on paradigms using artificial sounds-and conventional behavioral techniques-to elucidate how we perceptually segregate auditory objects or streams from each other. In the past few decades, however, there has been growing interest in uncovering the neural underpinnings of auditory segregation using human and animal neuroscience techniques, as well as computational modeling. This largely reflects the growth in the fields of cognitive neuroscience and computational neuroscience and has led to new theories of how the auditory system segregates sounds in complex arrays...
February 15, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185087/attention-to-body-parts-varies-with-visual-preference-and-verb-effector-associations
#13
Ty W Boyer, Josita Maouene, Nitya Sethuraman
Theories of embodied conceptual meaning suggest fundamental relations between others' actions, language, and our own actions and visual attention processes. Prior studies have found that when people view an image of a neutral body in a scene they first look toward, in order, the head, torso, hands, and legs. Other studies show associations between action verbs and the body-effectors used in performing the action (e.g., "jump" with feet/legs; "talk" with face/head). In the present experiment, the visual attention of participants was recorded with a remote eye-tracking system while they viewed an image of an actor pantomiming an action and heard a concrete action verb...
February 9, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147594/subjective-perceptual-organization-of-a-complex-auditory-scene
#14
Sabine Thomassen, Alexandra Bendixen
Empirical research on the sequential decomposition of an auditory scene primarily relies on interleaved sound mixtures of only two tone sequences (e.g., ABAB…). This oversimplifies the sound decomposition problem by limiting the number of putative perceptual organizations. The current study used a sound mixture composed of three different tones (ABCABC…) that could be perceptually organized in many different ways. Participants listened to these sequences and reported their subjective perception by continuously choosing one out of 12 visually presented perceptual organization alternatives...
January 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141523/the-plausibility-of-a-string-quartet-performance-in-virtual-reality
#15
Ilias Bergstrom, Sergio Azevedo, Panos Papiotis, Nuno Saldanha, Mel Slater
We describe an experiment that explores the contribution of auditory and other features to the illusion of plausibility in a virtual environment that depicts the performance of a string quartet. 'Plausibility' refers to the component of presence that is the illusion that the perceived events in the virtual environment are really happening. The features studied were: Gaze (the musicians ignored the participant, the musicians sometimes looked towards and followed the participant's movements), Sound Spatialization (Mono, Stereo, Spatial), Auralization (no sound reflections, reflections corresponding to a room larger than the one perceived, reflections that exactly matched the virtual room), and Environment (no sound from outside of the room, birdsong and wind corresponding to the outside scene)...
January 27, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102912/different-spatio-temporal-electroencephalography-features-drive-the-successful-decoding-of-binaural-and-monaural-cues-for-sound-localization
#16
Adam Bednar, Francis M Boland, Edmund C Lalor
The human ability to localize sound is essential for monitoring our environment and helps us to analyse complex auditory scenes. Although the acoustic cues mediating sound localization have been established, it remains unknown how these cues are represented in human cortex. In particular, it is still a point of contention whether binaural and monaural cues are processed by the same or distinct cortical networks. In this study, participants listened to a sequence of auditory stimuli from different spatial locations while we recorded their neural activity using electroencephalography (EEG)...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097504/estimating-the-relative-weights-of-visual-and-auditory-tau-versus-heuristic-based-cues-for-time-to-contact-judgments-in-realistic-familiar-scenes-by-older-and-younger-adults
#17
Behrang Keshavarz, Jennifer L Campos, Patricia R DeLucia, Daniel Oberfeld
Estimating time to contact (TTC) involves multiple sensory systems, including vision and audition. Previous findings suggested that the ratio of an object's instantaneous optical size/sound intensity to its instantaneous rate of change in optical size/sound intensity (τ) drives TTC judgments. Other evidence has shown that heuristic-based cues are used, including final optical size or final sound pressure level. Most previous studies have used decontextualized and unfamiliar stimuli (e.g., geometric shapes on a blank background)...
January 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054545/temporal-coherence-structure-rapidly-shapes-neuronal-interactions
#18
Kai Lu, Yanbo Xu, Pingbo Yin, Andrew J Oxenham, Jonathan B Fritz, Shihab A Shamma
Perception of segregated sources is essential in navigating cluttered acoustic environments. A basic mechanism to implement this process is the temporal coherence principle. It postulates that a signal is perceived as emitted from a single source only when all of its features are temporally modulated coherently, causing them to bind perceptually. Here we report on neural correlates of this process as rapidly reshaped interactions in primary auditory cortex, measured in three different ways: as changes in response rates, as adaptations of spectrotemporal receptive fields following stimulation by temporally coherent and incoherent tone sequences, and as changes in spiking correlations during the tone sequences...
January 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044025/the-singular-nature-of-auditory-and-visual-scene-analysis-in-autism
#19
REVIEW
I-Fan Lin, Aya Shirama, Nobumasa Kato, Makio Kashino
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder often have difficulty acquiring relevant auditory and visual information in daily environments, despite not being diagnosed as hearing impaired or having low vision. Resent psychophysical and neurophysiological studies have shown that autistic individuals have highly specific individual differences at various levels of information processing, including feature extraction, automatic grouping and top-down modulation in auditory and visual scene analysis. Comparison of the characteristics of scene analysis between auditory and visual modalities reveals some essential commonalities, which could provide clues about the underlying neural mechanisms...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044024/an-auditory-illusion-reveals-the-role-of-streaming-in-the-temporal-misallocation-of-perceptual-objects
#20
Anahita H Mehta, Nori Jacoby, Ifat Yasin, Andrew J Oxenham, Shihab A Shamma
This study investigates the neural correlates and processes underlying the ambiguous percept produced by a stimulus similar to Deutsch's 'octave illusion', in which each ear is presented with a sequence of alternating pure tones of low and high frequencies. The same sequence is presented to each ear, but in opposite phase, such that the left and right ears receive a high-low-high … and a low-high-low … pattern, respectively. Listeners generally report hearing the illusion of an alternating pattern of low and high tones, with all the low tones lateralized to one side and all the high tones lateralized to the other side...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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