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auditory scene

Haley M Gedek, Peter C Pantelis, Daniel P Kennedy
The comprehension of dynamically unfolding social situations is made possible by the seamless integration of multimodal information merged with rich intuitions about the thoughts and behaviors of others. We examined how high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder and neurotypical controls made a complex social judgment (i.e. rating the social awkwardness of scenes from a television sitcom) across three conditions that manipulated presentation modality-visual alone, transcribed text alone, or visual and auditory together...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Beáta T Szabó, Susan L Denham, István Winkler
Auditory scene analysis (ASA) refers to the process (es) of parsing the complex acoustic input into auditory perceptual objects representing either physical sources or temporal sound patterns, such as melodies, which contributed to the sound waves reaching the ears. A number of new computational models accounting for some of the perceptual phenomena of ASA have been published recently. Here we provide a theoretically motivated review of these computational models, aiming to relate their guiding principles to the central issues of the theoretical framework of ASA...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ruiye Ni, David A Bender, Amirali M Shaneshi, Jeffrey R Gamble, Dennis L Barbour
Robust auditory perception plays a pivotal function for processing behaviorally relevant sounds, particularly with distractions from the environment. The neuronal coding enabling this ability, however, is still not well understood. In this study we recorded single-unit activity from the primary auditory cortex (A1) of awake marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) while delivering conspecific vocalizations degraded by two different background noises: broadband white noise and vocalization babble. Noise effects on neural representation of target vocalizations were quantified by measuring the responses' similarity to those elicited by natural vocalizations as a function of signal-to-noise ratio...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Elaine C Thompson, Kali Woodruff Carr, Travis White-Schwoch, Sebastian Otto-Meyer, Nina Kraus
From bustling classrooms to unruly lunchrooms, school settings are noisy. To learn effectively in the unwelcome company of numerous distractions, children must clearly perceive speech in noise. In older children and adults, speech-in-noise perception is supported by sensory and cognitive processes, but the correlates underlying this critical listening skill in young children (3-5 year olds) remain undetermined. Employing a longitudinal design (two evaluations separated by ∼12 months), we followed a cohort of 59 preschoolers, ages 3...
November 15, 2016: Hearing Research
Björn Herrmann, Aravindakshan Parthasarathy, Edward L Bartlett
Extracting temporal periodicities and envelope shapes of sounds is important for listening within complex auditory scenes but declines behaviorally with age. Here, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and spikes to investigate how ageing affects the neural representations of different modulation rates and envelope shapes in the inferior colliculus of rats. We specifically aimed to explore the input-output (LFP-spike) response transformations of inferior colliculus neurons. Our results show that envelope shapes up to 256-Hz modulation rates are represented in the neural synchronisation phase lags in younger and older animals...
November 4, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Hannah L Golden, Camilla N Clark, Jennifer M Nicholas, Miriam H Cohen, Catherine F Slattery, Ross W Paterson, Alexander J M Foulkes, Jonathan M Schott, Catherine J Mummery, Sebastian J Crutch, Jason D Warren
Despite much recent interest in music and dementia, music perception has not been widely studied across dementia syndromes using an information processing approach. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 30 patients representing major dementia syndromes of typical Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 16), logopenic aphasia (LPA, an Alzheimer variant syndrome; n = 5), and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 9) in relation to 19 healthy age-matched individuals. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery to assess perception of musical patterns in the dimensions of pitch and temporal information (requiring detection of notes that deviated from the established pattern based on local or global sequence features) and musical scene analysis (requiring detection of a familiar tune within polyphonic harmony)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Anahita H Mehta, Ifat Yasin, Andrew J Oxenham, Shihab Shamma
In a complex acoustic environment, acoustic cues and attention interact in the formation of streams within the auditory scene. In this study, a variant of the "octave illusion" [Deutsch (1974). Nature 251, 307-309] was used to investigate the neural correlates of auditory streaming, and to elucidate the effects of attention on the interaction between sequential and concurrent sound segregation in humans. By directing subjects' attention to different frequencies and ears, it was possible to elicit several different illusory percepts with the identical stimulus...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Christina M Vanden Bosch der Nederlanden, Joel S Snyder, Erin E Hannon
Children interact with and learn about all types of sound sources, including dogs, bells, trains, and human beings. Although it is clear that knowledge of semantic categories for everyday sights and sounds develops during childhood, there are very few studies examining how children use this knowledge to make sense of auditory scenes. We used a change deafness paradigm and an object-encoding task to investigate how children (6, 8, and 10 years of age) and adults process auditory scenes composed of everyday sounds (e...
November 2016: Developmental Psychology
Matthias Hartmann, Jochen Laubrock, Martin H Fischer
In the domain of language research, the simultaneous presentation of a visual scene and its auditory description (i.e., the visual world paradigm) has been used to reveal the timing of mental mechanisms. Here we apply this rationale to the domain of numerical cognition in order to explore the differences between fast and slow arithmetic performance, and to further study the role of spatial-numerical associations during mental arithmetic. We presented 30 healthy adults simultaneously with visual displays containing four numbers and with auditory addition and subtraction problems...
October 19, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Harun Karimpur, Kai Hamburger
Spatial representations are a result of multisensory information integration. More recent findings suggest that the multisensory information processing of a scene can be facilitated when paired with a semantically congruent auditory signal. This congruency effect was taken as evidence that audio-visual integration occurs for complex scenes. As navigation in our environment consists of a seamless integration of complex sceneries, a fundamental question arises: how is human landmark-based wayfinding affected by multimodality? In order to address this question, two experiments were conducted in a virtual environment...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Simon J Hazenberg, Rob van Lier
In three experiments, we investigated the influence of object-specific sounds on haptic scene recognition without vision. Blindfolded participants had to recognize, through touch, spatial scenes comprising six objects that were placed on a round platform. Critically, in half of the trials, object-specific sounds were played when objects were touched (bimodal condition), while sounds were turned off in the other half of the trials (unimodal condition). After first exploring the scene, two objects were swapped and the task was to report, which of the objects swapped positions...
July 2016: I-Perception
Maria Mittag, Rika Takegata, István Winkler
UNLABELLED: Representations encoding the probabilities of auditory events do not directly support predictive processing. In contrast, information about the probability with which a given sound follows another (transitional probability) allows predictions of upcoming sounds. We tested whether behavioral and cortical auditory deviance detection (the latter indexed by the mismatch negativity event-related potential) relies on probabilities of sound patterns or on transitional probabilities...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Gillian Murphy, Ciara M Greene
Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Reinier J Jansen, Ben D Sawyer, René van Egmond, Huib de Ridder, Peter A Hancock
OBJECTIVE: We examine how transitions in task demand are manifested in mental workload and performance in a dual-task setting. BACKGROUND: Hysteresis has been defined as the ongoing influence of demand levels prior to a demand transition. Authors of previous studies predominantly examined hysteretic effects in terms of performance. However, little is known about the temporal development of hysteresis in mental workload. METHOD: A simulated driving task was combined with an auditory memory task...
September 9, 2016: Human Factors
Ediz Sohoglu, Maria Chait
We use psychophysics and MEG to test how sensitivity to input statistics facilitates auditory-scene-analysis (ASA). Human subjects listened to 'scenes' comprised of concurrent tone-pip streams (sources). On occasional trials a new source appeared partway. Listeners were more accurate and quicker to detect source appearance in scenes comprised of temporally-regular (REG), rather than random (RAND), sources. MEG in passive listeners and those actively detecting appearance events revealed increased sustained activity in auditory and parietal cortex in REG relative to RAND scenes, emerging ~400 ms of scene-onset...
2016: ELife
Theofilos Petsas, Jemma Harrison, Makio Kashino, Shigeto Furukawa, Maria Chait
In this series of behavioural experiments we investigated the effect of distraction on the maintenance of acoustic scene information in short-term memory. Stimuli are artificial acoustic 'scenes' composed of several (up to twelve) concurrent tone-pip streams ('sources'). A gap (1000 ms) is inserted partway through the 'scene'; Changes in the form of an appearance of a new source or disappearance of an existing source, occur after the gap in 50% of the trials. Listeners were instructed to monitor the unfolding 'soundscapes' for these events...
September 2, 2016: Hearing Research
Chhayakanta Patro, Lisa Lucks Mendel
Understanding speech within an auditory scene is constantly challenged by interfering noise in suboptimal listening environments when noise hinders the continuity of the speech stream. In such instances, a typical auditory-cognitive system perceptually integrates available speech information and "fills in" missing information in the light of semantic context. However, individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) find it difficult and effortful to understand interrupted speech compared to their normal hearing counterparts...
August 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Jeremy J Donai, Rachel M Halbritter
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of normal-hearing listeners to use high-frequency energy for gender identification from naturally produced speech signals. DESIGN: Two experiments were conducted using a repeated-measures design. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of increasing high-pass filter cutoff (i.e., increasing the low-frequency spectral limit) on gender identification from naturally produced vowel segments. Experiment 2 studied the effects of increasing high-pass filter cutoff on gender identification from naturally produced sentences...
August 22, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Dean F Salisbury, Alexis G McCathern
The simple mismatch negativity (MMN) to tones deviating physically (in pitch, loudness, duration, etc.) from repeated standard tones is robustly reduced in schizophrenia. Although generally interpreted to reflect memory or cognitive processes, simple MMN likely contains some activity from non-adapted sensory cells, clouding what process is affected in schizophrenia. Research in healthy participants has demonstrated that MMN can be elicited by deviations from abstract auditory patterns and complex rules that do not cause sensory adaptation...
November 2016: Brain Topography
Fran López-Caballero, Katarzyna Zarnowiec, Carles Escera
Deviance detection is a key functional property of the auditory system that allows pre-attentive discrimination of incoming stimuli not conforming to a rule extracted from the ongoing constant stimulation, thereby proving that regularities in the auditory scene have been encoded in the auditory system. Using simple-feature stimulus deviations, regularity encoding and deviance detection have been reported in brain responses at multiple latencies of the human Auditory Evoked Potential (AEP), such as the Mismatch Negativity (MMN; peaking at 100-250ms from stimulus onset) and Middle-Latency Responses (MLR; peaking at 12-50ms)...
October 2016: Biological Psychology
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