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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600256/a-graphical-model-for-online-auditory-scene-modulation-using-eeg-evidence-for-attention
#1
Marzieh Haghighi, Mohammad Moghadamfalahi, Murat Akcakaya, Deniz Erdogmus
Recent findings indicate that brain interfaces have the potential to enable attention-guided auditory scene analysis and manipulation in applications such as hearing aids and augmented/ virtual environments. Specifically, noninvasively acquired electroencephalography (EEG) signals have been demonstrated to carry some evidence regarding which of multiple synchronous speech waveforms the subject attends to. In this paper we demonstrate that: (1) using data- and model-driven cross-correlation features yield competitive binary auditory attention classification results with at most 20 seconds of EEG from 16 channels or even a single well-positioned channel; (2) a model calibrated using equal-energy speech waveforms competing for attention could perform well on estimating attention in closed-loop unbalancedenergy speech waveform situations, where the speech amplitudes are modulated by the estimated attention posterior probability distribution; (3) such a model would perform even better if it is corrected (linearly, in this instance) based on EEG evidence dependency on speech weights in the mixture; (4) calibrating a model based on population EEG could result in acceptable performance for new individuals/users; therefore EEG-based auditory attention classifiers may generalize across individuals, leading to reduced or eliminated calibration time and effort...
June 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591213/flight-of-the-bumble-bee-buzzes-predict-pollination-services
#2
Nicole E Miller-Struttmann, David Heise, Johannes Schul, Jennifer C Geib, Candace Galen
Multiple interacting factors drive recent declines in wild and managed bees, threatening their pollination services. Widespread and intensive monitoring could lead to more effective management of wild and managed bees. However, tracking their dynamic populations is costly. We tested the effectiveness of an inexpensive, noninvasive and passive acoustic survey technique for monitoring bumble bee behavior and pollination services. First, we assessed the relationship between the first harmonic of the flight buzz (characteristic frequency) and pollinator functional traits that influence pollination success using flight cage experiments and a literature search...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582535/perceived-synchrony-of-frog-multimodal-signal-components-is%C3%A2-influenced-by-content-and-order
#3
Ryan C Taylor, Rachel A Page, Barrett A Klein, Michael J Ryan, Kimberly L Hunter
Multimodal signaling is common in communication systems. Depending on the species, individual signal components may be produced synchronously as a result of physiological constraint (fixed) or each component may be produced independently (fluid) in time. For animals that rely on fixed signals, a basic prediction is that asynchrony between the components should degrade the perception of signal salience, reducing receiver response. Male túngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus, produce a fixed multisensory courtship signal by vocalizing with two call components (whines and chucks) and inflating a vocal sac (visual component)...
June 5, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570414/head-shadow-and-binaural-squelch-for-unilaterally-deaf-cochlear-implantees
#4
Joshua G W Bernstein, Gerald I Schuchman, Arnaldo L Rivera
BACKGROUND: Cochlear implants (CIs) can improve speech-in-noise performance for listeners with unilateral sensorineural deafness. But these benefits are modest and in most cases are limited to head-shadow advantages, with little evidence of binaural squelch. HYPOTHESIS: The goal of the investigation was to determine whether CI listeners with normal hearing or moderate hearing loss in the contralateral ear would receive a larger head-shadow benefit for target speech and noise originating from opposite sides of the head, and whether listeners would experience binaural squelch in the free field in a test involving interfering talkers...
May 31, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559384/a-role-for-auditory-corticothalamic-feedback-in-the-perception-of-complex-sounds
#5
Natsumi Y Homma, Max Fk Happel, Fernando R Nodal, Frank W Ohl, Andrew J King, Victoria M Bajo
Feedback signals from the primary auditory cortex (A1) can shape the receptive field properties of neurons in the ventral division of the medial geniculate body (MGBv). However, the behavioral significance of corticothalamic modulation is unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of this descending pathway in the perception of complex sounds. We tested the ability of adult female ferrets to detect the presence of a mistuned harmonic in a complex tone using a positive conditioned go/no-go behavioral paradigm, before and after the input from layer VI in A1 to MGBv was bilaterally and selectively eliminated using chromophore-targeted laser photolysis...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534734/the-impact-of-single-sided-deafness-upon-music-appreciation
#6
Sarah Meehan, Elizabeth A Hough, Gemma Crundwell, Rachel Knappett, Mark Smith, David M Baguley
BACKGROUND: Many of the world's population have hearing loss in one ear; current statistics indicate that up to 10% of the population may be affected. Although the detrimental impact of bilateral hearing loss, hearing aids, and cochlear implants upon music appreciation is well recognized, studies on the influence of single-sided deafness (SSD) are sparse. PURPOSE: We sought to investigate whether a single-sided hearing loss can cause problems with music appreciation, despite normal hearing in the other ear...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507127/development-of-visual-category-selectivity-in-ventral-visual-cortex-does-not-require-visual-experience
#7
Job van den Hurk, Marc Van Baelen, Hans P Op de Beeck
To what extent does functional brain organization rely on sensory input? Here, we show that for the penultimate visual-processing region, ventral-temporal cortex (VTC), visual experience is not the origin of its fundamental organizational property, category selectivity. In the fMRI study reported here, we presented 14 congenitally blind participants with face-, body-, scene-, and object-related natural sounds and presented 20 healthy controls with both auditory and visual stimuli from these categories. Using macroanatomical alignment, response mapping, and surface-based multivoxel pattern analysis, we demonstrated that VTC in blind individuals shows robust discriminatory responses elicited by the four categories and that these patterns of activity in blind subjects could successfully predict the visual categories in sighted controls...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481270/smartphone-based-escalator-recognition-for-the-visually-impaired
#8
Daiki Nakamura, Hotaka Takizawa, Mayumi Aoyagi, Nobuo Ezaki, Shinji Mizuno
It is difficult for visually impaired individuals to recognize escalators in everyday environments. If the individuals ride on escalators in the wrong direction, they will stumble on the steps. This paper proposes a novel method to assist visually impaired individuals in finding available escalators by the use of smartphone cameras. Escalators are recognized by analyzing optical flows in video frames captured by the cameras, and auditory feedback is provided to the individuals. The proposed method was implemented on an Android smartphone and applied to actual escalator scenes...
May 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479403/normal-aging-slows-spontaneous-switching-in-auditory-and-visual-bistability
#9
Hirohito M Kondo, Takanori Kochiyama
Age-related changes in auditory and visual perception have an impact on the quality of life. It has been debated how perceptual organization is influenced by advancing age. From the neurochemical perspective, we investigated age effects on auditory and visual bistability. In perceptual bistability, a sequence of sensory inputs induces spontaneous switching between different perceptual objects. We used different modality tasks of auditory streaming and visual plaids. Young and middle-aged participants (20-60years) were instructed to indicate by a button press whenever their perception changed from one stable state to the other...
May 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464690/how-many-images-are-in-an-auditory-scene
#10
Xuan Zhong, William A Yost
If an auditory scene consists of many spatially separated sound sources, how many sound sources can be processed by the auditory system? Experiment I determined how many speech sources could be localized simultaneously on the azimuth plane. Different words were played from multiple loudspeakers, and listeners reported the total number of sound sources and their individual locations. In experiment II the accuracy of localizing one speech source in a mixture of multiple speech sources was determined. An extra sound source was added to an existing set of sound sources, and the task was to localize that extra source...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464642/effects-of-virtual-acoustics-on-dynamic-auditory-distance-perception
#11
Atul Rungta, Nicholas Rewkowski, Roberta Klatzky, Ming Lin, Dinesh Manocha
Sound propagation encompasses various acoustic phenomena including reverberation. Current virtual acoustic methods ranging from parametric filters to physically accurate solvers can simulate reverberation with varying degrees of fidelity. The effects of reverberant sounds generated using different propagation algorithms on acoustic distance perception are investigated. In particular, two classes of methods for real time sound propagation in dynamic scenes based on parametric filters and ray tracing are evaluated...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451630/hearing-scenes-a-neuromagnetic-signature-of-auditory-source-and-reverberant-space-separation
#12
Santani Teng, Verena R Sommer, Dimitrios Pantazis, Aude Oliva
Perceiving the geometry of surrounding space is a multisensory process, crucial to contextualizing object perception and guiding navigation behavior. Humans can make judgments about surrounding spaces from reverberation cues, caused by sounds reflecting off multiple interior surfaces. However, it remains unclear how the brain represents reverberant spaces separately from sound sources. Here, we report separable neural signatures of auditory space and source perception during magnetoencephalography (MEG) recording as subjects listened to brief sounds convolved with monaural room impulse responses (RIRs)...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425433/prior-context-in-audition-informs-binding-and-shapes-simple-features
#13
Claire Chambers, Sahar Akram, Vincent Adam, Claire Pelofi, Maneesh Sahani, Shihab Shamma, Daniel Pressnitzer
A perceptual phenomenon is reported, whereby prior acoustic context has a large, rapid and long-lasting effect on a basic auditory judgement. Pairs of tones were devised to include ambiguous transitions between frequency components, such that listeners were equally likely to report an upward or downward 'pitch' shift between tones. We show that presenting context tones before the ambiguous pair almost fully determines the perceived direction of shift. The context effect generalizes to a wide range of temporal and spectral scales, encompassing the characteristics of most realistic auditory scenes...
April 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418532/auditory-environment-across-the-life-span-of-cochlear-implant-users-insights-from-data-logging
#14
Tobias Busch, Filiep Vanpoucke, Astrid van Wieringen
Purpose: We describe the natural auditory environment of people with cochlear implants (CIs), how it changes across the life span, and how it varies between individuals. Method: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of Cochlear Nucleus 6 CI sound-processor data logs. The logs were obtained from 1,501 people with CIs (ages 0-96 years). They covered over 2.4 million hr of implant use and indicated how much time the CI users had spent in various acoustical environments...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379608/neural-mechanisms-for-integrating-consecutive-and-interleaved-natural-events
#15
Juha M Lahnakoski, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
To understand temporally extended events, the human brain needs to accumulate information continuously across time. Interruptions that require switching of attention to other event sequences disrupt this process. To reveal neural mechanisms supporting integration of event information, we measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 18 participants while they viewed 6.5-minute excerpts from three movies (i) consecutively and (ii) as interleaved segments of approximately 50-s in duration...
April 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372080/auditory-salience-using-natural-soundscapes
#16
Nicholas Huang, Mounya Elhilali
Salience describes the phenomenon by which an object stands out from a scene. While its underlying processes are extensively studied in vision, mechanisms of auditory salience remain largely unknown. Previous studies have used well-controlled auditory scenes to shed light on some of the acoustic attributes that drive the salience of sound events. Unfortunately, the use of constrained stimuli in addition to a lack of well-established benchmarks of salience judgments hampers the development of comprehensive theories of sensory-driven auditory attention...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343958/simultanagnosia-does-not-affect-processes-of-auditory-gestalt-perception
#17
Johannes Rennig, Anna Lena Bleyer, Hans-Otto Karnath
Simultanagnosia is a neuropsychological deficit of higher visual processes caused by temporo-parietal brain damage. It is characterized by a specific failure of recognition of a global visual Gestalt, like a visual scene or complex objects, consisting of local elements. In this study we investigated to what extend this deficit should be understood as a deficit related to specifically the visual domain or whether it should be seen as defective Gestalt processing per se. To examine if simultanagnosia occurs across sensory domains, we designed several auditory experiments sharing typical characteristics of visual tasks that are known to be particularly demanding for patients suffering from simultanagnosia...
March 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283370/reduced-multimodal-integration-of-memory-features-following-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-of-angular-gyrus
#18
Yasemin Yazar, Zara M Bergström, Jon S Simons
BACKGROUND: Lesions of the angular gyrus (AnG) region of human parietal cortex do not cause amnesia, but appear to be associated with reduction in the ability to consciously experience the reliving of previous events. OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: We used continuous theta burst stimulation to test the hypothesis that the cognitive mechanism implicated in this memory deficit might be the integration of retrieved sensory event features into a coherent multimodal memory representation...
May 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275060/echo-acoustic-flow-shapes-object-representation-in-spatially-complex-acoustic-scenes
#19
Wolfgang Greiter, Uwe Firzlaff
Echolocating bats use echoes of their sonar emissions to determine the position and distance of objects or prey. Target distance is represented as a map of echo delay in the auditory cortex (AC) of bats. During a bat's flight through a natural complex environment, echo streams are reflected from multiple objects along its flight path. Separating such complex streams of echoes or other sounds is a challenge for the auditory system of bats as well as other animals. We investigated the representation of multiple echo streams in the AC of anesthetized bats (Phyllostomus discolor) and tested the hypothesis that neurons can lock on echoes from specific objects in a complex echo-acoustic pattern while the representation of surrounding objects is suppressed...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243537/using-visuo-kinetic-virtual-reality-to-induce-illusory-spinal-movement-the-moovi-illusion
#20
Daniel S Harvie, Ross T Smith, Estin V Hunter, Miles G Davis, Michele Sterling, G Lorimer Moseley
BACKGROUND: Illusions that alter perception of the body provide novel opportunities to target brain-based contributions to problems such as persistent pain. One example of this, mirror therapy, uses vision to augment perceived movement of a painful limb to treat pain. Since mirrors can't be used to induce augmented neck or other spinal movement, we aimed to test whether such an illusion could be achieved using virtual reality, in advance of testing its potential therapeutic benefit. We hypothesised that perceived head rotation would depend on visually suggested movement...
2017: PeerJ
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