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lithium carbonate

Manuel Enrique Machado-Duque, Catalina Alzate-Carvajal, Kevin Zapata-Castañeda, Jorge Enrique Machado-Alba
INTRODUCTION: Lithium is the drug of choice for the treatment of bipolar affective disorder. OBJECTIVE: To define lithium therapeutic profile and adverse reactions to its use in patients with bipolar affective disorder in Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study between January 1 and December 31, 2013, which included patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder treated with lithium carbonate in 25 Colombian cities; we evaluated socio-demographic variables, lithium dose, co-medication, drug interactions and adverse reactions...
April 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Qiuyan Li, Shuhong Jiao, Langli Luo, Michael S Ding, Jianming Zheng, Samuel S Cartmell, Chong-Min Wang, Kang Xu, Ji-Guang Zhang, Wu Xu
Formulating electrolytes with solvents of low freezing points and high dielectric constants is a direct approach to extending the service temperature range of lithium (Li)-ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, we report such wide temperature electrolyte formulations by optimizing the content of ethylene carbonate (EC) in the ternary solvent system of EC, propylene carbonate (PC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) with LiPF6 salt and CsPF6 additive. An extended service temperature range from -40°C to 60°C was obtained in LIBs with lithium nickel cobalt aluminum mixed oxide (LiNi0...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
S S Shinde, Dong-Hyung Kim, Jin-Young Yu, Jung-Ho Lee
The rational design of stable, inexpensive catalysts with excellent hydrogen dynamics and sorption characteristics under realistic environments for reversible hydrogen storage remains a great challenge. Here, we present a simple and scalable strategy to fabricate a monodispersed, air-stable, magnesium hydride embedded in three-dimensional activated carbon with periodic synchronization of transition metals (MHCH). The high surface area, homogeneous distribution of MgH2 nanoparticles, excellent thermal stability, high energy density, steric confinement by carbon, and robust architecture of the catalyst resulted in a noticeable enhancement of the hydrogen storage performance...
May 17, 2017: Nanoscale
Abdul-Rahman O Raji, Rodrigo Villegas Salvatierra, Nam Dong Kim, Xiujun Fan, Yilun Li, Gladys A L Silva, Junwei Sha, James M Tour
The drive for significant advancement in battery capacity and energy density inspired a revisit to the use of Li metal anode. We report the use of a seamless graphene-carbon nanotube (GCNT) electrode to reversibly store Li metal with complete dendrite formation suppression. The GCNT-Li capacity of 3351 mAh g(-1)GCNT-Li approaches that of bare Li metal (3861 mAh g-(1)Li), indicating the low contributing mass of GCNT, while yielding a practical areal capacity up to 4 mAh cm-2 and cycle stability. A full battery based on GCNT-Li/sulfurized carbon (SC) is demonstrated with high energy density (752 Wh kg(-1)total electrodes, where total electrodes = GCNT-Li + SC + binder), high areal capacity (2 mAh cm(-2)), cyclability (80% retention at > 500 cycles) and is free of Li polysulfides and dendrites that would cause severe capacity fade...
May 16, 2017: ACS Nano
Lei Zhang, Hong Lu, Guo-Qiang Xu, Zhu-Yin Wang, Peng-Fei Xu
A PPh3 mediated reductive annulation reaction between isatins and 4,4-dicyano-2-methylenebut-3-enoates was developed. The reaction provided an alternative method for constructing five- and three-membered all-carbon spirooxindole compounds. Lithium chloride as a Lewis acid played a key role in the synthesis of spirocyclopentenyl oxindole compounds.
May 19, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Seong Jin An, Jianlin Li, Claus Daniel, Harry M Meyer, Stephen E Trask, Bryant J Polzin, David Lee Wood
This study aims to explore the correlations between electrolyte volume, electrochemical performance, and properties of the solid electrolyte interphase in pouch cells with Si-graphite composite anodes. The electrolyte is 1.2 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate:ethylmethyl carbonate with 10 wt.% fluoroethylene carbonate. Single layer pouch cells (100 mAh) were constructed with 15 wt.% Si-graphite / LiNi0.5Mn0.3CO0.2O2 electrodes. It is found that a minimum electrolyte volume factor of 3.1 times the total pore volume of cell components (cathode, anode, and separator) is needed for better cycling stability...
May 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shan Fang, Zhenkun Tong, Ping Nie, Gao Liu, Xiaogang Zhang
Adjusting the particle size and nanostructure or applying carbon materials as the coating layers are promising to hold the volume expansion of Si in order for its practical application in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, the mild carbon-coating combined with a molten salt reduction is precisely designed to synthesize a raspberry-like hollow Silicon spheres coated with carbon shells (HSi@C) as the anode materials for LIBs. The HSi@C exhibits a remarkable electrochemical performance, a high reversible specific capacity of 886...
May 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sinho Choi, Jianjun Song, Chengyin Wang, Soojin Park, Guoxiu Wang
Free-standing trimethylolpropane ethoxylate triacrylate gel polymer electrolyte is synthesized by a chemical cross-linking process and used as an electrolyte and separator membrane in lithium-sulfur batteris. The cross linked gel polymer electrolyte also exhibited a stable geometric size retention of 95% at the high temperature of 130 oC. The as-prepared gel polymer electrolyte membrane with carbon nanofibers interlayer can effectively prevent polysulfide dissolution and shuttle effect, leading to significantly enhanced electrochemical properties including high capacity and cycling stability with an enhanced specific capacity of 790 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles...
May 12, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Kento Kasahara, Hiroshi Nakano, Hirofumi Sato
Carbon monoxide generation reaction of vinylene carbonate (VC) in the electrolyte solution of lithium ion batteries (ethylene carbonate (EC) and 1.0 M LiClO4/EC) is studied using the RISM-SCF-SEDD method, a hybrid methodology of statistical mechanics for molecular liquids and quantum chemistry. The analytical treatment of the solvent and lithium salt enables us to treat the complicated composition of the solution such as the concentration of the salt which is difficult for the methods based on the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Hyeokjun Park, Hee-Dae Lim, Hyung-Kyu Lim, Won Mo Seong, Sehwan Moon, Youngmin Ko, Byungju Lee, Youngjoon Bae, Hyungjun Kim, Kisuk Kang
Shedding new light on conventional batteries sometimes inspires a chemistry adoptable for rechargeable batteries. Recently, the primary lithium-sulfur dioxide battery, which offers a high energy density and long shelf-life, is successfully renewed as a promising rechargeable system exhibiting small polarization and good reversibility. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that reversible operation of the lithium-sulfur dioxide battery is also possible by exploiting conventional carbonate-based electrolytes...
May 11, 2017: Nature Communications
Garima Shukla, Diego Del Olmo Diaz, Vigneshwaran Thangavel, Alejandro A Franco
We report a comprehensive modeling-based study of electroactive suspensions in slurry redox flow batteries undergoing discharge. A three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo model based on the variable step size method is used to describe the electrochemical discharge of a silicon/carbon slurry electrode in static mode (i.e., no fluid flow conditions). The model accounts for Brownian motion of particles, volume expansion of silicon upon lithium insertion, and formation and destruction of conducting carbon networks...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xia Cui, Yuqiao Wang, Qingyu Xu, Pingping Sun, Xiuzhen Wang, Tao Wei, Yueming Sun
A nanocomposite of Mn3O4 octahedrons entangled by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was synthesized by a hydrothermal method assisted with a nonionic surfactant. The integration of octahedral structure and CNTs could offer many critical features, which are needed for high activity anodes, such as fast ion diffusion, good electronic conductivity, and skeleton supporting function, thus enabling the nanocomposite-based anodes with excellent electrochemical performance. In addition, CNTs can not only serve as the conductive network and structure skeleton to improve the anode performance, but also play an indispensable role in the formation of more uniform Mn3O4 octahedrons...
May 10, 2017: Nanotechnology
Xian Wu, Lishuang Fan, Maoxu Wang, Junhan Cheng, Hexian Wu, Bin Guan, Naiqing Zhang, Kening Sun
Restriction on the low conductivity of sulfur and soluble polysulfides during discharge, lithium sulfur battery is unable for further large scale applications. The current carbon based cathodes suffer from poor cycle stability and high cost. Recently, heteroatom doped carbons have been considered as a settlement to enhance the performance of lithium sulfur batteries. With this strategy, we report the low cost activated nori based N, O-doped 3D hierarchical carbon material (ANC) as a sulfur host. The N, O dual-doped ANC reveals an elevated electrochemical performance, which exhibits not only a good rate performance over 5 C, but also a high sulfur content of 81...
May 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dongxia Yuan, Gang Huang, Dongming Yin, Xuxu Wang, Chunli Wang, Limin Wang
Owing to its richer redox reaction and remarkable electrical conductivity, bimetallic nickel cobalt sulfide (NiCo2S4) is considered as an advanced electrode material for energy-storage applications. Herein, nanosized NiCo2S4@C encapsulated in a hollow nitrogen-doped carbon cube (NiCo2S4@D-NC) has been fabricated using a core@shell Ni3[Co(CN)6]2@polydopamine (PDA) nanocube as the precursor. In this composite, the NiCo2S4 nanoparticles coated with conformal carbon layers are homogeneously embedded in a 3D high-conduction carbon shell from PDA...
May 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jingchao Chai, Zhihong Liu, Jianjun Zhang, Jinran Sun, Zeyi Tian, Yanying Ji, Kun Tang, Xinhong Zhou, Guanglei Cui
The fabricating process of well-known Bellcore poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) based polymer electrolytes is very complicated, tedious and expensive owing to containing a large amount of fluorine substituents. Herein, a novel kind of poly(vinylene carbonate) (PVCA) based polymer electrolyte is developed via a facile in-situ polymerization method, which possesses the merits of good interfacial compatibility with electrodes. In addition, this polymer electrolyte presents a high ionic conductivity of 5...
May 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jiantie Xu, Jianmin Ma, Qinghua Fan, Shaojun Guo, Shixue Dou
Recent advances and achievements in emerging Li-X (X = O2 , S, Se, Te, I2 , Br2 ) batteries with promising cathode materials open up new opportunities for the development of high-performance lithium-ion battery alternatives. In this review, we focus on an overview of recent important progress in the design of advanced cathode materials and battery models for developing high-performance Li-X (X = O2 , S, Se, Te, I2 , Br2 ) batteries. We start with a brief introduction to explain why Li-X batteries are important for future renewable energy devices...
May 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
Merve Iliksu, Abhishek Khetan, Shuo Yang, Ulrich Simon, Heinz Pitsch, Dirk Uwe Sauer
The role of lithium salts in determining the discharge capacity of Li-O2 batteries has been highlighted in several recent studies, however, questions pertaining to their effect on the cathode surface and in the solution phase still remain unanswered. We conducted galvanostatic discharge experiments with different compositions of a binary mixture of 1M of LiNO3 and LiTFSI in tetraglyme (TEGDME) as the electrolyte and analyzed the discharge products using techniques such as FT-IR, Raman Spectroscopy and SEM. It was observed that there is a non-linear correlation between the electrolyte composition and the first discharge capacity, with the highest discharge capacity achieved with the electrolyte composition as 0...
May 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yiju Li, Kun Kelvin Fu, Chaoji Chen, Wei Luo, Tingting Gao, Shaomao Xu, Jiaqi Dai, Glenn Pastel, Yanbin Wang, Boyang Liu, Jianwei Song, Yanan Chen, Chunpeng Yang, Liangbing Hu
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical energy density in comparison to conventional state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries. However, low sulfur mass loading in the cathode results in low areal capacity and impedes the practical use of Li-S cells. Inspired by wood, a cathode architecture with natural, three-dimensionally (3D) aligned microchannels filled with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were developed as an ideal structure for high sulfur mass loading. Compared with other carbon materials, the 3D porous carbon matrix has several advantages including low tortuosity, high electrical conductivity, and good structural stability, which make it an excellent 3D lightweight current collector...
May 12, 2017: ACS Nano
Junming Su, Jiayue Zhao, Liangyu Li, Congcong Zhang, Chunguang Chen, Tao Huang, Aishui Yu
A high-capacity Si anode is always accompanied by very large volume expansion and structural collapse during the lithium-ion insertion/extraction process. To stabilize the structure of the Si anode, magnesium vapor thermal reduction has been used to synthesize porous Si and SiO2 (pSS) particles, followed by in situ growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in pSS pores through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy have shown that the final product (pSS/CNTs) possesses adequate void space intertwined by uniformly distributed CNTs and inactive silica in particle form...
May 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Elena Vishnyakova, Gaowei Chen, Bruce E Brinson, Lawrence B Alemany, W Edward Billups
As a result of the unique physical and electrical properties, graphene continues to attract the interest of a large segment of the scientific community. Since graphene does not occur naturally, the ability to exfoliate and isolate individual layers of graphene from graphite is an important and challenging process. The interlayer cohesive energy of graphite that results from van der Waals attractions has been determined experimentally to be 61 meV per carbon atom (61 meV/C atom). This requires the development of a method to overcome the strong attractive forces associated with graphite...
May 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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