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lithium carbonate

Byung Gon Kim, Changshin Jo, Jaeho Shin, Yeongdong Mun, Jinwoo Lee, Jang Wook Choi
Despite the extraordinary gravimetric energy densities, Li-O2 batteries are still facing a technological challenge; limited round trip efficiency leading to insufficient cycle life. Recently, carbonaceous electrode materials were found to be one of the primary origins of the limited cycle life, as they produce irreversible side products during discharge. A few investigations based on non-carbonaceous materials have demonstrated largely suppressed accumulation of irreversible side products but such studies have focused mainly on the materials themselves rather than delicate morphology control...
January 12, 2017: ACS Nano
Wenfang Gao, Xihua Zhang, Xiaohong Zheng, Xiao Lin, Hongbin Cao, Yi Zhang, Zhi H I Sun
A closed-loop process to recover lithium carbonate from cathode scrap of lithium-ion battery (LIB) is developed. Lithium could be selectively leached into solution using formic acid while aluminum remained as metallic form and most of other metals from the cathode scrap could be precipitated out. This phenomenon clearly demonstrates that formic acid can be used for lithium recovery from cathode scrap, as both leaching and separation reagent. By investigating the effects of different parameters including temperature, formic acid concentration, H2O2 amount and solid to liquid ratio, the leaching rate of Li can reach 99...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Wei-Chung Chang, Kuan-Wei Tseng, Hsing-Yu Tuan
Red Phosphorus (RP) is a promising anode material for lithium-ion battery due to its earth abundance and a high theoretical capacity of 2596 mA h g-1. Although RP-based anodes for lithium-ion batteries have been reported, they were all in the form of carbon/P composites, including P-graphene, P-graphite, P-CNTs and P-carbon black, in order to improve P's extremely low conductivity and large volume change during cycling process. Here we report the large-scale synthesis of red phosphorus nanoparticles (RPNPs) with sizes ranging from 100 to 200 nm by reacting PI3 with ethylene glycol in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in ambient environment...
January 12, 2017: Nano Letters
Ningning Feng, Xiaowei Mu, Xueping Zhang, Ping He, Haoshen Zhou
Aprotic Li-O2 batteries have attracted worldwide interest owing to their ultra-high theoretical energy density. However, the practical Li-O2 batteries still suffer from high charge overpotential and low energy efficiency resulting from the sluggish kinetics in electrochemically oxidizing the insulating lithium peroxide (Li2O2). Recently, dissolved redox mediators in the electrolyte have enabled the effective catalytic oxidation of Li2O2 at the liquid-solid interface. Here, we report that the incorporation of N-methylphenothiazine (MPT), as a redox shuttle in Li-O2 batteries, provides a dramatic reduction in charge overpotential to 0...
January 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jun Seop Lee, Jaemoon Jun, Jyongsik Jang, Arumugam Manthiram
Activated highly porous carbon nanotubes are synthesized with a facile dual-nozzle co-electrospinning and a redox process to apply the framework of sulfur-immobilized composite as a high-performance cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries.
January 11, 2017: Small
Craig A Milroy, Seonpil Jang, Toshihiko Fujimori, Ananth Dodabalapur, Arumugam Manthiram
Improved thin-film microbatteries are needed to provide appropriate energy-storage options to power the multitude of devices that will bring the proposed "Internet of Things" network to fruition (e.g., active radio-frequency identification tags and microcontrollers for wearable and implantable devices). Although impressive efforts have been made to improve the energy density of 3D microbatteries, they have all used low energy-density lithium-ion chemistries, which present a fundamental barrier to miniaturization...
January 11, 2017: Small
Ang Li, Yan Tong, Bin Cao, Huaihe Song, Zhihong Li, Xiaohong Chen, Jisheng Zhou, Gen Chen, Hongmei Luo
Porous carbon is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional graphite materials in lithium-ion batteries. This is not only attributed to its advantages of good safety, stability and electrical conductivity, which are held by all the carbon-based electrodes, but also especially ascribed to its relatively high capacity and excellent cycle stability. Here we report the design and synthesis of a highly porous pure carbon material with multifractal structures. This material is prepared by the vacuum carbonization of a zinc-based metal-organic framework, which demonstrates an ultrahigh lithium storage capacity of 2458 mAh g(-1) and a favorable high-rate performance...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daniele Di Lecce, Roberta Verrelli, Daniele Campanella, Vittorio Marangon, Jusef Hassoun
Ternary CuO-Fe2O3-MCMB conversion anode is herein characterized and combined with high-voltage Li1.35Ni0.48Fe0.1Mn1.72O4 spinel cathode in a lithium-ion battery of relevant performances in terms of cycling stability and rate capability. The CuO-Fe2O3-MCMB composite is prepared using high-energy milling, i.e., a low-cost pathway which leads to a crystalline structure, and homogeneous submicrometrical morphology revealed by X-ray diffraction and electronic microscopy. The anode reversibly exchanges lithium ions by conversion reactions of CuO and Fe2O3, as well as by insertion into MCMB carbon...
January 10, 2017: ChemSusChem
Tao Chen, Baorui Cheng, Guoyin Zhu, Renpeng Chen, Yi Hu, Lianbo Ma, Hongling Lv, Yanrong Wang, Jia Liang, Zuoxiu Tie, Zhong Jin, Jie Liu
Despite high theoretical energy density, the practical deployment of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries is still not implemented because of the severe capacity decay caused by polysulfide shuttling and the poor rate capability induced by low electrical conductivity of sulfur. Herein, we report a novel sulfur host material based on "sea urchin"-like cobalt nanoparticle embedded and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube/nanopolyhedra (Co-NCNT/NP) superstructures for Li-S batteries. The hierarchical micromesopores in Co-NCNT/NP can allow efficient impregnation of sulfur and block diffusion of soluble polysulfides by physical confinement, and the incorporation of embedded Co nanoparticles and nitrogen doping (∼4...
January 11, 2017: Nano Letters
Zhi-Wei Zhao, Tao Wen, Kuang Liang, Yi-Fan Jiang, Xiao Zhou, Cong-Cong Shen, An-Wu Xu
As the ever-growing demand for high-performance power sources, lithium-ion batteries with high storage capacities and outstanding rate performance have been widely considered as a promising storage device. In this work, starting with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), we have developed a facile approach to the synthesis of hybrid Fe3O4/VOx hollow microboxes via the process of hydrolysis and ion exchange and subsequent calcination. In the constructed architecture, the hollow structure provides efficient lithium ions diffusion pathway and extra space to accommodate the volume expansion during the insertion and extration of Li+...
January 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Junyi Liu, Shuo Wang, Qiang Sun
Topological state of matter and lithium batteries are currently two hot topics in science and technology. Here we combine these two by exploring the possibility of using all-carbon-based porous topological semimetal for lithium battery anode material. Based on density-functional theory and the cluster-expansion method, we find that the recently identified topological semimetal bco-C16 is a promising anode material with higher specific capacity (Li-C4) than that of the commonly used graphite anode (Li-C6), and Li ions in bco-C16 exhibit a remarkable one-dimensional (1D) migration feature, and the ion diffusion channels are robust against the compressive and tensile strains during charging/discharging...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xing Zhang, Hui Wang, Gang Wang
In order to improve the conductivity and electrochemical activity, Co9S8 nanoparticles anchored in three-dimensional carbon nanosheet networks (3D Co9S8@CNNs) are fabricated by a simple strategy with the assistance of NaCl. Combining the advantages of nanoscale and porous structure, 3D Co9S8@CNNs can retard the aggregation of Co9S8 nanoparticles, provide abundant electrochemical active sites, as well as accommodate the mechanical stress during the cycling of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) or sodium ion batteries (SIBs)...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Zongnan Deng, Hao Jiang, Yanjie Hu, Yu Liu, Ling Zhang, Honglai Liu, Chunzhong Li
A flexible and robust electrode is demonstrated by assembling the 3D ordered macroporous MoS2 @C nanostructure on carbon cloth with ultrasmall few-layered MoS2 nanosheets homogenously embedded into the interconnected carbon wall. Such unique nanostructures are favorable for enhancing lithium storage capacity, directly applied as flexible electrode, demonstrating a very high electrochemical performance and superior cycling stability for lithium ion batteries.
January 9, 2017: Advanced Materials
Hongwei Zhu, Yunke Jing, Manas Pal, Yupu Liu, Yang Liu, Jinxiu Wang, Fan Zhang, Dongyuan Zhao
Here, we report mesoporous TiO2@N-doped carbon composite nanospheres synthesized via a double-surfactant-assisted assembly sol-gel process followed by sequential carbonization of surfactants under a N2 atmosphere. The resulting TiO2@N-doped C composite nanospheres are composed of uniformly distributed TiO2 nanocrystals with a diameter of ∼8 nm coated by a N-doped carbon layer that was formed by surfactants. Moreover, a large number of connected mesopores were observed in the nanospheres after high-temperature carbonization treatment...
January 9, 2017: Nanoscale
Yong Li, Daixin Ye, Bin Shi, Wen Liu, Rui Guo, Haijuan Pei, Jingying Xie
To solve the barriers of poor rate capability and inferior cycling stability for the MnO2 anode in lithium ion batteries, we present a highly flexible membrane anode employing two-dimensional (2D) reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGO) and a three-dimensional (3D) MnO2-reduced graphene oxide-carbon nanotube nanocomposite (MGC) by a vacuum filtration and thermal annealing approach. All the components in the 2D/3D thin film anode have a synergistic effect on the improved performance. The initial discharge specific capacity of the electrode with the MnO2 content of 56 wt% was 1656...
January 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yuan-Yuan Li, Yun-Shu Zhang, Jian Wang, Ke-Qing Li, Hong-Ying Wang
Objective To systematically evaluate the efficacy of clozapine combined with other antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, and China Biology Medicine databases in both English and Chinese for randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomization controlled trials, and clinical controlled trials concerning the combinations of clozapine with other antipsychotic drugs for refractory schizophrenia. Quality assessment and data extraction were conducted with the Cochrane collaboration's RevMan 5...
December 20, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Jing Wang, Fang Fang, Tao Yuan, Junhe Yang, Liang Chen, Chi Yao, Shiyou Zheng, Dalin Sun
A unique 3D graphene-single wall carbon nanotube (G-SWNT) aerogel anchored with SnO2 nanoparticles (SnO2@G-SWCNT) is fabricated by hydrothermal self-assembly process. The influences of mass ratio of SWCNT to graphene on structure and electrochemical properties of SnO2@G-SWCNT are investigated systematically. The SnO2@G-SWCNT composites show excellent electrochemical performance in Li-ion batteries, for instance, at a current density of 100 mA g-1, a specific capacity of 758 mAh g-1 was obtained for the SnO2@G-SWCNT with 50 % SWCNT in G-SWCNT and the coulombic efficiency is close to 100 % after 200 cycles; even at current density of 1 A g-1, it can still maintain a stable specific capacity of 537 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles...
January 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lei Hu, Yue Lu, Xiaona Li, Jianwen Liang, Tao Huang, Yongchun Zhu, Yitai Qian
Developing appropriate sulfur cathode materials in carbonate-based electrolyte is an important research subject for lithium-sulfur batteries. Although several microporous carbon materials as host for sulfur reveal the effect, methods for producing microporous carbon are neither easy nor well controllable. Moreover, due to the complexity and limitation of microporous carbon in their fabrication process, there has been rare investigation of influence on electrochemical behavior in the carbonate-based electrolyte for lithium-sulfur batteries by tuning different micropore size(0-2 nm) of carbon host...
January 6, 2017: Small
Tereza M Paronyan, Arjun Kumar Thapa, Andriy Sherehiy, Jacek B Jasinski, John Samuel Dilip Jangam
Graphite's capacity of intercalating lithium in rechargeable batteries is limited (theoretically, 372 mAh g(-1)) due to low diffusion within commensurately-stacked graphene layers. Graphene foam with highly enriched incommensurately-stacked layers was grown and applied as an active electrode in rechargeable batteries. A 93% incommensurate graphene foam demonstrated a reversible specific capacity of 1,540 mAh g(-1) with a 75% coulombic efficiency, and an 86% incommensurate sample achieves above 99% coulombic efficiency exhibiting 930 mAh g(-1) specific capacity...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yoon-Sok Kang, Min Sik Park, Insun Park, Dong Young Kim, Junho Park, Kwangjin Park, Meiten Koh, Seok Gwang Doo
Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) is investigated as a conductive film-making additive on overlithiated layered oxide (OLO) cathode. When the OLO/graphite cell is cycled at high voltage, carbonate-based electrolyte without the additive decomposes continuously to form a thick and highly resistant surface film on the cathode. In contrast, TTF added into the electrolyte becomes oxidized before the electrolyte solvents, creating a thinner film on the cathode surface. This film inhibits further electrolyte decomposition through cycling, and stabilizes the interface between the cathode and electrolyte...
January 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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