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lithium carbonate

F Scotti, V A Soukhanovskii, M E Weller
A comprehensive set of spectroscopic diagnostics is planned in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade to connect measurements of molybdenum and tungsten divertor sources to scrape-off layer (SOL) and core impurity transport, supporting the installation of high-Z plasma facing components which is scheduled to begin with a row of molybdenum tiles. Imaging with narrow-bandpass interference filters and high-resolution spectroscopy will be coupled to estimate divertor impurity influxes. Vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet spectrometers will allow connecting high-Z sources to SOL transport and core impurity content...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Thomas-C Jagau
The theory and implementation of the complex-scaled coupled-cluster method with singles and doubles excitations (cs-CCSD) for studying resonances induced by static electric fields are presented. Within this framework, Stark shifts and ionization rates are obtained directly from the real and imaginary parts of the complex energy. The method is applied to the ground states of hydrogen, helium, lithium, beryllium, neon, argon, and carbon at varying field strengths. Complex-scaled Hartree-Fock, second-order many-body perturbation theory, and CCSD results are reported and analyzed with a focus on the impact of electron correlation on the ionization process...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Mengting Jin, L C Yu, W M Shi, J G Deng, Y N Zhang
Systematic first-principles calculations were performed to investigate the adsorption and diffusion of Li on different graphene layers with B/N-doping and/or C-vacancy, so as to understand why doping heteroatoms in graphene anode could significantly improve the performance of lithium-ion batteries. We found that the formation of single or double carbon vacancies in graphene are critical for the adsorption of Li atoms. While the N-doping facilitates the formation of vacancies, it introduces over binding issue and hinders the Li diffusion...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shaohui Li, Jingwei Chen, Mengqi Cui, Guofa Cai, Jiangxin Wang, Peng Cui, Xuefei Gong, Pooi See Lee
Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are promising electrical energy storage systems for mid-to-large-scale applications due to the high energy and large power output without sacrificing long cycle stability. However, due to the different energy storage mechanisms between anode and cathode, the energy densities of LICs often degrade noticeably at high power density, because of the sluggish kinetics limitation at the battery-type anode side. Herein, a high-performance LIC by well-defined ZnMn2 O4 -graphene hybrid nanosheets anode and N-doped carbon nanosheets cathode is presented...
November 28, 2016: Small
A Rajkamal, E Mathan Kumar, V Kathirvel, Noejung Park, Ranjit Thapa
First-principles calculations are performed to identify the pristine and Si doped 3D metallic T6 carbon structure (having both sp(2) and sp(3) type hybridization) as a new carbon based anode material. The π electron of C2 atoms (sp(2) bonded) forms an out of plane network that helps to capture the Li atom. The highest Li storage capacity of Si doped T6 structure with conformation Li1.7Si1C5 produces theoretical specific capacity of 632 mAh/g which substantially exceeding than graphite. Also, open-circuit voltage (OCV) with respect to Li metal shows large negative when compared to the pristine T6 structure...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xingzhu Chen, Zhouzhou Kong, Neng Li, Xiujian Zhao, Chenghua Sun
A two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbonitride (MXenes) with a formula of Ti3CN as an anode of a lithium-ion battery (LIB) has been proposed in this work. The mechanism of Li(+) adsorption and diffusion on the surface of Ti3CN and Ti3CNT2 (T = F, O, and OH functional groups) was studied to estimate the potential application of Ti3CN as an anode material by density functional theory (DFT) and DFT+U computations. For Ti3CNT2 (T = O, F, OH), the value of Li diffusion barriers is from 0.2 eV to 0.3 eV. On the basis of our results, we can know that Li prefers adsorption on the nitrogen side for Ti3CN in the absence of functional groups and tends to adsorb on the carbon side for Ti3CNT2 (T = O, F, OH)...
November 25, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Han Zhou, Lusi Zhang, Dongyang Zhang, Shuangqiang Chen, Paul R Coxon, Xiong He, Mike Coto, Hyun-Kyung Kim, Kai Xi, Shujiang Ding
We report a simple synthetic approach to coaxially grow transition metal oxide (TMO) nanostructures on carbon nanotubes (CNT) with ready control of phase and morphology. A thin (~4 nm) sulfonated-polystyrene (SPS) pre-coating is essential for the deposition of transition metal based materials. This layer has abundant sulfonic groups (-SO3(-)) that can effectively attract Ni(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+) ions through electrostatic interaction and induce them via hydrolysis, dehydration and recrystallization to form coaxial (NiO, Co3O4, NiCoO2 and ZnCo2O4) shells and a nanosheet-like morphology around CNT...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Md Mokhlesur Rahman, Irin Sultana, Tianyu Yang, Zhiqiang Chen, Neeraj Sharma, Alexey M Glushenkov, Ying Chen
A simple, cost-effective, and easily scalable molten salt method for the preparation of Li2 GeO3 as a new type of high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries is reported. The Li2 GeO3 exhibits a unique porous architecture consisting of micrometer-sized clusters (secondary particles) composed of numerous nanoparticles (primary particles) and can be used directly without further carbon coating which is a common exercise for most electrode materials. The new anode displays superior cycling stability with a retained charge capacity of 725 mAh g(-1) after 300 cycles at 50 mA g(-1) ...
November 23, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
C M Lopes-Ramos, T C Pereira, D B Dogini, R Gilioli, I Lopes-Cendes
Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) or spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of the polyglutamine domain of the ataxin-3 (ATX3) protein. MJD/SCA3 is the most frequent autosomal dominant ataxia in many countries. The mechanism underlying MJD/SCA3 is thought to be mainly related to protein misfolding and aggregation leading to neuronal dysfunction followed by cell death. Currently, there are no effective treatments for patients with MJD/SCA3. Here, we report on the potential use of lithium carbonate and coenzyme Q10 to reduce cell death caused by the expanded ATX3 in cell culture...
November 21, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Andreas Heckmann, Manuel Krott, Benjamin Streipert, Sven Uhlenbruck, Martin Winter, Tobias Placke
Batteries based on cathode materials that operate at high cathode potentials, such as LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) in lithium ion batteries or graphitic carbons in dual-ion batteries suffer from anodic dissolution of the aluminum (Al) current collector in organic solvent-based electrolytes based on imide salts, such as lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI). In this work, we developed a protective surface modification for the Al current collector by ceramic coatings of chromium nitride (CrxN) and studied the anodic Al dissolution behavior...
November 14, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Xianjun Tan, Chuanfeng Cui, Shiqun Wu, Bocheng Qiu, Lingzhi Wang, Jinlong Zhang
N-doped mesoporous carbon capped MoO2 nanobelts (donated as MoO2@NC) were synthesized and applied to lithium ion storage. Thanks to the stable core-shell structured framework and conductive mesoporous carbon matrix, the as-prepared MoO2@NC show high specific capacity of around 700 mA h g-1 at a current of 0.5 A g-1, excellent cycling stability up to 100 cycles, and superior rate performance. The N-doped mesoporous carbon can greatly improve the conductivity and provide uninhibited conducting pathways for fast charge transfer and transport...
November 18, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Sergej Rothermel, Marco Evertz, Johannes Kasnascheetw, Xin Qi, Martin Grützke, Martin Winter, Sascha Nowak
The present work reports on challenges in utilization of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) - an increasingly important aspect associated with a significantly rising demand for electric vehicles (EVs). In this context, the feasibility of anode recycling in combination with three different electrolyte extraction concepts is investigated. The first method is based on a thermal treatment of graphite without electrolyte recovery. The second method additionally utilizes a liquid carbon dioxide-assisted electrolyte extraction prior to thermal treatment...
November 15, 2016: ChemSusChem
Landon Oakes, Rachel Carter, Cary L Pint
For lithium-sulfur batteries to surpass the energy density of lithium-ion batteries, sulfur-containing cathodes require high sulfur loading (>70 wt%) relative to all inactive components, anchoring sites to prevent polysulfide shuttling, high capacity (>1000 mA h g(-1)), and stable cycling performance. Here we demonstrate a nanomanufacturing route to produce low-density hybrid nanomaterial electrodes that synergize the mechanical and electrical integrity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with the chemical defect properties of carbon nanohorns (CNHs) to produce carefully optimized properties for binder-free lithium-sulfur battery cathodes...
November 15, 2016: Nanoscale
Guanhui Yang, Yu Zhang, Yanshan Huang, Muhammad Imran Shakir, Yuxi Xu
The increasing demand for energy and growing concerns for environmental issues are promoting the development of organic electrode materials. Among these, conjugated carbonyl compounds (CCCs) represent one of the most attractive and promising candidates for sustainable and eco-benign energy storage devices in the coming future. However, most of the current compounds suffer from dissolution in organic electrolytes and low electronic conductivity, which result in severe capacity decay and poor rate performance...
November 15, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Etieli Wendler, Camila Pasquini de Souza, Debora Dalla Vecchia, Luiz Kae Sales Kanazawa, Palloma de Almeida Soares Hocayen, Markus Wöhr, Rainer K W Schwarting, Roberto Andreatini
Drug-induced hyperlocomotion in rodents is frequently used as a behavioral model for mania. However, the use of locomotor activity as the single parameter in these animal models of mania may pose some limitations for developing new pharmacological treatments. Thus, alternative behavioral markers are required. Fifty-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), which are thought to represent positive affect, are increased by the administration of the psychostimulant d-amphetamine, an effect that can be prevented by lithium treatment, the gold standard antimanic drug for treating bipolar disorder...
November 11, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Mumukshu D Patel, Eunho Cha, Nitin Choudhary, Chiwon Kang, Wonki Lee, Jun Yeon Hwang, Wonbong Choi
The advent of advanced electrode materials has led to performance enhancement of traditional lithium ion batteries (LIBs). We present novel binder-free MoS2 coated three-dimensional carbon nanotubes (3D CNTs) as an anode in LIBs. Scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that vertically oriented MoS2 nanoflakes are strongly bonded to CNTs, which provide a high surface area and active electrochemical sites, and enhanced ion conductivity at the interface. The electrochemical performance shows a very high areal capacity of ~1...
November 9, 2016: Nanotechnology
Mengting Liu, Wenhe Xie, Lili Gu, Tianfeng Qin, Xiaoyi Hou, Deyan He
A novel network of spindle-like carbon nanofibers was fabricated via a simplified synthesis involving electrospinning followed by preoxidation in air and postcarbonization in Ar. Not only was the as-obtained carbon network comprised of beads of spindle-like nanofibers but the cubic MnO phase and N elements were successfully anchored into the amorphous carbon matrix. When directly used as a binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries, the network showed excellent electrochemical performance with high capacity, good rate capacity and reliable cycling stability...
2016: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Anika C Juhl, Artur Schneider, Boris Ufer, Torsten Brezesinski, Jürgen Janek, Michael Fröba
Hollow carbon spheres (HCS) with a nanoporous shell are promising for the use in lithium-sulfur batteries because of the large internal void offering space for sulfur and polysulfide storage and confinement. However, there is an ongoing discussion whether the cavity is accessible for sulfur. Yet no valid proof of cavity filling has been presented, mostly due to application of unsuitable high-vacuum methods for the analysis of sulfur distribution. Here we describe the distribution of sulfur in hollow carbon spheres by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy along with results from scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen physisorption...
2016: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Zhixin Dong, Ruibo Zhang, Dongsheng Ji, Natasha A Chernova, Khim Karki, Shawn Sallis, Louis Piper, M Stanley Whittingham
Carbon-based anodes are the key limiting factor in increasing the volumetric capacity of lithium-ion batteries. Tin-based composites are one alternative approach. Nanosized Sn-Fe-C anode materials are mechanochemically synthesized by reducing SnO with Ti in the presence of carbon. The optimum synthesis conditions are found to be 1:0.25:10 for initial ratio of SnO, Ti, and graphite with a total grinding time of 8 h. This optimized composite shows excellent extended cycling at the C/10 rate, delivering a first charge capacity as high as 740 mAh g(-1) and 60% of which still remained after 170 cycles...
April 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Chandra Sekhar Bongu, Jeevani Ragupathi, Kalaiselvi Nallathamby
MnFeO3, investigated for its application in sensors, catalysis, and semiconductors, was explored for the first time as anode for lithium ion batteries in the form of MnFeO3/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composite. A scalable and highly reproducible sonochemical process was adopted to form the composite, wherein the interweaved MWCNT ensures better electronic conductivity and pinning of pristine MnFeO3 particles with a conductive coating. MnFeO3/MWCNT composite anode exhibits superior electrochemical properties than pristine MnFeO3 anode in such a manner that a steady-state reversible capacity of 840 mAh g(-1) was obtained at 0...
November 3, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
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