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W Kyle Mitchell, Bethan E Phillips, Daniel J Wilkinson, John P Williams, Debbie Rankin, Jonathan N Lund, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton
Postprandial limb blood flow and skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion reduce with aging. Here we tested the impact of providing bolus essential amino acids (EAA) in the presence and absence of the nitric oxide precursor, l-Arginine (ARG), upon skeletal muscle blood flow and anabolism in older men. Healthy young (YOUNG: 19.7 ± 0.5 y, N = 8) and older men (OLD, 70 ± 0.8 y, N = 8) received 15 g EAA or (older only) 15 g EAA +3 g ARG (OLD-ARG, 69.2 ± 1.2 y, N = 8). We quantified responses in muscle protein synthesis (MPS; incorporation of (13)C phenylalanine into myofibrillar proteins), leg and muscle microvascular blood flow (Doppler/contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)) and insulin/EAA in response to EEA ± ARG...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Sanaul Mustafa, V Kusum Devi, Roopa S Pai
Kanamycin sulphate (KS) is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein synthesis inhibitor. KS is polycationic, a property responsible for KS poor oral absorption half-life (2.5 h), and rapid renal clearance, which results in serious nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity. The current study aimed to develop KS-loaded PLGA-Vitamin-E-TPGS microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) to reduce the dosing frequency and dose related adverse effect. In vitro release was sustained up to 10 days for KS PLGA-TPGS MPs and 13 days for KS PLGA-TPGS NPs in PBS pH 7...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Microencapsulation
Carolina Gómez-Gaete, Macarena Retamal, Catalina Chávez, Paulina Bustos, Ricardo Godoy, Pablo Torres-Vergara
Rhein is an active metabolite of the drug diacerein, whose anti-inflammatory properties have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo models. However, the low oral bioavailability of rhein has limited its utility as a potential treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic inflammatory disease. In order to overcome this limitation, the aim of this work was the development of a drug delivery system intended for intra-articular administration of rhein, based on polymeric biodegradable PLGA microparticles (MPs) loaded with the drug...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Francyne Kubaski, Robert W Mason, Akiko Nakatomi, Haruo Shintaku, Li Xie, Naomi N van Vlies, Heather Church, Roberto Giugliani, Hironori Kobayashi, Seiji Yamaguchi, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Tadao Orii, Toshiyuki Fukao, Adriana M Montaño, Shunji Tomatsu
BACKGROUND: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of inborn errors of metabolism that are progressive and usually result in irreversible skeletal, visceral, and/or brain damage, highlighting a need for early diagnosis. METHODS: This pilot study analyzed 2862 dried blood spots (DBS) from newborns and 14 DBS from newborn patients with MPS (MPS I, n = 7; MPS II, n = 2; MPS III, n = 5). Disaccharides were produced from polymer GAGs by digestion with chondroitinase B, heparitinase, and keratanase II...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
William G McCormack, John P Cooke, William T O'Connor, Philip M Jakeman
Nutrient stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is regulated by the change in extracellular essential amino acid (EAA) concentration. In vivo microdialysis (MD) is a minimally invasive sampling technique, capable of sampling solute in the interstitial space of a target tissue. In a contralateral limb design (REST vs. EX), this study utilised in vivo MD to examine the change in skeletal muscle dialysate amino acid concentration following ingestion of whey protein isolate (WPI) and flavoured water (CON)...
October 4, 2016: Amino Acids
Francyne Kubaski, Heidi H Kecskemethy, H Theodore Harcke, Shunji Tomatsu
To date, the only published reports of bone mineral density (BMD) in MPS IV involve patients with MPS IVA; no reports exist describing BMD for MPS IVB. In this prospective study of BMD in three patients with MPS IVB, BMD was acquired by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), and lateral distal femur (LDF). Functional abilities, ambulatory status, medical history, and height z-score were evaluated. Three patients with MPS IVB (two females), aged 17.7, 31.4 and 31.7 years, were evaluated...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Nicole M M Novroski, Jonathan L King, Jennifer D Churchill, Lay Hong Seah, Bruce Budowle
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) can identify sequence variation within short tandem repeat (STR) alleles as well as their nominal allele lengths that traditionally have been obtained by capillary electrophoresis. Using the MiSeq FGx Forensic Genomics System (Illumina), STRait Razor, and in-house excel workbooks, genetic variation was characterized within STR repeat and flanking regions of 27 autosomal, 7 X chromosome and 24 Y-chromosome STR markers in 777 unrelated individuals from four population groups...
September 28, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Zhenbao Liu, Chunyan Wang, Yanfei Liu, Dongming Peng
Cefepime (CFP) is a frequently used antibiotic for prevention of post-surgery infection. Systemic delivery of CFP in a bulk dose usually shows effective therapeutic effects, while cytotoxicity can also be generated. To avoid the drawback of systemic delivery of antibiotic, local and controlled administration of drug is being employed to prolong therapeutic effects and reduce cytotoxicity by sustaining drug release and minimizing drug exposure. In this work, CFP loaded polymer O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMC) microspheres (CFP-OCMC-MPs) were fabricated and their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
E Artoni, G L Sighinolfi, A M Gatti, M Sebastiani, M Colaci, D Giuggioli, C Ferri
BACKGROUND: Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) is a rare multisystem disease whose aetiopathogenesis is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may have a causative role, and genetic and/or environmental factors may also contribute. AIMS: To investigate the presence and possible role of environmental agents in MC. METHODS: We recruited 30 HCV-infected MC patients with different clinical manifestations and a control group of 30 healthy, sex-/age-matched volunteers...
September 30, 2016: Occupational Medicine
Geneviève Marcoux, Anne-Claire Duchez, Matthieu Rousseau, Tania Lévesque, Luc H Boudreau, Louis Thibault, Eric Boilard
On activation, platelets release vesicles called microparticles (MPs). MPs are heterogeneous with regard to the presence or absence of mitochondria. We quantified MPs in platelet concentrates (PCs) taking their mitochondrial content into account. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), buffy coat (BC) and apheresis (AP) PCs were tested through 7 days of storage. A combination of flow cytometry and spanning-tree progression analysis of density-normalized events (SPADE) was used to determine MP and mitochondrial release during storage...
September 29, 2016: Platelets
Zhipeng Yao, Lixiu Wang, Xiaoming Wu, Lu Zhao, Chunling Chi, Li Guo, Dongxia Tong, Xiaoyan Yang, Zengxiang Dong, Ruijuan Deng, Valerie A Novakovic, Hemant S Thatte, Yayan Bi, Ye Tian, Jialan Shi, Jin Zhou, Junjie Kou, Shaoshan Hu
The role of phosphatidylserine (PS)-mediated procoagulant activity (PCA) in stroke remains unclear. To ascertain this role, early dynamic evolution of PS exposure on blood cells and released microparticles (MPs) and the corresponding PCA were evaluated in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Flow cytometry analyses revealed that initial levels of PS exposure on erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte were 2.40-, 1.36-, and 1.38-fold higher, respectively, in AIS than the risk factor-matched (RF) controls...
September 20, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Sandra R Breyer, Nicole Muschol, Mona Schmidt, Martin Rupprecht, Kornelia Babin, Jochen Herrmann, Ralf Stücker
BACKGROUND: Hip dysplasia is common in mucopolysaccharidosis type-1H (MPS-1H) patients, but its morphology is not completely understood. No magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based studies have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to improve knowledge of hip dysplasia pathology by describing the hip morphology of these patients in MRI scans, plain radiographs, and arthrograms. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 18 MPS-1H patients...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Lina Du, Junwei Jia, Pingju Ge, Yiguang Jin
Anti-HIV prodrugs are recently focused on due to their ability of self-assembly, macrophage targeting, and enhanced antiviral effects. Here, an amphiphilic prodrug of zidovudine, an anti-HIV nucleoside analogue, 5'-cholesteryl-ethyl-phosphoryl zidovudine (CEPZ) was synthesized. CEPZ showed some unique physicochemical properties. The solubility of CEPZ in the noncompetitive solvents chloroform and tetrahydrofuran (THF) was very high based on the hydrogen bonds between zidovudine groups, though CEPZ was sparing soluble in alcohols and almost insoluble in water...
September 8, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Sameh Obeid, Adam Ceroi, Guillaume Mourey, Philippe Saas, Celine Elie-Caille, Wilfrid Boireau
Blood microparticles (MPs) are small membrane vesicles (50-1000nm), derived from different cell types. They are known to play important roles in various biological processes and also recognized as potential biomarkers of various health disorders. Different methods are currently used for the detection and characterization of MPs, but none of these methods is capable to quantify and qualify total MPs at the same time, hence, there is a need to develop a new approach for simultaneous detection, characterization and quantification of microparticles...
August 29, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Calisir Bunyamin, Ulutas Murat, Boyaci Suat, Aksoy Kaya
AIM: Fusion development is the primary objective in spinal surgeries that are conducted for the treatment of vertebra corpus related pathologies such as trauma, tumor and infection. Stabilization using metal plate screws together either with autograft, allograft or xenografts methods are used. Fusion development in stabilizations that are carried out with xenograft (XG) with XG plate-screw (XPS) and XG with metal plate-screw (MPS) systems in dogs' lumbar vertebra (L5-7 segment) was examined in terms of radiology, biomechanics and histopathologic aspects...
June 24, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
Takayuki Yokoi, Kentarou Yokoi, Kazumasa Akiyama, Takashi Higuchi, Yohta Shimada, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Taku Sato, Toshiaki Ohteki, Makoto Otsu, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Hiroyuki Ida, Toya Ohashi
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by the deficient activity of iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS), which is involved in the lysosomal catabolism of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) dermatan and heparan sulfate. Such a deficiency leads to the accumulation of undegraded GAGs in some organs. Although enzyme replacement therapy is available as a treatment of MPS II, there are some limitations, such as the requirement of weekly administration for whole life. To avoid such limitations, hematopoietic cell transplantation (HSCT) is a possible alternative...
August 21, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Seong-Cheol Park, Do Hee Lee, Jung Kyo Lee
OBJECTIVE: To investigate gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for benign tumor-associated secondary trigeminal neuralgia. METHODS: From 2006 to 2015, 21 patients with secondary trigeminal neuralgia from meningioma were treated using GKS. Their mean age was 56.5 ± 12.2 years. The 50% isodose was 12.5±1.1 Gy for the first GKS for the meningioma. Retrogasserian targeting of the trigeminal nerve at 90 Gy with a 4-mm collimator was used for the second GKS. RESULTS: The pain duration until GKS was 1...
August 27, 2016: World Neurosurgery
John P Greenwood, David P Ripley, Colin Berry, Gerry P McCann, Sven Plein, Chiara Bucciarelli-Ducci, Erica Dall'Armellina, Abhiram Prasad, Petra Bijsterveld, James R Foley, Kenneth Mangion, Mark Sculpher, Simon Walker, Colin C Everett, David A Cairns, Linda D Sharples, Julia M Brown
IMPORTANCE: Among patients with suspected coronary heart disease (CHD), rates of invasive angiography are considered too high. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that among patients with suspected CHD, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-guided care is superior to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines-directed care and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS)-guided care in reducing unnecessary angiography. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Multicenter, 3-parallel group, randomized clinical trial using a pragmatic comparative effectiveness design...
September 13, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
G Ciancio, P Tryphonopoulos, J J Gaynor, G Guerra, J Sageshima, D Roth, L Chen, W Kupin, A Mattiazzi, L Tueros, S Flores, L Hanson, R H Powell, P Ruiz, R Vianna, G W Burke
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that the combination of tacrolimus (TAC) and everolimus (EVL) could become a viable option for use as standard maintenance immunosuppression in non-highly sensitized kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, open-label, randomized pilot trial comparing two maintenance immunosuppression regimens in non-highly sensitized, adult, primary kidney transplant recipients: (TAC/EVL, Group A) vs our standard maintenance regimen of TAC plus enteric-coated mycophenolate mofetil (TAC/EC-MPS, Group B)...
July 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Christiane Auray-Blais, Pamela Lavoie, Shunji Tomatsu, Vassili Valayannopoulos, John J Mitchell, Julian Raiman, Maxime Beaudoin, Bruno Maranda, Joe T R Clarke
Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of disorders resulting from primary defects in lysosomal enzymes involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Depending on the specific enzyme defect, the catabolism of one or more GAGs is blocked leading to accumulation in tissues and biological fluids. GAG measurements are important for high-risk screening, diagnosis, monitoring treatment efficacy, and patient follow up. The dimethylmethylene blue (DMB) spectrophotometric method commonly used in most biochemical genetics laboratories relies on a non-specific total GAG analysis which has led to false positive results, and even false negative results (mainly for MPS III and IV patients)...
September 14, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
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