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Glucocorticoid AND microbiota

A E Hoban, R D Moloney, A V Golubeva, K A McVey Neufeld, O O'Sullivan, E Patterson, C Stanton, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
Gut microbiota colonization is a key event for host physiology that occurs early in life. Disruption of this process leads to altered brain development which ultimately manifests as changes in brain function and behaviour in adulthood. Studies using germ-free mice highlight the extreme impact on brain health that results from life without commensal microbes, however the impact of microbiota disturbances occurring in adulthood is less studied. To this end, we depleted the gut microbiota of 10-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats via chronic antibiotic treatment...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience
Borja Ocón, Carlos J Aranda, Reyes Gámez-Belmonte, María Dolores Suárez, Antonio Zarzuelo, Olga Martínez-Augustin, Fermín Sánchez de Medina
Glucocorticoids are widely used for the management of inflammatory bowel disease, albeit with known limitations for long-term use and relevant adverse effects. In turn, they have harmful effects in experimental colitis. We aimed to explore the mechanism and possible implications of this phenomenon. Regular and microbiota depleted C57BL/6 mice were exposed to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis and treated with budesonide. Colonic inflammation and animal status were compared. In vitro epithelial models of wound healing were used to confirm the effects of glucocorticoids...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Zhao-Wan Yang, Yan-Hua Jiang, Chuang Ma, Guido Silvestri, Steven E Bosinger, Bai-Lian Li, Ambrose Jong, Yan-Hong Zhou, Sheng-He Huang
To explore the differences between the extreme SIV infection phenotypes, nonprogression (BEN: benign) to AIDS in sooty mangabeys (SMs) and progression to AIDS (MAL: malignant) in rhesus macaques (RMs), we performed an integrated dual positive-negative connectivity (DPNC) analysis of gene coexpression networks (GCN) based on publicly available big data sets in the GEO database of NCBI. The microarray-based gene expression data sets were generated, respectively, from the peripheral blood of SMs and RMs at several time points of SIV infection...
2016: PloS One
Kenichi Yoshikawa, Chie Kurihara, Hirotaka Furuhashi, Takeshi Takajo, Koji Maruta, Yuichi Yasutake, Hirokazu Sato, Kazuyuki Narimatsu, Yoshikiyo Okada, Masaaki Higashiyama, Chikako Watanabe, Shunsuke Komoto, Kengo Tomita, Shigeaki Nagao, Soichiro Miura, Hisao Tajiri, Ryota Hokari
BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are popular painkillers, but they have serious side effects, not only in the upper gastrointestinal tract but also in the small intestine. It is well known that psychological stress may exacerbate various gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether psychological stress exacerbates NSAID enteropathy and to determine the possible underlying mechanisms for this. METHODS: Experiment 1: mice were exposed to water avoidance stress (WAS) or sham stress for 1 h per day for 8 consecutive days, and then enteropathy was induced by indomethacin...
April 13, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Rene Cortese, Lei Lu, Yueyue Yu, Douglas Ruden, Erika C Claud
Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory bowel disease affecting primarily premature infants, which can be lethal. Microbial intestinal colonization may alter epigenetic signatures of the immature gut establishing inflammatory and barrier properties predisposing to the development of NEC. We hypothesize that a crosstalk exists between the epigenome of the host and the initial intestinal colonizing microbiota at critical neonatal stages...
March 3, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Xu Haiyu, Shi Yang, Zhang Yanqiong, Jia Qiang, Li Defeng, Zhang Yi, Liu Feng, Yang Hongjun
Integrative pharmacology has been used to identify the key active constituents (KACs) of Buchang Naoxintong capsules (BNCs), a traditional Chinese medical preparation; this approach involves the evaluation of the content profiles and drug-like properties of the BNC constituents and development of an ingredient-target network. In this study, we used a sensitive analytical method to simultaneously identify and quantify 16 constituents of BNCs. Metabolism of these constituents by gut microbiota and human oral bioavailability were predicted using an in silico approach, followed by construction of networks to analyze the interactions between BNC constituents, their molecular targets, and proteins known to be the molecular targets for Food and Drug Administration-approved colitis medication...
January 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Vibeke Andersen, Katrine Svenningsen, Lina Almind Knudsen, Axel Kornerup Hansen, Uffe Holmskov, Allan Stensballe, Ulla Vogel
AIM: To evaluate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in colonic pathophysiology as they had recently been related to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. METHODS: Literature search was conducted on PubMed using combinations of the following terms: ABC transporters, ATP binding cassette transporter proteins, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative, colitis, Crohn's disease, colorectal cancer, colitis, intestinal inflammation, intestinal carcinogenesis, ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp/CD243/MDR1), ABCC2/multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) and ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), Abcb1/Mdr1a, abcc2/Mrp2, abcg2/Bcrp, knock-out mice, tight junction, membrane lipid function...
November 7, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Solomon Cohney, Silvia Pinach, Francesca Saba, Roberto Gambino
Mounting evidence connects non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to chronic kidney disease (CKD). We review emerging mechanistic links between NAFLD and CKD, including altered activation of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-2, nutrient/energy sensors sirtuin-1 and AMP-activated kinase, as well as impaired antioxidant defense mediated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Dietary fructose excess may also contribute to NAFLD and CKD. NAFLD affects renal injury through lipoprotein dysmetabolism and altered secretion of the hepatokines fibroblast growth factor-21, fetuin-A, insulin-like growth factor-1, and syndecan-1...
October 2015: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Edmond Y Huang, Takuya Inoue, Vanessa A Leone, Sushila Dalal, Ketrija Touw, Yunwei Wang, Mark W Musch, Betty Theriault, Kazuhide Higuchi, Sharon Donovan, Jack Gilbert, Eugene B Chang
BACKGROUND: Commensal gut microbiota play an important role in regulating metabolic and inflammatory conditions. Reshaping intestinal microbiota through pharmacologic means may be a viable treatment option. We sought to delineate the functional characteristics of glucocorticoid-mediated alterations on gut microbiota and their subsequent repercussions on host mucin regulation and colonic inflammation. METHODS: Adult male C57Bl/6 mice, germ-free, Muc2-heterozygote (±), or Muc2-knockout (-/-) were injected with dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, for 4 weeks...
May 2015: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Casey J Holmes, Jennifer K Plichta, Richard L Gamelli, Katherine A Radek
Significance: Humans are under constant bombardment by various stressors, including psychological anxiety and physiologic injury. Understanding how these stress responses influence the innate immune system and the skin microbiome remains elusive due to the complexity of the neuroimmune and stress response pathways. Both animal and human studies have provided critical information upon which to further elucidate the mechanisms by which mammalian stressors impair normal wound healing and/or promote chronic wound progression...
January 1, 2015: Advances in Wound Care
Cindy M Liu, Michael A Kohanski, Michelle Mendiola, Katerina Soldanova, Michael G Dwan, Richard Lester, Lora Nordstrom, Lance B Price, Andrew P Lane
BACKGROUND: Topical treatments with nasal saline irrigation, topical steroid sprays, or corticosteroid rinses can improve sinonasal symptoms in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, the impact of these therapies on commensals (Corynebacterium) and on biofilm pathogens associated with CRS (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas) is not well characterized. METHODS: Paired nasal and sinus swabs were collected endoscopically from 28 controls and 14 CRS patients with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) who had not received systemic antibiotics or corticosteroids in the previous 8 weeks...
March 2015: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Yi-Xuan Dai, Chuan-Bing Shi, Bo-Ta Cui, Min Wang, Guo-Zhong Ji, Fa-Ming Zhang
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by patchy or diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall to a variable depth and various gastrointestinal manifestations. We describe a case of severe eosinophilic gastroenteritis presenting as frequent bowel obstruction and diarrhea in a 35-year-old man. The patient was misdiagnosed and underwent surgery because of intestinal obstruction when he was first admitted to a local hospital. Then he was misdiagnosed as having Crohn's disease in another university teaching hospital...
November 21, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Zachary M Weil, Jeremy C Borniger, Yasmine M Cisse, Bachir A Abi Salloum, Randy J Nelson
Seasonal variation in immune function putatively maximizes survival and reproductive success. Day length (photoperiod) is the most potent signal for time of year. Animals typically organize breeding, growth, and behavior to adapt to spatial and temporal niches. Outside the tropics individuals monitor photoperiod to support adaptations favoring survival and reproductive success. Changes in day length allow anticipation of seasonal changes in temperature and food availability that are critical for reproductive success...
April 2015: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Lucinda V Scott, Gerard Clarke, Timothy G Dinan
The brain-gut axis provides a bidirectional means of communication between the microbiota within the gut and the brain. Stress acting via the brain can result in alteration of the microbial composition of the gut, but increasing evidence indicates that bacteria within the gut can influence brain neurochemistry and behaviour. It is clear that post-natal colonisation of the gut plays a key role in regulating the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the development of pivotal neurotransmitter systems...
2013: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
George Triadafilopoulos
INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoids are widely used as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents in many immune-mediated gastrointestinal diseases. However, a number of undesirable side effects may occur and dictate continuous surveillance and monitoring to prevent complications. AREAS COVERED: This review of the English language literature identified on PubMed focuses on key aspects of glucocorticoid therapy in patients with gastrointestinal diseases, highlighting specific aspects of recognition and management of its secondary effects...
May 2014: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Michèle Crumeyrolle-Arias, Mathilde Jaglin, Aurélia Bruneau, Sylvie Vancassel, Ana Cardona, Valérie Daugé, Laurent Naudon, Sylvie Rabot
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Establishment of the gut microbiota is one of the most important events in early life and emerging evidence indicates that the gut microbiota influences several aspects of brain functioning, including reactivity to stress. To better understand how the gut microbiota contributes to a vulnerability to the stress-related psychiatric disorders, we investigated the relationship between the gut microbiota, anxiety-like behavior and HPA axis activity in stress-sensitive rodents...
April 2014: Psychoneuroendocrinology
V Théodorou
Despite high prevalence, the precise irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathophysiology remains poorly understood likely due to the heterogeneity of IBS populations and the multifactorial etiology of this disorder. Among risk factors, genetic predisposition and early life trauma have been reported. In this context, the debate on genetic or environmental influences in the IBS pathogenesis is still open. The study by van der Wijngaard et al., reporting for the first time that susceptibility to stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in maternally separated rats can be transferred to the next generation without any further exposure of F2 individuals to maternal separation, supports the importance of environmental influence in the IBS phenotype...
December 2013: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Linjing Zhao, Hongbing Wu, Mingfeng Qiu, Wei Sun, Runmin Wei, Xiaojiao Zheng, Yiting Yang, Xue Xin, Haimiao Zou, Tianlu Chen, Jiajian Liu, Lina Lu, Jing Su, Chungwah Ma, Aihua Zhao, Wei Jia
Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang), a typical condition in Chinese medicine, shares similar clinical signs of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. To date, the underlying mechanism of KDS-Yang has been remained unclear, especially at the metabolic level. In this study, we report a metabolomic profiling study on a classical model of KDS-Yang in rats induced by hydrocortisone injection to characterize the metabolic transformation using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. WKY1, a polysaccharide extract from Astragalus membranaceus and Lycium barbarum, and WKY2, an aqueous extract from a similar formula containing Astragalus membranaceus, Lycium barbarum, Morinda officinalis, Taraxacum mongolicum, and Cinnamomum cassia presl, were used separately for protective treatments of KDS-Yang...
2013: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
N Nanda Nanthakumar, Di Meng, David S Newburg
At weaning, the intestinal mucosa surface glycans change from predominantly sialylated to fucosylated. Intestinal adaptation from milk to solid food is regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The contribution by glucocorticoid, an intrinsic factor, and colonization by microbiota, an extrinsic factor, was measured as the induction of α1,2/3-fucosyltransferase and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) activity and gene expression in conventionally raised, germ-free, and bacteria-depleted mice. In conventionally raised mice, cortisone acetate (CA) precociously accelerated SI gene expression up to 3 weeks and fut2 to 4 weeks of age...
October 2013: Glycobiology
Cindy M Liu, Katerina Soldanova, Lora Nordstrom, Michael G Dwan, Owain L Moss, Tania L Contente-Cuomo, Paul Keim, Lance B Price, Andrew P Lane
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous condition frequently treated with antibiotics and corticosteroid therapy. However, the effect of medical therapy on sinus microbiota remains unknown. METHODS: We enrolled CRS patients (n = 6) with patent maxillary antrostomies and active mucosal inflammation, who had not received antibiotics or corticosteroids in the previous 8 weeks. A pretreatment and posttreatment maxillary sinus swab was collected, from which DNA was extracted, pyrosequenced, and analyzed using a naïve Bayesian classifier and ecological analyses...
October 2013: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
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