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gastroenteritis children

Sonja Jacobsen, Marina Höhne, Andreas Mas Marques, Klara Beslmüller, C-Thomas Bock, Sandra Niendorf
OBJECTIVES: In order to analyze the molecular epidemiology of human astroviruses (HAstV) in Germany, a retrospective long term study was performed to characterize circulating human astrovirus in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Germany. METHODS: A total of 2877 stool samples, collected between January 2010 and December 2015 from sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis were retrospectively analyzed for astrovirus. A two step PCR algorithm was developed and used to identify and characterize human astrovirus infections...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Infection
Iva Hojsak, Valentina Fabiano, Tudor Lucian Pop, Olivier Goulet, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Fugen Cullu Çokuğraş, Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani, Sanja Kolaček
AIM: The use of probiotics has been covered by many guidelines, position papers and evidence-based recommendations, but few have referred to specific patient groups or clinical indications. This European study summarises recommendations and scientifically credited guidelines on the use of probiotics for children and provides practice points. METHODS: An expert panel was convened by the European Paediatric Association in June 2017 to define the relevant clinical questions for using probiotics in paediatric healthcare and review and summarise the guidelines, recommendations, position papers and high-quality evidence...
February 15, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Suat Biçer, Defne Çöl, Öznur Küçük, Gülay Ç Erdağ, Tuba Giray, Meltem Uğraş, Ayça Vitrinel, Çiğdem Kaspar
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis is responsible for dehydration in many children. The viruses like rotavirus, norovirus, and adenovirus are considered the main causative agents of gastroenteritis. The goal of this study is the evaluation of the symptoms, clinical findings and hospitalization requirements in pediatric patients with dehydration secondary to viral gastroenteritis. METHODS: The distribution of age, symptoms, clinical and laboratory findings and hospitalization requirements of 156 viral acute gastroenteritis patients with moderate dehydration were evaluated retrospectively...
April 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Minesh P Shah, Rebecca M Dahl, Umesh D Parashar, Benjamin A Lopman
BACKGROUND: Hospitalizations for rotavirus and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) have declined in the US with rotavirus vaccination, though biennial peaks in incidence in children aged less than 5 years occur. This pattern may be explained by lower rotavirus vaccination coverage in US children (59% to 73% from 2010-2015), resulting in accumulation of susceptible children over two successive birth cohorts. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of claims data of commercially insured US children aged <5 years...
2018: PloS One
Valeria Biscaro, Giorgio Piccinelli, Franco Gargiulo, Giovanni Ianiro, Arnaldo Caruso, Francesca Caccuri, Maria Antonia De Francesco
Enteric viral infections are a major concern for public health, and viral acute gastroenteritis is the principal cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide, mostly in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of different enteric viruses detected in a pediatric population with acute gastroenteritis symptoms, and to characterize the strains detected. Stools were collected from children, aged from 2 months to 15 years old, admitted to one of the main hospitals of Northern Italy, between November 2015 and October 2016...
February 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Ernest Apondi Wandera, Shah Mohammad, Martin Bundi, James Nyangao, Amina Galata, Cyrus Kathiiko, Erick Odoyo, Sora Guyo, Gabriel Miring'u, Satoshi Komoto, Yoshio Ichinose
OBJECTIVES: A two-dose oral monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) was introduced into the Kenyan National Immunization Program in July 2014. We assessed trends in hospitalization for rotavirus-specific acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and strain distribution among children <5 years in a rural, resource-limited setting in Kenya before and after the nationwide implementation of the vaccine. METHODS: Data on rotavirus AGE and strain distribution were derived from a five-year hospital-based surveillance...
February 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
M A Iro, T Sell, N Brown, K Maitland
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends rapid intravenous rehydration, using fluid volumes of 70-100mls/kg over 3-6 h, with some of the initial volume given rapidly as initial fluid boluses to treat hypovolaemic shock for children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and severe dehydration. The evidence supporting the safety and efficacy of rapid versus slower rehydration remains uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on 11th of May 2017 comparing different rates of intravenous fluid therapy in children with AGE and moderate or severe dehydration, using standard search terms...
February 9, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Marieke Bierhoff, Wences Arvelo, Alejandra Estevez, Joe Bryan, John P McCracken, María Reneé López, Beatriz López, Umesh D Parashar, Kim A Lindblade, Aron J Hall
Background: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a leading infectious cause of morbidity worldwide, particularly among children in developing countries. With the decline of rotavirus disease rates following introduction of rotavirus vaccines, the relative importance of norovirus will likely increase. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence and clinical profile of norovirus disease in Guatemala. Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based surveillance study conducted in Guatemala from 2008-2013...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ruthly François, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Saba Rouhani, Mery Siguas Salas, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Dixner Rengifo Trigoso, Nora Pisanic, Rosa Burga, Rina Meza, Graciela Meza Sanchez, Michael J Gregory, Eric R Houpt, James A Platts-Mills, Margaret N Kosek
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is one of the main causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. Most of the current knowledge about the epidemiology of this food-borne infection concerns two species, C. coli and C. jejuni. Recent studies conducted in developing countries and using novel diagnostic techniques have generated evidence of the increasing burden and importance of other Campylobacter species, i.e. non-C. coli/jejuni. We performed a nested case-control study to compare the prevalence of C...
February 7, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Gauri N Pradhan, Shobha D Chitambar
In India, G2P[4] strains are known to be the second most predominant group A rotaviruses causing acute gastroenteritis among children. This study was performed to determine the diversity within VP7(G), VP4(P), VP6(I) and NSP4(E) genes of 16 G2P[4] rotavirus strains detected in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis in Pune, Western India during 2009-2013. Fourteen strains showed G2-P[4]-I2-E2 and two strains showed G2-P[4]-I2-E6 genotype constellation. Phylogenetic analysis showed their clustering into G2-IV-a3, P[4]-5bi/ii, I2-3ii and E2-4i/ii or E6 genotypes/lineages...
February 6, 2018: Archives of Virology
Ahmed Nahari, Salem M AlGhamdi, Abdulsalam Alawfi, Hassan Faqeehi, Saeed Alzahrani, Amani Abu-Shaheen, Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini
Background In Saudi Arabia, there is a lack of recently published, appropriately conducted epidemiological studies on rotavirus (RV) diarrhea, which emphasizes the need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies. Objective Our objective was to provide more recent data on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics as well as the economic burden of RV diarrhea among young children admitted to a tertiary care hospital in the city of Riyadh in the year prior to the initiation of the RV vaccine. Design We conducted a prospective observational study at a children's specialized hospital at King Fahad Medical City...
December 2, 2017: Curēus
Rebecca M Dahl, Aaron T Curns, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines in low and very low birth weight infants (LBW and VLBW) weighing <2,500 grams and <1500 grams at birth, respectively, a high-risk population for severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, has not been well examined. METHODS: We analyzed inpatient commercial claims data for US children aged <5 years from July 2001 to June 2015. Claims for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and rotavirus-coded hospitalizations and LBW, VLBW, and normal birth weight (NBW) infants were identified...
February 3, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Bishnu Rath Giri, Ram Hari Chapagain, Samana Sharma, Sandeep Shrestha, Sunita Ghimire, P Ravi Shankar
BACKGROUND: Earthquakes impact child health in many ways. Diseases occurring immediately following an earthquake have been studied in field based hospitals but studies on the inpatient disease pattern among children without trauma in a permanent hospital setup is lacking. METHODS: We examined the diagnoses of all children without trauma, admitted to Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu for fifteen-week duration (from 4th week to end of the 18th week) following the 7...
February 5, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Jungwon Hyun, Dae Hyun Ko, Su Kyung Lee, Han Sung Kim, Jae Seok Kim, Wonkeun Song, Hyun Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea has been the second leading cause of death among children under the age of five, and the rapid and accurate pathogen diagnosis in patients with diarrhea is crucial for reducing morbidity and mortality. A newly developed one-step multiplex real-time PCR assay, the Allplex GI-Virus Assay, was evaluated for its ability to detect six diarrhea-causing viruses (rotavirus, norovirus genogroup I (GI) and genogroup II (GII), enteric adenovirus, astrovirus, and sapovirus) in stool samples...
May 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Enyonam Tsolenyanu, Koffi E Djadou, Mawouto Fiawoo, Djatougbe A E Akolly, Jason M Mwenda, Eyal Leshem, Jacqueline E Tate, Negar Aliabadi, Winiga Koudema, Koffi M Guedenon, Mawussi Godonou, Anoumou Dagnra, Adama D Gbadoe, Amevegbe Boko, Dadja Landoh, Yawo Atakouma, Umesh D Parashar
BACKGROUND: Monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) was introduced in the immunization schedule of Togo in June 2014. We evaluated the impact of rotavirus vaccines on acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and rotavirus-associated hospitalizations in Togolese children. METHODS: Sentinel surveillance for AGE (defined as ≥3 liquid or semi-liquid stools/24 h lasting <7 days) hospitalizations among children <5 years of age was conducted in two sites in the capital city, Lome...
January 31, 2018: Vaccine
Claire S Waddington, Charlie McLeod, Peter Morris, Asha Bowen, Mark Naunton, Jonathan Carapetis, Keith Grimwood, Roy Robins-Browne, Carl D Kirkwood, Robert Baird, David Green, Ross Andrews, Deborah Fearon, Joshua Francis, Julie A Marsh, Thomas Snelling
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoeal disease is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years globally, killing 525 000 annually. Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter Aboriginal) children suffer a high burden of disease. Randomised trials in other populations suggest nitazoxanide accelerates recovery for children with Giardia, amoebiasis, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus and Norovirus gastroenteritis, as well as in cases where no enteropathogens are found. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This double blind, 1:1 randomised, placebo controlled trial is investigating the impact of oral nitazoxanide on acute gastroenteritis in hospitalised Australian Aboriginal children aged 3 months to <5 years...
February 1, 2018: BMJ Open
Massimiliano Bergallo, Ilaria Galliano, Paola Montanari, Marco Rassu, Valentina Daprà, Chiara Merlino, Pier-Angelo Tovo
BACKGROUND: MXPyV, like MWPyV, was identified in stool samples from children suffering diarrhea in Mexico. In this study, we used a home-made real time PCR to investigate the presence of this novel viruses in stool specimen collected from under-Five- Year-Old Children with gastroenteritis. METHODS: A total of 192 fecal specimens previously screened for RV, ADV, NoV, HPeV and SaV, were tested for MWPyV with Taqman real time PCR. RESULTS: The most commonly detected virus was NoV GII (33...
January 29, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Daniel Hungerford, Roberto Vivancos, Jonathan M Read, Miren Iturriza-Gόmara, Neil French, Nigel A Cunliffe
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus causes severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. The UK introduced the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) in July 2013. Vaccination is free of charge to parents, with two doses delivered at 8 and 12 weeks of age. We evaluated vaccine impact across a health system in relation to socioeconomic deprivation. METHODS: We used interrupted time-series analyses to assess changes in monthly health-care attendances in Merseyside, UK, for all ages, from July 2013 to June 2016, compared to predicted counterfactual attendances without vaccination spanning 3-11 years pre-vaccine...
January 29, 2018: BMC Medicine
Sonja Westerberg, Marie Hagbom, Anandi Rajan, Vesa Loitto, B David Persson, Annika Allard, Johan Nordgren, Sumit Sharma, Karl-Eric Magnusson, Niklas Arnberg, Lennart Svensson
Human adenovirus (HAdV) 41 causes acute gastroenteritis in young children. The main characteristics of HAdV-41 infection are diarrhea and vomiting. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism of HAdV-41--induced diarrhea is unknown, as a suitable small-animal model has not been described. In this study, we used the human midgut carcinoid cell line GOT1 to investigate the effect of HAdV-41 infection and the individual HAdV-41 capsid proteins on serotonin release by enterochromaffin cells and on enteric glial cell (EGC) activation...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Virology
Anvar B Nazurdinov, Zafarjon A Azizov, Farida Tishkova, Sohibnazar M Turkov, Danni S Daniels, Eyal Leshem
BACKGROUND: In January 2015, Tajikistan introduced the monovalent rotavirus vaccine into the national immunization program. Our objective was to estimate pre-vaccine burden of rotavirus-associated hospitalizations in children <5 years of age in Tajikistan. METHODS: During January 2013-December 2014, active surveillance for acute gastroenteritis (AGE)-associated hospitalizations in children <5 years of age was conducted by sentinel surveillance site staff...
January 20, 2018: Vaccine
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