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gastroenteritis children

Khitam Muhsen, Eias Kassem, Uri Rubenstein, Sophy Goren, Moshe Ephros, Dani Cohen, Lester M Shulman
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty exists about the sustainability of the reduction in rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) following the introduction of rotavirus vaccines into national immunization programs, and on its potential impact on circulating genotypes. RotaTeq was introduced into the Israeli national immunization program in December 2010, and vaccination coverage is around 80%. AIMS: To examine the change in incidence of RVGE hospitalization and rotavirus genotypes, during the five years after introduction of RotaTeq into the Israeli national immunization program...
October 19, 2016: Vaccine
M Topuridze, D Baliashvili, T Komakhidze, M Shishniashvili, N Grdzelidze, M Butsashvili
Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. RV causes approximately half a million deaths each year among children aged <5 years. According to WHO estimates for 2008, there were approximately 10 to 50 deaths annually in young children due to rotavirus diarrhea in Georgia. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to rotavirus diarrhea and the rotavirus vaccine among health care workers (HCWs). The National Center for Disease Control and Public Health (NCDC) conducted a cross-sectional survey of HCWs involved in the expanded program of immunization (EPI)...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
M S Tan, E J Teoh, C P Hor, A A C Yeoh
INTRODUCTION: Children who develop any hypersensitivity reaction to eggs are routinely referred to hospital for Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccination as inpatients to prevent anaphylaxis. We aimed to study the association between hypersensitivity reactions after egg exposure and similar reactions after MMR immunisation; and examine the necessity of hospital admission for vaccination. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in Paediatric Department in Bukit Mertajam Hospital, Penang, between March and December 2014...
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Juan F Contreras-Cordero, César I Romo-Sáenz, Griselda E Menchaca-Rodríguez, Rocío Infante-Ramírez, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Carlos E Hernández-Luna, Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla, Reyes S Tamez-Guerra
Rotavirus vaccine was developed using the most prominent G and P genotypes circulating in children population. Therefore, severe gastroenteritis has been reduced around the world. This study investigated the G and P rotavirus genotypes circulating in children from two hospitals in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico. Additionally, polyclonal antibodies against Rotavirus Wa strain were used to determine their homotypic and heterotypic reactivity to both P[8] and P[4] genotypes. G1, G2, and G3 VP7 genotypes and P[8] and P[4] VP4 genotypes were detected in common and uncommon combinations as well as mixed infectious...
December 2015: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Maria Hemming-Harlo, Timo Vesikari, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko, Marjo Salminen, Laurence Torcel-Pagnon, Susanne Hartwig, Francois Simondon, Hélène Bricout
KEY POINTS: The effectiveness of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus-associated hospitalization was more than 90% 4 years after introduction into the national immunization program in Finland. A major impact on hospitalization for all-cause gastroenteritis was observed also. BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccination with exclusive use of RotaTeq was added to the National Immunization Programme (NIP) of Finland in September 2009. The objective of our study was to estimate the effectiveness and impact of RotaTeq after 4 years of follow-up...
October 19, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Joann F Gruber, Darcy A Hille, G Frank Liu, Susan S Kaplan, Micki Nelson, Michelle G Goveia, T Christopher Mast
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea worldwide in young children. Although rotavirus vaccine efficacy is high in developed countries, efficacy is lower in developing countries. Here, we investigated heterogeneity of rotavirus vaccine efficacy by infant characteristics in developing countries. METHODS: An exploratory, post-hoc analysis was conducted using randomized controlled trial data of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) conducted in Africa and Asia (NCT00362648)...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Miguel O'Ryan, Margarita Riera-Montes, Benjamin Lopman
BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are increasingly recognized as a major cause of sporadic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis. Although there have been multiple studies published on norovirus epidemiology in Latin America, no comprehensive assessment of the role of norovirus has been conducted in the region. We aim to estimate the role of norovirus in the Latin American region through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature. METHODS: We carried out a literature search in Medline, SciELO and LILACS...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Trisha C Parker, Anaam Mohammed, Traci Leong, Shelley Mays, Shabnam Jain, Victoria Churchill, Fatima Ali, Lilly C Immergluck
OBJECTIVE: Rotavirus (RV) is one of the most common diarrheal diseases affecting children less than 5 years of age. RV vaccines have greatly reduced this burden in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine possible disparities and socio-economic differences in RV vaccination rates. DESIGN: Children with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled. Stool was tested for presence of rotavirus using an enzyme immunoassay kit. Vaccination records were abstracted from the state immunization registry and healthcare providers to examine complete and incomplete vaccination status...
October 14, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Mélanie Gagnon, Allison Vimont, André Darveau, Ismaïl Fliss, Julie Jean
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis among children worldwide. Despite effective vaccines, inexpensive alternatives such as probiotics are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of probiotic candidate Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 to inhibit rotavirus infection. Bacterial adhesion to intestinal cells and interference with viral attachment were evaluated in vitro. B. thermophilum RBL67 displayed adhesion indexes of 625 ± 84 and 1958 ± 318 on Caco-2 and HT-29 cells respectively and was comparable or superior to four other bifidobacteria, including B...
2016: PloS One
Michael J Callahan, Jennifer M Talmadge, Robert D MacDougall, Patricia L Kleinman, George A Taylor, Carlo Buonomo
In our experience, questions about the appropriate use of enteric contrast media for pediatric fluoroscopic studies are common. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of enteric contrast media used for pediatric fluoroscopy, highlighting the routine use of these media at a large tertiary care pediatric teaching hospital.
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Ingrid Palma-Martínez, Andrea Guerrero-Mandujano, Manuel J Ruiz-Ruiz, Cecilia Hernández-Cortez, José Molina-López, Virgilio Bocanegra-García, Graciela Castro-Escarpulli
Shiga-like toxins (Stx) represent a group of bacterial toxins involved in human and animal diseases. Stx is produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae type 1, Citrobacter freundii, and Aeromonas spp.; Stx is an important cause of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The aim of this study was to identify the stx1/stx2 genes in clinical strains and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Aeromonas spp., 66 strains were isolated from children who live in Mexico City, and Stx effects were evaluated in Vero cell cultures...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
J Arístegui, J Ferrer, I Salamanca, E Garrote, A Partidas, M San-Martin, B San-Jose
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is acknowledged as an important cause of paediatric gastroenteritis worldwide. In Spain, comprehensive data on the burden of rotavirus disease was lacking. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter, observational study was carried out, during the winter season, from October to April 2014 in selected areas of Spain (Catalonia, Basque Country, Andalusia) to estimate the frequency and characteristics of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in children ≤3 years of age seeking medical care in primary care and emergency department centres...
October 10, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Satoru Aida, Samsoon Nahar, Shyamal Kumar Paul, Muhammad Akram Hossain, Muhammad Rashidul Kabir, Santana Rani Sarkar, Salma Ahmed, Souvik Ghosh, Noriko Urushibara, Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Meiji Soe Aung, Ayako Sumi, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Rotavirus A (RVA) is a dominant causative agent of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. G2P[4] is one of the most common genotypes among human rotavirus (HRV) strains, and has been persistently prevalent in South Asia including Bangladesh. In the present study, whole genome sequences of a total of 16 G2P[4] HRV strains (8 strains each in 2010 and 2013) detected in Mymensingh, north-central Bangladesh were determined. These strains had typical DS-1-like genotype constellation. Most of gene segments from DS-1 genogroup exhibited high level sequence identities to each other (>98%), while slight diversity was observed for VP1, VP3, and NSP4 genes...
September 2016: Heliyon
Ziqin Dian, Mao Fan, Binghui Wang, Yue Feng, Hao Ji, Shuwei Dong, A-Mei Zhang, Li Liu, Hua Niu, Xueshan Xia
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus A (RVA) infections in children from Kunming, China, and the RVA genotypes present. A total of 16,311 children with acute gastroenteritis were recruited for the study, and 33.1 % (5,394/16,311) were RVA positive. Children under 24 months of age were more susceptible to RVA infection, with an infection rate of 87.4 % (4,712/5,394). The most prevalent genotype was G9P[8] (85/107, 79.4 %), which showed high sequence similarity to G9P[8] strains from other regions of China and neighbouring countries, but not to the licensed vaccine strain LLR...
October 7, 2016: Archives of Virology
Pei-Lin Wang, Shih-Yen Chen, Chi-Neu Tsai, Hsun-Ching Chao, Ming-Wei Lai, Yi-Jung Chang, Chyi-Liang Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) GII.4 is the most common genotype for norovirus gastroenteritis worldwide. New variants or subgenotypes are continuously emerging, thus posing a serious threat to child health. METHODS: We compared retrospectively the clinical manifestations and complications of norovirus gastroenteritis in children from April, 2004 through December, 2012. NoV variants were analyzed to investigate the association of circulating viral strains with the complications...
October 5, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Jan Y Verbakel, Marieke B Lemiengre, Tine De Burghgraeve, An De Sutter, Bert Aertgeerts, Bethany Shinkins, Rafael Perera, David Mant, Ann Van den Bruel, Frank Buntinx
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care blood C-reactive protein (CRP) testing has diagnostic value in helping clinicians rule out the possibility of serious infection. We investigated whether it should be offered to all acutely ill children in primary care or restricted to those identified as at risk on clinical assessment. METHODS: Cluster randomised controlled trial involving acutely ill children presenting to 133 general practitioners (GPs) at 78 GP practices in Belgium. Practices were randomised to undertake point-of-care CRP testing in all children (1730 episodes) or restricted to children identified as at clinical risk (1417 episodes)...
October 6, 2016: BMC Medicine
Dan Yamin, Katherine E Atkins, Vanessa Remy, Alison P Galvani
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against rotavirus has shown great potential for reducing the primary cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis. Previous economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccination in France have not modeled the potential impact of vaccines on disease burden via reduced transmission. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of the introduction of pentavalent rotavirus vaccination into the French infant vaccination schedule. METHODS: We developed an age-structured model of rotavirus transmission calibrated to 6 years of French gastroenteritis incidence and vaccine clinical trial data...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Mirinae Jang, Min Su Oh, Se Cheol Oh, Ki Soo Kang
Although liver function test abnormality is frequently noted in children, there is no report about the distribution of the etiology and natural recovery time of the abnormal liver function. From March 2005 to February 2014, clinical information was retrospectively collected from 559 children who had abnormal liver function and were hospitalized or visited the outpatient clinic at the Jeju National University Hospital. The etiology of abnormal liver function was classified into groups and the natural recovery time of abnormal liver function was analyzed...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Xu-Fu Zhang, Yan Long, Ming Tan, Ting Zhang, Qiong Huang, Xi Jiang, Wen-Fang Tan, Jian-Dong Li, Gui-Fang Hu, Shixing Tang, Ying-Chun Dai
Rotaviruses are known to recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as a host ligand that is believed to play an important role in rotavirus host susceptibility and host range. In this study, paired fecal and saliva samples collected from children with viral gastroenteritis, as well as paired serum and saliva samples collected from the general population in south China were studied to evaluate potential association between rotavirus infections and human HBGA phenotypes. Rotavirus was detected in 75 (28%) of 266 fecal samples and P[8] rotaviruses were found to be the predominant genotype...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
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