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gastroenteritis children

Satoshi Komoto, Saori Fukuda, Tomihiko Ide, Naoto Ito, Makoto Sugiyama, Tetsushi Yoshikawa, Takayuki Murata, Koki Taniguchi
An entirely plasmid-based reverse genetics system for rotaviruses was established very recently. We improved the reverse genetics system to generate recombinant rotavirus by transfecting only 11 cDNA plasmids for its 11 gene segments under the condition of increasing the ratio of the cDNA plasmids for NSP2 and NSP5 genes. Utilizing this highly efficient system, we then engineered infectious recombinant rotaviruses expressing bioluminescent (NanoLuc luciferase) and fluorescent (EGFP and mCherry) reporters. These recombinant rotaviruses expressing reporters remained genetically stable during serial passages...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
Shoko Okitsu, Toshiyuki Hikita, Aksara Thongprachum, Pattara Khamrin, Sayaka Takanashi, Satoshi Hayakawa, Niwat Maneekarn, Hiroshi Ushijima
This study describes the detection and molecular characterization of two rare G8P[14] and G3P[3] rotavirus strains, which were collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in 2014 in Japan. Among 247 rotaviruses, one G8P[14] (strain 12,597) and one G3P[3] (strain 12,638) rotaviruses were detected. The genotypes of 11 gene segments of these two rotavirus strains (RVA/Human-wt/JPN/12597/2014/G8P[14] and RVA/Human-wt/JPN/12638/2014/G3P[3]) were characterized. The genotype constellation of strain 12,597 was assigned to G8-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T9-E2-H3, and this strain possessed a rare T9 genotype of NSP3 gene which has never been reported previously in combination with G8 genotype of VP7 gene...
April 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
M Parisot, N Parez, R Boukhari, S Breurec, A Jolivet
French Guiana, a tropical country, is characterised by a young and multi-ethnic population. Difficulties in accessing safe water sources lead to outbreaks of gastroenteritis. The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the microbiological profile of shigella strains isolated in western French Guiana, including antimicrobial susceptibility and the distribution of strains in terms of species and serotypes and (2) to estimate the incidence of shigellosis in children under 5 years old. A retrospective observational study was conducted of 213 cases of shigellosis diagnosed in the biology department of the hospital centre for western French Guiana between 2000 and 2012 in children under 5 years old...
April 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Corinna Pietsch, Uwe G Liebert
OBJECTIVES: Rotavirus infections are common causes of infant hospitalisation. The present study examined the effectiveness of anti-rotavirus vaccination in preventing rotavirus-related hospitalisations in Germany, following its state and nationwide introductions in 2008 and 2013, respectively. METHODS: During 15 consecutive seasons 9,557 stool samples of hospitalised children of five years and younger with acute gastroenteritis were screened for rotavirus A. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were assessed after vaccine introduction...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
S Fiona Barker, Ella Zomer, Joanne O'Toole, Martha Sinclair, Katherine Gibney, Danny Liew, Karin Leder
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis illness is a common illness that causes considerable morbidity, but current estimates of the cost to the Australian healthcare system are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the current healthcare utilisation and direct public healthcare system costs attributable to acute gastroenteritis illness in Australia. METHODS: This is an incidence-based cost-of-illness study focused on quantifying direct health care costs using a bottom-up approach...
2018: PloS One
Arnold Mukaratirwa, Chipo Berejena, Pasipanodya Nziramasanga, Ismail Ticklay, Archebald Gonah, Kusum Nathoo, Portia Manangazira, Douglas Mangwanya, Joan Marembo, Jason M Mwenda, Goitom Weldegebriel, Mapaseka Seheri, Jacqueline E Tate, Catherine Yen, Umesh Parashar, Hilda Mujuru
BACKGROUND: Sentinel surveillance for diarrhoea is important to monitor changes in rotavirus epidemiological trends and circulating genotypes among children under 5 years before and after vaccine introduction. The Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care introduced rotavirus vaccine in national immunization program in May 2014. METHODS: Active hospital-based surveillance for diarrhoea was conducted at 3 sentinel sites from 2008 to 2016. Children aged less than 5 years, who presented with acute gastroenteritis as a primary illness and who were admitted to a hospital ward or treated at the emergency unit, were enrolled and had a stool specimen collected and tested for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay (EIA)...
April 5, 2018: Vaccine
Kiyoung Kim, Gyeonghweon Lee, Hien Dang Thanh, Jong-Hwa Kim, Maytiya Konkit, Seokmin Yoon, Miri Park, Siyoung Yang, Eunsup Park, Wonyong Kim
We aimed to determine the effects of Lactobacillus strains against rotaviral infections. Rotaviruses are the major causative agent of acute gastroenteritis in infants and children worldwide. However, to date, no specific antiviral drugs for the treatment of rotavirus infection have been developed. We identified 263 Lactobacillus strains from 35 samples of the traditional Korean fermented vegetable food, kimchi. Among them, Lactobacillus plantarum LRCC5310, more specifically the exopolysaccharides produced by these cells, were shown to have an antiviral effect against human rotavirus Wa strain in vitro...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Malak A Esseili, Tea Meulia, Linda J Saif, Qiuhong Wang
Lettuce has been implicated in human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks. The virus is stable on the leaf surface for at least 2 weeks; however, the dynamics of virus internalization has not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the internalization and distribution of HuNoV and two surrogate viruses, porcine sapovirus SaV and Tulane virus (TV), in lettuce and spinach. Viral inoculations through the roots of seedlings and the petiole of leaves from mature plants were performed and the viruses were tracked on day 1 and 6 post-root inoculation and on 16h and 72h post petiole-inoculation...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Parveen Fathima, Thomas Laurence Snelling, Nicholas de Klerk, Deborah Lehmann, Christopher Charles Blyth, Claire Shelley Waddington, Hannah Catherine Moore
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a leading cause of childhood morbidity worldwide. We aimed to assess the maternal and infant characteristics and population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with childhood gastroenteritis-related hospitalizations. METHODS: We conducted a whole-of-population retrospective birth cohort study of 367,476 children live-born in Western Australia (WA) 2000-2012. We identified hospital admissions up to age <15 years pertaining to these children, with a principal diagnosis code for infectious gastroenteritis...
March 31, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Mahsa Farsi, Fatemeh Roodbari, Behrooz Nejati, Arash Arashkia, Somayeh Jalilvand, Alireza Nateghian, Aliakbar Rahbarimanesh, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Zabihollah Shoja
Viral gastroenteritis is a major public health problem worldwide. In Iran, very limited studies have been performed with regard to the epidemiology of noroviruses. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of GII noroviruses in hospitalized children less than 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). A total of 210 stool specimens were collected from Ali Asghar Children's Hospital and Bahrami Children's Hospital in Tehran, from June 2015 to June 2016. The samples were screened by real-time RT-PCR for genogroup II (GII)...
April 4, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
A Mouhari-Touré, G Mahamadou, K Kombate, A S Akakpo, J N Teclessou, A Singo, P Pitché
the aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality and morbidity of HIV-infected children on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in Togo. this is a retrospective study of HIV-infected children on HAART in the 25 largest centers of HIV/AIDS care in Togo. the study included 1861 children (sex-ratio=0.99). Among them, 35.6 % were in WHO clinical stages 3 or 4 at the beginning of HAART. The most common opportunistic infections were coughing and pneumonia (37.1 %), gastroenteritis (11.3 %), various bacterial infections (10...
February 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Takako Utsumi, Rury Mega Wahyuni, Yen Hai Doan, Zayyin Dinana, Soegeng Soegijanto, Yoshiki Fujii, Juniastuti, Laura Navika Yamani, Chieko Matsui, Lin Deng, Takayuki Abe, Soetjipto, Maria Inge Lusida, Koji Ishii, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Kazuhiko Katayama, Ikuo Shoji
Rotavirus A (RVA) is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans and animals worldwide. As a result of the segmented nature of the rotavirus genome, genetic reassortment commonly occurs. This study aims to clarify the genetic characteristics of RVAs circulating in Indonesia. From June 2015 through August 2016, stool samples were collected from 134 children aged <5 years (71 male and 63 female) with acute gastroenteritis who were inpatients at a private hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia. All stool samples were screened for RVA antigen using immunochromatography...
March 31, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Juliana Merces Hernandez, Luciana Damascena Silva, Edivaldo Costa Sousa Junior, Renato Silva Bandeira, Elmer Abraão Martins Rodrigues, Maria Silvia Souza Lucena, Samya Thalita Picanço Costa, Yvone Benchimol Gabbay
BACKGROUND: Globally, Norovirus (NoV) is considered the most common cause of diarrheal episodes across all age groups. Despite its wide genetic diversity, the GII.4 strain is the most predominant and has been associated with epidemics worldwide. In this study, we characterized sporadic cases of diarrhea from NoV-positive children, during a five-year period (2010-2014). METHODS: A total of 250 NoV-positive samples identified by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were subjected to RT-PCR and partial nucleotide sequencing for polymerase and capsid genes...
April 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Chia-Hsien Chang, Motonobu Sakaguchi, John Weil, Thomas Verstraeten
BACKGROUND: The burden of medically-attended acute gastro-enteritis (MA-AGE) that can be attributed to norovirus is not well established in Japan. Using a nationwide database of medical care insurance claims, we estimated the incidence of medically-attended norovirus-attributable gastroenteritis (MA-NGE) in Japan. METHODS: The incidences of MA-NGE outpatient consultations or hospitalization in Japan were modelled on seasonal patterns of MA-AGE for unspecified causes derived from the Japan Medical Data Center (JMDC) database for the period July 2007 to June 2015...
2018: PloS One
Anne Tilmanne, Delphine Martiny, Marie Hallin, Angela Cornelius, Magali Wautier, Caroline Quach, Philippe Lepage, Olivier Vandenberg
The role of Campylobacter concisus as a cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) remains to be demonstrated. This prospective study includes 184 cases and 176 controls. It shows no evidence that C. concisus plays a role in AGE. Considering the very low prevalence in cases and controls, if there is an etiological link, it would be moderate and difficult to demonstrate.
March 29, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Xiaoman Sun, Lihong Wang, Jianxun Qi, Dandi Li, Mengxuan Wang, Xin Cong, Ruchao Peng, Wengang Chai, Qing Zhang, Hong Wang, Hongling Wen, George F Gao, Ming Tan, Zhaojun Duan
Group/species C rotaviruses (RVCs) have been identified as important pathogens of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children, family-based outbreaks, as well as animal infections. However, little is known regarding their host-specific interaction, infection, and pathogenesis. In this study, we performed serial studies to characterize the function and structural features of a human G4P[lsqb]2[rsqb] RVC VP8* that is responsible for host receptor interaction. Glycan microarrays demonstrated that the human RVC VP8* recognizes type A histo-blood antigens (HBGAs), which was confirmed by synthetic glycan-/saliva-based binding assays, and hemagglutination of red blood cells, establishing a paradigm of RVC VP8*-glycan interactions...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Edouard Ledent, Hugo Arlegui, Hubert Buyse, Peter Basile, Naveen Karkada, Nicolas Praet, Gaëlle Nachbaur
INTRODUCTION: Two vaccines against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in young children, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have been available in Europe since 2006. Vaccination against rotaviruses significantly reduces the burden of RVGE, but it is also associated with a very small increased risk of intussusception. In a benefit-risk analysis, the prevented RVGE burden is weighed against the possible excess of intussusception. PURPOSE: The aim was to compare the estimated benefits and risks of Rotarix vaccination in France...
April 2018: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
Nhep Angkeabos, En Rin, Ork Vichit, Choeung Chea, Ngorn Tech, Daniel C Payne, Kimberley Fox, James D Heffelfinger, Varja Grabovac, Batmunkh Nyambat, Sergey Diorditsa, Chham Samnang, Md Shafiqul Hossain
BACKGROUND: Each year, approximately 1,066 Cambodian children under five years old die of diarrhea, and 51% of these deaths are due to rotavirus gastroenteritis. Quantifying childhood hospitalizations caused by severe rotavirus infections is also important in demonstrating disease burden caused by this virus. The objective of this study is to update and confirm the current burden of pediatric hospitalizations attributable to rotavirus gastroenteritis among Cambodian children using seven years of continuous active, prospective surveillance from 2010 to 2016...
March 24, 2018: Vaccine
Massab Umair, Muhammad Salman, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Michael D Bowen, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Bilal Haider Abbasi
The G12 rotavirus genotype has emerged globally since their first detection in 1987 from the Philippines; however it remains a rare cause of gastroenteritis in Pakistan. Rotavirus surveillance conducted during 2015-2016, assessed 3446 children <5 years hospitalized for gastroenteritis and found 802 (23.2%) positive on ELISA. Genotyping of a subset of positive samples (n = 319) revealed G12P[6] (11.28%) as the third most common G/P combination following G3P[8] (28.5%) and G1P[8] (12.5%); G2P[4] (10.65%) and G3P[6] (8...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Konstantinos Karampatsas, Leanne Osborne, May-Li Seah, Cheuk Y W Tong, Andrew J Prendergast
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in children and is associated with neurological complications such as seizures and encephalopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the presentation and complications of rotavirus compared to non-rotavirus gastroenteritis in UK children. METHODS: This was a retrospective, case-control, hospital-based study conducted at three sites in east London, UK. Cases were children aged 1 month to 16 years diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis between 1 June 2011 and 31 December 2013, in whom stool virology investigations confirmed presence of rotavirus by PCR...
2018: PloS One
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