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gastroenteritis children

Gen Li, Shiyu Yuan, Menglian He, Manda Zhao, Xiaojing Hao, Minxun Song, Lingjuan Zhang, Changming Qiao, Libo Huang, Li Zhang, Chengui Li, Guihua Wang, Ziqiang Cheng
Gyrovirus 3 (GyV3) has been identified in faeces from children with acute gastroenteritis. However, whether GyV3 is prevalent in poultry has not been determined to date. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to isolate GyV3 from commercial broiler chickens with transmissible viral proventriculitis (TVP) in China. The complete genome of the virus shares 98.4% sequence identity with the FecGy strain that causes acute gastroenteritis in children. Epidemiological investigation from 2013 to 2017 revealed that the infection rate of GyV3 reached 12...
June 20, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Amel Abdalrhim Sulaiman, Sarra O Bushara, Wadie M Elmadhoun, Sufian K Noor, Mutaz Abdelkarim, Ilham Nasr Aldeen, Meissa M Osman, Ahmed O Almobarak, Heitham Awadalla, Mohamed H Ahmed
Background: Child malnutrition is a major public health problem in developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of undernutrition among children <5 years in River Nile state (RNS) in North Sudan. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional household survey was done in four localities in RNS. Using Multistage Cluster sampling, 1635 under 5 years' children had participated. Pretested questionnaire and anthropometric measures were used during data collection...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
L Thorne, A Nalwoga, A J Mentzer, A de Rougemont, M Hosmillo, E Webb, M Nampiija, A Muhwezi, T Carstensen, D Gurdasani, A V Hill, M S Sandhu, A Elliott, I Goodfellow
Background: Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a prominent cause of gastroenteritis, yet fundamental questions remain regarding epidemiology, diversity and immunity in sub-Saharan African children. We investigated HuNoV seroprevalence and genetic and sociodemographic risk factors in Ugandan children. Methods: We randomly screened 797 participants of a longitudinal birth cohort (EMaBS) in Entebbe, and 378 children from a cross-sectional survey of rural island communities in Lake Victoria (LaVISSWA), for antibodies against multiple HuNoV genotypes by ELISA...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Talia Pindyck, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
Prior to 2006, nearly every U.S child was infected with rotavirus by 5 years of age, and rotavirus was the leading cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis. In February 2006 and June 2008, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended a live attenuated pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) and a monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1), respectively, for routine vaccination of infants in the U.S. Areas covered: We reviewed U.S. data on coverage, vaccine effectiveness (VE), and vaccine impact from 2006-2017...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Jinjin Liu, Sanjing Li, Chao Wang, Lijun Zheng, Jie Ma, Chunwei Li, Yuqi Huo, Yumei Wang
In this study, we isolated, amplified and sequenced GII.3 norovirus (NoV) strains from children admitted to a department of pediatric gastroenterology presenting with acute gastroenteritis from September 2015 to March 2016. A total of 35 stool samples were collected and eight were GII.3 NoV positive, based on sequencing. The complete genome sequences were determined for two strains while partial genome sequences, encompassing approximately 3.2 kb of the 3´end, were generated for the six other strains. Genotyping analysis of all strains indicated that they belonged to GII P12/GII...
June 16, 2018: Archives of Virology
Giovanni Ianiro, Claudia Recanatini, Marcello M D'Errico, Marina Monini
Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are one of the major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children, being responsible for up to 250.000 deaths worldwide, mostly in developing countries. The two outer capsid proteins VP7 (glycoprotein, G-genotype) and VP4 (protease-sensitive protein, P-genotype) are the basis for the binary RVA nomenclature. Although at least 36 G-types and 51 P-types of rotavirus are presently known, most RVA infections in humans, worldwide as well as in Italy, are related to six major G/P combinations: G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8] and G12P[8]...
June 14, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Eduardo López-Medina, Beatriz Parra, Diana M Dávalos, Pio López, Eder Villamarín, Melissa Pelaez
BACKGROUND: In Latin America, there is little epidemiological data resulting from highly sensitive molecular techniques for the study of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the post-rotavirus vaccine era. METHODS: Prospective surveillance was performed between March 15, 2015 to March 19, 2016 in two Municipal Health Networks (MHN) from Cali, Colombia to detect AGE in children <5years. Consecutive sampling was performed simultaneously in all health facilities belonging to both MHN until completion of the required sample size...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
J C Simwaka, Evans M Mpabalwani, Mapaseka Seheri, Ina Peenze, Mwaka Monze, Belem Matapo, Umesh D Parashar, Jacob Mufunda, Jeffrey M Mphahlele, Jacqueline E Tate, Jason M Mwenda
BACKGROUND: Following the introduction of rotavirus vaccine into the routine immunization schedule, the burden of rotavirus disease has significantly reduced in Zambia. Although rotavirus vaccines appear to confer good cross-protection against both vaccine and non-vaccine strains, concerns about strain replacement following vaccine implementation remain. We describe the diversity of the circulating rotavirus strains before and after the Rotarix® vaccine was introduced in Lusaka from January 2012...
June 12, 2018: Vaccine
Alfredo Guarino, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Jorge Amil Dias, James A Berkley, Chris Boey, Dario Bruzzese, Mitchell B Cohen, Sylvia Cruchet, Ilaria Liguoro, Eduardo Salazar-Lindo, Bhupinder Sandhu, Philip M Sherman, Toshiaki Shimizu
OBJECTIVES: Despite a substantial consistency in recommendations for the management of children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE), a high variability in clinical practice and a high rate of inappropriate medical interventions persist in both developing and developed countries.Aim of this study was to develop a set of clinical recommendations for the management of non-severely malnourished children with AGE to be applied worldwide. METHODS: The Federation of International Societies of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (FISPGHAN) Working Group (WG) selected care protocols on the management of acute diarrhea in infants and children aged between 1 month and 18 years...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Andrey I Egorov, Shannon M Griffin, Honorine D Ward, Kevin Reilly, G Shay Fout, Timothy J Wade
Quantifying sporadic waterborne infections in community settings can be challenging. Salivary antibody immunoassays are a promising non-invasive tool that can be used in prospective studies of common infections, especially those involving children. This study was conducted in a Massachusetts city, which uses a microbiologically contaminated river as its water source, during summer-early winter periods before and after construction of a new drinking water treatment plant. Monthly saliva samples (7480 samples from 1170 children and 816 adults) were analyzed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to recombinant proteins of Cryptosporidium, one genogroup I (GI) and two GII noroviruses...
May 23, 2018: Water Research
A Bennett, L Pollock, K C Jere, V E Pitzer, U Parashar, J E Tate, R S Heyderman, C Mwansambo, N French, O Nakagomi, M Iturriza-Gomara, D Everett, N A Cunliffe, N Bar-Zeev
INTRODUCTION: Despite increased use of vaccine in routine immunisation, rotavirus remains a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in low-income countries. We describe rotavirus prevalence and hospitalisation in Malawi pre and four years post vaccine introduction; provide updated vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates; and assess rotavirus vaccine indirect effects. METHODS: Children under five years of age presenting to a referral hospital in Blantyre with AGE were recruited...
June 7, 2018: Vaccine
Nayeli Aguilar-Hernández, Susana López, Carlos F Arias
Human astrovirus is an important etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in young children. Despite advances in the characterization of the structure of the virion by cryo-electron microscopy and of capsid proteins by x-ray crystallography, the definition of the minimal polypeptide composition of infectious virus particles has been elusive. In this work we show that mature infectious particles are composed by only two proteins; VP34 that forms the core domain of the virus, and VP27 that constitutes the 30 dimeric spikes present on the virus surface...
June 5, 2018: Virology
Nahid Khosroshahi, Aliakbar Rahbarimanesh, Farhad Asadi Boroujeni, Zahra Eskandarizadeh, Mojdeh Habibi Zoham
Background: Benign convulsion with mild gastroenteritis is a new clinical entity that occurs in children who are otherwise healthy. Method: This cohort study held among patients with afebrile convulsion and accompanying gastroenteritis in a tertiary children hospital during a 2-year period. Demographic and clinical data were analyzed. Neurodevelopmental milestones were observed during a follow-up period of 12 to 24 months. Results: Twenty-five patients aged 3 to 48 months with female predominance were enrolled...
2018: Child Neurology Open
Ezzat Khodashenas, Anoush Azarfar, Elham Bakhtiari, Amir Reza Daneshmand Eslami, Masoud Shaghasi Roodi, Yalda Ravanshad
Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the accuracy of pediatric residents in diagnosis of dehydration in children with gastroenteritis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in Dr. Sheikh Hospital, affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran), in 2016. One hundred fifteen children aged 1 month to 14 years with gastroenteritis were included according to easy sampling. All patients were weighed. Dehydration was scored as mild, moderate and severe by pediatric residents according to Nelson standard table including pulse rate, blood pressure, blood skin supplement, skin turgor, fontanel, mucus membrane, tear respiration and urine output criteria...
April 2018: Electronic Physician
Shu-Huan Huang, Yi-Fang Lin, Ming-Han Tsai, Shuan Yang, Mei-Ling Liao, Shao-Wen Chao, Cheng-Cheng Hwang
Conventional methods for identifying gastroenteritis pathogens are time consuming, more likely to result in a false-negative, rely on personnel with diagnostic expertise, and are dependent on the specimen status. Alternatively, molecular diagnostic methods permit the rapid, simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens with high sensitivity and specificity. The present study compared conventional methods with the Luminex xTAG Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (xTAG GPP) for the diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis in northern Taiwan...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rachel M Burke, Shu-Man Shih, Catherine Yen, Yhu-Chering Huang, Umesh D Parashar, Benjamin A Lopman, Fang-Tzy Wu, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Aron J Hall
Background: Despite the increasingly recognized role of norovirus in global acute gastroenteritis (AGE), specific estimates of the associated disease burden remain sparse, primarily due to limited availability of sensitive norovirus diagnostics in the clinical setting. We sought to estimate the incidence of norovirus-associated hospitalizations by age group in Taiwan using a previously developed indirect regression method. Methods: AGE-related hospitalizations in Taiwan were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes abstracted from a national database; population data were provided from the Department of Household Registration Affairs...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
German Tapia, Ketil Størdal, Karl Mårild, Christian R Kahrs, Torild Skrivarhaug, Pål R Njølstad, Geir Joner, Lars C Stene
Background: Infections in early life have been linked to type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk, but no previous study has comprehensively analysed exposure to antibiotics, acetaminophen and infections during pregnancy and early childhood in relation to offspring risk of T1D. Methods: Participants in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 114 215 children, of whom 403 children were diagnosed with T1D) reported infections and medication use through repeated questionnaires from pregnancy until the children were 18 months old...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Susie Roczo-Farkas, Carl D Kirkwood, Julie E Bines
This report from the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program (ARSP) and collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, describes the rotavirus genotypes identified in children and adults with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2016. During this period, 949 faecal specimens were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, of which 230 were confirmed as positive for wildtype rotavirus, and 184 were identified as rotavirus vaccine-like. Genotype analysis of the 230 samples from both children and adults revealed that G2P[4] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period nationally, identified in 29% of samples, followed by equine-like G3P[8] and G12P[8] (19% and 15% respectively)...
December 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
Johannes Lind, Lina Schollin Ask, Sol Juarez, Anders Hjern
AIM: We investigated socioeconomic and geographic determinants of hospital care for viral gastroenteritis in young children. METHOD: This is a register based study in a national birth cohort of 752,078 children 0-5 years of age in Sweden during 2006-2012. Hazard ratios (HR) of time to first admission and first episode of outpatient emergency department (ED) care with a diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis were estimated with Cox regression. RESULTS: The adjusted HRs for hospital admission with a diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis were increased when the mother was below 25 years at the birth of the child, 1...
June 4, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Gülsüm Alkan, Sevgi Keles, İsmail Reisli
Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID) that typically presents with hypogammaglobulinemia and impaired antibody production. Objectives: This study aimed to promote the awareness of CVID, whose clinical spectrum is quite broad. Methods: The demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of 12 children (seven males and five females) with CVID were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were diagnosed using the diagnostic criteria of the European Society for Primary Immunodeficiencies...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
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