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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818469/vaccine-epidemiology-its-role-in-promoting-sound-immunization-programs-in-japan
#1
Yoshio Hirota, Kotaro Ozasa, Takashi Nakano
In Japan, the Vaccine Epidemiology Research Group created by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has played an important role in demonstrating the solid scientific basis for vaccine efficacy and safety since 2002. Members of the group, including epidemiologists, clinicians and microbiologists, have been conducting collaborative studies on vaccines for influenza, pertussis, rotavirus gastroenteritis, polio and pneumonia. So far, the group has achieved several works and contributed to the national vaccination program, including research on the immunogenicity of low doses of influenza vaccine among young children, the immunogenicity and effectiveness of the 2009 influenza pandemic vaccine among various risk groups, the interchangeability of live/inactivated polio vaccines, the health impact of influenza on pregnant women, and the monitoring of influenza vaccine effectiveness using case-control studies with a test-negative design...
August 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814340/detection-and-genetic-characterization-of-canine-astroviruses-in-pet-dogs-in-guangxi-china
#2
Huabo Zhou, Lin Liu, Ruikai Li, Yifeng Qin, Qingli Fang, Vinod Rmt Balasubramaniam, Guojun Wang, Zuzhang Wei, Kang Ouyang, Weijian Huang, Ying Chen
BACKGROUND: Astroviruses (AstVs) have been reported to infect and cause gastroenteritis in most animal species. Human AstVs were regarded the causative agent of viral diarrhea in children. In dogs, little is known about the epidemiology and clinical significance of AstV infection. FINDINGS: In this study, we collected and tested 253 rectal swabs from pet dogs; of which 64 samples (25.3%) tested positive for AstVs with diarrhea and 15 more samples (5.9%) also was identified as AstVs, however without any clinical signs...
August 17, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813644/rotavirus-disease-course-among-immunocompromised-patients-5-year-observations-from-a-tertiary-care-medical-centre
#3
P Bruijning-Verhagen, M D Nipshagen, H de Graaf, M J M Bonten
Rotavirus (RV) is highly endemic inside and outside hospital-settings. Immunocompromised children and adults are at risk of complicated rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), but general rotavirus disease severity in this group remains poorly described and rotavirus testing is not routinely performed beyond infancy. We assessed rotavirus disease among immunocompromised hospitalized patients. METHODS: Rotavirus infections at a Dutch tertiary-care centre were identified from 5-year laboratory records...
August 13, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810833/population-effectiveness-of-the-pentavalent-and-monovalent-rotavirus-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#4
Daniel Hungerford, Katie Smith, Angela Tucker, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Roberto Vivancos, Catherine McLeonard, Nigel A Cunliffe, Neil French
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus was the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and young children prior to the introduction of routine vaccination. Since 2006 there have been two licensed vaccines available; with successful clinical trials leading the World Health Organization to recommend rotavirus vaccination for all children worldwide. In order to inform immunisation policy we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observation studies to assess population effectiveness against acute gastroenteritis...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794420/interrelationship-of-rotavirus-infection-and-creatine-kinase-mb-isoenzyme-levels-in-children-hospitalized-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-guangzhou-china-2012-2015
#5
Jianbin Zheng, Haiqing Zheng, Ramit Kumar Gupta, Huixian Li, Hui Shi, Liyan Pan, Sitang Gong, Huiying Liang
Elevated levels of Creatine Kinase-MB (CK-MB) Isoenzyme are a common phenomenon among rotavirus (RV) diarrhea. However, few studies have addressed this issue using large sample size. In current study, 1,118 children (age <5 years) hospitalized with diarrhea in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from 2012 to 2015 were finally included. Changing pattern of CK-MB and its relationship with RV-infection were analyzed and characterized. Multivariate linear regression models showed that RV-positive cases had a 28% rise in CK-MB compared to RV-negative cases (OR = 1...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790133/detection-of-acute-gastroenteritis-etiology-in-hospitalized-young-children-associated-factors-and-outcomes
#6
Jamie M Pinto, Anna Petrova
BACKGROUND: The decision to test for the etiology of diarrhea is a challenging question for practicing pediatricians. METHODS: The main goal of this retrospective cohort study was to identify factors associated with testing for and diagnosis of rotavirus, Clostridium difficile, or other bacterial infections, as well as the length of stay (LOS) for children with acute gastroenteritis who were hospitalized at a single institution. Patients aged 6 to 60 months with acute diarrhea (<14 days) and no underlying gastrointestinal conditions were included...
August 8, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783578/genetic-characterisation-of-norovirus-strains-in-outpatient-children-from-rural-communities-of-vhembe-district-south-africa-2014-2015
#7
Jean Pierre Kabue, Emma Meader, Paul R Hunter, Natasha Potgieter
BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) is now the most common cause of both outbreaks and sporadic non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. However, data supporting the role of NoV in diarrheal disease are limited in the African continent. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the distribution of NoV genotypes circulating in outpatient children from rural communities of Vhembe district/South Africa. STUDY DESIGN: Stool specimens were collected from children under five years of age with diarrhea, and controls without diarrhea, between July 2014 and April 2015...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780116/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccination-on-rotavirus-and-all-cause-gastroenteritis-in-peri-urban-kenyan-children
#8
Ernest Apondi Wandera, Shah Mohammad, Martin Bundi, Satoshi Komoto, James Nyangao, Cyrus Kathiiko, Erick Odoyo, Gabriel Miring'u, Koki Taniguchi, Yoshio Ichinose
A monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) was introduced into the National Immunization Program in Kenya in July 2014. We examined the impact of the vaccine on hospitalization for all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and rotavirus-specific AGE and strain distribution at a large referral hospital which serves a predominantly peri-urban population in Central Kenya. Data on rotavirus AGE and strain distribution were derived from ongoing hospital-based AGE surveillance. Hospital administrative data were used to compare trends in all-cause AGE...
August 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772169/astrovirus-infection-in-hospitalized-children-molecular-clinical-and-epidemiological-features
#9
Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira, Darleise de Souza Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Nascimento de Carvalho, Thayara Morais Portal, Maria Cleonice Aguiar Justino, Luciana Damascena da Silva, Hugo Reis Resque, Yvone Benchimol Gabbay
BACKGROUND: Astrovirus (HAstV) is a common viral pathogen that causes gastroenteritis worldwide. It is classified into eight classical human types (HAstV-1/8) and seven other less prevalent types, described as HAstV VA1, VA2, VA3, VA4, MLB-1, MLB-2 and MLB-3. During outbreaks, the elderly and children are the most affected, and the spread of the virus is associated with person-to-person contact, food ingestion and contaminated water. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of infection and genetic diversity of HAstV strains...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766060/noroviruses-and-sapoviruses-associated-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-pediatric-patients-in-thailand-increased-detection-of-recombinant-norovirus-gii-p16-gii-13-strains
#10
Pattara Khamrin, Kattareeya Kumthip, Kanittapon Supadej, Aksara Thongprachum, Shoko Okitsu, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima, Niwat Maneekarn
Enteric caliciviruses, including noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs), are recognized as important etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with considerable genetic diversity. In order to gain an overview of the molecular epidemiology of human NoVs and SaVs in children hospitalized with AGE in Chiang Mai, Thailand, a total of 889 fecal specimens were collected from 2012 to 2014 and screened for NoVs and SaVs. Out of 889 fecal specimens, 154 (17.3%) and 6 (0.7%) were positive for NoV GII isolates and SaV, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756066/prospects-and-challenges-in-the-development-of-a-norovirus-vaccine
#11
REVIEW
Nicolas W Cortes-Penfield, Sasirekha Ramani, Mary K Estes, Robert L Atmar
PURPOSE: Norovirus is the leading cause of acute epidemic gastroenteritis among children under the age of 5 years and adults in the United States and in adults worldwide, accounting for an estimated 20% of episodes of acute gastroenteritis across all ages. No effective vaccine is presently available. This article provides an overview of the current state of norovirus vaccine development, emphasizing barriers and challenges in the development of an effective vaccine, correlates of protection used to assess vaccine efficacy, and the results of clinical trials of the major candidate vaccines...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750901/complex-reassortment-events-of-unusual-g9p-4-rotavirus-strains-in-india-between-2011-and-2013
#12
Yen Hai Doan, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Yoshiki Fujii, Kei Haga, Akira Fujimoto, Reiko Takai-Todaka, Yuichi Someya, Mukti K Nayak, Anupam Mukherjee, Daisuke Imamura, Sumio Shinoda, Mamta Chawla-Sarkar, Kazuhiko Katayama
Rotavirus A (RVA) is the predominant etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. Recently, unusual G9P[4] rotavirus strains emerged with high prevalence in many countries. Such intergenogroup reassortant strains highlight the ongoing spread of unusual rotavirus strains throughout Asia. This study was undertaken to determine the whole genome of eleven unusual G9P[4] strains detected in India during 2011-2013, and to compare them with other human and animal global RVAs to understand the exact origin of unusual G9P[4] circulating in India and other countries worldwide...
July 25, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750058/human-enteroviruses-associated-with-and-without-diarrhea-in-thailand-between-2010-and-2016
#13
Jira Chansaenroj, Supansa Tuanthap, Thanundorn Thanusuwannasak, Ausanee Duang-In, Sirapa Klinfueng, Napha Thaneskongtong, Viboonsuk Vutithanachot, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Yong Poovorawan
Non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis (AGE) associated with virus infection affects individuals living in developing countries, especially children. To investigate whether shedding of certain human enterovirus (EV) is more frequently detected in the stool of individuals with AGE of unknown etiology than individuals without AGE symptoms, we tested fecal samples collected from 2,692 individuals with diarrhea between January 2010 and December 2016. Samples were tested for rotavirus, norovirus, and EV by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and adenovirus by PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746663/hospitalizations-due-to-primary-care-sensitive-conditions-among-children-under-five-years-of-age-cross-sectional-study
#14
Erika Morganna Neves de Araujo, Gabriela Maria Cavalcanti Costa, Dixis Figueroa Pedraza
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Hospitalizations due to primary care-sensitive conditions constitute an important indicator for monitoring the quality of primary healthcare. This study aimed to describe hospitalizations due to primary care-sensitive conditions found among children under five years of age (according to their age and sex), in two cities in Paraíba, Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study carried out in the municipalities of Cabedelo and Bayeux, in Paraíba, Brazil...
May 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746261/rotavirus-infection-in-the-auckland-region-following-the-implementation-of-universal-infant-rotavirus-vaccination-impact-on-hospitalisations-and-laboratory-implications
#15
Gary N McAuliffe, Susan L Taylor, Dragana Drinković, Sally A Roberts, Elizabeth M Wilson, Emma J Best
BACKGROUND: In July 2014, New Zealand introduced universal infant vaccination with Rotateq (Merk & Co.) administered as three doses at 6 weeks, 3 and 5 months of age. We sought to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccination on gastroenteritis hospitalizations in the greater Auckland region and analyze changes in rotavirus testing in the period around vaccine introduction. METHODS: Hospitalizations, laboratory testing rates and methods were compared between the pre-vaccine period (2009-2013), post vaccine period (January-December 2015), and year of vaccine introduction (2014)...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743921/genetic-susceptibility-to-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-and-vaccine-effectiveness-in-taiwanese-children
#16
Ting-An Yang, Ju-Yin Hou, Yhu-Chering Huang, Chih-Jung Chen
The genetic susceptibility to and vaccine effectiveness against rotavirus gastroenteritis were different in distinct ethnic groups. The case-control study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines and associations between the histo-blood group antigens and susceptibility to rotavirus infections in a Taiwanese population. Cases were children <18 years old who were hospitalized because of laboratory-confirmed rotavirus infection. Controls were healthy children matched to cases by age and gender...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742637/is-intussusception-a-middle-of-the-night-emergency
#17
Brooke S Lampl, Jonathan Glaab, Rama S Ayyala, Rania Kanchi, Carrie B Ruzal-Shapiro
OBJECTIVES: Intussusception is the most common abdominal emergency in pediatric patients aged 6 months to 3 years. There is often a delay in diagnosis, as the presentation can be confused for viral gastroenteritis. Given this scenario, we questioned the practice of performing emergency reductions in children during the night when minimal support staff are available. Pneumatic reduction is not a benign procedure, with the most significant risk being bowel perforation. We performed this analysis to determine whether it would be safe to delay reduction in these patients until normal working hours when more support staff are available...
July 24, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737570/clinical-presentation-of-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children-with-functional-abdominal-pain-disorders
#18
Miguel Saps, Stijn Mintjens, Cenk K Pusatcioglu, Daniel M Cohen, Petra Sternberg
Visceral hypersensitivity and abnormal coping are common in children with functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). Thus, it would be expected that children with visceral hypersensitivity would report more pain if their gut is acutely inflamed. The aim of the study was to compare clinical symptoms and somatization of children with and without FAPDs at time of an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Seventy children with acute gastroenteritis and their parents completed the Rome III Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pediatric Functional GI Disorders and the Children's Somatization Inventory...
August 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735327/genotyping-and-clinicoepidemiological-characterization-of-rotavirus-acute-gastroenteritis-in-egyptian-children
#19
Niveen Saudy, Walaa Othman Elshabrawy, Ahmed Megahed, Mona F Foad, Aly F Mohamed
Group A rotavirus (RVA) acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common cause of severe childhood diarrhea. The dominant circulating RVA genotypes in a given region may vary between and within the geographic regions and from year to year. Our cross-sectional study was designed to determine the burden of RVA genotypes among children with AGE admitted to referral Children Hospital at Egypt prior to implementation of the vaccine. Stool samples with clinico-epidemiological data were collected from 92 children ≤ 3 years-old with AGE...
January 2, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733861/an-infant-with-acute-gastroenteritis-caused-by-a-secondary-infection-with-a-rotarix-derived-strain
#20
Naomi Sakon, Ryohei Miyamoto, Jun Komano
Rotavirus vaccines have been successful in controlling severe diarrhea and have decreased deaths of young children globally. Rotarix and RotaTeq are the two currently available live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines. The vaccine virus can grow in a recipient's gut and spread from the vaccinee to naïve individuals. The potential for the emergence of revertant viruses is a concern with live-attenuated vaccines. We identified a previously healthy infant with severe acute gastroenteritis that was positive for rotavirus in a non-endemic season...
July 21, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
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