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gastroenteritis children

Mokibul Hassan Afrad, Tasnuva Avzun, Jahurul Haque, Warda Haque, Mohammad Enayet Hossain, Afm Rajibur Rahman, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Mustafizur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are common cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Limited data exist on HAdVs molecular epidemiology associated with acute gastroenteritis in Bangladesh. OBJECTIVE: We describe the genetic diversity and epidemiology of HAdVs among hospitalized diarrhea patients, including HAdV genotypes, clinical symptoms and co-infecting enteric pathogens. STUDY DESIGN: Stool samples were collected from ongoing diarrhea surveillance during 2012-2015...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Gauri N Pradhan, Shobha D Chitambar
G1P[8] rotaviruses are predominant in causing diarrheal infections in humans all over the world. This study reports the analysis of complete genomes of G1P[8] strains, two each recovered from RotarixTM vaccine recipients and non-recipients hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis in Pune, western India. All four strains showed a genogroup-1 backbone with intra-genotypic diversity in the VP7 and VP4 gene segments and a homogeneous constellation of the internal gene segments. A divergence in the range of 1.4%-17...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Masayuki Kobayashi, Noriaki Adachi, Makoto Miyazaki, Masatoshi Tatsumi
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the trend in incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) hospitalization among children aged <5 years in Japan during pre- and post-vaccine periods (2009-2011 and 2012-2015). STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective observational study used a health insurance claims database (constructed by Japan Medical Data Center Co., Ltd.). Rotavirus vaccine became commercially available in 2011. We analyzed data of all children aged <5 years between January 2009 and December 2015...
December 11, 2017: Vaccine
Débora Maria Pires Gonçalves Barreira, Túlio Machado Fumian, Marco André Loureiro Tonini, Lays Paula Bondi Volpini, Rodrigo Pratte Santos, Anézia Lima Chaves Ribeiro, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite, Márcia Terezinha Baroni de Moraes E Souza, Patrícia Brasil, Denise Cotrim da Cunha, Marize Pereira Miagostovich, Liliana Cruz Spano
Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in all age groups worldwide. Despite the high genetic diversity of noroviruses, most AGE outbreaks are caused by a single norovirus genotype: GII.4. Since 1995, several different variants of norovirus GII.4 have been associated with pandemics, with each variant circulating for 3 to 8 years. The Sydney_2012 variant was first reported in Australia and then in other countries. A new variant, GII.P16-GII.4, was recently described in Japan and South Korea and then in the USA, France, Germany and England...
2017: PloS One
Rainer Gosert, Ulrich Heininger, Hans H Hirsch
Acute gastroenteritis (GE) has a major impact on morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet comprehensive data regarding infectious agents including enteroviruses are scarce. We hypothesized that enteroviruses constitute a significant cause of acute GE. We analyzed 677 stool samples from 504 patients, which had been submitted for suspected infectious GE. 0.2 ml of stool suspension was extracted using the Abbott m2000 sp robot and analysed by multiplex nucleic acid testing (NAT) using the Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) as well as by specific NATs detecting enteroviruses and polioviruses...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
O V Morozova, T A Sashina, N V Epifanova, V V Zverev, A U Kashnikov, N A Novikova
Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. The introduction of universal mass vaccination around the world has contributed to a reduction in hospitalizations and outpatient visits associated with rotavirus infection. Continued surveillance of RVA strains is needed to determine long-term effects of vaccine introduction. In the present work, we carried out the analysis of the genotypic diversity of RVA strains isolated in Nizhny Novgorod (Russia) during the 2015-2016 epidemic season...
December 13, 2017: Virus Genes
Ulrich Desselberger
Rotaviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide and in many other mammalian and avian host species. Since 2006, two live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix® and RotaTeq®, have been licensed in >100 countries and are applied as part of extended program of vaccination (EPI) schemes of childhood vaccinations. Whereas the vaccines have been highly effective in high-income countries, they were shown to be considerably less potent in low- and middle-income countries...
December 12, 2017: Pathogens
Michelle J Hong, Lauren M Porter, Debra D Esernio-Jenssen, Andrew C Miller, Marna Rayl Greenberg
Pediatric pancreatic injuries are rare. We present an atypical case that occurred in a 4-year-old male. The child presented with a twenty-four-hour history of vomiting that had progressed to right lower quadrant abdominal pain on examination in the emergency department. The initial differential was gastroenteritis versus appendicitis. An abnormality on the ultrasonography and an elevated lipase level eventually led to an MRI showing a complete transection through the posterior margin of the pancreas. The patient was admitted to pediatric surgery and underwent a successful distal pancreatectomy with preservation of the spleen...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
P S Rakesh, Rajeswaran Thiagesan, Rakesh Ramachandran
An outbreak investigation was initiated following an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis among schoolchildren in Kottarakara. Steps included active search for cases at schools, describing the outbreak in terms of person, place, and time, generating hypothesis based on the findings from descriptive study, environmental observations, and testing the hypothesis using a case-control design. The final line list consisted of 871 children from different schools who attended a Republic Day parade. Having consumed the lemon juice near railway station (odds ratio [OR] 29...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
Mark F Cotton, Afaaf Liberty, Indiana Torres-Escobar, Maria Isabel Gonzalez-Tome, Jurgen Lissens, Luna Zaru, Isabelle Klauck, Daniela Cambilargiu, Cheryl Pikora, Todd A Correll
BACKGROUND: Novel antiretroviral formulations that are palatable, safe, and effective are needed for infants and children. METHODS: PRINCE-2 is an ongoing clinical trial assessing safety, efficacy, and palatability of once-daily atazanavir powder formulation boosted with ritonavir (ATV+RTV) plus optimized dual NRTI therapy in ARV-naïve/experienced children with screening HIV-1 RNA ≥1000 copies/mL. Children aged 3 months to <11 years received ATV+RTV by 5 baseline weight bands: 5 to <10kg=150/80mg; 5 to <10kg=200/80mg; 10 to <15kg=200/80mg; 15 to <25kg=250/80mg; and 25 to <35kg=300/100mg...
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
L M Seheri, N B Magagula, I Peenze, K Rakau, A Ndadza, J M Mwenda, G Weldegebriel, A D Steele, M J Mphahlele
BACKGROUND: The African Rotavirus Surveillance Network has been detecting and documenting rotavirus genotypes in the African sub-continent since 1998 in anticipation of the rollout of rotavirus vaccination in routine Expanded Programme on Immunisation. This paper reports distribution of the rotavirus strains circulating in 15 Eastern and Southern African (ESA) countries from 2010-2015 as part of active World Health Organization (WHO) rotavirus surveillance, and investigates possibility of emergence of non-vaccine or unusual strains in six selected countries post-vaccine introduction...
December 1, 2017: Vaccine
Liudmyla I Chernyshova, Nataliya M Radionova, Iryna V Demchyshyna, Liudmyla S Kotlik, Oleksandra B Sadkova, Elena O Samoilovich, Galina V Semeiko, Danni S Daniels, Adam L Cohen, Negar Aliabadi
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis remains a burden among children under 5 years of age. Ukraine joined the World Health Organization's Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network in 2006, with a goal of providing accurate rotavirus burden data to aid policy makers in planning for rotavirus vaccine introduction. This analysis describes rotavirus epidemiology among Ukrainian children enrolled in Kyiv and Odesa, two large Ukrainian cities. METHODS: Children 0-59 months of age hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis at 2 sentinel sites in Kyiv and Odesa were enrolled into the active, prospective surveillance program...
November 29, 2017: Vaccine
Phillip Alexander Kittel
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is a highly contagious virus causing gastroenteritis, mostly in children under the age of 5. Since 2006, two vaccines are available in Germany. In 2013, these were included into the German national vaccination schedule. The aim of this intervention is to reduce the incidence and hospitalization among children under 5 years caused by rotavirus. The effectiveness of the intervention was analyzed in this study. METHODS: National surveillance data of laboratory confirmed rotavirus infections among children under the age of 5 were analyzed using interrupted time-series analysis...
November 28, 2017: Vaccine
Margaret Mokomane, Jacqueline E Tate, Andrew P Steenhoff, Mathew D Esona, Michael D Bowen, Kwana Lechiile, Jeffrey M Pernica, Ishmael Kasvosve, Umesh D Parashar, David M Goldfarb
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated reduced rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) in resource-limited settings. Enteropathogen co-infections in rotavirus cases have been hypothesized to contribute to the lower vaccine effectiveness in such settings. We sought to determine if co-infections affect rotavirus VE in Botswana. METHODS: Between June 2013 and April 2015, children <60 months old, presenting with severe gastroenteritis at four hospitals as part of a national rotavirus surveillance were enrolled...
November 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Liza Bialy, Amy Plint, Roger Zemek, David Johnson, Terry Klassen, Martin Osmond, Stephen Freedman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the origins, growth, and progress of a national research network in pediatric emergency medicine. METHODS: The success of Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC) is described in terms of advancing the pediatric emergency medicine agenda, grant funding, peer-reviewed publications, mentoring new investigators, and global collaborations. RESULTS: Since 1995, clinicians and investigators within PERC have grown the network to 15 active tertiary pediatric emergency medicine sites across Canada...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
Sheikh Ariful Hoque, Masaaki Kobayashi, Sayaka Takanashi, Kazi Selim Anwar, Taeko Watanabe, Pattara Khamrin, Shoko Okitsu, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima
BACKGROUND: In this study, we examined the effectiveness of RV1 and RV5 vaccines during an outbreak of G8P[8] rotavirus group A strain (G8P[8]-RVA). These vaccines were originally designed to provide protection against severe diseases caused by common circulating strains, whereas G8P[8]-RVA remains emerging strain and partially heterotypic to the vaccines. It is imperative to investigate vaccine effectiveness (VE) against G8P[8]-RVA because this strain appears to be predominant in recent years, particularly, in post-vaccine era...
November 25, 2017: Vaccine
Urska Jamnikar-Ciglenecki, Urska Kuhar, Andrej Steyer, Andrej Kirbis
BACKGROUND: Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are associated with acute gastroenteritis in children and in young domestic and wild animals. A RVA strain was detected from a roe deer for the first time during a survey of game animals in Slovenia in 2014. A further RVA strain (SLO/D110-15) was detected from a roe deer during 2015. The aim of this study was to provide a full genetic profile of the detected RVA strain from roe deer and to obtain additional information about zoonotic transmitted strains and potential reassortments between human rotavirus strains and zoonotic transmitted rotavirus strains...
November 25, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
P R Patil, N N Ganorkar, V Gopalkrishna
Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are known to cause various clinical manifestations including acute gastroenteritis. Although HPeV infections and their genotypes have been detected in human patients worldwide, no such reports are available from India to ascertain the association of HPeVs in acute gastroenteritis. The present study was conducted to determine the clinical features and genetic diversity of HPeVs detected in children hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis. Stool specimens (n = 979) collected from children aged ⩽5 years hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis in Pune, western India during January 2006-December 2010 were included...
November 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Kaitlin A Davis, John T Patton
Viruses manipulate cellular processes to create an environment favorable to replication. For most viruses, this includes subverting the expression of interferon (IFN), a signaling molecule that can stimulate production of a vast array of antiviral gene products. Rotavirus, a segmented double-stranded RNA virus that causes acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children, inhibits IFN expression through its nonstructural protein NSP1. This viral protein stifles IFN expression by inducing the degradation of host factors that are necessary for upregulating the activity of IFN genes...
November 3, 2017: Microbial Cell
Ichiro Morioka, Naohiro Kamiyoshi, Masahiro Nishiyama, Tomohiko Yamamura, Shogo Minamikawa, Sota Iwatani, Hiroaki Nagase, Kandai Nozu, Noriyuki Nishimura, Mariko Taniguchi-Ikeda, Kazuto Ishibashi, Akihito Ishida, Kazumoto Iijima
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major reason for presentation to pediatric primary emergency medical centers. Because rotavirus vaccines were introduced in November 2011 for voluntary vaccination in Japan, we analyzed the changes in the numbers of AGE patients. METHODS: The number and proportion of patients visiting Kobe children's primary emergency medical center from January 2011 to February 2015 due to AGE, out of all visiting children, were investigated retrospectively...
March 31, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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