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gastroenteritis children

Iva Hojsak
The number of papers discussing probiotics increases tremendously that limits the possibility for primary care physicians and clinicians to stay updated. Therefore, the aim of this paper will be to summarize available evidence of probiotic use in well-defined clinical indications of importance for pediatricians. Based on currently available evidence certain probiotic strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG [LGG] and Saccharomyces boulardii) have proven effect in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis and prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea...
September 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
D Ouermi, D Soubeiga, W M C Nadembega, P M Sawadogo, T M Zohoncon, D Obiri-Yeboah, F W Djigma, J Nordgren, J Simpore
Group A human rotaviruses (RVA) are the most common causes of severe viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. The available vaccines, while effective in Europe and North America have shown a reduced efficacy in Africa. One issue raised is the genetic variability of RVA. The objective of this study was to perform a literature review of molecular epidemiology to determine the prevalence of RVA genotypes circulating in Africa so as to establish a mapping of reliable data on these various genotypes...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Ulrike Grote, Benjamin Thomas Schleenvoigt, Christine Happle, Christian Dopfer, Martin Wetzke, Gerrit Ahrenstorf, Hanna Holst, Mathias Wilhelm Pletz, Reinhold Ernst Schmidt, Georg Mn Behrens, Alexandra Jablonka
Purpose Refugees often live in confined housing conditions with shared kitchen and sanitary facilities, rendering susceptible to communicable diseases. We here describe the outbreak, spread and self-limiting nature of a norovirus outbreak in a German refugee camp in the winter of 2015. Methods During a norovirus outbreak, data on clinical symptoms, nationality and living conditions was obtained in a refugee camp in northern Germany in the winter of 2015. Furthermore secondary data on norovirus outbreaks in 2015 was assessed...
October 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Candice Romero, Yeny O Tinoco, Sebastian Loli, Hugo Razuri, Giselle Soto, María Silva, Patricia Galvan, Anita Kambhampati, Umesh D Parashar, Matthew R Kasper, Daniel G Bausch, Mark P Simons, Benjamin Lopman
Background: Data on norovirus epidemiology among all ages in community settings are scarce, especially from tropical settings. Methods: We implemented active surveillance in 297 households in Peru from October 2012 to August 2015 to assess the burden of diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) due to norovirus in a lower-middle-income community. During period 1 (October 2012-May 2013), we used a "traditional" diarrhea case definition (≥3 loose/liquid stools within 24 hours)...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Maria Eva Andersson, Kristina Elfving, Deler Shakely, Staffan Nilsson, Mwinyi Msellem, Birger Trollfors, Andreas Mårtensson, Anders Björkman, Magnus Lindh
Background: Acute infectious gastroenteritis is an important cause of illness and death among children in low-income countries. In addition to rotavirus vaccination, actions to improve nutrition status, sanitation, and water quality are important to reduce enteric infections, which are frequent also among asymptomatic children. The aim of this study was to investigate if the high prevalence of these infections reflects that they often are not cleared properly by the immune response or rather is due to frequent pathogen exposure...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Eyal Leshem, Jacqueline E Tate, Claudia A Steiner, Aaron T Curns, Ben A Lopman, Umesh D Parashar
We compared acute gastroenteritis (AGE)-related hospitalization rates among children <5 years of age during the pre-rotavirus vaccine (2000-2006) and post-rotavirus vaccine (2008-2013) periods to estimate national reductions in AGE-related hospitalizations and associated costs. We estimate that between 2008 and 2013, AGE-related hospitalizations declined by 382000, and $1.228 billion in medical costs were averted.
August 10, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Jennifer A Jonas, Samir S Shah, Isabella Zaniletti, Matthew Hall, Jeffrey D Colvin, Laura M Gottlieb, Marion R Sills, Jessica Bettenhausen, Rustin B Morse, Michelle L Macy, Evan S Fieldston
OBJECTIVE: (1) To evaluate regional variation in costs of care for 3 inpatient pediatric conditions, (2) assess potential drivers of variation, and (3) estimate cost savings from reducing variation. DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective cohort study of hospitalizations for asthma, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) at 46 children<s hospitals from October 2014 to September 2015. MEASUREMENTS: Variation in trimmed standardized costs were assessed within and across regions...
October 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Chien-Fang Tseng, Nan-Chang Chiu, Ching-Ying Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning Huang, Lung Chang, Yen-Hsin Kung, Fu-Yuan Huang, Hsin Chi
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter and Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are the two most common bacterial pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis in children. This study aims to elucidate the epidemiology of Campylobacter and NTS gastroenteritis and develop a scoring system to differentiate them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled 886 children ≤18 years of age, hospitalized due to acute gastroenteritis with stool culture-proven Campylobacter or NTS infection from July 2012 to December 2015...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Kattareeya Kumthip, Pattara Khamrin, Hiroshi Ushijima, Niwat Maneekarn
Enterovirus (EV) infection is widespread and can lead to a broad range of clinical symptoms, from mild to severe forms of disease. EVs are not always classified as pathogen and the epidemiological surveillance of EV infection in acute gastroenteritis cases in Thailand remains unexplored. This study aims to investigate the frequency, seasonality and molecular characteristics of EV circulating in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Chiang Mai, Thailand from 2010 to 2014. A total of 1266 fecal samples were included in this study...
October 3, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Hassan Zaraket, Rana Charide, Khalil Kreidieh, Ghassan Dbaibo, Nada M Melhem
Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. Consequently, we conducted a systematic literature review on articles studying RV in the 25 countries of the MENA region during the past 15years (2000-2015). The methods and reporting were set according to the 2015 preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) and based on the elements from the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO). Our literature search identified 169 studies meeting our predefined inclusion criteria...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
Filemón Bucardo, Yaoska Reyes, Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Natalie Bowman, Joann F Gruber, Jan Vinjé, Felix Espinoza, Margarita Paniagua, Angel Balmaseda, Lennart Svensson, Johan Nordgren
OBJECTIVES: Investigate clinical and epidemiological factors of pediatric GII.4 norovirus infections in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in Nicaragua between 1999 and 2015. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed laboratory and epidemiologic data from 1,790 children≤7years with AGE from 6 hospitals in Nicaragua (n=538), and 3 community clinics (n=919) and households (n=333) in León, between 1999 and 2015. Moreover, asymptomatic children from community clinics (n=162) and households (n=105) were enrolled...
October 2, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Prasad S Kulkarni, Sajjad Desai, Tushar Tewari, Anand Kawade, Nidhi Goyal, Bishan Swarup Garg, Dinesh Kumar, Suman Kanungo, Veena Kamat, Gagandeep Kang, Ashish Bavdekar, Sudhir Babji, Sanjay Juvekar, Byomkesh Manna, Shanta Dutta, Rama Angurana, Deepika Dewan, Abhijeet Dharmadhikari, Jagdish K Zade, Rajeev M Dhere, Alan Fix, Maureen Power, Vidyasagar Uprety, Varsha Parulekar, Iksung Cho, Temsunaro R Chandola, Vikash K Kedia, Abhishek Raut, Jorge Flores
Rotavirus is the most common cause of moderate-to-severe infant diarrhoea in developing countries, resulting in enormous morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. A bovine-human reassortant pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (BRV-PV) targeting the globally most common strains was developed in India and tested in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled end-point driven Phase III efficacy clinical trial implemented at six sites across India. Infants 6 to 8weeks of age were randomized (1:1) to receive three oral doses of BRV-PV or placebo at 6, 10, and 14weeks of age along with routine vaccines...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
Beatrice C Canziani, Peter Uestuener, Emilio F Fossali, Sebastiano A G Lava, Mario G Bianchetti, Carlo Agostoni, Gregorio P Milani
Currently recommended management of acute gastroenteritis is supportive. Although the affected children habitually have vomiting, recommendations do not focus on the correction of this symptom. In this condition, elevated ketone bodies and stimuli initiated by gut mucosa damage produced by the enteral pathogen likely underlay nausea and vomiting. As compared to 0.9% saline, intravenous administration of a dextrose-containing bolus of 0.9% saline is associated with a greater reduction of circulating ketones and a shorter duration of nausea and vomiting...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
Thomas Verstraeten, Tom Cattaert, John Harris, Ben Lopman, Clarence C Tam, Germano Ferreira
Background: Norovirus is the leading cause of community-acquired and nosocomial acute gastroenteritis. Routine testing for norovirus is seldom undertaken and diagnosis is mainly based on presenting symptoms. This makes understanding the burden of medically-attended norovirus-attributable gastroenteritis (MA-NGE) and targeting care and prevention strategies challenging. Methods: We used linked population-based health care datasets (Clinical Practice Research Datalink General Practice OnLine Database linked with Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care) to model the incidence of MA-NGE associated with primary care consultations or hospitalisations according to age groups in England in the period July 2007 - June 2013...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
V L Rahajamanana, J L Raboba, A Rakotozanany, N J Razafindraibe, E J P R Andriatahirintsoa, A C Razafindrakoto, S A Mioramalala, C Razaiarimanga, G G Weldegebriel, E Burnett, J Mwenda, M Seheri, M J Mphahlele, A L Robinson
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccine was introduced into the Extended Program on Immunization in Madagascar in May 2014. We analyzed trends in prevalence of all cause diarrhea and rotavirus hospitalization in children <5years of age before and after vaccine introduction and assessed trend of circulating rotavirus genotypes at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mère Enfant Tsaralalàna (CHU MET). METHODS: From January 2010 to December 2016, we reviewed the admission logbook to observe the rate of hospitalization caused by gastroenteritis among 19619 children <5years of age admitted at the hospital...
September 25, 2017: Vaccine
Ahmed Zaki, Mohamed Abousekkien, Usama M Alkholy, Abdelrahman Eid
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Rotavirus is the most important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. The primary public health intervention is vaccination. Rota vaccine has been included to the national vaccination schedule in Saudi Arabia since 1 January 2013. Here we aim to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of rotavirus vaccines in Saudi Arabia following the addition of rotavirus vaccine to the national vaccination schedule. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of electronic data of children admitted to al Jeddani Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with gastroenteritis between 1 September 2011 and 31 August 2012 (1year before the implementation of Rota vaccine; group 1) compared to those admitted between 1 September 2015 and 31 August 2016 (3years after the implementation of the vaccine; group 2)...
September 25, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
David Schnadower, Phillip I Tarr, Casper T Charles, Marc H Gorelick, Michael J Dean, Karen J O'Connell, Prashant Mahajan, Thomas H Chun, Seema R Bhatt, Cindy G Roskind, Elizabeth C Powell, Alexander J Rogers, Cheryl Vance, Robert E Sapien, Feng Gao, Stephen B Freedman
INTRODUCTION: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common and burdensome condition that affects millions of children worldwide each year. Currently available strategies are limited to symptomatic management, treatment and prevention of dehydration and infection control; no disease-modifying interventions exist. Probiotics, defined as live microorganisms beneficial to the host, have shown promise in improving AGE outcomes, but existing studies have sufficient limitations such that the use of probiotics cannot currently be recommended with confidence...
September 24, 2017: BMJ Open
Kirsty A Houston, Jack G Gibb, Kathryn Maitland
Background: Rehydration strategies in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and severe dehydration are extremely cautious. The World Health Organization (WHO) SAM guidelines advise strongly against intravenous fluids unless the child is shocked or severely dehydrated and unable to tolerate oral fluids. Otherwise, guidelines recommend oral or nasogastric rehydration using low sodium oral rehydration solutions. There is limited evidence to support these recommendations. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies on 15 (th) June 2017 comparing different strategies of rehydration therapy in children with acute gastroenteritis and severe dehydration, specifically relating to intravenous rehydration, using standard search terms...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
Natalie Schellpfeffer, Abaigeal Collins, David C Brousseau, Emily T Martin, Andrew Hashikawa
School absenteeism is an inefficient and unspecific metric for measuring community illness and does not provide surveillance during summertime. Web-based biosurveillance of childcare centers may represent a novel way to efficiently monitor illness outbreaks year-round. A web-based biosurveillance program ( ) was created and implemented in 4 childcare centers in a single Michigan county. Childcare providers were trained to report sick children who required exclusion or had parent-reported absences due to illness...
September 22, 2017: Health Security
Azarakhsh Azaran, Manoochehr Makvandi, Ali Teimoori, Saeedeh Ebrahimi, Farzad Heydari, Roya Nikfar
Background: Group A rotavirus (RVA) mainly causes acute gastroenteritis, exclusively in young children in developing countries. The prevalence and determination of the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus genotypes will determine the dominant rotavirus genotypes in the region and provide a strategy for the development of appropriate vaccines. Methods: A total of 100 fecal samples were collected from children below five years with acute gastroenteritis who referred to Aboozar Children’s Hospital of Ahvaz city during October 2015 to March 2016...
September 16, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
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