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F Claire Rind, Stefan Wernitznig, Peter Pölt, Armin Zankel, Daniel Gütl, Julieta Sztarker, Gerd Leitinger
In locusts, two lobula giant movement detector neurons (LGMDs) act as looming object detectors. Their reproducible responses to looming and their ethological significance makes them models for single neuron computation. But there is no comprehensive picture of the neurons that connect directly to each LGMD. We used high-through-put serial block-face scanning-electron-microscopy to reconstruct the network of input-synapses onto the LGMDs over spatial scales ranging from single synapses and small circuits, up to dendritic branches and total excitatory input...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Eric Dugat-Bony, Lucille Garnier, Jeremie Denonfoux, Stéphanie Ferreira, Anne-Sophie Sarthou, Pascal Bonnarme, Françoise Irlinger
Surface-ripened cheeses host complex microbial communities responsible for the transformation of milk into cheese as well as the development of important properties in terms of texture, color and sensory perception. In this study, we used high-throughput amplicon sequencing to decipher the bacterial and fungal diversity of 60 cheeses belonging to 12 popular French cheese varieties. Using this approach, 76 bacterial and 44 fungal phylotypes were identified. Major differences were observed between rind and core samples and also according to cheese varieties and manufacturing processes...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Nargis Jamila, Ji Yeon Choi, Joon Ho Hong, Eun Yeong Nho, Naeem Khan, Cheon Ho Jo, Hyang Sook Chun, Kyong Su Kim
Species of genus Garcinia are rich sources of bioactive constituents with antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and anti-HIV activities. Commercial products of Garcinia cambogia are used as anti-obesity drugs with increasing market demand. Because of the high price of its products, it could be adulterated with similar lower-priced species. This study was designed to develop and validate an accurate and efficient method for the detection of any adulteration (G. indica) in G. cambogia products...
October 5, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Gerald W Smetana, Martin J Abrahamson, David M Rind
The prevalence of diabetes in the United States is rising. Twelve percent of U.S. adults have diabetes and another 37% have impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes is a major risk factor for such outcomes as cardiovascular disease, blindness, chronic kidney disease, and limb amputation. An important consideration is whether screening for abnormal glucose levels or diabetes reduces cardiovascular or all-cause morbidity and mortality. In October 2015, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force published recommendations on screening for abnormal blood glucose and concluded that intensive lifestyle interventions have a moderate benefit in reducing progression to diabetes in patients who have abnormal blood glucose levels detected by screening...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Anna K Nowak, Kari Chansky, David C Rice, Harvey I Pass, Hedy L Kindler, Lynn Shemanski, Andrea Billé, Robert Rintoul, Hasan F Batirel, Charles F Thomas, Joseph Friedberg, Susana Cedres, Marc de Perrot, Valerie W Rusch
INTRODUCTION: Current T component for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has been predominantly informed by surgical datasets and consensus. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer undertook revision of the 7(th) Edition staging system for MPM with the goal of developing recommendations for the 8(th) edition. METHODS: Data elements including detailed T descriptors were developed by consensus. Tumor thickness at three pleural levels was also recorded...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Birgit Småbrekke, Ludvig Balteskard Rinde, Kristian Hindberg, Erin Mathiesen Hald, Anders Vik, Tom Wilsgaard, Maja-Lisa Løchen, Inger Njølstad, Ellisiv B Mathiesen, John-Bjarne Hansen, Sigrid Brækkan
BACKGROUND: Single measurements of modifiable risk factors may underestimate associations with outcomes in cohorts. We aimed to compare risk estimates of myocardial infarction (MI) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) by atherosclerotic risk factors during long follow-up using time-fixed analyses without and with correction for regression dilution and time-varying analyses. METHODS: The study included 5970 subjects enrolled in the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study (1994/95)...
2016: PloS One
Molka Ben Romdhane, Anissa Haddar, Imen Ghazala, Khawla Ben Jeddou, Claire Boisset Helbert, Semia Ellouz-Chaabouni
In the present work, optimization of hot water extraction, structural characteristics, functional properties, and biological activities of polysaccharides extracted from watermelon rinds (WMRP) were investigated. The physicochemical characteristics and the monosaccharide composition of these polysaccharides were then determined using chemical composition analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). SEM images showed that extracted polysaccharides had a rough surface with many cavities...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Zhe Ji, Xun Zhang, Zhe Ling, Run-Cang Sun, Feng Xu
The recalcitrance in grasses varies according to cell type and tissue. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment was performed on Miscanthus×giganteus internodes that include rind and pith regions which showing heterogeneous structural and chemical changes. Pretreatment on pith effectively hydrolyzed 73.33% hemicelluloses and separated cohesive cell walls from the compound middle lamella due to lignin migration. Lignin droplets with an average diameter of 49.5±29.3nm were concurrently coalesced on wall surface, that in turn exposed more microfibrils deep in walls to be enzymatically hydrolyzed reaching 82...
December 10, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Venkateshwarlu Kudiganti, Raveendra Ramamurthy Kodur, Sushma Raveendra Kodur, Manjunath Halemane, Dheeraj Kumar Deep
BACKGROUND: Meratrim is a blend of two plant extracts obtained from Sphaeranthus indicus flower heads and Garcinia mangostana fruit rinds. Previous studies have demonstrated that Meratrim is effective for weight management in obese individuals. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of Meratrim in managing body weight in healthy overweight subjects. METHODS: Sixty participants with a mean BMI of 28.3 kg/m(2) were randomized into two groups receiving either 400 mg of Meratrim twice daily or two identical placebo capsules for a period of 16 weeks...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
David M J Houston, Bethan Robins, Joachim J Bugert, Stephen P Denyer, Charles M Heard
Coadministration of pomegranate rind extract (PRE) and zinc (II) ions has recently been reported as a potential new topical treatment for Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. In the current work we examined the in vitro topical delivery of punicalagin (major phytochemical of PRE) and zinc from hydrogels across epithelial membranes that can become infected with HSV. Porcine epidermal, buccal and vaginal mucous membranes were excised and mounted in Franz diffusion cells and dosed with a simple hydrogel containing PRE and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4)...
August 8, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Dike O Ukuku, Sudarsan Mukhopadhyay, David Geveke, Modesto Olanya, Brendan Niemira
Surface structure and biochemical characteristics of bacteria and produce play a major role in how and where bacteria attach, complicating decontamination treatments. Whole cantaloupe rind surfaces were inoculated with Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes at 10(7) CFU/ml. Average population size of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes recovered after surface inoculation was 4.8 ± 0.12, 5.1 ± 0.14, and 3.6 ± 0.13 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Inoculated melons were stored at 5 and 22°C for 7 days before washing treatment interventions...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Utpala Parthasarathy, O P Nandakishore, O B Rosana, K Nirmal Babu, R Senthil Kumar, V A Parthasarathy
The genus Garcinia shows a considerable variation in its morphological characters such as leaf, flower and fruit with taxonomic ambiguity. It is a potential under-exploited multipurpose crop that gained considerable attention for the presence of (-) hydroxycitric acid, an anti-obesity compound, in its fruit rind and leaves. Here, we evaluated the genetic relationship through molecular markers among the selected 9 species commonly available in the Western Ghats and the Northeastern Himalayan foot hills of India...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Alejandro Fredes, Salvador Roselló, Joaquim Beltrán, Jaime Cebolla-Cornejo, Ana Pérez-de-Castro, Carmina Gisbert, María Belén Picó
BACKGROUND: The grafting of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) is a common technique that increases yield under stressful soil conditions. The most common rootstocks for watermelons are Cucurbita hybrids. However, they often have a negative impact on fruit quality. Exploiting novel Citrullus germplasm such as citron melon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) is an alternative to avoid these quality problems. RESULTS: Citron melon has been validated as watermelon rootstock, comparing its effects on watermelon quality to those of Cucurbita hybrids...
July 20, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Menouar Nacef, Mickaël Chevalier, Sylvie Chollet, Djamel Drider, Christophe Flahaut
In this study we identified the culturable population of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from a French cheese Maroilles made either with raw or pasteurized milk using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Samples from rind and heart of Maroilles cheese were used, the LAB were selected on MRS agar at 30°C and 197 Gram-positive and catalase-negative strains were subjected to identification by MALDI-TOF MS profiling. All strains were unambiguously identified: 105 strains from Maroilles made with raw milk (38 on the rind and 67 in the heart) and 92 strains from Maroilles made with pasteurized milk (39 on the rind and 53 in the heart)...
July 8, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Nicholas L Opie, Sam E John, Gil S Rind, Stephen M Ronayne, David B Grayden, Anthony N Burkitt, Clive N May, Terence J O'Brien, Thomas J Oxley
OBJECTIVE: Recently, we reported a minimally invasive stent-electrode array capable of recording neural signals from within a blood vessel. We now investigate the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements to infer changes occurring to the electrode-tissue interface from devices implanted in a cohort of sheep for up to 190 days. APPROACH: In a cohort of 15 sheep, endovascular stent-electrode arrays were implanted in the superior sagittal sinus overlying the motor cortex for up to 190 days...
August 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Esmond Nyarko, Kalmia E Kniel, Patricia D Millner, Yaguang Luo, Eric T Handy, Russell Reynnells, Cheryl East, Manan Sharma
Whole cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L.), marketed as 'Rocky Ford', were implicated in a large multi-state outbreak of listeriosis in the United States in 2011; however, survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes on whole cantaloupes remains relatively unexplored. The research presented here evaluated three different storage temperatures, two sites of contamination of cantaloupes, and two cantaloupe varieties to determine their effect on the survival of L. monocytogenes. 'Athena' and 'Rocky Ford' cantaloupe cultivars were grown in soil and harvested, and individual melons subsequently received a multi-strain inoculum of L...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Markus Freick, Yvonne Frank, Kathrin Steinert, Ahmad Hamedy, Oliver Passarge, Axel Sobiraj
UNLABELLED: Objective of this study was the improvement of selected parameters of udder health by mastitis vaccination in a dairy herd with elevated bulk milk somatic cell counts and Staphylococcus (S.) aureus as predominant mastitis causing pathogen. MATERIAL AND METHODS: On a dairy farm, pregnant heifers (status group [SG] 1; n = 181) as well as cows stratified for their udder health state (classification based on results of cytobacteriological investigations of quarter milk samples obtained before dry cow therapy [MS0]) (SG 2-4; n = 416) were randomly assigned to one of the following vaccination groups (VG): Startvac® (VG SV), Bestvac® Rind Mastitis (containing herd-specific S...
August 17, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Nicholas L Opie, Nicole R van der Nagel, Sam E John, Kirstan Vessey, Gil S Rind, Stephen M Ronayne, Erica L Fletcher, Clive N May, Terence OBrien, Thomas Oxley
OBJECTIVE: Recently, we reported the development of a stent-mounted electrode array (Stentrode™) capable of chronically recording neural signals from within a blood vessel with high fidelity. Preliminary data suggested incorporation of the Stentrode™ into the blood vessel wall was associated with improved recording sensitivity. We now investigate neointimal incorporation of the Stentrode™, implanted in a cohort of sheep for up to 190 days. METHODS: Micro-CT, obtained from the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron, and histomorphometic techniques developed specifically for evaluation of cerebral vasculature implanted with a stent-electrode array were compared as measures to assess device incorporation and vessel patency...
June 21, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Adrienne E H Shearer, Kyle LeStrange, Rafael Castañeda Saldaña, Kalmia E Kniel
Whole and cut cantaloupes have been implicated as vehicles in foodborne illness outbreaks of norovirus, salmonellosis, and listeriosis. Preparation methods that minimize pathogen transfer from external surfaces to the edible tissue are needed. Two preparation methods were compared for the transfer of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2, murine norovirus, and Tulane virus from inoculated cantaloupe rinds to edible tissue and preparation surfaces. For the first method, cantaloupes were cut into eighths, and edible tissue was separated from the rind and cubed with the same knife used to open the cantaloupes...
May 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Mira Rakic Martinez, Jason Osborne, Victor Oladimeji Jayeola, Vera Katic, Sophia Kathariou
The 2011 listeriosis outbreak attributed to whole cantaloupe involved several genetically distinct strains of serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b that had not been previously reported in invasive listeriosis outbreaks. Here we investigated the potential of strains from the 2011 cantaloupe outbreak to adhere, survive, and grow on cantaloupe rind and flesh and in juice extracted from cantaloupe at different temperatures (4, 8, and 25°C). All strains were able to adhere and grow, with ∼10-fold increases after 7 days at 4 or 8°C and after 24 h at 25°C, with a propensity for more growth on rind than on flesh or in extract...
May 2016: Journal of Food Protection
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