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R J Saint, R V D'Elia, C Bryant, G C Clark, H S Atkins
Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium that causes the disease tularemia. The disease can be fatal if left untreated and there is currently no licenced vaccine available; the identification of new therapeutic targets is therefore required. Toll-like receptors represent an interesting target for therapeutic modulation due to their essential role in generating immune responses. In this study, we analysed the in vitro expression of the key mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38, JNK and ERK in murine alveolar macrophages during infection with F...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Louise K Andersen, Mark D P Davis
Climate change refers to variation in the climate of a specific region or globally over time. A change has been reported in the epidemiology of tick- and mosquito-borne diseases in recent decades. Investigators have postulated that this effect may be associated with climate change. We reviewed the English-language literature describing changes in the epidemiology of specific tick- and mosquito-borne diseases, including the tick-borne diseases of Lyme disease, tularemia, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Mediterranean spotted fever, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever and the mosquito-borne diseases of dengue, malaria, West Nile virus infection, Ross River virus disease, and Barmah Forest virus disease...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Kristen M Holland, Sarah J Rosa, Karsten R O Hazlett
One of the hallmarks of pulmonary tularemia, which results from inhalation of Francisella tularensis - a significant bioterrorism concern, is the lack of an acute TH1-biased inflammatory response in the early phase of disease (days 1-3) despite significant bacterial loads. In an effort to understand this apparent hypo-responsiveness, many laboratories have utilized in vitro cell-based models as tools to probe the nature and consequences of host cell interactions with F. tularensis. The first uses of this model suggested that mammalian host cells recognize this bacterium principally through TLR2 to evoke a robust, classical TH1-biased cytokine response including TNF, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-γ...
June 2016: Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense
Charlotte A Hall, Helen C Flick-Smith, Sarah V Harding, Helen S Atkins, Richard W Titball
Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) enables real-time, non-invasive tracking of infection in vivo and longitudinal infection studies. In this study, a bioluminescent F. tularensis SCHU S4-lux strain was used to develop an inhalational infection model in BALB/c mice. Mice were infected intranasally and the progression of infection was monitored in real time using BLI. A bioluminescent signal was detectable from 3 days post-infection (dpi), initially in the spleen, then in the liver and lymph nodes before finally becoming systemic...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Crystal J Jaing, Kevin S McLoughlin, James B Thissen, Adam Zemla, Shea N Gardner, Lisa M Vergez, Feliza Bourguet, Shalini Mabery, Viacheslav Y Fofanov, Heather Koshinsky, Paul J Jackson
Francisella tularensis is classified as a Class A bioterrorism agent by the U.S. government due to its high virulence and the ease with which it can be spread as an aerosol. It is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) is a broad spectrum antibiotic effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Increased Cipro resistance in pathogenic microbes is of serious concern when considering options for medical treatment of bacterial infections. Identification of genes and loci that are associated with Ciprofloxacin resistance will help advance the understanding of resistance mechanisms and may, in the future, provide better treatment options for patients...
2016: PloS One
Anju Singh, Tabassum Rahman, Rose Bartiss, Alireza Arabshahi, Jeevan Prasain, Stephen Barnes, Florin Marcel Musteata, Timothy J Sellati
Respiratory infection with Francisella tularensis (Ft) is characterized by a muted, acute host response, followed by sepsis-like syndrome that results in death. Infection with Ft establishes a principally anti-inflammatory environment that subverts host-cell death programs to facilitate pathogen replication. Although the role of cytokines has been explored extensively, the role of eicosanoids in tularemia pathogenesis is not fully understood. Given that lipoxin A4 (LXA4) has anti-inflammatory properties, we investigated whether this lipid mediator affects host responses manifested early during infection...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Mélanie Rigard, Jeanette E Bröms, Amandine Mosnier, Maggy Hologne, Amandine Martin, Lena Lindgren, Claire Punginelli, Claire Lays, Olivier Walker, Alain Charbit, Philippe Telouk, Wayne Conlan, Laurent Terradot, Anders Sjöstedt, Thomas Henry
The virulence of Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, relies on an atypical type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded by a genomic island termed the Francisella Pathogenicity Island (FPI). While the importance of the FPI in F. tularensis virulence is clearly established, the precise role of most of the FPI-encoded proteins remains to be deciphered. In this study, using highly virulent F. tularensis strains and the closely related species F. novicida, IglG was characterized as a protein featuring a unique α-helical N-terminal extension and a domain of unknown function (DUF4280), present in more than 250 bacterial species...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Céline Terrada, Said Azza, Bahram Bodaghi, Phuc Le Hoang, Michel Drancourt
BACKGROUND: Literature reports on ophthalmological manifestations related to tularemia, a zoonose caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, largely refer to Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, which consists of the association of conjunctivitis with preauricular lymphadenitis. In this paper, we report a case of intraocular inflammation during tularemia infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with unilateral uveitis. The uveitis was posterior, with a 2+ vitritis and a large yellowish lesion involving the macula with an overlying sub-retinal detachment, extending inferiorly, and subretinal hemorrhages...
2016: BMC Ophthalmology
Rostane Gaci, Corentine Alauzet, Christine Selton-Suty, Alain Lozniewski, Céline Pulcini, Thierry May, François Goehringer
We report the first two cases of infective endocarditis caused by Francisella tularensis in Europe (two cases have previously been reported outside Europe). We suggest clinicians should consider tularemia as a possible diagnosis in endemic regions in cases of culture-negative endocarditis.
August 26, 2016: Infectious Diseases
Sabina B Holland, Ian C Michelow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Lauren C Kinkead, Lee-Ann H Allen
Francisella tularensis in an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes a potentially lethal disease called tularemia. Studies performed nearly 100 years ago revealed that neutrophil accumulation in infected tissues correlates directly with the extent of necrotic damage during F. tularensis infection. However, the dynamics and details of bacteria-neutrophil interactions have only recently been studied in detail. Herein, we review current understanding regarding the mechanisms that recruit neutrophils to F...
September 2016: Immunological Reviews
Lydia M Roberts, Deborah D Crane, Tara D Wehrly, Joshua R Fletcher, Bradley D Jones, Catharine M Bosio
T cells are the immunological cornerstone in host defense against infections by intracellular bacterial pathogens, such as virulent Francisella tularensis spp. tularensis (Ftt). The general paucity of novel vaccines for Ftt during the past 60 y can, in part, be attributed to the poor understanding of immune parameters required to survive infection. Thus, we developed a strategy utilizing classical immunological tools to elucidate requirements for effective adaptive immune responses directed against Ftt. Following generation of various Francisella strains expressing well-characterized lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus epitopes, we found that survival correlated with persistence of Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Cornelia Blume, Jonathan David, Rachel E Bell, Jay R Laver, Robert C Read, Graeme C Clark, Donna E Davies, Emily J Swindle
The bronchial epithelium provides protection against pathogens from the inhaled environment through the formation of a highly-regulated barrier. In order to understand the pulmonary diseases melioidosis and tularemia caused by Burkholderia thailandensis and Fransicella tularensis, respectively, the barrier function of the human bronchial epithelium were analysed. Polarised 16HBE14o- or differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) were exposed to increasing multiplicities of infection (MOI) of B...
August 3, 2016: Pathogens
Rinosh J Mani, Rebecca J Morton, Kenneth D Clinkenbeard
Tularemia is a zoonotic disease that occurs in the Northern Hemisphere caused by the gammabacterium Francisella tularensis. The most severe form of human tularemia occurs in the central USA and involves a rabbit enzootic cycle, ixodid tick vectors, and F. tularensis subspecies tularensis genotype A1. Enzootic tularemia is thought to have a spring-summer seasonality corresponding to the questing activity of its primary tick vectors. Domestic cats, another common incidental host, acquire the infection by preying on infected rabbits...
2016: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Xiaojun Wu, Guoping Ren, William T Gunning, David A Weaver, Andrea L Kalinoski, Sadik A Khuder, Jason F Huntley
Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of the lethal disease tularemia. Despite decades of research, little is understood about why F. tularensis is so virulent. Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are involved in various virulence processes, including protein secretion, host cell attachment, and intracellular survival. Many pathogenic bacteria require metals for intracellular survival and OMPs often play important roles in metal uptake. Previous studies identified three F. tularensis OMPs that play roles in iron acquisition...
2016: PloS One
Elizabeth Stinson, Le'Kneitah P Smith, Kelly Stefano Cole, Eileen M Barry, Douglas S Reed
Tularemia is a severe, zoonotic disease caused by a gram-negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis We have previously shown that rabbits are a good model of human pneumonic tularemia when exposed to aerosols containing a virulent, type A strain, SCHU S4. We further demonstrated that the live vaccine strain (LVS), an attenuated type B strain, extended time to death when given by scarification. Oral or aerosol vaccination has been previously shown in humans to offer superior protection to parenteral vaccination against respiratory tularemia challenge...
October 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Fatih Büyük, Özgür Çelebi, Elif Çelik, Bekir Çelebi, Selçuk Kiliç, Aliye Gülmez Sağlam, Doğan Akça, Mehmet Doğanay, Salih Otlu, Mitat Şahin
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence of antibodies against Francisella tularensis in individuals in different occupations that have contact with animals in the Kars region of northeastern Turkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 201 blood samples specifically including 103 farmers, 45 clinical veterinarians, 42 butchers, and 11 hunters were analyzed. The results of the study were reported in relation to some sociodemographic features (age, sex, occupation, and experience) of the volunteers...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Jin Suzuki, Akihiko Uda, Kenta Watanabe, Takashi Shimizu, Masahisa Watarai
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a highly virulent facultative intracellular pathogen found in a wide range of animals, including arthropods, and environments. This bacterium has been known for over 100 years, but the lifestyle of F. tularensis in natural reservoirs remains largely unknown. Thus, we established a novel natural host model for F. tularensis using the silkworm (Bombyx mori), which is an insect model for infection by pathogens. F. tularensis established a symbiosis with silkworms, and bacteria were observed in the hemolymph...
2016: Scientific Reports
A V Eremkin, G D Elagin, D V Petchenkin, O O Fomenkov, N V Bogatcheva, A A Kitmanov, G V Kuklina, O V Tikhvinskaya
The immune enzyme and immunochromatographic test-systems for detecting tularemia agent were developed on the basis of selected set of monoclonal antibodies having immunochemical activity to antigens Francisella tularensis. The evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of developed test-systems demonstrated that samples provided detection of strains of F. tularensis in concentration from 5.0 x 105 mkxcm-3 to 1.0 x 106 mkxcm-3 and gave no false positive results in analysis of heterologous microorganisms in concentration of 1...
March 2016: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
Serap Doğan, Afra Ekinci, Hayati Demiraslan, Ayşegül Ulu Kılıç, Ertuğrul Mavili, Mustafa Öztürk, Hakan İmamoğlu, Mehmet Doğanay
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the ultrasonography (US) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) findings of tularemia in the neck. METHODS: US and CECT findings of 58 patients with serologically proven tularemia were retrospectively evaluated. Forty-eight patients underwent US and 42 patients underwent CECT. Lymph node characteristics and parotid preauricular region involvement were analyzed using US and CECT. In addition, involvement of larynx, oropharynx, and retropharynx; presence of periorbital edema; and neck abscess formation were evaluated using CECT...
September 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
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