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Alexander B Hicks, Dirk M Elston
Dermacentor ticks are hard ticks found throughout most of North America and are easily identified by their large size, ornate scutum, and prominent dorsal pits. They are important disease vectors and are implicated in transmission of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), Colorado tick fever, tularemia, and erlichiosis. They also are an important cause of fatal tick paralysis.
January 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
F Ehrensperger, L Riederer, A Friedl
A female jogger was attacked by a common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and was scratched lightly at the back of the head. One week later she was taken ill with high fever and headache which was later diagnosed as ulcero-glandular tularemia in regional lymph nodes, caused by Francisella tularensis. Recovery was only achieved after several weeks of systemic antibiotic treatment (Gentamicin/ Ciprofloxacine). Tularemia is a well known zoonotic disease, called "rabbit fever", mainly affecting rabbits and hares, but also small rodents...
March 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Mirko Faber, Klaus Heuner, Daniela Jacob, Roland Grunow
Tularemia, also known as "rabbit fever," is a zoonosis caused by the facultative intracellular, gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis . Infection occurs through contact with infected animals (often hares), arthropod vectors (such as ticks or deer flies), inhalation of contaminated dust or through contaminated food and water. In this review, we would like to provide an overview of the current epidemiological situation in Germany using published studies and case reports, an analysis of recent surveillance data and our own experience from the laboratory diagnostics, and investigation of cases...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Pavla Stojkova, Petra Spidlova, Juraj Lenco, Helena Rehulkova, Lucie Kratka, Jiri Stulik
The nucleoid-associated HU proteins are small abundant DNA-binding proteins in bacterial cell which play an important role in the initiation of DNA replication, cell division, SOS response, control of gene expression and recombination. HU proteins bind to double stranded DNA non-specifically, but they exhibit high affinity to abnormal DNA structures as four-way junctions, gaps or nicks, which are generated during DNA damage. In many pathogens HU proteins regulate expression of genes involved in metabolism and virulence...
February 23, 2018: Virulence
Shirin Shahsavari, Hossein Bannazadeh Baghi, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Hamed Ebrahimzadeh Leylabadlo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Theodore J Cieslak, Mark G Kortepeter, Ronald J Wojtyk, Hugo-Jan Jansen, Ricardo A Reyes, James O Smith
Background: Defense policy planners and countermeasure developers are often faced with vexing problems involving the prioritization of resources and efforts. This is especially true in the area of Biodefense, where each new emerging infectious disease outbreak brings with it questions regarding the causative agent's potential for weaponization. Recent experience with West Nile Virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Monkeypox, and H1N1 Influenza highlights this problem. Appropriately, in each of these cases, the possibility of bioterrorism was raised, although each outbreak ultimately proved to have a natural origin...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Ralph Anthony Stidham, David B Freeman, Robert L von Tersch, Peter J Sullivan, Samantha D Tostenson
Introduction: Tularemia is a rare but potentially fatal disease that develops in numerous wild and domestic animals, including lagomorphs, rodents, cats, and humans.  Francisella tularensis bacterium, the causative agent of tularemia, was identified by veterinary personnel at Fort Riley, Kansas during a routine post-mortum evaluation of a domestic feline. However, before formal diagnosis was confirmed, the sample was sent and prepared for rabies testing at the Department of Defense (DoD) U...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Currents
Adva Mechaly, Einat Vitner, Haim Levy, Shay Weiss, Elad Bar-David, David Gur, Michal Koren, Hila Cohen, Ofer Cohen, Emanuelle Mamroud, Morly Fisher
Multiplexed detection technologies are becoming increasingly important given the possibility of bioterrorism attacks, where the range of suspected pathogens can vary considerably. In this work, we describe the use of Luminex MagPlex magnetic microspheres for the construction of two multiplexed diagnostic suspension arrays, enabling the antibody-based detection of bacterial pathogens and their related disease biomarkers directly from blood cultures.The first 4-plex diagnostic array enabled the detection of both anthrax and plague infections using soluble disease biomarkers, including PA (Protective Antigen) and anthrax capsular antigen for anthrax detection and the capsular F1 and LcrV antigens for plague detection...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Maha Alqahtani, Zhuo Ma, Harshada Ketkar, Ragavan Varadharajan Suresh, Meenakshi Malik, Chandra Shekhar Bakshi
Francisella tularensis; the causative agent of tularemia lacks typical bacterial virulence factors and toxins, but still exhibits extreme virulence. The bacterial multi-drug efflux systems consist of an inner membrane, a transmembrane membrane fusion protein and an outer membrane (OM) component that form a contiguous channel for secretion of multitude of bacterial products. Francisella contains three orthologs of the OM proteins; two of these termed as TolC and FtlC are important for tularemia pathogenesis...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
N J Mank, S Pote, K A Majorek, A K Arnette, V G Klapper, B K Hurlburt, M Chruszcz
Aspartate β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) is an enzyme involved in the diaminopimelate pathway of lysine biosynthesis. It is essential for the viability of many pathogenic bacteria and therefore has been the subject of considerable research for the generation of novel antibiotic compounds. This manuscript describes the first structure of ASADH from Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia and a potential bioterrorism agent. The structure was determined at 2.45 Å resolution and has a similar biological assembly to other bacterial homologs...
January 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Liliya M Pekova, Magdalena P Baymakova, Pavlina O Parousheva, Mariya D Fartunova, Nikolay E Dimitrov, Iskra A Tomova
We present here the first five human cases with tularemia from two regions in South Bulgaria in which there had been no previous report of the infection. The cases occurred over a period of 8 months (December 2014 - August 2015). They were treated at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Stara Zagora University Hospital, Bulgaria. We present the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data for four men and one woman (age range 52 to 73 years). Three men were hunters, four patients took part in handling, preparing/skinning and cooking the game animals...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
Phillip M Balzano, Aimee L Cunningham, Christen Grassel, Eileen M Barry
Francisella tularensis is a Gram negative facultative intracellular coccobacillus that can infect a wide variety of hosts. In humans, F. tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia following insect bites, ingestion, inhalation, and the handling of infected animals. That a very small inoculum delivered by the aerosol route can cause severe disease, coupled with the possibility of its use as an aerosolized bioweapon, have led to the classification of Francisella tularensis as a Category A select agent and has renewed interest in the formulation of a vaccine...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
David E Place, David R Williamson, Yevgeniy Yuzefpolskiy, Bhuvana Katkere, Surojit Sarkar, Vandana Kalia, Girish S Kirimanjeswara
Progress towards a safe and effective vaccine for the prevention of tularemia has been hindered by a lack of knowledge regarding the correlates of protective adaptive immunity and a lack of tools to generate this knowledge. CD8+ T cells are essential for protective immunity against virulent strains of Francisella tularensis, but to-date, it has not been possible to study these cells in an antigen-specific manner. Here, we report the development of a tool for expression of the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) in F...
2017: PloS One
África Cubero, Carlos Durántez, Ana Almaraz, Luis Fernández-Lago, María P Gutiérrez, María J Castro, Miguel A Bratos, María Simarro, Gabriel A March, Antonio Orduña
The aim of this work was to ascertain the usefulness of a new commercially-available single-assay chemiluminescence test (CHT) for the diagnosis of human tularemia (Tularaemia VIRCLIA IgG + IgM monotest, Vircell, Santa Fe, Granada, Spain). A total of 773 sera from 773 patients including 364 initial sera from patients with diagnosed tularemia, patients with suspected tularemia not confirmed (100), healthy people (152), patients with serology positive to Brucella (97), patients diagnosed with other infectious diseases (30), and patients diagnosed with autoimmune diseases (30) were included...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Vinaya Sampath, William D McCaig, David G Thanassi
Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes the zoonotic disease tularemia. F. novicida, a model tularemia strain, produces spherical outer membrane vesicles (OMV), as well as novel tubular vesicles and extensions of the cell surface. These OMV and tubes (OMV/T) are produced in a regulated manner and contain known virulence factors. Mechanisms by which bacterial vesicles are produced and regulated are not well understood. We performed a genetic screen in F. novicida to decipher the molecular basis for regulated OMV/T formation, and identified both hypo- and hyper-vesiculating mutants...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Herbert Tomaso, Peter Otto, Martin Peters, Jochen Süss, Axel Karger, Heinz Schamoni, Eric Zuchantke, Helmut Hotzel
Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. The disease can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals such as the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) and ticks as vectors. The aim of this study was to isolate F. tularensis from ticks and hares in North Rhine-Westphalia using cysteine heart agar to determine their genetic relatedness and to identify other bacteria that grow on this medium. 848 European brown hares and 1556 questing ticks (all Ixodes ricinus) from forests were tested using cultivation and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry or partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
November 21, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Navaneeth Narayanan, Clifton R Lacy, Joseph E Cruz, Meghan Nahass, Jonathan Karp, Joseph A Barone, Evelyn R Hermes-DeSantis
Biological disasters can be natural, accidental, or intentional. Biological threats have made a lasting impact on civilization. This review focuses on agents of clinical significance, bioterrorism, and national security, specifically Category A agents (anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and smallpox), as well as briefly discusses other naturally emerging infections of public health significance, Ebola virus (also a Category A agent) and Zika virus. The role of pharmacists in disaster preparedness and disaster response is multifaceted and important...
February 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Tara Roth, Rebecca Sammak, Janet Foley
Ectoparasites at primate research centers may be difficult to control, e.g. without exposing non-human primates (NHPs) to toxicants, but their impact on NHP health is poorly understood. In 2010, there was an epizootic of tularemia at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC) in Yolo County, California that resulted in 20 confirmed and suspect clinical cases in outdoors housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta [Zimmermann]) and a 53% seroprevalence in the southern section of the colony. We studied ectoparasite burdens at the CNPRC in order to understand possible conditions at the time of the epizootic and provide data for the management of ectoparasites for the future...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Deyu Tian, Akihiko Uda, Eun-Sil Park, Akitoyo Hotta, Osamu Fujita, Akio Yamada, Kazuhiro Hirayama, Kozue Hotta, Yuuki Koyama, Mika Azaki, Shigeru Morikawa
Francisella tularensis, which causes tularemia, is an intracellular gram-negative bacterium. F. tularensis has received significant attention in recent decades because of its history as a biological weapon. Thus, development of novel vaccines against tularemia has been an important goal. The attenuated F. tularensis strain ΔpdpC, in which the pathogenicity determinant protein C gene (pdpC) has been disrupted by TargeTron mutagenesis, was investigated as a potential vaccine candidate for tularemia in the present study...
January 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
G Hestvik, H Uhlhorn, T Jinnerot, S Åkerström, F Södersten, D Gavier-Widén
Tularemia caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic disease. Tularemia is a common disease in the hare, and as a game species can be an important source of infection for humans. In this study, hares diagnosed with tularemia were examined with the aim to investigate whether the muscle (meat) had any pathological changes and/or contained F. tularensis. Real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) detected the bacteria in muscle samples from 40 out of 43 investigated hares. IHC showed that bacteria were few and most commonly located in the peri- and endomysium...
November 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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