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Tularemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873421/russian-isolates-enlarge-the-known-geographic-diversity-of-francisella-tularensis-subsp-mediasiatica
#1
Vitalii Timofeev, Irina Bakhteeva, Galina Titareva, Pavel Kopylov, David Christiany, Alexander Mokrievich, Ivan Dyatlov, Gilles Vergnaud
Francisella tularensis, a small Gram-negative bacterium, is capable of infecting a wide range of animals, including humans, and causes a plague-like disease called tularemia-a highly contagious disease with a high mortality rate. Because of these characteristics, F. tularensis is considered a potential agent of biological terrorism. Currently, F. tularensis is divided into four subspecies, which differ in their virulence and geographic distribution. Two of them, subsp. tularensis (primarily found in North America) and subsp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864445/dissection-of-the-molecular-circuitry-controlling-virulence-in-francisella-tularensis
#2
Bonnie J Cuthbert, Wilma Ross, Amy E Rohlfing, Simon L Dove, Richard L Gourse, Richard G Brennan, Maria A Schumacher
Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, is one of the most infectious bacteria known. Because of its extreme pathogenicity, F. tularensis is classified as a category A bioweapon by the US government. F. tularensis virulence stems from genes encoded on the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI). An unusual set of Francisella regulators-the heteromeric macrophage growth locus protein A (MglA)-stringent starvation protein A (SspA) complex and the DNA-binding protein pathogenicity island gene regulator (PigR)-activates FPI transcription and thus is essential for virulence...
September 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863253/tick-talk-tick-borne-diseases-of-south-dakota
#3
Mark K Huntington, Jay Allison
In addition to being a nuisance, ticks can carry disease. This article presents a brief review of ticks and associated tick-borne disease relevant to South Dakota and surrounding regions. Tick-borne diseases of special relevance in South Dakota include tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Lyme disease. A number of others may also be encountered in the state as well. Prompt treatment of suspected cases is important to ensure a successful recovery, and tick-avoidance measures can reduce the risks of acquiring them...
September 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837551/notes-from-the-field-fatal-pneumonic-tularemia-associated-with-dog-exposure-arizona-june-2016
#4
Hayley Yaglom, Edwin Rodriguez, Marlene Gaither, Mare Schumacher, Natalie Kwit, Christina Nelson, Joel Terriquez, Jacob Vinocur, Dawn Birdsell, David M Wagner, Jeannine Petersen, Kiersten Kugeler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 25, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813761/epidemiologic-study-of-bacteria-zoonotic-diseases-in-south-dakota-2010-2014
#5
Jessica L Ludvik, Susan M Anderson, Mark K Huntington
BACKGROUND: Although the burden of infectious diseases has decreased dramatically due to advances in health care, disease prevention and numerous public health efforts and innovations, zoonotic diseases continue to pose a problem in terms of both existing and emerging diseases. These risks are of particular concern in rural areas, in which there is more contact with animals for occupational and recreational purposes. As a rural and agricultural state, South Dakota has a large percentage of its population at risk of exposure to zoonotic diseases through their substantial contact time with animals...
June 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813752/atypical-presentations-of-tularemia
#6
Karah Odegaard, Beth Boersma, James Keegan
Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative coccobacillus that causes a condition commonly referred to as tularemia. There has been a dramatic increase in tularemia cases reported in South Dakota, many of which were challenging to diagnose due to atypical clinical manifestations. We describe an interesting case of pneumonic tularemia and summarize six similar cases, several of which presented with lung nodules suggestive of malignancy. According to the literature, this is only the third outbreak of pneumonic tularemia reported in the U...
May 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754318/anion-inhibitors-of-the-%C3%AE-carbonic-anhydrase-from-the-pathogenic-bacterium-responsible-of-tularemia-francisella-tularensis
#7
Sonia Del Prete, Daniela Vullo, Sameh M Osman, Zeid AlOthman, William A Donald, Jean-Yves Winum, Claudiu T Supuran, Clemente Capasso
A β-class carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the pathogenic bacterium Francisella tularensis (FtuβCA) was cloned and purified, and the anion inhibition profile was investigated. Based on the measured kinetic parameters for the enzyme catalyzed CO2 hydration reaction (kcat of 9.8×10(5)s(-1) and a kcat/KM of 8.9×10(7)M(-1)s(-1)), FtuβCA is a highly effective enzyme. The activity of FtuβCA was not inhibited by a range of anions that do not typically coordinate Zn(II) effectively, including perchlorate, tetrafluoroborate, and hexafluorophosphate...
July 17, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750854/tularemia-vaccine-safety-reactogenicity-take-skin-reactions-and-antibody-responses-following-vaccination-with-a-new-lot-of-the-francisella-tularensis-live-vaccine-strain-a-phase-2-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Mark J Mulligan, Jack T Stapleton, Wendy A Keitel, Sharon E Frey, Wilbur H Chen, Nadine Rouphael, Srilatha Edupuganti, Allison Beck, Patricia L Winokur, Hana M El Sahly, Shital M Patel, Robert L Atmar, Irene Graham, Edwin Anderson, Samer S El-Kamary, Marcela F Pasetti, Marcelo B Sztein, Heather Hill, Johannes B Goll
BACKGROUND: Tularemia is caused by Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative bacterium that has been weaponized as an aerosol. For protection of personnel conducting biodefense research, the United States Army required clinical evaluation of a new lot of tularemia live vaccine strain manufactured in accordance with Current Good Manufacturing Practices. METHODS: A phase 2 randomized clinical trial compared the new lot (DVC-LVS) to the existing vaccine that has been in use for decades (USAMRIID-LVS)...
July 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745311/outer-membrane-vesicle-associated-lipase-ftla-enhances-cellular-invasion-and-virulence-in-francisella-tularensis-lvs
#9
Fei Chen, Guolin Cui, Shuxia Wang, Manoj Kumar Mohan Nair, Lihong He, Xinyi Qi, Xiangmin Han, Hanqi Zhang, Jing-Ren Zhang, Jingliang Su
Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious intracellular pathogen that infects a wide range of host species and causes fatal pneumonic tularemia in humans. ftlA was identified as a potential virulence determinant of the F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) in our previous transposon screen, but its function remained undefined. Here, we show that an unmarked deletion mutant of ftlA was avirulent in a pneumonia mouse model with a severely impaired capacity to infect host cells. Consistent with its sequence homology with GDSL lipase/esterase family proteins, the FtlA protein displayed lipolytic activity in both E...
July 26, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739830/complement-c3-as-a-prompt-for-human-macrophage-death-during-infection-with-francisella-tularensis-strain-schu-s4
#10
Susan R Brock, Michael J Parmely
Tularemia is caused by the gram-negative bacterial pathogen Francisella tularensis Infection of macrophages and their subsequent death are believed to play important roles in the progression of disease. Because complement is a particularly effective opsonin for Francisella, we asked whether complement-dependent uptake of F. tularensis strain SCHU S4 affects the survival of primary human macrophages during infection. Complement component C3 was found to be an essential opsonin in human serum not only for greatly increased uptake of SCHU S4, but for the induction of macrophage death...
July 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739786/benzoxazoles-phthalazinones-and-arylurea-based-compounds-with-impdh-independent-antibacterial-activity-against-francisella-tularensis
#11
Suresh Kumar Gorla, Yan Zhang, Meaghan M Rabideau, Aiping Qin, Shibin Chacko, Amanda L House, Corey R Johnson, Kavitha Mandapati, Hannah M Bernstein, Elizabeth S McKenney, Helena Boshoff, Minjia Zhang, Ian J Glomski, Joanna B Goldberg, Gregory D Cuny, Barbara J Mann, Lizbeth Hedstrom
Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia and a potential biowarfare agent. The virulence of F. tularensis is decreased by deletion of guaB, the gene encoding inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), suggesting that this enzyme is a target for antibacterial design. Here we report that F. tularensis growth is blocked by inhibitors of bacterial IMPDHs. Seventeen compounds from two different frameworks, designated D and Q, display antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations less than 1 μM...
July 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726608/density-dependent-prevalence-of-francisella-tularensis-in-fluctuating-vole-populations-northwestern-spain
#12
Ruth Rodríguez-Pastor, Raquel Escudero, Dolors Vidal, François Mougeot, Beatriz Arroyo, Xavier Lambin, Ave Maria Vila-Coro, Isabel Rodríguez-Moreno, Pedro Anda, Juan J Luque-Larena
Tularemia in humans in northwestern Spain is associated with increases in vole populations. Prevalence of infection with Francisella tularensis in common voles increased to 33% during a vole population fluctuation. This finding confirms that voles are spillover agents for zoonotic outbreaks. Ecologic interactions associated with tularemia prevention should be considered.
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725638/isolation-of-f-novicida-containing-phagosome-from-infected-human-monocyte-derived-macrophages
#13
Valentina Marecic, Olga Shevchuk, Mateja Ozanic, Mirna Mihelcic, Michael Steinert, Antonija Jurak Begonja, Yousef Abu Kwaik, Marina Santic
Francisella is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen, which causes tularemia in humans and animals. A crucial step of Francisella infection is its invasion of macrophage cells. Biogenesis of the Francisella-containing phagosome (FCP) is arrested for ~15 min at the endosomal stage, followed by gradual bacterial escape into the cytosol, where the microbe proliferates. The crucial step in pathogenesis of tularemia is short and transient presence of the bacterium within phagosome. Isolation of FCPs for further studies has been challenging due to the short period of time of bacterial residence in it and the characteristics of the FCP...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722639/human-cases-of-tularemia-in-armenia-1996-2012
#14
Syuzanna Melikjanyan, Karo Palayan, Artavazd Vanyan, Lilit Avetisyan, Nune Bakunts, Marine Kotanyan, Marta Guerra
A retrospective analysis was conducted of human cases and outbreaks of tularemia in the Republic of Armenia from 1996 to 2012 utilizing Geographic Information System software. A total of 266 human cases of tularemia were recorded in Armenia from 1996 to 2012, with yearly incidence ranging from 0 to 5.5 cases per 100,000 people. Cases predominantly affected the male population (62.8%), 11-20 year age group (37.2%), agricultural workers (49.6%), and persons residing in rural areas (93.6%). In 2003, a waterborne outbreak involving 158 cases occurred in Kotayk Marz, and in 2007, a foodborne outbreak with 17 cases occurred in Gegharkunik Marz, attributed to exposure of food products to contaminated hay...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690600/differential-growth-of-francisella-tularensis-which-alters-expression-of-virulence-factors-dominant-antigens-and-surface-carbohydrate-synthases-governs-the-apparent-virulence-of-ft-schus4-to-immunized-animals
#15
Kristen M Holland, Sarah J Rosa, Kolbrun Kristjansdottir, Donald Wolfgeher, Brian J Franz, Tiffany M Zarrella, Sudeep Kumar, Raju Sunagar, Anju Singh, Chandra S Bakshi, Prachi Namjoshi, Eileen M Barry, Timothy J Sellati, Stephen J Kron, Edmund J Gosselin, Douglas S Reed, Karsten R O Hazlett
The gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis (Ft) is both a potential biological weapon and a naturally occurring microbe that survives in arthropods, fresh water amoeba, and mammals with distinct phenotypes in various environments. Previously, we used a number of measurements to characterize Ft grown in Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) broth as (1) more similar to infection-derived bacteria, and (2) slightly more virulent in naïve animals, compared to Ft grown in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB). In these studies we observed that the free amino acids in MHB repress expression of select Ft virulence factors by an unknown mechanism...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684041/five-cases-of-vector-borne-francisella-tularensis-holarctica-infections-in-south-western-germany-and-genetic-diversity
#16
Johannes P Borde, Sabine Zange, Markus H Antwerpen, Enrico Georgi, Heiner von Buttlar, Winfried V Kern, Siegbert Rieg
Tularemia is a rare zoonotic disease in Germany. Francisella tularensis has been isolated previously from ticks in southern Germany underscoring the importance of ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in tularemia transmission, but there have been only few reports from this region with single cases or small case series of tick-borne transmissions of tularemia. We report five cases of non-game animal associated tularemia diagnosed from 2010 to 2016 in southwestern Germany - Baden-Wuerttemberg. Our case series and molecular typing (MLVA) results add published clinical experience to this underdiagnosed disease and consolidate previous findings regarding tick-borne transmission of tularemia and phylogenetic diversity in Germany...
August 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680859/differential-substrate-usage-and-metabolic-fluxes-in-francisella-tularensis-subspecies-holarctica-and-francisella-novicida
#17
Fan Chen, Kerstin Rydzewski, Erika Kutzner, Ina Häuslein, Eva Schunder, Xinzhe Wang, Kevin Meighen-Berger, Roland Grunow, Wolfgang Eisenreich, Klaus Heuner
Francisella tularensis is an intracellular pathogen for many animals causing the infectious disease, tularemia. Whereas F. tularensis subsp. holarctica is highly pathogenic for humans, F. novicida is almost avirulent for humans, but virulent for mice. In order to compare metabolic fluxes between these strains, we performed (13)C-labeling experiments with F. tularensis subsp. holarctica wild type (beaver isolate), F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strain LVS, or F. novicida strain U112 in complex media containing either [U-(13)C6]glucose, [1,2-(13)C2]glucose, [U-(13)C3]serine, or [U-(13)C3]glycerol...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652232/characterization-of-a-francisella-tularensis-caenorhabditis-elegans-pathosystem-for-the-evaluation-of-therapeutic-compounds
#18
Elamparithi Jayamani, Nagendran Tharmalingam, Rajmohan Rajamuthiah, Jeffrey J Coleman, Wooseong Kim, Ikechukwu Okoli, Ana M Hernandez, Kiho Lee, Gerard J Nau, Frederick M Ausubel, Eleftherios Mylonakis
Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative intracellular pathogen that causes tularemia. Because of its potential as a bioterrorism agent, there is a need for new therapeutic agents. We therefore developed a whole-animal Caenorhabditis elegans-F. tularensis pathosystem for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize potential therapeutic compounds. We found that the C. elegans p38 mitogen-activate protein (MAP) kinase cascade is involved in the immune response to F. tularensis, and we developed a robust F...
September 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649303/introduction-and-persistence-of-tularemia-in-bulgaria
#19
Mohammad Khan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630061/increased-resistance-to-intradermal-francisella-tularensis-lvs-infection-by-inactivation-of-the-sts-phosphatases
#20
Kaustubh Parashar, Erik Kopping, David Frank, Vinaya Sampath, David G Thanassi, Nick Carpino
The Suppressor of TCR signaling proteins (Sts-1 and Sts-2) are two homologous phosphatases that negatively regulate signaling pathways in a number of hematopoietic lineages, including T lymphocytes. Mice lacking Sts expression are characterized by enhanced T cell responses. Additionally, a recent study demonstrated that Sts(-/-) mice are profoundly resistant to systemic infection by Candida albicans, with resistance characterized by enhanced survival, more rapid fungal clearance in key peripheral organs, and an altered inflammatory response...
September 2017: Infection and Immunity
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