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Tularemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630061/increased-resistance-to-intradermal-francisella-tularensis-lvs-infection-by-inactivation-of-the-sts-phosphatases
#1
Kaustubh Parashar, Erik Kopping, David Frank, Vinaya Sampath, David G Thanassi, Nick Carpino
The Suppressor of TCR signaling proteins (Sts-1 and Sts-2) are two homologous phosphatases that negatively regulate signaling pathways in a number of hematopoietic lineages, including T lymphocytes. Mice lacking Sts expression are characterized by enhanced T cell responses. Additionally, a recent study demonstrated that Sts-/- mice are profoundly resistant to systemic infection of Candida albicans, with resistance characterized by enhanced survival, more rapid fungal clearance in key peripheral organs, and an altered inflammatory response...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626537/epidemiological-distribution-of-rodents-as-potent-reservoirs-for-infectious-diseases-in-the-provinces-of-mazandaran-gilan-and-golestan-northern-iran
#2
Behzad Esfandiari, Hossein Nahrevanian, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Pejvak Khaki, Ehsan Mostafavi, Jamshid Darvish, Hamed Hanifi
Rodents are mammals that comprise more than 2000 species and approximately 30 families. There are many morphological and ecological differences among them as variations in their shape, size, weight and habitat. In addition to significant economic losses, rodents have a major role in the dissemination of infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites or other micro-organisms. Rodents are important reservoirs of diseases which have been observed in many cities of Iran provinces especially along Caspian Sea border to Alborz Mountain...
May 31, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611741/glycosylation-of-a-capsule-like-complex-clc-by-francisella-novicida-is-required-for-virulence-and-partial-protective-immunity-in-mice
#3
Kelly C Freudenberger Catanzaro, Anna E Champion, Nrusingh Mohapatra, Thomas Cecere, Thomas J Inzana
Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative bacterium and the etiologic agent of tularemia. F. tularensis may appear encapsulated when examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which is due to production of an extracellular capsule-like complex (CLC) when the bacterium is grown under specific environmental conditions. Deletion of two glycosylation genes in the live vaccine strain (LVS) results in loss of apparent CLC and attenuation of LVS in mice. In contrast, F. novicida, which is also highly virulent for mice, is reported to be non-encapsulated...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580063/imaging-findings-of-ulceroglandular-tularemia
#4
Neil Anand, Osmani Deochand, Robyn Murphy
Francisella tularensis, the causative organism in Tularemia, is a relatively rare disease. There are a few radiological clues to elucidate its presence when suspicion arises. There should be strong consideration for Tularemia in the differential of any patient with its classic symptoms, diffuse cervical lymphadenopathy with evidence of necrosis, and enlarged adenoids. Ultrasound may demonstrate suppurative lymphadenopathy suggestive of infection, as in the case presented. CT often will demonstrate the extent of lymphadenopathy...
January 2017: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559261/the-fluorocycline-tp-271-is-efficacious-in-models-of-aerosolized-francisella-tularensis-schu-s4-infection-in-balb-c-mice-and-cynomolgus-macaques
#5
Trudy H Grossman, Michael S Anderson, David Christ, Melanie Gooldy, Lisa N Henning, Henry S Heine, M Victoria Kindt, Winston Lin, Kaylyn Siefkas-Patterson, Anne K Radcliff, Vincent H Tam, Joyce A Sutcliffe
TP-271 is a novel, fully synthetic fluorocycline in development for complicated bacterial respiratory infections. TP-271 was active in vitro against a panel of 29 Francisella tularensis isolates, showing minimal inhibitory concentrations against 50% and 90% of isolates of 0.25 and 0.5μg/mL, respectively. In a mouse model of inhalational tularemia, animals were exposed by aerosol to 91 to 283 LD50/mouse of F. tularensis SCHU S4. Following 21 days of once-daily intraperitoneal dosing of 3, 6, 12 and 18 mg/kg/day TP-271, initiating at 24 hours post-challenge, survival was 80%, 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively...
May 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511911/sulfonamide-inhibition-profiles-of-the-%C3%AE-carbonic-anhydrase-from-the-pathogenic-bacterium-francisella-tularensis-responsible-of-the-febrile-illness-tularemia
#6
Sonia Del Prete, Daniela Vullo, Sameh M Osman, Zeid AlOthman, Claudiu T Supuran, Clemente Capasso
A new β-class carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) has been cloned, purified and characterized in the genome of the pathogenic bacterium Francisella tularensis responsible of the febrile illness tularemia. This enzyme, FtuβCA, showed a kcat of 9.8 ×10(5)s(-1) and a kcat/KM of 8.9 ×10(7)M(-1)s(-1) for the CO2 hydration, physiological reaction, being one of the most effective β-CAs known to date, with a catalytic activity only 1.68-times lower than that of the human(h) isoform hCA II. A panel of 39 simple aromatic and heterocyclic sulfonamides, as well as clinically used drugs incorporating sulfonamide/sulfamate zinc-binding groups, was used to investigate the inhibition profile of FtuβCA with these classes of derivatives...
July 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503372/endosymbiont-interference-and-microbial-diversity-of-the-pacific-coast-tick-dermacentor-occidentalis-in-san-diego-county-california
#7
Nikos Gurfield, Saran Grewal, Lynnie S Cua, Pedro J Torres, Scott T Kelley
The Pacific coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, is found throughout California and can harbor agents that cause human diseases such as anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and rickettsiosis 364D. Previous studies have demonstrated that nonpathogenic endosymbiotic bacteria can interfere with Rickettsia co-infections in other tick species. We hypothesized that within D. occidentalis ticks, interference may exist between different nonpathogenic endosymbiotic or nonendosymbiotic bacteria and Spotted Fever group Rickettsia (SFGR)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486521/the-potential-for-flower-nectar-to-allow-mosquito-to-mosquito-transmission-of-francisella-tularensis
#8
Adam Kenney, Austin Cusick, Jessica Payne, Anna Gaughenbaugh, Andrea Renshaw, Jenna Wright, Roger Seeber, Rebecca Barnes, Aleksandr Florjanczyk, Joseph Horzempa
Francisella tularensis is disseminated in nature by biting arthropods such as mosquitoes. The relationship between mosquitoes and F. tularensis in nature is highly ambiguous, due in part to the fact that mosquitoes have caused significant tularemia outbreaks despite being classified as a mechanical vector of F. tularensis. One possible explanation for mosquitoes being a prominent, yet mechanical vector is that these insects feed on flower nectar between blood meals, allowing for transmission of F. tularensis between mosquitoes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480295/variation-in-tularemia-clinical-manifestations-arkansas-2009-2013
#9
Laura K Lester Rothfeldt, Richard F Jacobs, J Gary Wheeler, Susan Weinstein, Dirk T Haselow
BACKGROUND: Francisella tularensis, although naturally occurring in Arkansas, is also a Tier 1 select agent and potential bioterrorism threat. As such, tularemia is nationally notifiable and mandatorily reported to the Arkansas Department of Health. We examined demographic and clinical characteristics among reported cases and outcomes to improve understanding of the epidemiology of tularemia in Arkansas. METHODS: Surveillance records on all tularemia cases investigated during 2009-2013 were reviewed...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452732/-epizootological-and-epidemiological-characteristics-of-tularemia-in-georgia
#10
E Elashvili, I Velijanashvili
The appropriate data as well as archival materials about the spread of Tularemia disease have been studied over of period from 1991-2014 in Georgia in order to evaluate the current situation in Kartli lowland foci as well as the main reasons of disease agent circulation and maintenance in the study area. 54 (24.6%) out of 220 suspicious cases were laboratory confirmed during the study period. Most of confirmed cases - 32 (59.26%) have been detected in Shida Kartli focus among the old population during the outbreaks in the winter period...
February 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450199/severe-glandular-tularemia-in-a-patient-treated-with-anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-for-psoriatic-arthritis
#11
Ruxandra Calin, Eric Caumes, Florence Reibel, Anzime Ali Mohamed, Florence Brossier, Violaine Foltz, Samia Boussouar, Bruno Fautrel, Max Maurin, Christine Katlama, Valérie Pourcher
A case of severe glandular tularemia in a patient receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is reported here. The patient required prolonged treatment with doxycycline-ciprofloxacin due to early relapse after ciprofloxacin was stopped. Tularemia may have a more severe course in patients receiving anti-TNF. This may thus be an indication for more aggressive treatment.
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421167/iron-and-virulence-in-francisella-tularensis
#12
REVIEW
Girija Ramakrishnan
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects a variety of cell types including macrophages, and propagates with great efficiency in the cytoplasm. Iron, essential for key enzymatic and redox reactions, is among the nutrients required to support this pathogenic lifestyle and the bacterium relies on specialized mechanisms to acquire iron within the host environment. Two distinct pathways for iron acquisition are encoded by the F. tularensis genome- a siderophore-dependent ferric iron uptake system and a ferrous iron transport system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418764/disease-surveillance-of-california-ground-squirrels-spermophilus-beecheyi-in-a-drive-through-zoo-in-oregon-usa
#13
Julia Ter Beest, Andrew Cushing, Modesto McClean, Wendy Hsu, Robert Bildfell
Rodents and other small wild mammals are often considered to be pests and vectors for disease in zoos that house small populations of valuable threatened and endangered animals. In 2005, three nonhuman primates at a drive-through zoo in Oregon, USA, acquired tularemia from an unknown source. Due to an abundance of California ground squirrels ( Spermophilus beecheyi ) on zoo grounds, we instituted serosurveillance of this species from July through September 2008 to determine the prevalence of antibodies against pathogens considered to be potentially transmissible to collection animals...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405072/tularemia-presenting-as-pulmonary-nodules-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#14
Tony Alias, Mohammad Kazem Fallahzadeh, Mezgebe Berhe
Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis that can be transmitted to humans when they handle rabbits, receive tick bites, consume contaminated water, or inhale aerosolized particles. We present the case of a 51-year-old white man with rheumatoid arthritis who was taking immunosuppressive medications and presented with tularemia. Our patient acquired the typhoidal form of tularemia, which is a severe systemic illness that manifests with fevers, headaches, myalgias, vomiting, diarrhea, and neurological symptoms, due to his immunocompromised state...
April 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402703/molecular-detection-of-francisella-spp-among-ticks-attached-to-camels-in-egypt
#15
Nahed H Ghoneim, Khaled A Abdel-Moein, Hala M Zaher
This study was conducted to investigate the possible role of camels and attached ticks in the epidemiology of Francisella spp. including Francisella tularensis. For this purpose, a total of 319 ticks (248 Hyalomma dromedarii and 71 Amblyomma spp.) as well as 100 blood and 50 fecal samples collected from camels were screened for the presence of Francisella spp. by PCR through amplification of Francisella 16S rRNA gene. Positive samples were then tested for F. tularensis by PCR. In addition, serum samples from 75 camel abattoir workers were examined for the presence of IgG antibodies against F...
June 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401066/importance-of-metabolic-adaptations-in-francisella-pathogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Jason Ziveri, Monique Barel, Alain Charbit
Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. This bacterial pathogen can infect a broad variety of animal species and can be transmitted to humans in numerous ways with various clinical outcomes. Although, Francisella possesses the capacity to infect numerous mammalian cell types, the macrophage constitutes the main intracellular niche, used for in vivo bacterial dissemination. To survive and multiply within infected macrophages, Francisella must imperatively escape from the phagosomal compartment...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398677/preparing-for-biological-threats-addressing-the-needs-of-pregnant-women
#17
REVIEW
Amelia K Watson, Sascha Ellington, Christina Nelson, Tracee Treadwell, Denise J Jamieson, Dana M Meaney-Delman
Intentional release of infectious agents and biological weapons to cause illness and death has the potential to greatly impact pregnant women and their fetuses. We review what is known about the maternal and fetal effects of seven biological threats: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola virus (smallpox); Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism); Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); and Rickettsia prowazekii (typhus)...
March 15, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396776/tularemia-presenting-as-suspected-necrotic-arachnidism
#18
Heather F Sateia, Michael T Melia, Joseph Cofrancesco
The true danger of the spider bite stems from misdiagnosis and resultant delay in proper treatment of entities that, unlike spider bites, are not self-limited. Obtaining a complete exposure and travel history is central to the development of an accurate and appropriate differential diagnosis.
April 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394614/synthetic-macromolecular-antibiotic-platform-for-inhalable-therapy-against-aerosolized-intracellular-alveolar-infections
#19
Debobrato Das, Jasmin Chen, Selvi Srinivasan, Abby M Kelly, Brian Lee, Hye-Nam Son, Frank Radella, T Eoin West, Daniel M Ratner, Anthony J Convertine, Shawn J Skerrett, Patrick S Stayton
Lung-based intracellular bacterial infections remain one of the most challenging infectious disease settings. For example, the current standard for treating Franciscella tularensis pneumonia (tularemia) relies on administration of oral or intravenous antibiotics that poorly achieve and sustain pulmonary drug bioavailability. Inhalable antibiotic formulations are approved and in clinical development for upper respiratory infections, but sustained drug dosing from inhaled antibiotics against alveolar intracellular infections remains a current unmet need...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372827/expansion-and-retention-of-pulmonary-cd4-t-cells-after-prime-boost-vaccination-correlates-with-improved-longevity-and-strength-of-immunity-against-tularemia
#20
Lydia M Roberts, Tara D Wehrly, Deborah D Crane, Catharine M Bosio
Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis strain SchuS4 (Ftt) is a highly virulent intracellular bacterium. Inhalation of 10 or fewer organisms results in an acute and potentially lethal disease called pneumonic tularemia. Ftt infections occur naturally in the U.S. and Ftt was developed as a bioweapon. Thus, there is a need for vaccines that protect against this deadly pathogen. Although a live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis (LVS) exists, LVS fails to generate long-lived protective immunity against modest challenge doses of Ftt...
March 31, 2017: Vaccine
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