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Tularemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881415/whole-genome-relationships-among-francisella-bacteria-of-diverse-origin-define-new-species-and-provide-specific-regions-for-detection
#1
Jean F Challacombe, Jeannine M Petersen, La Verne Gallegos-Graves, David Hodge, Segaran Pillai, Cheryl R Kuske
Francisella tularensis (Ft) is a highly virulent zoonotic pathogen that causes tularemia, and because of weaponization efforts in past world wars, is considered a Tier 1 biothreat agent. Detection and surveillance of Ft may be confounded by the presence of uncharacterized, closely related organisms. Through DNA-based diagnostics and environmental surveys, novel clinical and environmental Francisella isolates have been obtained in recent years. Here we present 17 new Francisella genomes and a comparison of their characteristics to each other and to 14 publicly available genomes as well as a comparative analysis of 16S rRNA and sdhA genes from over 90 Francisella strains...
November 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847371/sensitive-detection-of-francisella-tularensis-directly-from-whole-blood-using-the-genexpert-system
#2
Padmapriya P Banada, Srinidhi Deshpande, Soumitesh Chakravorty, Riccardo Russo, James Occi, Gabriel Meister, Kelly J Jones, Carl H Gelhaus, Michelle W Valderas, Martin Jones, Nancy Connell, David Alland
BACKGROUND: Francisella tularensis is a potential bioterrorism agent that is highly infectious at very low doses. Diagnosis of tularemia by blood culture and nucleic acid based diagnostic tests are insufficiently sensitive. Here, we demonstrate a highly sensitive, F. tularensis assay that incorporates sample processing and detection into a single cartridge suitable for point of care detection. METHODS: Assay limit of detection (LOD) and dynamic range were determined in a filter based cartridge run on the GeneXpert system...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832588/secreted-effectors-encoded-within-and-outside-of-the-francisella-pathogenicity-island-promote-intramacrophage-growth
#3
Aria Eshraghi, Jungyun Kim, Alexandra C Walls, Hannah E Ledvina, Cheryl N Miller, Kathryn M Ramsey, John C Whitney, Matthew C Radey, S Brook Peterson, Brittany R Ruhland, Bao Q Tran, Young Ah Goo, David R Goodlett, Simon L Dove, Jean Celli, David Veesler, Joseph D Mougous
The intracellular bacterial pathogen Francisella tularensis causes tularemia, a zoonosis that can be fatal. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded by the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) is critical for the virulence of this organism. Existing studies suggest that the complete repertoire of T6SS effectors delivered to host cells is encoded by the FPI. Using a proteome-wide approach, we discovered that the FPI-encoded T6SS exports at least three effectors encoded outside of the island. These proteins share features with virulence determinants of other pathogens, and we provide evidence that they can contribute to intramacrophage growth...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830989/a-mutagenesis-based-approach-identifies-amino-acids-in-the-n-terminal-part-of-francisella-tularensis-igle-that-critically-control-type-vi-system-mediated-secretion
#4
Jeanette E Bröms, Lena Meyer, Anders Sjöstedt
The Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis is the etiological agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. Its life cycle is characterized by an ability to survive within phagocytic cells through phagosomal escape and replication in the cytosol, ultimately causing inflammasome activation and host cell death. Required for these processes is the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI), which encodes a Type VI secretion system (T6SS) that is active during intracellular infection. In this study, we analyzed the role of the FPI-component IglE, a lipoprotein which we previously have shown to be secreted in a T6SS-dependent manner...
November 10, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828762/seroprevalence-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-and-francisella-tularensis-infections-in-belgium-results-of-three-population-based-samples
#5
Mathilde De Keukeleire, Sophie O Vanwambeke, Christel Cochez, Paul Heyman, David Fretin, Véronique Deneys, Victor Luyasu, Benoît Kabamba, Annie Robert
To estimate the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap), and Francisella tularensis (Ft) in Belgium, we tested sera from three population-based samples in which exposure to pathogen is assumed to vary: 148 samples from workers professionally exposed, 209 samples from rural blood donors, and 193 samples from urban blood donors. Sera were tested using ELISA or the immunofluorescence assay test. The seroprevalence of Bb was 5.4% in workers professionally exposed, 2.9% in rural blood donors, and 2...
November 9, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806741/high-risk-regions-and-outbreak-modelling-of-tularemia-in-humans
#6
A Desvars-Larrive, X Liu, M Hjertqvist, A Sjöstedt, A Johansson, P Rydén
Sweden reports large and variable numbers of human tularemia cases, but the high-risk regions are anecdotally defined and factors explaining annual variations are poorly understood. Here, high-risk regions were identified by spatial cluster analysis on disease surveillance data for 1984-2012. Negative binomial regression with five previously validated predictors (including predicted mosquito abundance and predictors based on local weather data) was used to model the annual number of tularemia cases within the high-risk regions...
November 3, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790972/introduction-and-persistence-of-tularemia-in-bulgaria
#7
Kerstin Myrtennäs, Krustyu Marinov, Anders Johansson, Marcin Niemcewicz, Edvin Karlsson, Mona Byström, Mats Forsman
INTRODUCTION: Outbreaks of the zoonotic disease tularemia occurred in north-east Bulgaria in the 1960s. Then came 30 years of epidemiological silence until new outbreaks occurred in west Bulgaria in the 1990s. To investigate how bacterial strains of Francisella tularensis causing tularemia in wildlife and humans in the 1960s and the 1990s were related, we explored their genetic diversity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten F. tularensis genomes from the 1960s (n=3) and the 1990s (n=7) were sequenced, assigned to canonical single-nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP) clades, and compared to reference genomes...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714591/mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-mapks-are-modulated-during-francisella-tularensis-infection-but-inhibition-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinases-erks-is-of-limited-therapeutic-benefit
#8
R J Saint, R V D'Elia, C Bryant, G C Clark, H S Atkins
Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium that causes the disease tularemia. The disease can be fatal if left untreated and there is currently no licenced vaccine available; the identification of new therapeutic targets is therefore required. Toll-like receptors represent an interesting target for therapeutic modulation due to their essential role in generating immune responses. In this study, we analysed the in vitro expression of the key mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38, JNK and ERK in murine alveolar macrophages during infection with F...
December 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696381/climate-change-and-the-epidemiology-of-selected-tick-borne-and-mosquito-borne-diseases-update-from-the-international-society-of-dermatology-climate-change-task-force
#9
Louise K Andersen, Mark D P Davis
Climate change refers to variation in the climate of a specific region or globally over time. A change has been reported in the epidemiology of tick- and mosquito-borne diseases in recent decades. Investigators have postulated that this effect may be associated with climate change. We reviewed the English-language literature describing changes in the epidemiology of specific tick- and mosquito-borne diseases, including the tick-borne diseases of Lyme disease, tularemia, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Mediterranean spotted fever, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever and the mosquito-borne diseases of dengue, malaria, West Nile virus infection, Ross River virus disease, and Barmah Forest virus disease...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695643/francisella-tularensis-immune-cell-activator-suppressor-or-stealthy-evader-the-evolving-view-from-the-petri-dish
#10
Kristen M Holland, Sarah J Rosa, Karsten R O Hazlett
One of the hallmarks of pulmonary tularemia, which results from inhalation of Francisella tularensis - a significant bioterrorism concern, is the lack of an acute TH1-biased inflammatory response in the early phase of disease (days 1-3) despite significant bacterial loads. In an effort to understand this apparent hypo-responsiveness, many laboratories have utilized in vitro cell-based models as tools to probe the nature and consequences of host cell interactions with F. tularensis. The first uses of this model suggested that mammalian host cells recognize this bacterium principally through TLR2 to evoke a robust, classical TH1-biased cytokine response including TNF, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-γ...
June 2016: Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671061/a-bioluminescent-francisella-tularensis-schu-s4-strain-enables-noninvasive-tracking-of-bacterial-dissemination-and-the-evaluation-of-antibiotics-in-an-inhalational-mouse-model-of-tularemia
#11
Charlotte A Hall, Helen C Flick-Smith, Sarah V Harding, Helen S Atkins, Richard W Titball
Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) enables real-time, noninvasive tracking of infection in vivo and longitudinal infection studies. In this study, a bioluminescent Francisella tularensis strain, SCHU S4-lux, was used to develop an inhalational infection model in BALB/c mice. Mice were infected intranasally, and the progression of infection was monitored in real time using BLI. A bioluminescent signal was detectable from 3 days postinfection (3 dpi), initially in the spleen and then in the liver and lymph nodes, before finally becoming systemic...
December 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668749/identification-of-genome-wide-mutations-in-ciprofloxacin-resistant-f-tularensis-lvs-using-whole-genome-tiling-arrays-and-next-generation-sequencing
#12
Crystal J Jaing, Kevin S McLoughlin, James B Thissen, Adam Zemla, Shea N Gardner, Lisa M Vergez, Feliza Bourguet, Shalini Mabery, Viacheslav Y Fofanov, Heather Koshinsky, Paul J Jackson
Francisella tularensis is classified as a Class A bioterrorism agent by the U.S. government due to its high virulence and the ease with which it can be spread as an aerosol. It is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) is a broad spectrum antibiotic effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Increased Cipro resistance in pathogenic microbes is of serious concern when considering options for medical treatment of bacterial infections. Identification of genes and loci that are associated with Ciprofloxacin resistance will help advance the understanding of resistance mechanisms and may, in the future, provide better treatment options for patients...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630217/lipoxin-a4-a-5-lipoxygenase-pathway-metabolite-modulates-immune-response-during-acute-respiratory-tularemia
#13
Anju Singh, Tabassum Rahman, Rose Bartiss, Alireza Arabshahi, Jeevan Prasain, Stephen Barnes, Florin Marcel Musteata, Timothy J Sellati
Respiratory infection with Francisella tularensis (Ft) is characterized by a muted, acute host response, followed by sepsis-like syndrome that results in death. Infection with Ft establishes a principally anti-inflammatory environment that subverts host-cell death programs to facilitate pathogen replication. Although the role of cytokines has been explored extensively, the role of eicosanoids in tularemia pathogenesis is not fully understood. Given that lipoxin A4 (LXA4) has anti-inflammatory properties, we investigated whether this lipid mediator affects host responses manifested early during infection...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602570/francisella-tularensis-iglg-belongs-to-a-novel-family-of-paar-like-t6ss-proteins-and-harbors-a-unique-n-terminal-extension-required-for-virulence
#14
Mélanie Rigard, Jeanette E Bröms, Amandine Mosnier, Maggy Hologne, Amandine Martin, Lena Lindgren, Claire Punginelli, Claire Lays, Olivier Walker, Alain Charbit, Philippe Telouk, Wayne Conlan, Laurent Terradot, Anders Sjöstedt, Thomas Henry
The virulence of Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, relies on an atypical type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded by a genomic island termed the Francisella Pathogenicity Island (FPI). While the importance of the FPI in F. tularensis virulence is clearly established, the precise role of most of the FPI-encoded proteins remains to be deciphered. In this study, using highly virulent F. tularensis strains and the closely related species F. novicida, IglG was characterized as a protein featuring a unique α-helical N-terminal extension and a domain of unknown function (DUF4280), present in more than 250 bacterial species...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585457/rabbit-hunter-uveitis-case-report-of-tularemia-uveitis
#15
Céline Terrada, Said Azza, Bahram Bodaghi, Phuc Le Hoang, Michel Drancourt
BACKGROUND: Literature reports on ophthalmological manifestations related to tularemia, a zoonose caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, largely refer to Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, which consists of the association of conjunctivitis with preauricular lymphadenitis. In this paper, we report a case of intraocular inflammation during tularemia infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with unilateral uveitis. The uveitis was posterior, with a 2+ vitritis and a large yellowish lesion involving the macula with an overlying sub-retinal detachment, extending inferiorly, and subretinal hemorrhages...
2016: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564142/francisella-tularensis-endocarditis-two-case-reports-and-a-literature-review
#16
Rostane Gaci, Corentine Alauzet, Christine Selton-Suty, Alain Lozniewski, Céline Pulcini, Thierry May, François Goehringer
We report the first two cases of infective endocarditis caused by Francisella tularensis in Europe (two cases have previously been reported outside Europe). We suggest clinicians should consider tularemia as a possible diagnosis in endemic regions in cases of culture-negative endocarditis.
August 26, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562918/tularemia-masquerading-as-ecthyma
#17
Sabina B Holland, Ian C Michelow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558340/multifaceted-effects-of-francisella-tularensis-on-human-neutrophil-function-and-lifespan
#18
REVIEW
Lauren C Kinkead, Lee-Ann H Allen
Francisella tularensis in an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes a potentially lethal disease called tularemia. Studies performed nearly 100 years ago revealed that neutrophil accumulation in infected tissues correlates directly with the extent of necrotic damage during F. tularensis infection. However, the dynamics and details of bacteria-neutrophil interactions have only recently been studied in detail. Herein, we review current understanding regarding the mechanisms that recruit neutrophils to F...
September 2016: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543611/inclusion-of-epitopes-that-expand-high-avidity-cd4-t-cells-transforms-subprotective-vaccines-to-efficacious-immunogens-against-virulent-francisella-tularensis
#19
Lydia M Roberts, Deborah D Crane, Tara D Wehrly, Joshua R Fletcher, Bradley D Jones, Catharine M Bosio
T cells are the immunological cornerstone in host defense against infections by intracellular bacterial pathogens, such as virulent Francisella tularensis spp. tularensis (Ftt). The general paucity of novel vaccines for Ftt during the past 60 y can, in part, be attributed to the poor understanding of immune parameters required to survive infection. Thus, we developed a strategy utilizing classical immunological tools to elucidate requirements for effective adaptive immune responses directed against Ftt. Following generation of various Francisella strains expressing well-characterized lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus epitopes, we found that survival correlated with persistence of Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527221/modulation-of-human-airway-barrier-functions-during-burkholderia-thailandensis-and-francisella-tularensis-infection-running-title-airway-barrier-functions-during-bacterial-infections
#20
Cornelia Blume, Jonathan David, Rachel E Bell, Jay R Laver, Robert C Read, Graeme C Clark, Donna E Davies, Emily J Swindle
The bronchial epithelium provides protection against pathogens from the inhaled environment through the formation of a highly-regulated barrier. In order to understand the pulmonary diseases melioidosis and tularemia caused by Burkholderia thailandensis and Fransicella tularensis, respectively, the barrier function of the human bronchial epithelium were analysed. Polarised 16HBE14o- or differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) were exposed to increasing multiplicities of infection (MOI) of B...
August 3, 2016: Pathogens
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