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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421167/iron-and-virulence-in-francisella-tularensis
#1
REVIEW
Girija Ramakrishnan
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects a variety of cell types including macrophages, and propagates with great efficiency in the cytoplasm. Iron, essential for key enzymatic and redox reactions, is among the nutrients required to support this pathogenic lifestyle and the bacterium relies on specialized mechanisms to acquire iron within the host environment. Two distinct pathways for iron acquisition are encoded by the F. tularensis genome- a siderophore-dependent ferric iron uptake system and a ferrous iron transport system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418764/disease-surveillance-of-california-ground-squirrels-spermophilus-beecheyi-in-a-drive-through-zoo-in-oregon-usa
#2
Julia Ter Beest, Andrew Cushing, Modesto McClean, Wendy Hsu, Robert Bildfell
Rodents and other small wild mammals are often considered to be pests and vectors for disease in zoos that house small populations of valuable threatened and endangered animals. In 2005, three nonhuman primates at a drive-through zoo in Oregon, USA, acquired tularemia from an unknown source. Due to an abundance of California ground squirrels ( Spermophilus beecheyi ) on zoo grounds, we instituted serosurveillance of this species from July through September 2008 to determine the prevalence of antibodies against pathogens considered to be potentially transmissible to collection animals...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405072/tularemia-presenting-as-pulmonary-nodules-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#3
Tony Alias, Mohammad Kazem Fallahzadeh, Mezgebe Berhe
Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis that can be transmitted to humans when they handle rabbits, receive tick bites, consume contaminated water, or inhale aerosolized particles. We present the case of a 51-year-old white man with rheumatoid arthritis who was taking immunosuppressive medications and presented with tularemia. Our patient acquired the typhoidal form of tularemia, which is a severe systemic illness that manifests with fevers, headaches, myalgias, vomiting, diarrhea, and neurological symptoms, due to his immunocompromised state...
April 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402703/molecular-detection-of-francisella-spp-among-ticks-attached-to-camels-in-egypt
#4
Nahed H Ghoneim, Khaled A Abdel-Moein, Hala M Zaher
This study was conducted to investigate the possible role of camels and attached ticks in the epidemiology of Francisella spp. including Francisella tularensis. For this purpose, a total of 319 ticks (248 Hyalomma dromedarii and 71 Amblyomma spp.) as well as 100 blood and 50 fecal samples collected from camels were screened for the presence of Francisella spp. by PCR through amplification of Francisella 16S rRNA gene. Positive samples were then tested for F. tularensis by PCR. In addition, serum samples from 75 camel abattoir workers were examined for the presence of IgG antibodies against F...
April 12, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401066/importance-of-metabolic-adaptations-in-francisella-pathogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Jason Ziveri, Monique Barel, Alain Charbit
Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. This bacterial pathogen can infect a broad variety of animal species and can be transmitted to humans in numerous ways with various clinical outcomes. Although, Francisella possesses the capacity to infect numerous mammalian cell types, the macrophage constitutes the main intracellular niche, used for in vivo bacterial dissemination. To survive and multiply within infected macrophages, Francisella must imperatively escape from the phagosomal compartment...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398677/preparing-for-biological-threats-addressing-the-needs-of-pregnant-women
#6
REVIEW
Amelia K Watson, Sascha Ellington, Christina Nelson, Tracee Treadwell, Denise J Jamieson, Dana M Meaney-Delman
Intentional release of infectious agents and biological weapons to cause illness and death has the potential to greatly impact pregnant women and their fetuses. We review what is known about the maternal and fetal effects of seven biological threats: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola virus (smallpox); Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism); Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); and Rickettsia prowazekii (typhus)...
March 15, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396776/tularemia-presenting-as-suspected-necrotic-arachnidism
#7
Heather F Sateia, Michael T Melia, Joseph Cofrancesco
The true danger of the spider bite stems from misdiagnosis and resultant delay in proper treatment of entities that, unlike spider bites, are not self-limited. Obtaining a complete exposure and travel history is central to the development of an accurate and appropriate differential diagnosis.
April 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394614/a-synthetic-macromolecular-antibiotic-platform-for-inhalable-therapy-against-aerosolized-intracellular-alveolar-infections
#8
Debobrato Das, Jasmin Chen, Selvi Srinivasan, Abby Michelle Kelly, Brian Lee, Hye-Nam Son, Frank Radella, Timothy E West, Daniel M Ratner, Anthony J Convertine, Shawn J Skerrett, Patrick S Stayton
Lung-based intracellular bacterial infections remain one of the most challenging infectious disease settings. For example, the current standard for treating Franciscella tularensis pneumonia (tularemia) relies on prolonged administration of oral and intravenous antibiotics that poorly achieve and sustain pulmonary drug bioavailability. Inhalable antibiotic formulations are approved and in clinical development for upper respiratory infections, but sustained drug dosing from inhaled antibiotics against alveolar intracellular infections remains a current unmet need...
April 10, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372827/expansion-and-retention-of-pulmonary-cd4-t-cells-after-prime-boost-vaccination-correlates-with-improved-longevity-and-strength-of-immunity-against-tularemia
#9
Lydia M Roberts, Tara D Wehrly, Deborah D Crane, Catharine M Bosio
Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis strain SchuS4 (Ftt) is a highly virulent intracellular bacterium. Inhalation of 10 or fewer organisms results in an acute and potentially lethal disease called pneumonic tularemia. Ftt infections occur naturally in the U.S. and Ftt was developed as a bioweapon. Thus, there is a need for vaccines that protect against this deadly pathogen. Although a live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis (LVS) exists, LVS fails to generate long-lived protective immunity against modest challenge doses of Ftt...
March 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357328/francisella-iglg-protein-and-the-duf4280-proteins-paar-like-proteins-in-non-canonical-type-vi-secretion-systems
#10
COMMENT
Claire Lays, Eric Tannier, Thomas Henry
Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are bacterial molecular machines translocating effector proteins into target cells. T6SS are widely present in Gram-negative bacteria where they predominantly act to kill neighboring bacteria. This secretion system is reminiscent of the tail of contractile bacteriophages and consists of a contractile sheath anchored in the bacterial envelope and an inner tube made of stacks of the Hcp protein. The Hcp tube is capped with a VgrG trimer and a spike protein termed PAAR, which acts as the membrane-puncturing device...
October 29, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348839/long-range-dispersal-moved-francisella-tularensis-into-western-europe-from-the-east
#11
Chinmay Dwibedi, Dawn Birdsell, Adrian Lärkeryd, Kerstin Myrtennäs, Caroline Öhrman, Elin Nilsson, Edvin Karlsson, Christian Hochhalter, Andrew Rivera, Sara Maltinsky, Brittany Bayer, Paul Keim, Holger C Scholz, Herbert Tomaso, Matthias Wittwer, Christian Beuret, Nadia Schuerch, Paola Pilo, Marta Hernández Pérez, David Rodriguez-Lazaro, Raquel Escudero, Pedro Anda, Mats Forsman, David M Wagner, Pär Larsson, Anders Johansson
For many infections transmitting to humans from reservoirs in nature, disease dispersal patterns over space and time are largely unknown. Here, a reversed genomics approach helped us understand disease dispersal and yielded insight into evolution and biological properties of Francisella tularensis, the bacterium causing tularemia. We whole-genome sequenced 67 strains and characterized by single-nucleotide polymorphism assays 138 strains, collected from individuals infected 1947-2012 across Western Europe. We used the data for phylogenetic, population genetic and geographical network analyses...
December 2016: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336603/high-quality-draft-genome-sequence-of-francisella-tularensis-subsp-holarctica-strain-08t0073-isolated-from-a-wild-european-hare
#12
Anne Busch, Prasad Thomas, Kerstin Myrtennäs, Mats Forsman, Silke Braune, Martin Runge, Herbert Tomaso
Here, we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica strain 08T0073, isolated from the cadaver of a wild European hare (Lepus europaeus) found near Helmstedt, Lower Saxony, Germany, in 2007. In Germany, infected hares are a major source of tularemia in humans.
March 23, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328947/a-spontaneous-mutation-in-kdsd-a-biosynthesis-gene-for-3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic-acid-occurred-in-a-ciprofloxacin-resistant-strain-of-francisella-tularensis-and-caused-a-high-level-of-attenuation-in-murine-models-of-tularemia
#13
Taylor Chance, Jennifer Chua, Ronald G Toothman, Jason T Ladner, Jonathan E Nuss, Jo Lynne Raymond, Fabrice V Biot, Samandra Demons, Lynda Miller, Stephanie Halasohoris, Sherry Mou, Galina Koroleva, Sean Lovett, Gustavo Palacios, Nicholas J Vietri, Patricia L Worsham, Christopher K Cote, Todd M Kijek, Joel A Bozue
Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, is the causative agent of tularemia and able to infect many mammalian species, including humans. Because of its ability to cause a lethal infection, low infectious dose, and aerosolizable nature, F. tularensis subspecies tularensis is considered a potential biowarfare agent. Due to its in vitro efficacy, ciprofloxacin is one of the antibiotics recommended for post-exposure prophylaxis of tularemia. In order to identify therapeutics that will be efficacious against infections caused by drug resistant select-agents and to better understand the threat, we sought to characterize an existing ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) mutant in the Schu S4 strain of F...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293231/isolation-of-francisella-tularensis-and-yersinia-pestis-from-blood-cultures-by-plasma-purification-and-immunomagnetic-separation-accelerates-antibiotic-susceptibility-determination
#14
Ronit Aloni-Grinstein, Ofir Schuster, Shmuel Yitzhaki, Moshe Aftalion, Sharon Maoz, Ida Steinberger-Levy, Raphael Ber
The early symptoms of tularemia and plague, which are caused by Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis infection, respectively, are common to other illnesses, resulting in a low index of suspicion among clinicians. Moreover, because these diseases can be treated only with antibiotics, rapid isolation of the bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) are preferable. Blood cultures of patients may serve as a source for bacteria isolation. However, due to the slow growth rates of F. tularensis and Y...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231234/notes-from-the-field-francisella-tularensis-type-b-infection-from-a-fish-hook-injury-minnesota-2016
#15
Tory Whitten, Jenna Bjork, Dave Neitzel, Kirk Smith, Maureen Sullivan, Joni Scheftel
On June 27, 2016, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) Public Health Laboratory (PHL) was notified of a suspected Francisella tularensis isolate cultured at a hospital laboratory. The isolate was confirmed as F. tularensis type B at MDH PHL by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, culture, and direct fluorescent antibody testing. Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A) and holarctica (type B) bacteria are the causative agents of tularemia.
February 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183313/comparison-of-virulence-of-francisella-tularensis-ssp-holarctica-genotypes-b-12-and-b-ftnf002-00
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Zsuzsa Kreizinger, Károly Erdélyi, Orsolya Felde, Massimo Fabbi, Kinga M Sulyok, Tibor Magyar, Miklós Gyuranecz
BACKGROUND: Two main genetic groups (B.12 and B.FTNF002-00) of Francisella tularensis ssp. holarctica are endemic in Europe. The B.FTNF002-00 group proved to be dominant in Western European countries, while strains of the B.12 group were isolated mainly in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. The clinical course of tularemia in the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) also shows distinct patterns according to the geographical area. Acute course of the disease is observed in hares in Western European countries, while signs of sub-acute or chronic infection are more frequently detected in the eastern part of the continent...
February 10, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167561/functional-characterization-of-the-dna-gyrases-in-fluoroquinolone-resistant-mutants-of-francisella-novicida
#17
Yvan Caspar, Claire Siebert, Vivien Sutera, Corinne Villers, Alexandra Aubry, Claudine Mayer, Max Maurin, Patricia Renesto
Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance is a major health concern in the treatment of tularemia. Because DNA gyrase has been described as the main target of these compounds, our aim was to clarify the contributions of both GyrA and GyrB mutations found in Francisella novicida clones highly resistant to FQs. Wild-type and mutated GyrA and GyrB subunits were overexpressed so that the in vitro FQ sensitivity of functional reconstituted complexes could be evaluated. The data obtained were compared to the MICs of FQs against bacterial clones harboring the same mutations and were further validated through complementation experiments and structural modeling...
April 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165869/a-field-study-of-plague-and-tularemia-in-rodents-western-iran
#18
Ehsan Mostafavi, Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Alireza Japoni-Nejad, Saber Esmaeili, Jamshid Darvish, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Ali Mohammadi, Zeinolabedin Mohammadi, Ahmad Mahmoudi, Behzad Pourhossein, Ahmad Ghasemi, Miklós Gyuranecz, Elisabeth Carniel
INTRODUCTION: Kurdistan Province in Iran is a historical focus for plague and tularemia. This study aimed at assessing the current status of these two foci by studying their rodent reservoirs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rodents were trapped and their ectoparasites were collected. The genus and species of both rodents and ectoparasites were determined. Serological analyses of rodent blood samples were done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for plague and by standard tube agglutination assay for tularemia...
April 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159179/legionnaire-s-disease-and-its-mimics-a-clinical-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Burke A Cunha, Cheston B Cunha
Whenever the cardinal manifestations of a disorder occur in similar disorders, there is potential for a disease mimic. Legionnaire's disease has protean manifestations and has the potential to mimic or be mimicked by other community acquired pneumonias (CAPs). In CAPs caused by other than Legionella species, the more characteristic features in common with legionnaire's disease the more difficult the diagnostic conundrum. In hospitalized adults with CAP, legionnaire's disease may mimic influenza or other viral pneumonias...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990601/comparative-analysis-of-proteome-patterns-of-francisella-tularensis-isolates-from-patients-and-the-environment
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Murat Kasap, Aynur Karadenizli, Gürler Akpınar, Hüseyin Uzuner, Abula Ayimugu, Kübra Karaosmanoğlu, Doğanhan Kadir Er
Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia. Although major contributors and the main mechanism of the virulence are well known, some of the molecular details are still missing. Proteomics studies regarding F. tularensis have provided snapshot pictures of the organism grown under different culture conditions to understand the mechanism of virulence. In general, such studies were carried out with standard strains e.g., LVS and did not involve comparisons of F. tularensis isolates from either clinical or environmental sources...
February 2017: Current Microbiology
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