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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202055/harmonizing-methods-for-wildlife-abundance-estimation-and-pathogen-detection-in-europe-a-questionnaire-survey-on-three-selected-host-pathogen-combinations
#1
Jana Sonnenburg, Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis, Thijs Kuiken, Ezio Ferroglio, Rainer G Ulrich, Franz J Conraths, Christian Gortázar, Christoph Staubach
BACKGROUND: The need for wildlife health surveillance as part of disease control in wildlife, domestic animals and humans on the global level is widely recognized. However, the objectives, methods and intensity of existing wildlife health surveillance programs vary greatly among European countries, resulting in a patchwork of data that are difficult to merge and compare. This survey aimed at evaluating the need and potential for data harmonization in wildlife health in Europe. The specific objective was to collect information on methods currently used to estimate host abundance and pathogen prevalence...
February 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183313/comparison-of-virulence-of-francisella-tularensis-ssp-holarctica-genotypes-b-12-and-b-ftnf002-00
#2
Zsuzsa Kreizinger, Károly Erdélyi, Orsolya Felde, Massimo Fabbi, Kinga M Sulyok, Tibor Magyar, Miklós Gyuranecz
BACKGROUND: Two main genetic groups (B.12 and B.FTNF002-00) of Francisella tularensis ssp. holarctica are endemic in Europe. The B.FTNF002-00 group proved to be dominant in Western European countries, while strains of the B.12 group were isolated mainly in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. The clinical course of tularemia in the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) also shows distinct patterns according to the geographical area. Acute course of the disease is observed in hares in Western European countries, while signs of sub-acute or chronic infection are more frequently detected in the eastern part of the continent...
February 10, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174696/lack-of-oxyr-and-katg-results-in-extreme-susceptibility-of-francisella-tularensis-lvs-to-oxidative-stress-and-marked-attenuation-in-vivo
#3
Marie Honn, Helena Lindgren, Gurram K Bharath, Anders Sjöstedt
Francisella tularensis is an intracellular bacterium and as such is expected to encounter a continuous attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in its intracellular habitat and efficiently coping with oxidative stress is therefore essential for its survival. The oxidative stress response system of F. tularensis is complex and includes multiple antioxidant enzymes and pathways, including the transcriptional regulator OxyR and the H2O2-decomposing enzyme catalase, encoded by katG. The latter is regulated by OxyR...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167561/functional-characterization-of-the-dna-gyrases-in-fluoroquinolone-resistant-mutants-of-francisella-novicida
#4
Yvan Caspar, Claire Siebert, Vivien Sutera, Corinne Villers, Alexandra Aubry, Claudine Mayer, Max Maurin, Patricia Renesto
Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance is a major health concern in the treatment of tularemia. With DNA gyrase described as the main target of these compounds, our aim was to clarify the contribution of both GyrA and GyrB mutations found in Francisella novicida clones highly resistant to FQs. Wild-type and mutated GyrA and GyrB subunits were overexpressed so that the in vitro FQ sensitivity of functional reconstituted complexes could be evaluated. Data obtained were compared with the MICs of FQs against bacterial clones harboring the same mutations and were further validated through complementation experiments and structural modeling...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111714/pyrosequencing-based-assessment-of-bacterial-diversity-in-turkish-rhipicephalus-annulatus-and-dermacentor-marginatus-ticks-acari-ixodidae
#5
Saban Tekin, Scot E Dowd, Marko Davinic, Ahmet Bursali, Adem Keskin
Ticks continue to be a threat to human and animal health in Turkey, as they are considered important vectors of human and animal diseases. The objectives of this investigation are to characterize the microbial communities of two tick species, Rhipicephalus annulatus and Dermacenter marginatus, analyze patterns of co-occurrence among microbial taxa, identify and compare pathogens contributing human diseases, and determine whether avirulent symbionts could exclude human pathogens from tick communities. Furthermore, this study explores a microbiome of the R...
January 22, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108583/contribution-of-methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-b-msrb-to-francisella-tularensis-infection-in-mice
#6
Shib Shankar Saha, Masanori Hashino, Jin Suzuki, Akihiko Uda, Kenta Watanabe, Takashi Shimizu, Masahisa Watarai
The essential mechanisms and virulence factors enabling Francisella species to replicate inside host macrophages are not fully understood. Methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) is an antioxidant enzyme that converts oxidized methionine into methionine. Francisella tularensis carries msrA and msrB in different parts of its chromosome. In this study, single and double mutants of msrA and msrB were constructed, and the characteristics of these mutants were investigated. The msrB mutant exhibited decreased in vitro growth, exogenous oxidative stress resistance and intracellular growth in macrophages, whereas the msrA mutant displayed little difference with wild-type strain...
January 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087665/nkg2d-promotes-b1a-cell-development-and-protection-against-bacterial-infection
#7
Maja Lenartić, Vedrana Jelenčić, Biljana Zafirova, Mateja Ožanič, Valentina Marečić, Slaven Jurković, Veronika Sexl, Marina Šantić, Felix M Wensveen, Bojan Polić
NKG2D is a potent activating receptor that is expressed on cytotoxic immune cells such as CD8 T and NK cells, where it promotes cytotoxicity after binding stress ligands on infected or transformed cells. On NK cell precursors NKG2D modulates proliferation and maturation. Previously, we observed that NKG2D deficiency affects peripheral B cell numbers. In this study, we show that NKG2D regulates B1a cell development and function. We find that mice deficient for NKG2D have a strong reduction of B1a cell numbers...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087399/advances-with-using-crispr-cas-mediated-gene-editing-to-treat-infections-with-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus
#8
REVIEW
Buhle Moyo, Kristie Bloom, Tristan Scott, Abdullah Ely, Patrick Arbuthnot
Chronic infections with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV) account for the majority of cases of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current therapies for the infections have limitations and improved efficacy is necessary to prevent complications in carriers of the viruses. In the case of HBV persistence, the replication intermediate comprising covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is particularly problematic. Licensed therapies have little effect on cccDNA and HBV replication relapses following treatment withdrawal...
January 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077440/monophosphoryl-lipid-a-enhances-efficacy-of-a-francisella-tularensis-lvs-catanionic-nanoparticle-subunit-vaccine-against-f-tularensis-schu-s4-challenge-by-augmenting-both-humoral-and-cellular-immunity
#9
Katharina Richard, Barbara J Mann, Aiping Qin, Eileen M Barry, Robert K Ernst, Stefanie N Vogel
Francisella tularensis, a bacterial biothreat agent, has no approved vaccine in the USA. Previously, we showed that incorporating lysates from partially attenuated F. tularensis LVS or fully virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 strains into catanionic surfactant vesicle (V) nanoparticles (LVS-V and Schu S4-V, respectively) protected fully against F. tularensis LVS intraperitoneal (i.p.) challenge in mice. However, we achieved only partial protection against F. tularensis Schu S4 intranasal (i.n.) challenge, even when employing heterologous prime/boost immunization strategies...
January 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068343/the-fleas-siphonaptera-in-iran-diversity-host-range-and-medical-importance
#10
Naseh Maleki-Ravasan, Samaneh Solhjouy-Fard, Jean-Claude Beaucournu, Anne Laudisoit, Ehsan Mostafavi
BACKGROUND: Flea-borne diseases have a wide distribution in the world. Studies on the identity, abundance, distribution and seasonality of the potential vectors of pathogenic agents (e.g. Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and Rickettsia felis) are necessary tools for controlling and preventing such diseases outbreaks. The improvements of diagnostic tools are partly responsible for an easier detection of otherwise unnoticed agents in the ectoparasitic fauna and as such a good taxonomical knowledge of the potential vectors is crucial...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060573/francisella-tularensis-type-vi-secretion-system-comes-of-age
#11
Petra Spidlova, Jiri Stulik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035113/serological-surveillance-of-vector-borne-and-zoonotic-diseases-among-hunters-in-eastern-poland
#12
Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak, Dorota Plewik, Aleksander J Michalski, Marcin Kołodziej, Alicja Mełgieś, Anna Pańczuk, Henryk Konon, Marcin Niemcewicz
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Many etiological agents of zoonoses are considered as significant biological hazard to people visiting forested areas frequently, for instance, hunters. They may be exposed to ticks, rodents, and birds as well as excreta/secretions of wild animals or contaminated water and soil. Hence, this population is at risk of contracting infection with pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus, Bartonella spp...
October 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031350/a-molecular-survey-for-francisella-tularensis-and-rickettsia-spp-in-haemaphysalis-leporispalustris-acari-ixodidae-in-northern-california
#13
Tara Roth, Robert S Lane, Janet Foley
Francisella tularensis and Rickettsia spp. have been cultured from Haemaphysalis leporispalustris Packard, but their prevalence in this tick has not been determined using modern molecular methods. We collected H. leporispalustris by flagging vegetation and leaf litter and from lagomorphs (Lepus californicus Gray and Sylvilagus bachmani (Waterhouse)) in northern California. Francisella tularensis DNA was not detected in any of 1,030 ticks tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas 0.4% of larvae tested in pools, 0 of 117 individual nymphs, and 2...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992409/in-vivo-high-throughput-profiling-of-crispr-cpf1-activity
#14
Hui K Kim, Myungjae Song, Jinu Lee, A Vipin Menon, Soobin Jung, Young-Mook Kang, Jae W Choi, Euijeon Woo, Hyun C Koh, Jin-Wu Nam, Hyongbum Kim
CRISPR from Prevotella and Francisella 1 (Cpf1) is an effector endonuclease of the class 2 CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) gene editing system. We developed a method for evaluating Cpf1 activity, based on target sequence composition in mammalian cells, in a high-throughput manner. A library of >11,000 target sequence and guide RNA pairs was delivered into human cells using lentiviral vectors. Subsequent delivery of Cpf1 into this cell library induced insertions and deletions (indels) at the integrated synthetic target sequences, which allowed en masse evaluation of Cpf1 activity by using deep sequencing...
December 19, 2016: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990601/comparative-analysis-of-proteome-patterns-of-francisella-tularensis-isolates-from-patients-and-the-environment
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Murat Kasap, Aynur Karadenizli, Gürler Akpınar, Hüseyin Uzuner, Abula Ayimugu, Kübra Karaosmanoğlu, Doğanhan Kadir Er
Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia. Although major contributors and the main mechanism of the virulence are well known, some of the molecular details are still missing. Proteomics studies regarding F. tularensis have provided snapshot pictures of the organism grown under different culture conditions to understand the mechanism of virulence. In general, such studies were carried out with standard strains e.g., LVS and did not involve comparisons of F. tularensis isolates from either clinical or environmental sources...
February 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978844/detection-of-mycoplasma-haemocanis-mycoplasma-haematoparvum-mycoplasma-suis-and-other-vector-borne-pathogens-in-dogs-from-c%C3%A3-rdoba-and-santa-f%C3%A3-argentina
#16
Patricia E Mascarelli, Gustavo P Tartara, Norma B Pereyra, Ricardo G Maggi
BACKGROUND: In Argentina, only very few reports are available for canine tick-borne diseases where most are related to parasitic diseases. The objective of this survey was to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in 70 dogs from Santa Fé and Córdoba, Argentina. METHODS: Microscopic blood smear examination as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using species-specific markers of Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Borrelia, Ehrlichia, Francisella, Mycoplasma (hemotropic group) and Rickettsia, followed by DNA sequencing were used to establish the prevalence of each infecting pathogen...
December 15, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965147/murine-survival-of-infection-with-francisella-novicida-and-protection-against-secondary-challenge-is-critically-dependent-on-b-lymphocytes
#17
Alicia Y Chou, Nikki J Kennett, Amanda A Melillo, Karen L Elkins
Respiratory infection of mice with Francisella novicida has recently been used as a model for the highly virulent human pathogen Francisella tularensis. Similar to F. tularensis, even small doses of F. novicida administered by respiratory routes are lethal for inbred laboratory mice. This feature obviously limits study of infection-induced immunity. Parenteral sublethal infections of mice with F. novicida are feasible, but the resulting immune responses are incompletely characterized. Here we use parenteral intradermal (i...
December 10, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939130/the-natural-history-of-pneumonic-tularemia-in-female-fischer-344-rats-after-inhalational-exposure-to-aerosolized-francisella-tularensis-subspecies-tularensis-strain-schu-s4
#18
Julie A Hutt, Julie A Lovchik, Alexander Dekonenko, Andrew C Hahn, Terry H Wu
The inbred Fischer 344 rat is being evaluated for testing novel vaccines and therapeutics against pneumonic tularemia. Although primary pneumonic tularemia in humans typically occurs by inhalation of aerosolized bacteria, the rat model has relied on intratracheal inoculation of organisms because of safety and equipment issues. We now report the natural history of pneumonic tularemia in female Fischer 344 rats after nose-only inhalational exposure to lethal doses of aerosolized Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis, strain SCHU S4...
February 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933275/an-in-vitro-co-culture-mouse-model-demonstrates-efficient-vaccine-mediated-control-of-francisella-tularensis-schu-s4-and-identifies-nitric-oxide-as-a-predictor-of-efficacy
#19
Igor Golovliov, Helena Lindgren, Kjell Eneslätt, Wayne Conlan, Amandine Mosnier, Thomas Henry, Anders Sjöstedt
Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent intracellular bacterium and cell-mediated immunity is critical for protection, but mechanisms of protection against highly virulent variants, such as the prototypic strain F. tularensis strain SCHU S4, are poorly understood. To this end, we established a co-culture system, based on splenocytes from naïve, or immunized mice and in vitro infected bone marrow-derived macrophages that allowed assessment of mechanisms controlling infection with F. tularensis. We utilized the system to understand why the clpB gene deletion mutant, ΔclpB, of SCHU S4 shows superior efficacy as a vaccine in the mouse model as compared to the existing human vaccine, the live vaccine strain (LVS)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929353/enhanced-survival-but-not-amplification-of-francisella-spp-in-the-presence-of-free-living-amoebae
#20
Helen Y Buse, Frank W Schaefer, Eugene W Rice
Transmission of Francisella tularensis, the etiologic agent of tularemia, has been associated with various water sources. Survival of many waterborne pathogens within free-living amoeba (FLA) is well documented; however, the role of amoebae in the environmental persistence of F. tularensis is unclear. In this study, axenic FLA cultures of Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and Vermamoeba vermiformis were each inoculated with virulent strains of F. tularensis (Types A and B), the attenuated live vaccine strain, and Francisella novicida...
December 8, 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
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