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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345580/differential-roles-of-caspase-1-and-caspase-11-in-infection-and-inflammation
#1
Si Ming Man, Rajendra Karki, Benoit Briard, Amanda Burton, Sebastien Gingras, Stephane Pelletier, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Caspase-1, also known as interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-converting enzyme (ICE), regulates antimicrobial host defense, tissue repair, tumorigenesis, metabolism and membrane biogenesis. On activation within an inflammasome complex, caspase-1 induces pyroptosis and converts pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 into their biologically active forms. "ICE(-/-)" or "Casp1(-/-)" mice generated using 129 embryonic stem cells carry a 129-associated inactivating passenger mutation on the caspase-11 locus, essentially making them deficient in both caspase-1 and caspase-11...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336603/high-quality-draft-genome-sequence-of-francisella-tularensis-subsp-holarctica-strain-08t0073-isolated-from-a-wild-european-hare
#2
Anne Busch, Prasad Thomas, Kerstin Myrtennäs, Mats Forsman, Silke Braune, Martin Runge, Herbert Tomaso
Here, we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica strain 08T0073, isolated from the cadaver of a wild European hare (Lepus europaeus) found near Helmstedt, Lower Saxony, Germany, in 2007. In Germany, infected hares are a major source of tularemia in humans.
March 23, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331079/characterization-and-vaccine-potential-of-membrane-vesicles-produced-by-francisella-noatunensis-sup-orientalis-in-an-adult-zebrafish-model
#3
Leidy Lagos, Julia I Tandberg, Urska Repnik, Preben Boysen, Erik Ropstad, Deepa Varkey, Ian T Paulsen, Hanne C Winther-Larsen
Vaccine development against extracellular bacteria has been important for the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. In contrast, infections with intracellular pathogens remain largely an unresolved problem. Francisella noatunensis subspecies orientalis (Fno) are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause the disease francisellosis in fish. Francisellosis is commonly characterized as a chronic granulomatous disease with high morbidity and can result in high mortality depending on the host...
March 22, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328947/a-spontaneous-mutation-in-kdsd-a-biosynthesis-gene-for-3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic-acid-occurred-in-a-ciprofloxacin-resistant-strain-of-francisella-tularensis-and-caused-a-high-level-of-attenuation-in-murine-models-of-tularemia
#4
Taylor Chance, Jennifer Chua, Ronald G Toothman, Jason T Ladner, Jonathan E Nuss, Jo Lynne Raymond, Fabrice V Biot, Samandra Demons, Lynda Miller, Stephanie Halasohoris, Sherry Mou, Galina Koroleva, Sean Lovett, Gustavo Palacios, Nicholas J Vietri, Patricia L Worsham, Christopher K Cote, Todd M Kijek, Joel A Bozue
Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, is the causative agent of tularemia and able to infect many mammalian species, including humans. Because of its ability to cause a lethal infection, low infectious dose, and aerosolizable nature, F. tularensis subspecies tularensis is considered a potential biowarfare agent. Due to its in vitro efficacy, ciprofloxacin is one of the antibiotics recommended for post-exposure prophylaxis of tularemia. In order to identify therapeutics that will be efficacious against infections caused by drug resistant select-agents and to better understand the threat, we sought to characterize an existing ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) mutant in the Schu S4 strain of F...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325762/a-genetic-screen-reveals-that-synthesis-of-1-4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate-dhna-but-not-full-length-menaquinone-is-required-for-listeria-monocytogenes-cytosolic-survival
#5
Grischa Y Chen, Courtney E McDougal, Marc A D'Antonio, Jonathan L Portman, John-Demian Sauer
Through unknown mechanisms, the host cytosol restricts bacterial colonization; therefore, only professional cytosolic pathogens are adapted to colonize this host environment. Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive intracellular pathogen that is highly adapted to colonize the cytosol of both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells. To identify L. monocytogenes determinants of cytosolic survival, we designed and executed a novel screen to isolate L. monocytogenes mutants with cytosolic survival defects. Multiple mutants identified in the screen were defective for synthesis of menaquinone (MK), an essential molecule in the electron transport chain...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302784/draft-genome-sequence-of-francisella-noatunensis-subsp-orientalis-stir-gus-f2f7-a-highly-virulent-strain-recovered-from-diseased-red-nile-tilapia-farmed-in-europe
#6
José Gustavo Ramírez-Paredes, Pär Larsson, Stefanie Wehner, Michaël Bekaert, Caroline Öhrman, Matthijs Metselaar, Kimberly Dawn Thompson, Randolph Harvey Richards, David James Penman, Alexandra Adams
A highly virulent strain of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, STIR-GUS-F2f7, was isolated from moribund red Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farmed in Europe. In this communication, the complete genome sequencing of this bacterium is reported.
March 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293231/isolation-of-francisella-tularensis-and-yersinia-pestis-from-blood-cultures-by-plasma-purification-and-immunomagnetic-separation-accelerates-antibiotic-susceptibility-determination
#7
Ronit Aloni-Grinstein, Ofir Schuster, Shmuel Yitzhaki, Moshe Aftalion, Sharon Maoz, Ida Steinberger-Levy, Raphael Ber
The early symptoms of tularemia and plague, which are caused by Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis infection, respectively, are common to other illnesses, resulting in a low index of suspicion among clinicians. Moreover, because these diseases can be treated only with antibiotics, rapid isolation of the bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) are preferable. Blood cultures of patients may serve as a source for bacteria isolation. However, due to the slow growth rates of F. tularensis and Y...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286149/interaction-of-francisella-noatunensis-subsp-orientalis-with-oreochromis-mossambicus-bulbus-arteriosus-cell-line
#8
Esteban Soto, Susan Yun, Jainee Lewis, Michael T Kearney, John Hansen
Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent warmwater fish pathogen and the causative agent of piscine francisellosis. Although Fno causes septicemia and can live extracellularly in infected tilapia (Oreochromis spp.), the early interaction of Fno with vasculature endothelium is unknown. In the present study, we examined the interaction of wild-type Fno (WT) and two Fno knockout [intracellular growth loci C (ΔiglC) and pathogenicity determinant protein A (ΔpdpA)] strains with the endothelial O...
March 7, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263875/molecular-architecture-of-an-n-formyltransferase-from-salmonella-enterica-o60
#9
Colin R Woodford, James B Thoden, Hazel M Holden
N-formylated sugars are found on the lipopolysaccharides of various pathogenic Gram negative bacteria including Campylobacter jejuni 81116, Francisella tularensis, Providencia alcalifaciens O30, and Providencia alcalifaciens O40. The last step in the biosynthetic pathways for these unusual sugars is catalyzed by N-formyltransferases that utilize N(10)-formyltetrahydrofolate as the carbon source. The substrates are dTDP-linked amino sugars with the functional groups installed at either the C-3' or C-4' positions of the pyranosyl rings...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262634/francisella-noatunensis-ssp-noatunensis-iglc-deletion-mutant-protects-adult-zebrafish-challenged-with-acute-mortality-dose-of-wild-type-strain
#10
Elisabeth O Lampe, Julia I Tandberg, Anne-Lise Rishovd, Hanne C Winther-Larsen
The intracellular fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis remains an unsolved problem for aquaculture worldwide and an efficient vaccine is needed. In Francisella sp., IglC is an important virulence factor necessary for intracellular growth and escape from phagolysosomes. Deletion of the intracellular growth locus C (iglC) in Francisella sp. causes attenuation, but vaccine potential has only been attributed to ΔiglC from Francisella noatunensis ssp. orientalis, a warm-water fish pathogen. A ΔiglC mutant was constructed in the cold-water fish pathogen F...
March 6, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256734/francisella-tularensis-prevalence-and-load-in-dermacentor-reticulatus-ticks-in-an-endemic-area-in-central-europe
#11
Z Hubálek, I Rudolf
A total of 7778 host-seeking adult Dermacentor reticulatus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks were examined for the prevalence of Francisella tularensis holarctica (Thiotrichales: Francisellaceae) in a natural focus of tularaemia in the floodplain forest-meadow ecosystem along the lower reaches of the Dyje (Thaya) river in South Moravia (Czech Republic) between 1995 and 2013. Ticks were pooled (10 specimens per pool) and their homogenates inoculated subcutaneously in 4-week-old specific pathogen-free mice. Dead mice were sectioned, their spleens cultivated on thioglycollate-glucose-blood agar and impression smears from the spleen, liver and heart blood were Giemsa-stained...
March 3, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255998/a-novel-broth-medium-for-enhanced-growth-of-francisella-tularensis
#12
Brian J Morris, Helen Y Buse, Noreen J Adcock, Eugene W Rice
Francisella tularensis is a fastidious organism that requires a lengthy incubation time in liquid growth media for detection. The objective of this study was to develop a medium formulation using readily available supplements that enhanced early growth of F. tularensis. F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) was used to evaluate the growth responses for each of the media formulations tested. Growth in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth supplemented with 2% Vitox, 10% Fildes, and 1% histidine (BVFH) resulted in a significant increase in growth after 8 h incubation compared to other media formulations tested (P < 0...
March 3, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255921/enhanced-solid-phase-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-and-electrochemical-detection
#13
Jonathan Sabaté Del Río, Ivan Magriñà Lobato, Olena Mayboroda, Ioanis Katakis, Ciara K O'Sullivan
Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an elegant method for the rapid, isothermal amplification of nucleic acids. Here, we elucidate the optimal surface chemistry for rapid and efficient solid-phase RPA, which was fine-tuned in order to obtain a maximum signal-to-noise ratio, defining the optimal DNA probe density, probe-to-lateral spacer ratio (1:0, 1:1, 1:10 and 1:100) and length of a vertical spacer of the probe as well as investigating the effect of different types of lateral spacers. The use of different labelling strategies was also examined in order to reduce the number of steps required for the analysis, using biotin or horseradish peroxidase-labelled reverse primers...
March 2, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254876/correction-for-challacombe-et-al-whole-genome-relationships-among-francisella-bacteria-of-diverse-origins-define-new-species-and-provide-specific-regions-for-detection
#14
Jean F Challacombe, Jeannine M Petersen, La Verne Gallegos-Graves, David Hodge, Segaran Pillai, Cheryl R Kuske
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231234/notes-from-the-field-francisella-tularensis-type-b-infection-from-a-fish-hook-injury-minnesota-2016
#15
Tory Whitten, Jenna Bjork, Dave Neitzel, Kirk Smith, Maureen Sullivan, Joni Scheftel
On June 27, 2016, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) Public Health Laboratory (PHL) was notified of a suspected Francisella tularensis isolate cultured at a hospital laboratory. The isolate was confirmed as F. tularensis type B at MDH PHL by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, culture, and direct fluorescent antibody testing. Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A) and holarctica (type B) bacteria are the causative agents of tularemia.
February 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202055/harmonizing-methods-for-wildlife-abundance-estimation-and-pathogen-detection-in-europe-a-questionnaire-survey-on-three-selected-host-pathogen-combinations
#16
Jana Sonnenburg, Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis, Thijs Kuiken, Ezio Ferroglio, Rainer G Ulrich, Franz J Conraths, Christian Gortázar, Christoph Staubach
BACKGROUND: The need for wildlife health surveillance as part of disease control in wildlife, domestic animals and humans on the global level is widely recognized. However, the objectives, methods and intensity of existing wildlife health surveillance programs vary greatly among European countries, resulting in a patchwork of data that are difficult to merge and compare. This survey aimed at evaluating the need and potential for data harmonization in wildlife health in Europe. The specific objective was to collect information on methods currently used to estimate host abundance and pathogen prevalence...
February 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183313/comparison-of-virulence-of-francisella-tularensis-ssp-holarctica-genotypes-b-12-and-b-ftnf002-00
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Zsuzsa Kreizinger, Károly Erdélyi, Orsolya Felde, Massimo Fabbi, Kinga M Sulyok, Tibor Magyar, Miklós Gyuranecz
BACKGROUND: Two main genetic groups (B.12 and B.FTNF002-00) of Francisella tularensis ssp. holarctica are endemic in Europe. The B.FTNF002-00 group proved to be dominant in Western European countries, while strains of the B.12 group were isolated mainly in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. The clinical course of tularemia in the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) also shows distinct patterns according to the geographical area. Acute course of the disease is observed in hares in Western European countries, while signs of sub-acute or chronic infection are more frequently detected in the eastern part of the continent...
February 10, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174696/lack-of-oxyr-and-katg-results-in-extreme-susceptibility-of-francisella-tularensis-lvs-to-oxidative-stress-and-marked-attenuation-in-vivo
#18
Marie Honn, Helena Lindgren, Gurram K Bharath, Anders Sjöstedt
Francisella tularensis is an intracellular bacterium and as such is expected to encounter a continuous attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in its intracellular habitat and efficiently coping with oxidative stress is therefore essential for its survival. The oxidative stress response system of F. tularensis is complex and includes multiple antioxidant enzymes and pathways, including the transcriptional regulator OxyR and the H2O2-decomposing enzyme catalase, encoded by katG. The latter is regulated by OxyR...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167561/functional-characterization-of-the-dna-gyrases-in-fluoroquinolone-resistant-mutants-of-francisella-novicida
#19
Yvan Caspar, Claire Siebert, Vivien Sutera, Corinne Villers, Alexandra Aubry, Claudine Mayer, Max Maurin, Patricia Renesto
Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance is a major health concern in the treatment of tularemia. With DNA gyrase described as the main target of these compounds, our aim was to clarify the contribution of both GyrA and GyrB mutations found in Francisella novicida clones highly resistant to FQs. Wild-type and mutated GyrA and GyrB subunits were overexpressed so that the in vitro FQ sensitivity of functional reconstituted complexes could be evaluated. Data obtained were compared with the MICs of FQs against bacterial clones harboring the same mutations and were further validated through complementation experiments and structural modeling...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111714/pyrosequencing-based-assessment-of-bacterial-diversity-in-turkish-rhipicephalus-annulatus-and-dermacentor-marginatus-ticks-acari-ixodidae
#20
Saban Tekin, Scot E Dowd, Marko Davinic, Ahmet Bursali, Adem Keskin
Ticks continue to be a threat to human and animal health in Turkey, as they are considered important vectors of human and animal diseases. The objectives of this investigation are to characterize the microbial communities of two tick species, Rhipicephalus annulatus and Dermacenter marginatus, analyze patterns of co-occurrence among microbial taxa, identify and compare pathogens contributing human diseases, and determine whether avirulent symbionts could exclude human pathogens from tick communities. Furthermore, this study explores a microbiome of the R...
January 22, 2017: Parasitology Research
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