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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046388/the-early-dendritic-cell-signaling-induced-by-virulent-francisellatularensis-strain-occurs-in-phases-and-involves-the-activation-of-erks-and-p38-in-the-later-stage
#1
Ivo Fabrik, Marek Link, Daniela Putzova, Lenka Plzakova, Zuzana Lubovska, Vlada Philimonenko, Ivona Pavkova, Pavel Rehulka, Zuzana Krocova, Pavel Hozak, Marina Santic, Jiri Stulik
Dendritic cells (DCs) infected by Francisella tularensis are poorly activated and do not undergo classical maturation process. While reasons of such unresponsiveness are not fully understood, their impact on the priming of immunity is well appreciated. Previous attempts to explain the behavior of Francisella-infected DCs were hypothesis-driven and focused on events at later stages of infection. Here, we took an alternative unbiased approach by applying methods of global phosphoproteomics to analyze the dynamics of cell signaling in primary DCs during the first hour of infection by Francisella tularensis...
October 18, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038498/environmental-and-behavioral-changes-may-influence-the-exposure-of-an-arctic-apex-predator-to-pathogens-and-contaminants
#2
Todd C Atwood, Colleen Duncan, Kelly A Patyk, Pauline Nol, Jack Rhyan, Matthew McCollum, Melissa A McKinney, Andrew M Ramey, Camila K Cerqueira-Cézar, Oliver C H Kwok, Jitender P Dubey, Steven Hennager
Recent decline of sea ice habitat has coincided with increased use of land by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the southern Beaufort Sea (SB), which may alter the risks of exposure to pathogens and contaminants. We assayed blood samples from SB polar bears to assess prior exposure to the pathogens Brucella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Neospora caninum, estimate concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and evaluate risk factors associated with exposure to pathogens and POPs...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034854/whole-genome-transcriptomics-reveals-global-effects-including-up-regulation-of-francisella-pathogenicity-island-gene-expression-during-active-stringent-response-in-the-highly-virulent-francisella-tularensis-subsp-tularensis-schu-s4
#3
Amber L Murch, Paul J Skipp, Peter L Roach, Petra C F Oyston
During conditions of nutrient limitation bacteria undergo a series of global gene expression changes to survive conditions of amino acid and fatty acid starvation. Rapid reallocation of cellular resources is brought about by gene expression changes coordinated by the signalling nucleotides' guanosine tetraphosphate or pentaphosphate, collectively termed (p)ppGpp and is known as the stringent response. The stringent response has been implicated in bacterial virulence, with elevated (p)ppGpp levels being associated with increased virulence gene expression...
October 16, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025776/unusual-case-of-prosthetic-joint-infection-caused-by-francisella-tularensis
#4
Harsh Rawal, Ami Patel, Michael Moran
Tularaemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis.Ulceroglandular, glandular, oculoglandular, pharyngeal, typhoidal and pneumonic types are the different types of the disease. Infection of prosthetic joints occurs at an exceedingly uncommon rate. We report a case of prosthetic joint infection involving the hip with F. tularensis, which to the best of our knowledge after a thorough literature review is the second of its kind.
October 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021545/the-metabolic-enzyme-fructose-1-6-bisphosphate-aldolase-acts-as-a-transcriptional-regulator-in-pathogenic-francisella
#5
Jason Ziveri, Fabiola Tros, Ida Chiara Guerrera, Cerina Chhuon, Mathilde Audry, Marion Dupuis, Monique Barel, Sarantis Korniotis, Simon Fillatreau, Lara Gales, Edern Cahoreau, Alain Charbit
The enzyme fructose-bisphosphate aldolase occupies a central position in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways. Beyond its housekeeping role in metabolism, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase has been involved in additional functions and is considered as a potential target for drug development against pathogenic bacteria. Here, we address the role of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase in the bacterial pathogen Francisella novicida. We demonstrate that fructose-bisphosphate aldolase is important for bacterial multiplication in macrophages in the presence of gluconeogenic substrates...
October 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021156/safety-and-accuracy-of-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-maldi-tof-ms-to-identify-highly-pathogenic-organisms
#6
James T Rudrik, Marty K Soehnlen, Michael J Perry, Maureen Sullivan, Wanda Reiter-Kintz, Philip A Lee, Denise Pettit, Anthony Tran, Erin Swaney
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization -- time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) sample preparation methods including the direct, on-plate formic acid, and ethanol/formic acid tube extraction were evaluated for their ability to render highly pathogenic organisms non-viable and safe for handling in a Biosafety Level-2 laboratory. Of these, the tube extraction procedure was the most successful, with none of the tested strains surviving this sample preparation method. Tube extracts from several agents of bioterrorism and their near neighbors were analyzed in an eight laboratory study to examine the utility of the Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS MALDI-TOF MS systems and their IVD, research use only, and Security-Relevant databases, as applicable, to accurately identify these agents...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018123/characterization-of-inner-and-outer-membrane-proteins-from-francisella-tularensis-strains-lvs-and-schu-s4-and-identification-of-potential-subunit-vaccine-candidates
#7
Deborah M B Post, Bram Slütter, Birgit Schilling, Aroon T Chande, Jed A Rasmussen, Bradley D Jones, Alexandria K D'Souza, Lorri M Reinders, John T Harty, Bradford W Gibson, Michael A Apicella
Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia and a potential bioterrorism agent. In the present study, we isolated, identified, and quantified the proteins present in the membranes of the virulent type A strain, Schu S4, and the attenuated type B strain, LVS (live vaccine strain). Spectral counting of mass spectrometric data showed enrichment for membrane proteins in both strains. Mice vaccinated with whole LVS membranes encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing the adjuvant polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I·C)] showed significant protection against a challenge with LVS compared to the results seen with naive mice or mice vaccinated with either membranes or poly(I·C) alone...
October 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017676/rare-cause-of-pleuropnemonia-tularemia-disease
#8
Meltem Agca, Dildar Duman, Ebru Sulu, Fatma Ozbaki, Orcun Barkay, Derya Ozturk, Tulay Yarkin
Tularemia is a zoonotic infection which is caused by gram negative coccobacilli, Francisella tularensis. The disease occurs after contact with blood and body fluids of infected animals, bites and ingestion of infected food and water. Although it commonly presents with skin lesions, there may also be serious organ involvements. A55-year woman was consulted for presumptive diagnosis of tuberculosis. Multiple lymphadenopathy in right cervical area was present on physical examination. Pleural effusion on left side was detected with computed tomography...
September 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994770/intratracheal-inoculation-of-fischer-344-rats-with-francisella-tularensis
#9
Jesse Q Nguyen, Xhavit Zogaj, Aanuoluwa A Adelani, Ping Chu, Jieh-Juen Yu, Bernard P Arulanandam, Karl E Klose
Pulmonary infection with the bacterium Francisella tularensis can lead to the serious and potentially fatal disease, tularemia, in humans. Due to the current lack of an approved tularemia vaccine for humans, research is focused on vaccine development utilizing appropriate animal models. The Fischer 344 rat has emerged as a model that reflects human susceptibility to F. tularensis infection, and thus is an attractive model for tularemia vaccine development. Intratracheal inoculation of the Fischer 344 rat with F...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994410/structure-of-the-conserved-francisella-virulence-protein-fvfa
#10
Subramania Kolappan, Karen Y Lo, Chiao Ling Jennifer Shen, Julian A Guttman, Lisa Craig
Francisella tularensis is a potent human pathogen that invades and survives in macrophage and epithelial cells. Two identical proteins, FTT_0924 from F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and FTL_1286 from F. tularensis subsp. holarctica LVS, have previously been identified as playing a role in protection of the bacteria from osmotic shock and its survival in macrophages. FTT_0924 has been shown to localize to the inner membrane, with its C-terminus exposed to the periplasm. Here, crystal structures of the F. novicida homologue FTN_0802, which we call FvfA, in two crystal forms are reported at 1...
October 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981682/francisella-like-endosymbiont-detected-in-haemaphysalis-ticks-acari-ixodidae-from-the-republic-of-korea
#11
Ratree Takhampunya, Heung-Chul Kim, Sung-Tae Chong, Achareeya Korkusol, Bousaraporn Tippayachai, Silas A Davidson, Jeannine M Petersen, Terry A Klein
A total of 6,255 ticks belonging to three genera and six species (Haemaphysalis flava Neumann, Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann, Haemaphysalis phasiana Saito, Ixodes nipponensis Kitaoka & Saito, Ixodes persulcatus Schulze, and Amblyomma testudinarium Koch) collected from May-August, 2013, at four southwestern provinces in the Republic of Korea (ROK) were submitted to the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences and assayed for selected tick-borne pathogens. One pool each of H. flava and H. phasiana was positive by PCR and sequencing for a Francisella-like endosymbiont, while all pools were negative for Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968459/ifn-%C3%AE-extends-the-immune-functions-of-guanylate-binding-proteins-to-inflammasome-independent-antibacterial-activities-during-francisella-novicida-infection
#12
Pierre Wallet, Sacha Benaoudia, Amandine Mosnier, Brice Lagrange, Amandine Martin, Helena Lindgren, Igor Golovliov, Fanny Michal, Pauline Basso, Sophia Djebali, Angelina Provost, Omran Allatif, Etienne Meunier, Petr Broz, Masahiro Yamamoto, Bénédicte F Py, Eric Faudry, Anders Sjöstedt, Thomas Henry
Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are interferon-inducible proteins involved in the cell-intrinsic immunity against numerous intracellular pathogens. The molecular mechanisms underlying the potent antibacterial activity of GBPs are still unclear. GBPs have been functionally linked to the NLRP3, the AIM2 and the caspase-11 inflammasomes. Two opposing models are currently proposed to explain the GBPs-inflammasome link: i) GBPs would target intracellular bacteria or bacteria-containing vacuoles to increase cytosolic PAMPs release ii) GBPs would directly facilitate inflammasome complex assembly...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968195/abiotic-and-biotic-contributors-to-support-inter-epidemic-francisella-tularensis-in-an-agricultural-peri-urban-environment
#13
Tara M Roth, Janet Foley, Stan Wright
To characterize the inter-epidemic ecology of Francisella tularensis, we surveyed vertebrates and invertebrates for the abundance, spatial distribution, and status of infection at a site in northern California that had evidence of endemic type B tularemia. We collected 2910 mosquitoes, 77 biting flies, 704 ticks, 115 mammals, and 1911 aquatic invertebrates in 2013-2014. Real-time PCR on all mosquitoes, 40 biting flies, 113 aquatic invertebrates, and 650 ticks did not detect F. tularensis DNA. Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on 109 mammals revealed 2 (of 2, 100%) seropositive feral cats, 1 (of 24, 4...
October 2, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956784/first-case-of-severe-pneumonic-tularemia-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-in-the-netherlands
#14
K C E Sigaloff, P K Chung, J Koopmans, D W Notermans, G G C van Rijckevorsel, M Koene, R W Sprengers, J Gooskens, J E Stalenhoef
Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by different subspecies of the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. We report the first case in the Netherlands of pneumonic tularemia caused by the F. tularensis subspecies holarctica after probable occupational inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Notification of cases of tularemia has been mandatory by law in the Netherlands since 1 November 2016.
September 2017: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955505/necroptotic-debris-including-damaged-mitochondria-elicits-sepsis-like-syndrome-during-late-phase-tularemia
#15
Anju Singh, Sivakumar Periasamy, Meenakshi Malik, Chandra Shekhar Bakshi, Laurie Stephen, Jeffrey G Ault, Carmen A Mannella, Timothy J Sellati
Infection with Francisella tularensis ssp. tularensis (Ft) strain SchuS4 causes an often lethal disease known as tularemia in rodents, non-human primates, and humans. Ft subverts host cell death programs to facilitate their exponential replication within macrophages and other cell types during early respiratory infection (⩽72 h). The mechanism(s) by which cell death is triggered remains incompletely defined, as does the impact of Ft on mitochondria, the host cell's organellar 'canary in a coal mine'. Herein, we reveal that Ft infection of host cells, particularly macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, drives necroptosis via a receptor-interacting protein kinase 1/3-mediated mechanism...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955308/ar-13-a-celecoxib-derivative-directly-kills-francisella-in-vitro-and-aids-clearance-and-mouse-survival-in-vivo
#16
Ky V Hoang, Haley E Adcox, James R Fitch, David M Gordon, Heather M Curry, Larry S Schlesinger, Peter White, John S Gunn
Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis) is the causative agent of tularemia and is classified as a Tier 1 select agent. No licensed vaccine is currently available in the United States and treatment of tularemia is confined to few antibiotics. In this study, we demonstrate that AR-13, a derivative of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib, exhibits direct in vitro bactericidal killing activity against Francisella including a type A strain of F. tularensis (SchuS4) and the live vaccine strain (LVS), as well as toward the intracellular proliferation of LVS in macrophages, without causing significant host cell toxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951422/hematopoietic-myd88-and-il-18-are-essential-for-ifn-%C3%AE-dependent-restriction-of-type-a-francisella-tularensis-infection
#17
Jerod A Skyberg, Carolyn A Lacey
Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious intracellular bacterium that causes the potentially fatal disease tularemia. We used mice with conditional MyD88 deficiencies to investigate cellular and molecular mechanisms by which MyD88 restricts type A F. tularensis infection. F. tularensis-induced weight loss was predominately dependent on MyD88 signaling in nonhematopoietic cells. In contrast, MyD88 signaling in hematopoietic cells, but not in myeloid and dendritic cells, was essential for control of F. tularensis infection in tissue...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947798/metagenomic-based-surveillance-of-pacific-coast-tick-dermacentor-occidentalis-identifies-two-novel-bunyaviruses-and-an-emerging-human-ricksettsial-pathogen
#18
Jerome Bouquet, Michael Melgar, Andrea Swei, Eric Delwart, Robert S Lane, Charles Y Chiu
An increasing number of emerging tick-borne diseases has been reported in the United States since the 1970s. Using metagenomic next generation sequencing, we detected nucleic acid sequences from 2 novel viruses in the family Bunyaviridae and an emerging human rickettsial pathogen, Rickettsia philipii, in a population of the Pacific Coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis in Mendocino County sampled annually from 2011 to 2014. A total of 250 adults of this human-biting, generalist tick were collected from contiguous chaparral and grassland habitats, and RNA from each individually extracted tick was deep sequenced to an average depth of 7...
September 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942292/tularaemia-in-european-brown-hares-lepus-europaeus-and-mountain-hares-lepus-timidus-characterized-by-histopathology-and-immunohistochemistry-organ-lesions-and-suggestions-of-routes-of-infection-and-shedding
#19
G Hestvik, H Uhlhorn, F Södersten, S Åkerström, E Karlsson, E Westergren, D Gavier-Widén
Tularaemia is an emerging zoonotic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. In Sweden, hares are considered to be key species in the epidemiology of tularaemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the pathology of natural tularaemia infection in European brown hares (EBHs) (Lepus europaeus) and mountain hares (MHs) (Lepus timidus) in Sweden, in order to better understand the presentation of disease and the routes of infection, body dissemination and shedding of F. tularensis...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912524/precise-insertion-and-guided-editing-of-higher-plant-genomes-using-cpf1-crispr-nucleases
#20
Matthew B Begemann, Benjamin N Gray, Emma January, Gina C Gordon, Yonghua He, Haijun Liu, Xingrong Wu, Thomas P Brutnell, Todd C Mockler, Mohammed Oufattole
Precise genome editing of plants has the potential to reshape global agriculture through the targeted engineering of endogenous pathways or the introduction of new traits. To develop a CRISPR nuclease-based platform that would enable higher efficiencies of precise gene insertion or replacement, we screened the Cpf1 nucleases from Francisella novicida and Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 for their capability to induce targeted gene insertion via homology directed repair. Both nucleases, in the presence of a guide RNA and repairing DNA template flanked by homology DNA fragments to the target site, were demonstrated to generate precise gene insertions as well as indel mutations at the target site in the rice genome...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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