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Djursun Karasartova, Ayse Semra Gureser, Tuncay Gokce, Bekir Celebi, Derya Yapar, Adem Keskin, Selim Celik, Yasemin Ece, Ali Kemal Erenler, Selma Usluca, Kosta Y Mumcuoglu, Aysegul Taylan-Ozkan
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases are increasing all over the word, including Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial and protozoan vector-borne pathogens in ticks infesting humans in the Corum province of Turkey. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March to November 2014 a total of 322 ticks were collected from patients who attended the local hospitals with tick bites. Ticks were screened by real time-PCR and PCR, and obtained amplicons were sequenced...
April 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kemalettin Özden, Ayşe Özden, Ayşe Albayrak, Zülal Özkurt, Hakan Döneray, Mehmet Parlak
Tularemia is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Francisella tularensis. Tularemia is endemic in the northern hemisphere and is usually seen in North America, Europe and Asia. Although the ulceroglandular tularemia is the most common form in these regions, the oropharyngeal form is more prevalent in Eastern Europe, including Turkey. The disease has importance in Turkey due to its wide geographic distribution and periodic outbreaks. The aim of this study was to determine the demographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of oropharyngeal tularemia patients...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Matthias Wittwer, Ekkehard Altpeter, Paola Pilo, Sebastian M Gygli, Christian Beuret, Frederic Foucault, Rahel Ackermann-Gäumann, Urs Karrer, Daniela Jacob, Roland Grunow, Nadia Schürch
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) methods provide new possibilities in the field of molecular epidemiology. This is particularly true for monomorphic organisms where the discriminatory power of traditional methods (e.g., restriction enzyme length polymorphism typing, multi locus sequence typing etc.) is inadequate to elucidate complex disease transmission patterns, as well as resolving the phylogeny at high resolution on a micro-geographic scale. In this study, we present insights into the population structure of Francisella tularensis subsp...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Bin Li, Chunxi Zeng, Yizhou Dong
Cpf1, a CRISPR endonuclease discovered in Prevotella and Francisella 1 bacteria, offers an alternative platform for CRISPR-based genome editing beyond the commonly used CRISPR-Cas9 system originally discovered in Streptococcus pyogenes. This protocol enables the design of engineered CRISPR-Cpf1 components, both CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) to guide the endonuclease and Cpf1 mRNAs to express the endonuclease protein, and provides experimental procedures for effective genome editing using this system. We also describe quantification of genome-editing activity and off-target effects of the engineered CRISPR-Cpf1 in human cell lines using both T7 endonuclease I (T7E1) assay and targeted deep sequencing...
May 2018: Nature Protocols
Barbara Mijuskovic, Benedikt Wiggli, Alexandre Kaempfen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
Elsa Prudent, Bernard La Scola, Michel Drancourt, Emmanouil Angelakis, Didier Raoult
Molecular methods have been considered to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of infectious lymphadenitis. However, culture remains critical in the case of low bacterial concentrations. We used molecular assays and culture to examine fresh lymph node biopsies from patients with suspected infectious lymphadenopathy. We analyzed 1762 lymph node biopsies of which 522 (30%) samples were found positive by real-time PCR; the most commonly amplified bacteria were Bartonella henselae (n = 438, 84%), Francisella tularensis (n = 46, 9%), and Mycobacterium spp...
March 29, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Hana Tlapák, Kristin Köppen, Kerstin Rydzewski, Roland Grunow, Klaus Heuner
We recently identified and described a putative prophage on the genomic island FhaGI-1 located within the genome of Francisella hispaniensis AS02-814 ( F. tularensis subsp. novicida -like 3523). In this study, we constructed two variants of a Francisella phage integration vector, called pFIV1-Val and pFIV2-Val ( Francisella Integration Vector-tRNAVal -specific), using the attL/R- sites and the site-specific integrase (FN3523_1033) of FhaGI-1, a chloramphenicol resistance cassette and a sacB gene for counter selection of transformants against the vector backbone...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Tomasz Chmielewski, Beata Fiecek, Grażyna Lewandowska, Waldemar Rastawicki, Stanisława Tylewska-Wierzbanowska
Introduction: Tularemia and spotted fever group rickettsioses (SFG) can be transmitted by ticks and have a number of common clinical symptoms. Most characteristic are a maculopapular or vesicular rash or an eschar at the site of the tick or insect bite accompanied by painful lymph nodes. The aim of this study was to determine whether Rickettsia spp./ Francisella tularensis mixed infections occurred in patients with similar symptoms who were diagnosed with either Rickettsia spp. or F. tularensis infection...
March 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Anne Busch, Prasad Thomas, Eric Zuchantke, Holger Brendebach, Kerstin Neubert, Josephine Gruetzke, Sascha Al Dahouk, Martin Peters, Helmut Hotzel, Heinrich Neubauer, Herbert Tomaso
Francisella ( F. ) tularensis is a highly virulent, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. Here, we generated, analyzed and characterized a high quality circular genome sequence of the F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strain 12T0050 that caused fatal tularemia in a hare. Besides the genomic structure, we focused on the analysis of oriC, unique to the Francisella genus and regulating replication in and outside hosts and the first report on genomic DNA methylation of a Francisella strain...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sarah J Coates, Benjamin Briggs, Kelly M Cordoro
Tularemia is a rare and potentially life-threatening infection caused by the highly infectious gram-negative coccobacillus Francisella tularensis. We present the case of an 11-year old girl who presented with erythema multiforme minor in the setting of an indolent but progressive soft tissue infection and was found to have tularemia. We review the role of dermatologists in identifying the features of and complications associated with this rare zoonosis and discuss the potential effect of climate change on its incidence...
March 26, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
G V Gioia, R L Vinueza, M Marsot, E Devillers, M Cruz, E Petit, H J Boulouis, S Moutailler, F Monroy, M A Coello, M Gondard, L Bournez, N Haddad, G Zanella
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the species of Anaplasma spp. and estimate its prevalence in cattle of the three main cattle-producing Galapagos Islands (Santa Cruz, San Cristóbal and Isabela) using indirect PCR assays, genetic sequencing and ELISA. Ticks were also collected from cattle and scanned for 47 tick-borne pathogens in a 48 × 48 real-time PCR chip. A mixed effects logistic regression was performed to identify potential risk factors explaining Anaplasma infection in cattle. A...
March 22, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Arzu Karlı, Gülnar Şensoy, Şule Paksu, Muhammet Furkan Korkmaz, Ömer Ertuğrul, Rıfat Karlı
Purpose: Tularemia is an infection caused by Francisella tularensis . Its diagnosis and treatment may be difficult in many cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate treatment modalities for pediatric tularemia patients who do not respond to medical treatment. Methods: A single-center, retrospective study was performed. A total of 19 children with oropharyngeal tularemia were included. Results: Before diagnosis, the duration of symptoms in patients was 32...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Qifan Zhu, Si Ming Man, Rajendra Karki, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Interferons (IFNs) and inflammasomes are essential mediators of anti-microbial immunity. Type I IFN signaling drives activation of the AIM2 inflammasome in macrophages; however, the relative contribution of IFNs and inflammasome responses in host defense is less understood. We report intact AIM2 inflammasome responses in mice lacking type I IFN signaling during infection with F. novicida. Lack of type I IFN signaling conferred protection to F. novicida infection in contrast to the increased susceptibility in AIM2-deficient mice...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Taylor C Stevenson, Colette Cywes-Bentley, Tyler D Moeller, Kevin B Weyant, David Putnam, Yung-Fu Chang, Bradley D Jones, Gerald B Pier, Matthew P DeLisa
Many microbial pathogens produce a β-(1→6)-linked poly- N -acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) surface capsule, including bacterial, fungal, and protozoan cells. Broadly protective immune responses to this single conserved polysaccharide antigen in animals are possible but only when a deacetylated poly- N -acetyl-d-glucosamine (dPNAG; <30% acetate) glycoform is administered as a conjugate to a carrier protein. Unfortunately, conventional methods for natural extraction or chemical synthesis of dPNAG and its subsequent conjugation to protein carriers can be technically demanding and expensive...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
A S Varela-Stokes, S H Park, J V Stokes, N A Gavron, S I Lee, G M Moraru, S C Ricke
Our objective of this study was to explore the bacterial microbiome in fresh or fresh-frozen adult Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast ticks) using extracts enriched for microbial DNA. We collected 100 questing adult A. maculatum, surface disinfected them, and extracted DNA from individual ticks collected the same day or after storage at -80 °C. Because only extracts with microbial DNA concentrations above 2 ng/μL were considered suitable for individual analysis, we expected fewer samples to meet these requirements...
March 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Kyungjin Min, Hyunjun Yoon, Inseong Jo, Nam-Chul Ha, Kyeong Sik Jin, Jin-Soo Kim, Hyung Ho Lee
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) from Prevotella and Francisella 1 (Cpf1) are RNA-guided endonucleases that produce cohesive double-stranded breaks in DNA by specifically recognizing thymidine-rich protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) sequences. Cpf1 is emerging as a powerful genome-editing tool. Despite previous structural studies on various Cpf1 proteins, the apo-structure of Cpf1 remains unknown. In the present study, we determined the solution structure of the Cpf1 protein from Francisella novicida (FnCpf1) with and without CRISPR RNA (crRNA) using small-angle X-ray scattering, providing the insights into the apo-structure of FnCpf1...
March 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
F Ehrensperger, L Riederer, A Friedl
A female jogger was attacked by a common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and was scratched lightly at the back of the head. One week later she was taken ill with high fever and headache which was later diagnosed as ulcero-glandular tularemia in regional lymph nodes, caused by Francisella tularensis. Recovery was only achieved after several weeks of systemic antibiotic treatment (Gentamicin/ Ciprofloxacine). Tularemia is a well known zoonotic disease, called "rabbit fever", mainly affecting rabbits and hares, but also small rodents...
March 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Eric Jesteadt, Irma Zhang, Huifeng Yu, Anda Meierovics, Wei-Jen Chua Yankelevich, Siobhan Cowley
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an innate T cell subset that expresses a semi-invariant Vα chain paired with limited Vβ chains. MAIT cells are activated by riboflavin metabolite derivatives presented by MR1. The precise mechanisms required to activate MAIT cells are an area of intense interest. Here we used two closely related intracellular pathogens with distinct inflammasome activation phenotypes to probe the role of innate cytokines in MAIT cell activation. Using an in vitro assay containing transgenic murine MAIT cells, we show that macrophages infected with Francisella novicida , a strong inflammasome activator, released high levels of IL-18 and stimulated high levels of MAIT cell IFN-γ through a partially MR1-independent pathway...
March 5, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Mirko Faber, Klaus Heuner, Daniela Jacob, Roland Grunow
Tularemia, also known as "rabbit fever," is a zoonosis caused by the facultative intracellular, gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis . Infection occurs through contact with infected animals (often hares), arthropod vectors (such as ticks or deer flies), inhalation of contaminated dust or through contaminated food and water. In this review, we would like to provide an overview of the current epidemiological situation in Germany using published studies and case reports, an analysis of recent surveillance data and our own experience from the laboratory diagnostics, and investigation of cases...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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