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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532598/crispr-cpf1-a-new-tool-for-plant-genome-editing
#1
Syed Shan-E-Ali Zaidi, Magdy M Mahfouz, Shahid Mansoor
Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas), a groundbreaking genome-engineering tool, has facilitated targeted trait improvement in plants. Recently, CRISPR-CRISPR from Prevotella and Francisella 1 (Cpf1) has emerged as a new tool for efficient genome editing, including DNA-free editing in plants, with higher efficiency, specificity, and potentially wider applications than CRISPR-Cas9.
May 19, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529959/getting-inside-type-i-ifns-type-i-ifns-in-intracellular-bacterial-infections
#2
REVIEW
Deann T Snyder, Jodi F Hedges, Mark A Jutila
Type I interferons represent a unique and complex group of cytokines, serving many purposes during innate and adaptive immunity. Discovered in the context of viral infections, type I IFNs are now known to have myriad effects in infectious and autoimmune disease settings. Type I IFN signaling during bacterial infections is dependent on many factors including whether the infecting bacterium is intracellular or extracellular, as different signaling pathways are activated. As such, the repercussions of type I IFN induction can positively or negatively impact the disease outcome...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511911/sulfonamide-inhibition-profiles-of-the-%C3%AE-carbonic-anhydrase-from-the-pathogenic-bacterium-francisella-tularensis-responsible-of-the-febrile-illness-tularemia
#3
Sonia Del Prete, Daniela Vullo, Sameh M Osman, Zeid AlOthman, Claudiu T Supuran, Clemente Capasso
A new β-class carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) has been cloned, purified and characterized in the genome of the pathogenic bacterium Francisella tularensis responsible of the febrile illness tularemia. This enzyme, FtuβCA, showed a kcat of 9.8 ×10(5)s(-1) and a kcat/KM of 8.9 ×10(7)M(-1)s(-1) for the CO2 hydration, physiological reaction, being one of the most effective β-CAs known to date, with a catalytic activity only 1.68-times lower than that of the human(h) isoform hCA II. A panel of 39 simple aromatic and heterocyclic sulfonamides, as well as clinically used drugs incorporating sulfonamide/sulfamate zinc-binding groups, was used to investigate the inhibition profile of FtuβCA with these classes of derivatives...
May 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504633/-tick-borne-infections-in-denmark
#4
Bo Bødker Jensen, Lukas Frans Ocias, Nanna Skaarup Andersen, Ram Benny Dessau, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Sigurdur Skarphedinsson
The castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus, is common in woodlands in most of Denmark. Besides Borrelia burgdorferi, it can harbour a number of pathogenic microorganisms such as tick-borne encephalitis virus, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Francisella tularensis, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Bartonella spp., Borrelia miyamotoi and Babesia spp. These tick-borne infections should be a differential diagnostic consideration during the tick season in Denmark. We review the distribution, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of these microorganisms...
May 15, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503372/endosymbiont-interference-and-microbial-diversity-of-the-pacific-coast-tick-dermacentor-occidentalis-in-san-diego-county-california
#5
Nikos Gurfield, Saran Grewal, Lynnie S Cua, Pedro J Torres, Scott T Kelley
The Pacific coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, is found throughout California and can harbor agents that cause human diseases such as anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and rickettsiosis 364D. Previous studies have demonstrated that nonpathogenic endosymbiotic bacteria can interfere with Rickettsia co-infections in other tick species. We hypothesized that within D. occidentalis ticks, interference may exist between different nonpathogenic endosymbiotic or nonendosymbiotic bacteria and Spotted Fever group Rickettsia (SFGR)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502642/molecular-detection-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-wild-red-foxes-vulpes-vulpes-from-central-italy
#6
Valentina Virginia Ebani, Guido Rocchigiani, Simona Nardoni, Fabrizio Bertelloni, Violetta Vasta, Roberto Amerigo Papini, Ranieri Verin, Alessandro Poli, Francesca Mancianti
Spleen samples from 153 red foxes, shot during regular hunting season in the province of Pisa (Central Italy), were examined to detect DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia sp./Theileria sp. DNA of vector-borne pathogens was detected in 120 (78.43%; 95% CI: 71.06-84.66%) foxes. Specifically, 75 (49%; 95% CI: 40.86-57.22%) animals scored PCR-positive per H. canis, 68 (44.44%; 95% CI: 36.42-52.69%) for E. canis, 35 (22.88%; 95% CI: 16...
May 11, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486521/the-potential-for-flower-nectar-to-allow-mosquito-to-mosquito-transmission-of-francisella-tularensis
#7
Adam Kenney, Austin Cusick, Jessica Payne, Anna Gaughenbaugh, Andrea Renshaw, Jenna Wright, Roger Seeber, Rebecca Barnes, Aleksandr Florjanczyk, Joseph Horzempa
Francisella tularensis is disseminated in nature by biting arthropods such as mosquitoes. The relationship between mosquitoes and F. tularensis in nature is highly ambiguous, due in part to the fact that mosquitoes have caused significant tularemia outbreaks despite being classified as a mechanical vector of F. tularensis. One possible explanation for mosquitoes being a prominent, yet mechanical vector is that these insects feed on flower nectar between blood meals, allowing for transmission of F. tularensis between mosquitoes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480295/variation-in-tularemia-clinical-manifestations-arkansas-2009-2013
#8
Laura K Lester Rothfeldt, Richard F Jacobs, J Gary Wheeler, Susan Weinstein, Dirk T Haselow
BACKGROUND: Francisella tularensis, although naturally occurring in Arkansas, is also a Tier 1 select agent and potential bioterrorism threat. As such, tularemia is nationally notifiable and mandatorily reported to the Arkansas Department of Health. We examined demographic and clinical characteristics among reported cases and outcomes to improve understanding of the epidemiology of tularemia in Arkansas. METHODS: Surveillance records on all tularemia cases investigated during 2009-2013 were reviewed...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469274/crispr-cpf1-assisted-genome-editing-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#9
Yu Jiang, Fenghui Qian, Junjie Yang, Yingmiao Liu, Feng Dong, Chongmao Xu, Bingbing Sun, Biao Chen, Xiaoshu Xu, Yan Li, Renxiao Wang, Sheng Yang
Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial metabolite producer that is difficult to genetically engineer. Although the Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp) CRISPR-Cas9 system has been adapted for genome editing of multiple bacteria, it cannot be introduced into C. glutamicum. Here we report a Francisella novicida (Fn) CRISPR-Cpf1-based genome-editing method for C. glutamicum. CRISPR-Cpf1, combined with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering, precisely introduces small changes into the bacterial genome at efficiencies of 86-100%...
May 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466800/-tularaemia-in-a-boy-following-participation-in-a-mud-race
#10
M Zijlstra, C C C Hulsker, E B Fanoy, R Pijnacker, A Kraaijeveld, M G J Koene, T F W Wolfs
BACKGROUND: Tularaemia is a rare disease. In Europe it mostly occurs in Scandinavia. Since 2011 more cases are being reported in the Netherlands. Tularaemia may manifest itself in various ways. It is important to take strict precautions during biopsy, drainage and biopsy processing in order to prevent transmission. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 10-year-old boy presented to the paediatrician with a left inguinal lymphadenitis. A week before the onset of symptoms he had participated in a children's mud race...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451378/plant-genome-editing-with-talen-and-crispr
#11
REVIEW
Aimee Malzahn, Levi Lowder, Yiping Qi
Genome editing promises giant leaps forward in advancing biotechnology, agriculture, and basic research. The process relies on the use of sequence specific nucleases (SSNs) to make DNA double stranded breaks at user defined genomic loci, which are subsequently repaired by two main DNA repair pathways: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology directed repair (HDR). NHEJ can result in frameshift mutations that often create genetic knockouts. These knockout lines are useful for functional and reverse genetic studies but also have applications in agriculture...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449216/molecular-detection-of-francisella-noatunensis-subsp-orientalis-in-cultured-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-l-in-three-brazilian-states
#12
F A Sebastião, F Pilarski, M T Kearney, E Soto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443249/francisella-tularensis-susceptibility-to-antibiotics-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-data-obtained-in-vitro-and-in-animal-models
#13
REVIEW
Yvan Caspar, Max Maurin
The antibiotic classes that are recommended for tularaemia treatment are the aminoglycosides, the fluoroquinolones and the tetracyclines. However, cure rates vary between 60 and 100% depending on the antibiotic used, the time to appropriate antibiotic therapy setup and its duration, and the presence of complications, such as lymph node suppuration. Thus, antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of F. tularensis strains remains of primary importance for detection of the emergence of antibiotic resistances to first-line drugs, and to test new therapeutic alternatives...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437093/a-pathogen-specific-cargo-delivery-platform-based-on-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles
#14
Bastian Ruehle, Daniel L Clemens, Bai-Yu Lee, Marcus A Horwitz, Jeffrey I Zink
We present a synthetic approach to a highly pathogen-selective detection and delivery platform based on the interaction of an antibody nanovalve with a tetrasaccharide from the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Francisella tularensis bacteria, a Tier 1 Select Agent of bioterrorism. Different design considerations are explored, and proof-of-concept for highly pathogen-specific cargo release from mesoporous silica nanoparticles is demonstrated by comparisons of the release of a signal transducer and model drug by LPS from F...
May 5, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431230/structural-basis-for-guide-rna-processing-and-seed-dependent-dna-targeting-by-crispr-cas12a
#15
Daan C Swarts, John van der Oost, Martin Jinek
The CRISPR-associated protein Cas12a (Cpf1), which has been repurposed for genome editing, possesses two distinct nuclease activities: endoribonuclease activity for processing its own guide RNAs and RNA-guided DNase activity for target DNA cleavage. To elucidate the molecular basis of both activities, we determined crystal structures of Francisella novicida Cas12a bound to guide RNA and in complex with an R-loop formed by a non-cleavable guide RNA precursor and a full-length target DNA. Corroborated by biochemical experiments, these structures reveal the mechanisms of guide RNA processing and pre-ordering of the seed sequence in the guide RNA that primes Cas12a for target DNA binding...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421167/iron-and-virulence-in-francisella-tularensis
#16
REVIEW
Girija Ramakrishnan
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects a variety of cell types including macrophages, and propagates with great efficiency in the cytoplasm. Iron, essential for key enzymatic and redox reactions, is among the nutrients required to support this pathogenic lifestyle and the bacterium relies on specialized mechanisms to acquire iron within the host environment. Two distinct pathways for iron acquisition are encoded by the F. tularensis genome- a siderophore-dependent ferric iron uptake system and a ferrous iron transport system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418764/disease-surveillance-of-california-ground-squirrels-spermophilus-beecheyi-in-a-drive-through-zoo-in-oregon-usa
#17
Julia Ter Beest, Andrew Cushing, Modesto McClean, Wendy Hsu, Robert Bildfell
Rodents and other small wild mammals are often considered to be pests and vectors for disease in zoos that house small populations of valuable threatened and endangered animals. In 2005, three nonhuman primates at a drive-through zoo in Oregon, USA, acquired tularemia from an unknown source. Due to an abundance of California ground squirrels ( Spermophilus beecheyi ) on zoo grounds, we instituted serosurveillance of this species from July through September 2008 to determine the prevalence of antibodies against pathogens considered to be potentially transmissible to collection animals...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405072/tularemia-presenting-as-pulmonary-nodules-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#18
Tony Alias, Mohammad Kazem Fallahzadeh, Mezgebe Berhe
Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis that can be transmitted to humans when they handle rabbits, receive tick bites, consume contaminated water, or inhale aerosolized particles. We present the case of a 51-year-old white man with rheumatoid arthritis who was taking immunosuppressive medications and presented with tularemia. Our patient acquired the typhoidal form of tularemia, which is a severe systemic illness that manifests with fevers, headaches, myalgias, vomiting, diarrhea, and neurological symptoms, due to his immunocompromised state...
April 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402703/molecular-detection-of-francisella-spp-among-ticks-attached-to-camels-in-egypt
#19
Nahed H Ghoneim, Khaled A Abdel-Moein, Hala M Zaher
This study was conducted to investigate the possible role of camels and attached ticks in the epidemiology of Francisella spp. including Francisella tularensis. For this purpose, a total of 319 ticks (248 Hyalomma dromedarii and 71 Amblyomma spp.) as well as 100 blood and 50 fecal samples collected from camels were screened for the presence of Francisella spp. by PCR through amplification of Francisella 16S rRNA gene. Positive samples were then tested for F. tularensis by PCR. In addition, serum samples from 75 camel abattoir workers were examined for the presence of IgG antibodies against F...
April 12, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401066/importance-of-metabolic-adaptations-in-francisella-pathogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Jason Ziveri, Monique Barel, Alain Charbit
Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. This bacterial pathogen can infect a broad variety of animal species and can be transmitted to humans in numerous ways with various clinical outcomes. Although, Francisella possesses the capacity to infect numerous mammalian cell types, the macrophage constitutes the main intracellular niche, used for in vivo bacterial dissemination. To survive and multiply within infected macrophages, Francisella must imperatively escape from the phagosomal compartment...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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