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Travel medicine and respiratory diseases

Dilip R Karnad, Guy A Richards, Gisele Sampaio Silva, Pravin Amin
Tropical infections form 20-30% of ICU admissions in tropical countries. Diarrheal diseases, malaria, dengue, typhoid, rickettsial diseases and leptospirosis are common causes of critical illness. Overlapping clinical features makes initial diagnosis challenging. A systematic approach involving (1) history of specific continent or country of travel, (2) exposure to specific environments (forests or farms, water sports, consumption of exotic foods), (3) incubation period, and (4) pattern of organ involvement and subtle differences in manifestations help in differential diagnosis and choice of initial empiric therapy...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Dilip R Karnad, Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Severe malaria is common in tropical countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South and Central America. It may also occur in travelers returning from endemic areas. Plasmodium falciparum accounts for most cases, although P vivax is increasingly found to cause severe malaria in Asia. Cerebral malaria is common in children in Africa, manifests as coma and seizures, and has a high morbidity and mortality. In other regions, adults may also develop cerebral malaria but neurological sequelae in survivors are rare...
February 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Chelsea Bockelman, Thomas C Frawley, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Mumps is a Paramyxoviridae virus. This disease was rampant prior to introduction of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, resulting in decreased incidence. This disease has demonstrated several outbreaks. OBJECTIVE: This review provides a focused evaluation of mumps, an update on outbreaks, management recommendations, and ways to decrease transmission. DISCUSSION: Clusters of mumps outbreaks continue to occur. The virus is a paramyxovirus, a single-stranded RNA virus...
February 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Varol Tunalı, Nevin Turgay
Travel medicine defines all diseases and medical situations that are related to travel. Travel medicine comprises infectious diseases, traumas, altitude sickness, sun burns, embolisms, jet lag, and many more travel-related situations. With the increasing possibility and ease of travel, the number of people who have travelled internationally has exceeded 1.13 billion in 2014, and the revenues of international travel have exceeded 1.25 trillion dollars. With every passing day, international travels are shifting toward the developing countries and to more exotic regions of the world, and travelers tend to be more adventurous and daring, thereby increasing risky behaviors during travels...
June 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
José Luis Pérez-Arellano, Miguel Górgolas-Hernández-Mora, Fernando Salvador, Cristina Carranza-Rodríguez, Germán Ramírez-Olivencia, Esteban Martín-Echeverría, Azucena Rodríguez-Guardado, Francesca Norman, Virginia Velasco-Tirado, Zuriñe Zubero-Sulibarría, Gerardo Rojo-Marcos, José Muñoz-Gutierrez, José Manuel Ramos-Rincón, M Paz Sánchez-Seco-Fariñas, María Velasco-Arribas, Moncef Belhassen-García, Mar Lago-Nuñez, Elías Cañas García-Otero, Rogelio López-Vélez
In a global world, knowledge of imported infectious diseases is essential in daily practice, both for the microbiologist-parasitologist and the clinician who diagnoses and treats infectious diseases in returned travelers. Tropical and subtropical countries where there is a greater risk of contracting an infectious disease are among the most frequently visited tourist destinations. The SEIMC considers it appropriate to produce a consensus document that will be useful to primary care physicians as well as specialists in internal medicine, infectious diseases and tropical medicine who help treat travelers returning from tropical and sub-tropical areas with infections...
April 7, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
M Goeijenbier, P van Genderen, B J Ward, A Wilder-Smith, R Steffen, A D M E Osterhaus
BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses are among the major causes of serious human respiratory tract infection worldwide. In line with the high disease burden attributable to influenza, these viruses play an important, but often neglected, role in travel medicine. Guidelines and recommendations regarding prevention and management of influenza in travellers are scarce. Of special interest for travel medicine are risk populations and also circumstances that facilitate influenza virus transmission and spread, like travel by airplane or cruise ship and mass gatherings...
January 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
Farah Jazuli, Terence Lynd, Jordan Mah, Michael Klowak, Dale Jechel, Stefanie Klowak, Howard Ovens, Sam Sabbah, Andrea K Boggild
BACKGROUND: Fever in the returned traveller is a potential medical emergency warranting prompt attention to exclude life-threatening illnesses. However, prolonged evaluation in the emergency department (ED) may not be required for all patients. As a quality improvement initiative, we implemented an algorithm for rapid assessment of febrile travelers (RAFT) in an ambulatory setting. METHODS: Criteria for RAFT referral include: presentation to the ED, reported fever and travel to the tropics or subtropics within the past year...
July 29, 2016: BMJ Open
Jessica K Fairley, Phyllis E Kozarsky, Colleen S Kraft, Jeannette Guarner, James P Steinberg, Evan Anderson, Jesse T Jacob, Patrick Meloy, Darria Gillespie, Tamara R Espinoza, Alexander Isakov, Sharon Vanairsdale, Esther Baker, Henry M Wu
Background.  The 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa had global impact beyond the primarily affected countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Other countries, including the United States, encountered numerous patients who arrived from highly affected countries with fever or other signs or symptoms consistent with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Methods.  We describe our experience evaluating 25 travelers who met the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for a person under investigation (PUI) for EVD from July 20, 2014 to January 28, 2015...
January 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Kristofer J Spurling, Ian K Moonsie, Joseph L Perks
BACKGROUND: Patients with respiratory disease are at risk of excessive hypoxemia in the hypobaric commercial aircraft cabin environment, and the consensus is that this is easily corrected with supplementary oxygen. However, despite the risks of hypercapnia with increasing inspired oxygen in some patients being well established, this issue is not currently addressed in medical guidelines for air travel. CASE REPORT: A 76-yr-old woman with chronic type 2 respiratory failure underwent hypoxic challenge testing (HCT) to assess in-flight oxygen requirements...
February 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Ewan B Macdonald, Shrijana Shrestha, Mahendra Kashari Chhetri, Lahkpa Rangdu Sherpa, Da Gelje Sherpa, Keith Murray, Kaveh A Sanati
Much of the research in high-altitude medicine has been concerned with non-indigenous travellers; no study has examined the work-related health issues of high altitude mountain guides (Sherpas) in Nepal. This pilot study was performed to investigate the work-related health issues of people working as Sherpas by evaluating their perceptions of their general health and its relation to work. An occupational and general health questionnaire was tailored for the Sherpas following a focus group with five Sherpa workers...
2015: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Jianjun Gao, Peipei Song
Three years after the identification of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia, the first case of MERS in China was reported on May 29, 2015. Although the Chinese government issued the MERS Prevention and Control Plan in 2013, a novel edition was released on June 5, 2015 to better cope with the current epidemic situation. The revised Plan refines the descriptions in case-finding and establishment of case-monitoring systems. In addition, tougher regulations on close contacts of confirmed patients and suspected cases are introduced in this new Plan...
June 2015: Bioscience Trends
Andrea K Boggild, Douglas H Esposito, Phyllis E Kozarsky, Vernon Ansdell, Nicholas J Beeching, Daniel Campion, Francesco Castelli, Eric Caumes, Francois Chappuis, Jakob P Cramer, Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas, Martin P Grobusch, Stefan H F Hagmann, Noreen A Hynes, Poh Lian Lim, Rogelio López-Vélez, Denis J M Malvy, Marc Mendelson, Philippe Parola, Mark J Sotir, Henry M Wu, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: The largest-ever outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), ongoing in West Africa since late 2013, has led to export of cases to Europe and North America. Clinicians encountering ill travelers arriving from countries with widespread Ebola virus transmission must be aware of alternate diagnoses associated with fever and other nonspecific symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To define the spectrum of illness observed in persons returning from areas of West Africa where EVD transmission has been widespread...
June 2, 2015: Annals of Internal Medicine
Steven Van Den Broucke, Kirezi Kanobana, Katja Polman, Patrick Soentjens, Marc Vekemans, Caroline Theunissen, Erika Vlieghe, Marjan Van Esbroeck, Jan Jacobs, Erwin Van Den Enden, Jef Van Den Ende, Alfons Van Gompel, Jan Clerinx, Emmanuel Bottieau
Although infection with Toxocara canis or T. catis (commonly referred as toxocariasis) appears to be highly prevalent in (sub)tropical countries, information on its frequency and presentation in returning travelers and migrants is scarce. In this study, we reviewed all cases of asymptomatic and symptomatic toxocariasis diagnosed during post-travel consultations at the reference travel clinic of the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. Toxocariasis was considered as highly probable if serum Toxocara-antibodies were detected in combination with symptoms of visceral larva migrans if present, elevated eosinophil count in blood or other relevant fluid and reasonable exclusion of alternative diagnosis, or definitive in case of documented seroconversion...
March 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
A S Alqahtani, H Rashid, A E Heywood
The transmission of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) is very high among the Hajj congregation in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Despite recommendations for vaccinations, pilgrims remain at increased risk of RTIs. In this paper we systematically reviewed available studies assessing the uptake and effectiveness of vaccinations against RTIs among Hajj pilgrims and enumerated important demographic factors, if described, associated with vaccine uptake. Of the 42 included studies, 29 reported on the uptake and effectiveness of influenza vaccine among pilgrims, eight studies reported the uptake of other vaccines, notably pneumococcal, diphtheria and bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccines, and the remaining five studies described both influenza and non-influenza vaccines...
February 2015: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Patricia Schlagenhauf, Leisa Weld, Abraham Goorhuis, Philippe Gautret, Rainer Weber, Frank von Sonnenburg, Rogelio Lopez-Vélez, Mogens Jensenius, Jakob P Cramer, Vanessa K Field, Silvia Odolini, Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas, Francois Chappuis, Denis Malvy, Perry J J van Genderen, Frank Mockenhaupt, Stéphane Jauréguiberry, Catherine Smith, Nicholas J Beeching, Johan Ursing, Christophe Rapp, Philippe Parola, Martin P Grobusch
BACKGROUND: Travel is important in the acquisition and dissemination of infection. We aimed to assess European surveillance data for travel-related illness to profile imported infections, track trends, identify risk groups, and assess the usefulness of pre-travel advice. METHODS: We analysed travel-associated morbidity in ill travellers presenting at EuroTravNet sites during the 5-year period of 2008-12. We calculated proportionate morbidity per 1000 ill travellers and made comparisons over time and between subgroups...
January 2015: Lancet Infectious Diseases
H F Geerdes-Fenge
Respiratory infections are responsible for up to 11% of febrile infections in travellers or immigrants from tropical and subtropical regions. The main pathogens are the same as in temperate climate zones: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, influenza viruses, Legionella pneumophila. However, some pulmonary diseases can be attributed to bacterial, parasitic, viral or fungal pathogens that are endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. The most commonly imported infections are malaria, dengue, and tuberculosis...
October 2014: Pneumologie
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Ziad A Memish
The importation of infectious diseases during a mass gathering may result in outbreaks. Infectious diseases associated with mass gatherings vary depending on the type and location of the mass gathering. The annual Hajj to Makkah in Saudi Arabia is one of the largest annual religious mass gatherings in the world. Preparation for the Hajj encompasses multiple sectors to develop comprehensive plans. These plans include risk assessment, utilizing existing medical infrastructure, developing electronic and paper-based surveillance activity, and the use of information technology...
October 2014: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Alimuddin Zumla, Ziad A Memish
The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and of the Middle East Syndrome Cornavirus (MERS-CoV) caused widespread fear and concern for their potential threat to global health security. There are similarities and differences in the epidemiology and clinical features between these two diseases. The origin of SARS-COV and MERS-CoV is thought to be an animal source with subsequent transmission to humans. The identification of both the intermediate host and the exact route of transmission of MERS-CoV is crucial for the subsequent prevention of the introduction of the virus into the human population...
September 2014: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
S J Chung, M L Ling, W H Seto, B S Ang, P A Tambyah
Since the emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in mid-2012, there has been controversy over the respiratory precaution recommendations in different guidelines from various international bodies. Our understanding of MERS-CoV is still evolving. Current recommendations on infection control practices are heavily influenced by the lessons learnt from severe acute respiratory syndrome. A debate on respiratory precautions for MERS-CoV was organised by Infection Control Association (Singapore) and the Society of Infectious Disease (Singapore)...
June 2014: Singapore Medical Journal
Olivier Aoun, Cédric Roqueplo, Christophe Rapp
BACKGROUND: More than 15 000 French soldiers are continuously deployed abroad. Along with combat-related injuries, they are exposed to non-combat-related diseases with an underestimated burden. Our objectives were to assess the incidence and impact of health problems on their operating capacity. METHODS: A prospective multicenter study was conducted over more than three months in Lebanon, Côte d'Ivoire and Afghanistan including exclusively French soldiers. RESULTS: We collected 4349 consultations (Afghanistan {n = 719}, Lebanon {n = 1401} and Côte d'Ivoire {n = 2229}) encompassing 4600 health problems...
July 2014: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
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