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Russell J Brooke, Mirjam Ee Kretzschmar, Volker Hackert, Christian Jpa Hoebe, Peter Fm Teunis, Lance A Waller
We develop a novel approach to study an outbreak of Q fever in 2009 in the Netherlands by combining a human dose-response model with geostatistics prediction to relate probability of infection and associated probability of illness to an effective dose of Coxiella burnetii. The spatial distribution of the 220 notified cases in the at-risk population are translated into a smooth spatial field of dose. Based on these symptomatic cases, the dose-response model predicts a median of 611 asymptomatic infections (95% range 410 to 1,084) for the 220 reported symptomatic cases in the at-risk population; 2...
October 19, 2016: Epidemiology
Jing-Jing Khoo, Fang-Shiang Lim, Fezshin Chen, Wai-Hong Phoon, Chee-Sieng Khor, Brian L Pike, Li-Yen Chang, Sazaly AbuBakar
Recent studies have shown that ticks harbor Coxiella-like bacteria, which are potentially tick-specific endosymbionts. We recently described the detection of Coxiella-like bacteria and possibly Coxiella burnetii in ticks found from rural areas in Malaysia. In the present study, we collected ticks, including Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Haemaphysalis hystricis, Dermacentor compactus, Dermacentor steini, and Amblyomma sp. from wildlife and domesticated goats from four different locations in Malaysia. Coxiella 16s rRNA genomic sequences were detected by PCR in 89% of ticks tested...
October 20, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
I Ivić, I Božić, D Ledina
Coxiella burnetii is capable of causing a variety of acute and chronic infections. We present a case of pericarditis with serologically confirmed chronic C. burnetii infection. This case report emphasises the justification of serological testing for chronic C. burnetii infection in patients with prolonged or recurrent pericarditis, particularly in countries endemic for C. burnetii infection.
October 2016: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Liangliang Xiang, Błażej Poźniak, Tian-Yin Cheng
Tick-borne diseases are a major epidemiological problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial composition of saliva obtained from engorged adult Rhipicephalus microplus females. Saliva samples collected from partially or fully engorged adult female ticks were analysed using an ultra-high-throughput Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing system. To elucidate the possible routes of bacterial transmission, the bacterial flora from whole ticks were also investigated. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were the predominant phyla in all samples, and Acinetobacter, Rickettsia, Escherichia and Coxiella were the major genera...
October 15, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Laura Schoenlaub, Rama Cherla, Yan Zhang, Guoquan Zhang
Our recent study demonstrated that virulent Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile phase I (NMI) is capable of infecting and replicating within peritoneal B1a cells and that B1a cells play an important role in host defense against C. burnetii infection in mice. However, it remains unknown if avirulent Nine Mile phase II (NMII) can infect and replicate in B1a cells and whether NMI and NMII can differentially interact with B1a cells. In this study, we examined if NMI and NMII can differentially modulate host cell apoptotic signaling in B1a cells...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Felipe Rodrigues de Souza, Ana Paula Guimarães, Teobaldo Cuya, Matheus Puggina de Freitas, Arlan da Silva Gonçalves, Pat Forgione, Tanos Celmar Costa França
Coxiella burnetii is a gram-negative bacterium able to infect several eukaryotic cells, mainly monocytes and macrophages. It is found widely in nature with ticks, birds, and mammals as major hosts. C. burnetii is also the biological warfare agent that causes Q fever, a disease that has no vaccine or proven chemotherapy available. Considering the current geopolitical context, this fact reinforces the need for discovering new treatments and molecular targets for drug design against C. burnetii. Among the main molecular targets against bacterial diseases reported, the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) has been investigated for several infectious diseases...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Nicola A Wardrop, Lian F Thomas, Elizabeth A J Cook, William A de Glanville, Peter M Atkinson, Claire N Wamae, Eric M Fèvre
Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever) is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Q fever infection across Africa. This research aimed to provide a One Health assessment of Q fever epidemiology in parts of Western and Nyanza Provinces, Western Kenya, in cattle and humans...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Thomas Weitzel, Javier López, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Sophie Edouard, Philippe Parola, Katia Abarca
BACKGROUND: Coxiella burnetii is an important zoonotic pathogen of global distribution. Still, in most parts of South America including Chile, systematic epidemiological data are lacking. The presented study aims to determine the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies in healthy adults of four different regions in Chile. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed, which included healthy adults living in rural and urban areas of four cities located in different regions in northern, central, and southern Chile...
October 6, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Rita Veiga Ferraz, Marta Andrade, Filipa Silva, Paulo Andrade, Cláudia Carvalho, José Pinheiro Torres, Jorge Almeida, António Sarmento, Lurdes Santos
Chronic Coxiella burnetii endocarditis usually develops in people with underlying heart disease and accounts for 60-70% of chronic Q fever. Onset is generally insidious and manifestations are atypical. The authors report a case of Coxiella burnetii prosthetic valve endocarditis in a 53 years- old patient with recurrent mechanical valve dehiscence on mitral position. He lived in a rural area with sheep and goats on the surroundings. During a 9 year- period, he was submitted to three cardiac mitral valve surgeries two of which with no Q fever diagnosis suspicion...
2016: IDCases
Punsiri M Colonne, Caylin G Winchell, Joseph G Graham, Frances I Onyilagha, Laura J MacDonald, Heike R Doeppler, Peter Storz, Richard C Kurten, Paul A Beare, Robert A Heinzen, Daniel E Voth
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes human Q fever, an acute flu-like illness that can progress to chronic endocarditis and liver and bone infections. Humans are typically infected by aerosol-mediated transmission, and C. burnetii initially targets alveolar macrophages wherein the pathogen replicates in a phagolysosome-like niche known as the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). C. burnetii manipulates host cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling to promote PV formation, cell survival, and bacterial replication...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Xiaolu Xiong, Jun Jiao, Anthony E Gregory, Pengcheng Wang, Yujing Bi, Xiaoyi Wang, Yongqiang Jiang, Bohai Wen, Daniel A Portnoy, James E Samuel, Chen Chen
Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes acute and chronic Q fever. Due to the severe adverse effect of whole cell vaccination, identification of immunodominant antigens of C. burnetii has become a major focus of Q fever vaccine development. We hypothesized that secreted C. burnetii Type IV secretion system (T4SS) effectors may represent a major class of CD8(+) T cell antigens due to their cytosolic localization. Twenty-nine peptides were identified that elicited robust CD8(+) T cell IFN-γ recall responses from mice infected with C...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Teresa García-Seco, Marta Pérez-Sancho, Eva Martínez-Nevado, Julio Álvarez, Julián Santiago-Moreno, Joaquín Goyache, Lucas Domínguez, Nerea García
Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, can infect a wide range of host species, but limited information exists on the occurrence and implications of infection in wild species. This study describes a natural infection in a population of dorcas gazelles ( Gazella dorcas ) from a zoo. A 9-yr-old male Saharawi dorcas gazelle ( Gazella dorcas neglecta) tested positive on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite treatment with oxytetracycline, the animal did not clear the infection after 6 mo, as confirmed by a PCR test on a semen sample...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Anna Papa, Katerina Tsioka, Anastasia Kontana, Christos Papadopoulos, Nektarios Giadinis
Ticks collected from goats in northern Greece were tested for the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Among adult ticks, 37 (57.8%) were Rhipicephalus bursa, 11 (17.2%) Dermacentor marginatus, 10 (15.6%) Ixodes ricinus, 3 (4.7%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and 2 (3.1%) Haemaphysalis parva; one (1.6%) Rhipicephalus spp. tick was nymph. Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia massilae, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys were detected in I. ricinus and Rh. bursa ticks. A variety of Coxiella-like endosymbionts were detected in all tick genera tested, forming distinct clades from Coxiella burnetii in the phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene...
September 23, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Amit Panjwani, Shashikala Shivaprakasha, Dilip Karnad
Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii which has a worldwide distribution. Pneumonia occurs in almost half of the patients who have an acute C. burnetii infection. Less than 5-6% of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is found to be caused by this organism. Endemicity of C. burnetii infection has been recorded in various studies carried out in our country. However there is no mention about Q fever as a cause of CAP in the various studies done to identify the aetiological agent. We report a case of acute Q fever related pneumonia and this appears to be the first reported case of pneumonia due to C...
December 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Monika Szymańska-Czerwińska, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Agnieszka Jodełko
Diagnosis of Q fever in cattle is not easy due to the need to test the samples by both serological and molecular methods. Aim of this study was to evaluate qPCR, and phase I and II antibodies for detection of C. burnetii infection in cattle. A total of 187 bovine blood and vaginal swabs, and 97 milk samples, were tested. Limitations of serological tests were that the available indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) could lose positive results if antibody titres were low; or phase II antibodies were present...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Jonathan G Gerhart, Abraham S Moses, Rahul Raghavan
Ticks (order Ixodida) vector pathogenic bacteria that cause diseases in humans and other mammals. They also contain bacteria that are closely related to pathogens but function as endosymbionts that provide nutrients that are missing from mammalian blood-their sole food source. For instance, mammalian pathogens such as Coxiella burnetii and Francisella tularensis, as well as Coxiella-like and Francisella-like endosymbionts (CLEs and FLEs, respectively) occur in ticks worldwide. However, it is not clear whether the pathogens evolved from symbionts or symbionts from pathogens...
2016: Scientific Reports
Djamel Tahir, Cristina Socolovschi, Jean-Lou Marié, Gautier Ganay, Jean-Michel Berenger, Jean-Michel Bompar, Denis Blanchet, Marie Cheuret, Oleg Mediannikov, Didier Raoult, Bernard Davoust, Philippe Parola
In French Guiana, located on the northeastern coast of South America, bats of different species are very numerous. The infection of bats and their ticks with zoonotic bacteria, especially Rickettsia species, is so far unknown. In order to improve knowledge of these zoonotic pathogens in this French overseas department, the presence and diversity of tick-borne bacteria was investigated with molecular tools in bat ticks. In the beginning of 2013, 32 bats were caught in Saint-Jean-du-Maroni, an area close to the coast of French Guiana, and the ticks of these animals were collected...
October 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Gabriela Flores-Ramírez, Maksym Danchenko, Marco Quevedo-Díaz, Ludovit Skultety
Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) is the etiological agent of a Q fever-the re-emerging disease with considerable economic impact. Due to many similar symptoms with commonly occurring infections, its clinical diagnosis is very difficult. Thus, a strong effort should be taken to raise the awareness and develop a robust strategy for an accurate diagnosis. The identification of specific C. burnetii biomarkers could be valuable for a sensitive and selective diagnosis of the disease. Herein, we described a workflow to identify immunoreactive proteins of C...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Bart Peeters, Paul Herijgers, Kurt Beuselinck, Willy E Peetermans, Marie-Christin Herregods, Stefanie Desmet, Katrien Lagrou
Identification of the causative pathogen of infective endocarditis is crucial for adequate management and therapy. A broad range PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) technique was compared with broad-spectrum 16S rRNA PCR and amplicon sequencing (16S rRNA PCR) for detecting bacterial pathogens in 40 heart valves obtained from 34 definite infective endocarditis patients according to the modified Duke Criteria and six non-endocarditis patients. Concordance between both molecular techniques was 98% for being positive or negative, 97% for concordant identification up to genus level and 77% for concordant identification up to species level...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Gabriel Cerqueira Alves Costa, Adriana Coelho Soares, Marcos Horácio Pereira, Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo, Maurício Roberto Viana Sant'Anna, Ricardo Nascimento Araujo
Ornithodoros rostratus is an argasid tick and its importance is based on its hematophagy and the resulting transmission of pathogens such as Rickettsia rickettsii and Coxiella burnetii unto its vertebrate hosts. In the face of a lack of physiological studies related to hematophagy in argasid ticks, this paper aims to identify and characterize the events that occur throughout the feeding by O. rostratus on live hosts. Electrical signals and alterations on the feeding site were monitored using intravital microscopy and electromyography...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
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