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Michelle Barbieri, Colleen Duncan, Albert L Harting, Kristy L Pabilonia, Thea C Johanos, Tracey Goldstein, Stacie J Robinson, Charles L Littnan
There is considerable temporal and spatial variability in the reproductive rates of Hawaiian monk seals (HMS; Neomonachus schauinslandi). Poor reproductive performance limits the recovery of this endangered species; however, causal factors are not fully understood. There is serologic evidence that HMS are exposed to pathogens that can impact reproductive success, but the prevalence of placental infections in HMS has not been evaluated. Placental tissues ( n=50), including tissues from 25% of known HMS births, were opportunistically collected in 2011 from six Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and three main Hawaiian Islands...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
D Todkill, T Fowler, J I Hawker
Estimates of the incubation period for Q fever vary substantially between different reviews and expert advice documents. We systematically reviewed and quality appraised the literature to provide an evidence-based estimate of the incubation period of the Q fever by the aerosolised infection route. Medline (OVIDSP) and EMBASE were searched with the search limited to human studies and English language. Eligible studies included persons with symptomatic, acute Q fever, and defined exposure to Coxiella burnetti...
March 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Kun Li, Houqiang Luo, Muhammad Shahzad
Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) is an intracellular bacterium, which causes zoonotic disease called Q-fever. However, scarce information is known about the epidemiology of Q-fever in goats in Hubei province of China. A total of 1157 blood samples were collected from the study area and these were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii by employing a commercial competitive ELISA. The results showed that the overall positive rate of C. burnetii was 4.75% (95% CI: 3.6, 6.1) and in different counties it ranged from 1...
March 20, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Anne-Laure Faucon, Jean-Luc Mainardi, Oana Zamfir, Hervé Gorka, Patrick Bruneval, André Pruna
Acute limb ischemia related to Coxiella burnetii endocarditis is rare. We report an original case of a 68-year-old man hospitalized for recurrent acute left limb ischemia in a context of atrial flutter, which revealed C. burnetii endocarditis. This case illustrates that even if embolic events are uncommon, septic embolisms must be systematically searched for in case of C. burnetii endocarditis. Conversely, extensive etiologic explorations must be performed in case of systemic embolism. New molecular techniques represent a major step forward in infective endocarditis diagnosis...
February 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Min-Goo Seo, In-Ohk Ouh, Dongmi Kwak
Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of the zoonotic Q fever, and its reservoirs include ticks and livestock, which are key sources of transmission to humans. Although there have been several studies on the prevalence of C. burnetii antibodies in dairy cattle bulk tank milk (BTM), there is a lack of information on the molecular detection of C. burnetii in BTM in South Korea. Thus, this study was designed to assess milk shedding of C. burnetii in BTM from dairy cattle herds. Among the 607 BTM samples collected from 41 counties in Gyeongsang provinces in 2015, 108 (17...
March 16, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Vanesa Alende-Castro, Cristina Macía-Rodríguez, Ignacio Novo-Veleiro, Xana García-Fernández, Mercedes Treviño-Castellano, Sergio Rodríguez-Fernández, Arturo González-Quintela
BACKGROUND: Forms of presentation of Q fever vary widely across Spain, with differences between the north and south. In the absence of reported case series from Galicia (north-west Spain), this study sought to describe a Q-fever case series in this region for the first time, and conduct a systematic review to analyse all available data on the disease in Spain. METHODS: Patients with positive serum antibodies to Coxiella burnetii from a single institution over a 5-year period (January 2011-December 2015) were included...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Andrea Osimani, Vesna Milanović, Federica Cardinali, Cristiana Garofalo, Francesca Clementi, Marina Pasquini, Paola Riolo, Sara Ruschioni, Nunzio Isidoro, Nino Loreto, Elena Franciosi, Kieran Tuohy, Annalisa Petruzzelli, Martina Foglini, Claudia Gabucci, Franco Tonucci, Lucia Aquilanti
Tenebrio molitor represents one of the most popular species used for the large-scale conversion of plant biomass into protein and is characterized by high nutritional value. In the present laboratory study, the bacterial biota characterizing a pilot production chain of fresh T. molitor larvae was investigated. To this end, different batches of fresh mealworm larvae, their feeding substrate (wheatmeal) and frass were analyzed by viable microbial counts, PCR-DGGE and Illumina sequencing. Moreover, the occurrence of Coxiella burnetii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shiga toxin-producing E...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Mengfei Wang, Dan Zhu, Jianfeng Dai, Zhengwei Zhong, Yi Zhang, Jingwen Wang
Ticks are important disease vectors as they transmit a variety of human and animal pathogens worldwide. Symbionts that co-evolved with ticks confer crucial benefits to their host in nutrition metabolism, fecundity and vector competence. Although over a hundred-tick species have been identified in China, general information of tick symbiosis is limited. Here, we visualized the tissue distribution of Coxiella sp. and Rickettsia sp. in lab reared Haemaphysalis longicornis and Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides by fluorescent in situ hybridization...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Mark R Armstrong, Kate L McCarthy, Robert L Horvath
BACKGROUND: Coxiella burnetii endocarditis can be difficult to diagnose leading to delays in treatment. This retrospective case series study was undertaken to understand the epidemiologic trends and clinical features of Q fever endocarditis in Southeast Queensland, Australia. METHODS: Clinical records of patients from a single center with coding diagnosis of C. burnetii, or serology consistent with chronic Q fever, were reviewed from 1999 to 2015. Data from patients with probable or confirmed Q fever endocarditis was abstracted...
March 8, 2018: Infectious Diseases
Ιlias Chaligiannis, Isabel G Fernández de Mera, Anna Papa, Smaragda Sotiraki, José de la Fuente
Ticks are vectors for a variety of human and animal pathogens (bacteria, protozoa and viruses). In order to investigate the pathogens carried by ticks in Greece, a total of 179 adult ticks (114 female and 65 male) were collected from domestic animals (sheep, goats and dogs) from 14 prefectures of six regions of Greece. Among them, 40 were Dermacentor marginatus, 25 Haemaphysalis parva, 22 H. sulcata, one H. punctata, 13 Ixodes gibbosus, 77 Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and one R. bursa. All ticks were tested for the presence of DNA of Anaplasma spp...
March 7, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Sonja E van Roeden, Eleonoor W Holsboer, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert, Jorge P van Kats, Jacqueline van Beckhoven, Boris M Hogema, Marja J van Wijk
BackgroundAfter a large Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands in the period from 2007 to 2010, the risk of Q fever transmission through tissue and cell transplantation from undiagnosed chronic Q fever cases became a potential issue. Aim: We aimed to evaluate the risk of Q fever transmission through tissue and cell transplantation. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study among 15,133 Dutch donors of tissues and stem cells from 2010 to 2015 to assess seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies, to identify factors associated with presence of C...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Aurélie Morand, Emmanouil Angelakis, Mehdi Ben Chaabane, Philippe Parola, Didier Raoult, Philippe Gautret
BACKGROUND: Skin infections are among the leading causes of diseases in travelers. Diagnosing pathogens could be difficult. METHOD: We applied molecular assays for the diagnostic of a large collection of skin biopsies and swabs from travelers with suspected skin infections. All samples were tested by qPCR for Coxiella burnetti, Bartonella sp., Rickettsia sp., Borrelia sp., Ehrlichia sp., Tropheryma whipplei, Francisella tularensis, Mycobacteria sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Leishmania spp...
March 2, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
A Djerbib, G Czaplicki, F Grégoire, N Kirschvink, C Saegerman, F Dal Pozzo
Q fever is a cosmopolitan disease affecting both humans and many animal species. Although sheep are often implicated in human Q fever outbreaks, the disease remains largely underestimated in meat sheep flocks. In order to fulfil this gap, a preliminary study was performed aiming to investigate the serological and molecular aspects of infection with Coxiella burnetii among meat sheep flocks in Belgium. Five Belgian sheep flocks were recruited for this work. Indirect ELISA was used, and in addition, real-time PCR was performed on samples of milk, rectal and vaginal swabs, to understand the dynamics of bacterial shedding...
March 2, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Sándor Hornok, Krisztina Szőke, Péter Estók, Aleksandra Krawczyk, Anne-Jifke Haarsma, Dávid Kováts, Sándor A Boldogh, Pál Morandini, Sándor Szekeres, Nóra Takács, Jenő Kontschán, Marina L Meli, Isabel G Fernández de Mera, José de la Fuente, Miklós Gyuranecz, Kinga M Sulyok, Beatrice Weibel, Enikő Gönczi, Arnout de Bruin, Hein Sprong, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
In Europe, several species of bats, owls and kestrels exemplify highly urbanised, flying vertebrates, which may get close to humans or domestic animals. Bat droppings and bird pellets may have epidemiological, as well as diagnostic significance from the point of view of pathogens. In this work 221 bat faecal and 118 bird pellet samples were screened for a broad range of vector-borne bacteria using PCR-based methods. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 13 bat faecal DNA extracts, including the sequence of a rickettsial insect endosymbiont, a novel Rickettsia genotype and Rickettsia helvetica...
February 28, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Caylin G Winchell, Amanda L Dragan, Katelynn R Brann, Frances I Onyilagha, Richard C Kurten, Daniel E Voth
Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of human Q fever, a debilitating flu-like illness that can progress to chronic disease presenting as endocarditis. Following inhalation, C. burnetii is phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages and generates a lysosome-like replication compartment termed the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). A type IV secretion system (T4SS) is required for PV generation and is one of the pathogen's few known virulence factors. We previously showed that C. burnetii actively recruits autophagosomes to the PV using the T4SS, but does not alter macroautophagy...
February 26, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Paul A Beare, Brendan M Jeffrey, Carrie M Long, Craig M Martens, Robert A Heinzen
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen that causes human Q fever, a disease that normally presents as a severe flu-like illness. Due to high infectivity and disease severity, the pathogen is considered a risk group 3 organism. Full-length lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is required for full virulence and disease by C. burnetii and is the only virulence factor currently defined by infection of an immunocompetent animal. Transition of virulent phase I bacteria with smooth LPS, to avirulent phase II bacteria with rough LPS, occurs during in vitro passage...
February 26, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Lucía Varela-Castro, Carla Zuddas, Nieves Ortega, Emmanuel Serrano, Jesús Salinas, Joaquim Castellà, Raquel Castillo-Contreras, João Carvalho, Santiago Lavín, Gregorio Mentaberre
Ruminant livestock is the main reservoir of Coxiella burnetii (Cb), but little is known about the role of wildlife and ticks in its epidemiology. The Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica, Schinz 1838) population of "Ports de Tortosa i Beseit" (NE Spain) suffers intense tick infestations and low reproduction rates. This study aims to (1) assess the relationship between infection in ibexes (detection of serum antibodies and/or of Cb DNA in tissues) and Cb DNA presence in ticks hosted by the same ibexes; and (2) identify Cb associated risk factors...
February 21, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Valentina Chisu, Cipriano Foxi, Roberto Mannu, Giuseppe Satta, Giovanna Masala
Sardinia is a hotspot for studying tick-borne diseases in the Mediterranean region, where cases of notifiable tick-borne diseases are increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of tick-borne bacteria of medical and veterinary importance in ixodid ticks collected from domestic and wild animals, humans, and vegetation from different collection sites in Sardinia. Using standard PCR and sequencing techniques, the presence of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella species, as well as Coxiella burnetii was evaluated...
February 17, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Jessica Klemmer, John Njeru, Aya Emam, Ahmed El-Sayed, Amira A Moawad, Klaus Henning, Mohamed A Elbeskawy, Carola Sauter-Louis, Reinhard K Straubinger, Heinrich Neubauer, Mohamed M El-Diasty
Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Clinical presentation in humans varies from asymptomatic to flu-like illness and severe sequelae may be seen. Ruminants are often sub-clinically infected or show reproductive disorders such as abortions. In Egypt, only limited data on the epidemiology of Q fever in animals are available. Using a stratified two stage random sampling approach, we evaluated the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii specific antibodies among ruminants and camels in 299 herds...
2018: PloS One
Karin Aistleitner, Rimma Jeske, Roman Wölfel, Alexandra Wießner, Judith Kikhney, Annette Moter, Kilian Stoecker
PURPOSE: Infective endocarditis is a severe and potentially fatal disease. Nearly a third of all cases remain culture-negative, making a targeted and effective antibiotic therapy of patients challenging. In the past years, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has proven its value for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, particularly when it is caused by fastidious bacteria. To increase the number of infective endocarditis causing agents, which can be identified by FISH, we designed and optimized a FISH-probe for the specific detection of Coxiella burnetii in heart valve tissue...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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