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Roan Pijnacker, Johan Reimerink, Lidwien A M Smit, Arianne B van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Jan-Paul Zock, Floor Borlée, Joris Yzermans, Dick J J Heederik, Catharina B M Maassen, Wim van der Hoek
BACKGROUND: Prior to the 2007-2010 Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands, the seroprevalence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in the general population was 1.5%, which is low compared to other countries. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence after the Q fever epidemic among people living in the affected area, compare the seroprevalence with the incidence of Q fever notifications during the 2007-2010 Q fever epidemic, and to identify farm exposures associated with having antibodies against C...
November 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ashley L Greiner, Saithip Bhengsri, Matthieu Million, Sophie Edouard, Somsak Thamthitiwat, Kevin Clarke, Gilbert J Kersh, Christopher J Gregory, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
Acute Q fever cases were identified from a hospital-based acute febrile illness study conducted in six community hospitals in rural north and northeast Thailand from 2002 to 2005. Of 1,784 participants that underwent Coxiella burnetii testing, nine (0.5%) participants were identified in this case-series as acute Q fever cases. Eight case-patients were located in one province. Four case-patients were hospitalized. Median age was 13 years (range: 7-69); five were male. The proportion of children with acute Q fever infection was similar to adults (P = 0...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ryan D Oliveira, Michelle R Mousel, Kristy L Pabilonia, Margaret A Highland, J Bret Taylor, Donald P Knowles, Stephen N White
Coxiella burnetii is a globally distributed zoonotic bacterial pathogen that causes abortions in ruminant livestock. In humans, an influenza-like illness results with the potential for hospitalization, chronic infection, abortion, and fatal endocarditis. Ruminant livestock, particularly small ruminants, are hypothesized to be the primary transmission source to humans. A recent Netherlands outbreak from 2007-2010 traced to dairy goats resulted in over 4,100 human cases with estimated costs of more than 300 million euros...
2017: PloS One
Anne Straily, F Scott Dahlgren, Amy Peterson, Christopher D Paddock
Background: Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. In some persons, particularly those with cardiac valve disease, infection with C. burnetii can cause a life-threatening infective endocarditis. There are few descriptive analyses of Q fever endocarditis in the United States. Methods: Q fever case report forms submitted during 1999-2015 were reviewed to identify reports describing endocarditis. Cases were categorized as confirmed or probable using criteria defined by the Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)...
November 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Dhritiman Samanta, Stacey D Gilk
Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of human Q fever, a zoonotic disease that can cause a debilitating, flu-like illness in acute cases, or a life-threatening endocarditis in chronic patients. An obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen, Coxiella survives and multiplies in a large lysosome-like vacuole known as the Coxiella parasitophorous vacuole (CPV). A unique characteristic of the CPV is the acidic environment (pH ∼5.0), which is required to activate Coxiella metabolism and the Coxiella type 4 secretion system (T4SS), a major virulence factor required for intracellular survival...
November 9, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Andrea S Varela-Stokes, Si Hong Park, Sun Ae Kim, Steven C Ricke
Interest in microbial communities, or microbiota, of blood-feeding arthropods such as ticks (order Parasitiformes, suborder Ixodida) is increasing. Studies on tick microorganisms historically emphasized pathogens of high medical or veterinary importance. Current techniques allow for simultaneous detection of pathogens of interest, non-pathogenic symbionts, like Coxiella-LE and Francisella-LE, and microorganisms of unknown pathogenic potential. While each generation of ticks begins with a maternally acquired repertoire of microorganisms, microhabitats off and on vertebrate hosts can alter the microbiome during the life cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
J L Pellerin, A Alsaleh, P Mermillod, J M G Souza-Fabjan, A Rodolakis, E Rousset, L Dubreil, J F Bruyas, C Roux, F Fieni
Previous work demonstrated that after infection of in vivo derived caprine embryos, Coxiella burnetti (C. burnetii) showed a strong tendency to adhere to the zona pellicida (ZP). To investigate the risk of C. burnetii transmission via embryo transfer of in vitro-produced goat embryos the aim of this study was, (i) to evaluate the ability of C. burnetii to adhere to the intact zona pellicida of in vitro-produced goat embryos and to determine by confocal microscopy the location of the bacteria, (ii) to test the efficacy of IETS recommended rules for the washing of bovine embryos to eliminate C...
October 26, 2017: Theriogenology
Ayal Hassidim, Hila Elinav, Ayelet Michael-Gayego, Shmuel Benenson, Shlomi Yaalomy, Karen Meir, Uriel Elchalal, Tomer Tzur
Herein, we describe the first case of mammary implant infection caused by Coxiella b urnetii , resulting in delayed diagnosis and treatment and an in-hospital cross transmission of Q-fever to medical personnel.
October 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Hua-Wei Chen, Wei-Mei Ching
Coxiella burnetii, the causative pathogen for Q fever, is an obligate intracellular bacterium and designated as a biosafety level 3 agent. Detection and quantification of the bacteria with conventional culturing methods is time-consuming and poses significant health risks. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays have been developed for detecting C. burnetii and could provide rapid diagnosis. However, they require specialized equipment, including a cold chain for PCR reagents that maintains their stability during storage and transport...
October 2017: Heliyon
Joshua Kamani, Gad Baneth, Ricardo Gutiérrez, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Kosta Y Mumcuoglu, Shimon Harrus
Rodents are hosts of numerous pathogenic agents of public health importance globally. Their ability to harbor these pathogens without showing overt clinical signs of disease has epidemiologic consequences. In some rural settings in Nigeria, humans and rodents do not only share feeds and abode, but the latter may end up on the table of the former as a source of protein, thereby increasing the risks of disease transmission. Molecular assays were used to detect and characterize two agents of zoonotic importance, Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp...
October 12, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
K Gache, E Rousset, J B Perrin, R DE Cremoux, S Hosteing, E Jourdain, R Guatteo, P Nicollet, A Touratier, D Calavas, C Sala
A study was carried out, from 2012 to 2015, in 10 French départements to estimate the serological prevalence of Q fever and the frequency of abortive episodes potentially related to Coxiella burnetii in a large sample of cattle, sheep and goat herds. The serological survey covered 731 cattle, 522 sheep and 349 goat herds, randomly sampled. The frequency of abortive episodes potentially related to C. burnetii was estimated by investigating series of abortions in 2695 cattle, 658 sheep and 105 goat herds using quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses and complementary serological results when needed...
October 17, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Todd C Atwood, Colleen Duncan, Kelly A Patyk, Pauline Nol, Jack Rhyan, Matthew McCollum, Melissa A McKinney, Andrew M Ramey, Camila K Cerqueira-Cézar, Oliver C H Kwok, Jitender P Dubey, Steven Hennager
Recent decline of sea ice habitat has coincided with increased use of land by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the southern Beaufort Sea (SB), which may alter the risks of exposure to pathogens and contaminants. We assayed blood samples from SB polar bears to assess prior exposure to the pathogens Brucella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Neospora caninum, estimate concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and evaluate risk factors associated with exposure to pathogens and POPs...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Stephen S Koh, Aldon Li, David S Cassarino
Q fever caused by Coxiella burnetii usually presents asymptomatically or as an undifferentiated febrile disease and rarely as rash or other cutaneous manifestations of the disease. Here we present a 41 year old male complaining of body aches, fevers, nausea, malaise, bilateral knee pain, and vomiting. Clinical examination revealed a notable erythematous blanching rash all over his body. Workup revealed positive serologic testing for C burnetii and skin biopsy of the rash revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Bonhan Koo, Choong Eun Jin, Se Yoon Park, Tae Yoon Lee, Jeonghun Nam, Young-Rock Jang, Sun Mi Kim, Ji Yeun Kim, Sung-Han Kim, Yong Shin
Recent zoonotic outbreaks, such as Zika, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and Ebola, have highlighted the need for rapid and accurate diagnostic assays that can be used to aid pathogen control. Q-fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the transmission of Coxiella burnetii that can cause serious illness in humans via aerosols and is considered a potential bioterrorism agent. However the existing assays are not suitable for the detection of this pathogen due to its low levels in real samples. We here describe a rapid bio-optical sensor for the accurate detection of Q fever and validate its clinical utility...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
Markus Freick, Andrea Konrath, Haimo Enbergs, Jörg Walraph, Jim Weber, Karin Eulenberger
Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii), an intracellular zoonotic bacterium causing Q fever, occurs widely in cattle herds. After invasion of the pregnant uterus and initial localization in the placenta, active C. burnetii infections may spread to the fetus hematogenously or by the amniotic-oral route and thus may cause abortion, premature delivery, stillbirth, and weak offspring (APSW) complex. In a case-control study, we investigated precolostral blood samples of 56 stillborn calves and 30 live births from a dairy herd endemically infected with C...
September 30, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Paul A Beare, Brendan M Jeffrey, Craig A Martens, Talima Pearson, Robert A Heinzen
Here, we report draft genome sequences of historical strains of Coxiella burnetii derived from cow's milk and the placenta of a goat that had aborted. The California and Ohio milk strains display a different sequence type than do contemporary milk strains.
September 28, 2017: Genome Announcements
Paul A Beare, Brendan M Jeffrey, Craig A Martens, Robert A Heinzen
Here, we present the draft genome sequences of the Coxiella burnetii Dugway 7D77-80 and Dugway 7E65-68 strains, which were isolated from rodents in Dugway, UT, in the 1950s. The strains reside in a distinct genomic group of C. burnetii and are considered avirulent despite having the largest genomes of the Coxiella genus.
September 28, 2017: Genome Announcements
Nimrod Sachs, Yafit Atiya-Nasagi, Adi Beth-Din, Itzhak Levy, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Diana Tasher, Galia Grisaru-Soen, Haleema Dabaja, Imad Kassis, Shiri Spilman, Efraim Bilavsky
BACKGROUND: Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) with a worldwide distribution. Our aim was to assess the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and treatment regimens of chronic Q fever infections in Israeli children during the past 25 years. METHODS: Cases were collected from the national Q fever reference laboratory database. Demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data were reviewed using a structured questionnaire sent to the referring physician...
September 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Paul A Beare, Brendan M Jeffrey, Craig A Martens, Robert A Heinzen
In the current study, we determined the draft genome sequences of three Coxiella burnetii human disease isolates. The Coxiella burnetii Turkey (RSA315) and Dyer (RSA345) strains were isolated from acute Q fever patients, while the Ko (Q229) strain was isolated from a Q fever endocarditis patient.
September 21, 2017: Genome Announcements
Julian Pechstein, Jan Schulze-Luehrmann, Anja Lührmann
Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular and airborne pathogen which can cause the zoonotic disease Q fever. After inhalation of contaminated aerosols alveolar macrophages are taking up C. burnetii into a phagosome. This phagosome matures to a very large vacuole called the C. burnetii-containing vacuole (CCV). Host endogenous and bacterial driven processes lead to the biogenesis of this unusual compartment, which resembles partially a phagolysosome. However, there are several important differences to the classical phagolysosome, which are crucial for the ability of C...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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