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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077317/zoonotic-pathogens-in-atlantic-forest-wild-rodents-in-brazil-bartonella-and-coxiella-infections
#1
Tatiana Rozental, Michelle Santos Ferreira, Alexandro Guterres, Maria Angélica Mares-Guia, Bernardo R Teixeira, Jonathan Gonçalves, Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino, Paulo Sergio D'Andrea, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
Zoonotic pathogens comprise a significant and increasing fraction of all emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases that plague humans. Identifying host species is one of the keys to controlling emerging infectious diseases. From March 2007 until April 2012, we collected a total of 131 wild rodents in eight municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We investigated these rodents for infection with Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. In total, 22.1% (29/131) of the rodents were infected by at least one pathogen; co-infection was detected in 1...
January 8, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072914/presence-of-pathogenic-rickettsiae-and-protozoan-in-samples-of-raw-milk-from-cows-goats-and-sheep
#2
Ewa Cisak, Violetta Zając, Jacek Sroka, Anna Sawczyn, Anna Kloc, Jacek Dutkiewicz, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work was to determine the presence of various rickettsiae and protozoan in raw milk and the assessment the potential, milk-borne route in the spread of selected zoonotic pathogens. MATERIALS: A total of 119 raw milk samples collected randomly from 63 cows, 29 goats, and 27 sheep bred on 34 farms situated on eight communities in eastern Poland were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the presence of pathogenic rickettsiae (Coxiella burnetii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp...
January 10, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070491/presentation-and-diagnosis-of-acute-q-fever-in-portugal-a-case-series
#3
Joana Alves, Francisco Almeida, Raquel Duro, Rita Ferraz, Susana Silva, Joana Sobrinho-Simões, António Sarmento
Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic infection caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii that can course with acute or chronic disease. This series describes 7 cases of acute Q fever admitted in a Portuguese University Hospital between 2014 and 2015. All cases presented with hepatitis and had epidemiological history. Diagnosis was done by PCR on majority (5) and by serology and PCR in only 2. Serological tests can be negative in the initial period of the disease. Molecular biology methods by polymerase chain-reaction are extremely important in acute disease, allowing timely diagnosis and treatment...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068185/prevalence-of-antibodies-against-coxiella-burnetii-in-korean-native-cattle-dairy-cattle-and-dogs-in-south-korea
#4
Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Doo Kim, Hyung Gwan Jang, Seung-Joon Lee, Mi Yeoun Park, Tae-Wook Hahn
Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic agent and causes coxiellosis, which is a cause of reproductive failure in a range of animal species, including abortion and stillbirth and Q fever, which is most often characterized by an acute flu-like illness, mild pneumonia, and/or hepatitis in humans. While livestock are well recognized worldwide as a source of infection, the zoonotic risk of C. burnetii infection in companion animals such as dogs may be overlooked. For serological diagnosis, indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are generally considered good methods for prevalence surveys of coxiellosis...
January 9, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055578/critical-aspects-for-detection-of-coxiella-burnetii
#5
Marcella Mori, Katja Mertens, Sally J Cutler, Ana Sofia Santos
Coxiella burnetii is a globally distributed zoonotic γ-proteobacterium with an obligatory intracellular lifestyle. It is the causative agent of Q fever in humans and of coxiellosis among ruminants, although the agent is also detected in ticks, birds, and various other mammalian species. Requirements for intracellular multiplication together with the necessity for biosafety level 3 facilities restrict the cultivation of C. burnetii to specialized laboratories. Development of a novel medium formulation enabling axenic growth of C...
January 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051196/perioperative-occupational-exposure-to-coxiella-burnetii-infected-thoracic-endovascular-aneurysm-stent-graft
#6
Adebisi Idowu Obafemi, Jade Le
We conducted this study to determine the risk of transmission of Q fever to health care workers (HCWs) during perioperative exposure to Coxiella burnetii-infected thoracic endovascular aneurysm stent graft. Pre-operative and 6-week post-operative phase I and II IgG Q fever antibody titers were determined in 14 staff members of an operation room. The room had a negative pressure and all the members of the surgical team wore either a fitted N-95 mask or a powered purified air respirator. Phase I and II IgG antibody titers were <1:16 for 11 of the 14 studied HCWs; 2 HCWs did not follow up at 6 weeks and 1 had a pre-exposure phase II IgG titer of 1:128 with no change 6 weeks later...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051025/retrospective-examination-of-q-fever-endocarditis-an-underdiagnosed-disease-in-the-mainland-of-china
#7
Xiao Han, Jeffrey Hsu, Qi Miao, Bao-Tong Zhou, Hong-Wei Fan, Xiao-Lu Xiong, Bo-Hai Wen, Lian Wu, Xiao-Wei Yan, Quan Fang, Wei Chen
BACKGROUND: Q fever endocarditis, a chronic illness caused by Coxiella burnetii, can be fatal if misdiagnosed or left untreated. Despite a relatively high positive rate of Q fever serology in healthy individuals in the mainland of China, very few cases of Q fever endocarditis have been reported. This study summarized cases of Q fever endocarditis among blood culture negative endocarditis (BCNE) patients and discussed factors attributing to the low diagnostic rate. METHODS: We identified confirmed cases of Q fever endocarditis among 637 consecutive patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital between 2006 and 2016...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032346/mannose-binding-lectin-and-l-ficolin-polymorphisms-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-caused-by-intracellular-pathogens
#8
Gijs van Kempen, Sabine Meijvis, Hendrik Endeman, Bart Vlaminckx, Bob Meek, Ben de Jong, Ger T Rijkers, Willem Jan Bos
Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading infectious disease requiring hospitalisation in the Western World. Genetic variability affecting the host response to infection may play a role in susceptibility and outcome in CAP patients. Mannose binding lectin (MBL) and L-ficolin (L-FCN) are two important activators of the complement system and they can enhance phagocytosis by opsonisation. In a prospective cohort of 505 Dutch CAP patients and 227 controls we studied whether polymorphisms in the MBL (MBL2) and FCN (FCN2) genes influenced susceptibility and outcome...
December 29, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011185/novel-rickettsia-and-emergent-tick-borne-pathogens-a-molecular-survey-of-ticks-and-tick-borne-pathogens-in-shimba-hills-national-reserve-kenya
#9
Micky M Mwamuye, Edward Kariuki, David Omondi, James Kabii, David Odongo, Daniel Masiga, Jandouwe Villinger
Ticks are important vectors of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses, the majority of which originate from wildlife. In recent times, this has become a global public health concern that necessitates surveillance of both known and unknown tick-borne pathogens likely to be future disease threats, as well as their tick vectors. We carried out a survey of the diversity of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Kenya's Shimba Hills National Reserve (SHNR), an area with intensified human-livestock-wildlife interactions, where we collected 4297 questing ticks (209 adult ticks, 586 nymphs and 3502 larvae)...
September 5, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007602/molecular-epidemiology-of-coxiella-burnetii-in-french-livestock-reveals-the-existence-of-three-main-genotype-clusters-and-suggests-species-specific-associations-as-well-as-regional-stability
#10
Joulié Aurélien, Sidi-Boumedine Karim, Bailly Xavier, Gasqui Patrick, Barry Séverine, Jaffrelo Lydia, Poncet Charles, Abrial David, Yang Elise, Leblond Agnès, Rousset Elodie, Jourdain Elsa
Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. In domestic ruminants, Q fever main clinical manifestations are abortions. Although the clinical signs may differ between ruminant species, C. burnetii's genetic diversity remains understudied in enzootic areas. Here, we focused on France, where Q fever is enzootic, with the aims to (a) identify potential associations between C. burnetii genotypes and ruminant host species; (b) assess the distribution of C. burnetii genotypes both within French farms and across France's major livestock-farming regions; and (c) suggest a subset of markers for future genotypic studies...
December 20, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002452/the-effector-cig57-hijacks-fcho-mediated-vesicular-trafficking-to-facilitate-intracellular-replication-of-coxiella-burnetii
#11
Eleanor A Latomanski, Patrice Newton, Chen Ai Khoo, Hayley J Newton
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects alveolar macrophages and replicates within a unique lysosome-derived vacuole. When Coxiella is trafficked to a host cell lysosome the essential Dot/Icm type IV secretion system is activated allowing over 130 bacterial effector proteins to be translocated into the host cytosol. This cohort of effectors is believed to manipulate host cell functions to facilitate Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV) biogenesis and bacterial replication. Transposon mutagenesis has demonstrated that the Dot/Icm effector Cig57 is required for CCV development and intracellular replication of Coxiella...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989050/seroprevalence-of-q-fever-in-patients-undergoing-heart-valve-replacement-surgery
#12
Owen Seddon, Reza Ashrafi, Jacqueline Duggan, Rhianydd Rees, Christine Tan, John Williams, Gail Carson, Brendan Healy
BACKGROUND: Q fever, caused by the rickettsia Coxiella burnetii, is a worldwide zoonotic disease with both acute and chronic manifestations. Endocarditis is the principal chronic manifestation. Q fever can easily be mistaken for degenerative valve disease due to its indolent presentation, the fastidious nature of the organism (routine cultures are negative), and the absence of a typical echocardiographic and macroscopic appearance for endocarditis. Prosthetic valve failure, with associated morbidity and mortality, have been described following unrecognized infections...
May 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987380/coxiella-burnetii-q-fever-prevalence-in-associated-populations-of-humans-and-small-ruminants-in-the-gambia
#13
Jeroen Bok, Lenny Hogerwerf, Eveline A Germeraad, Hendrik I J Roest, Tisbeh Faye-Joof, Momodou Jeng, Davis Nwakanma, Arss Secka, Arjan Stegeman, Bart Goossens, Rita Wegmüller, Marianne A B van der Sande, Wim van der Hoek, Ousman Secka
OBJECTIVES: To simultaneously estimate the prevalence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) among adults and small ruminants, and C. burnetii shedding prevalence among small ruminants in households in the Kiang West district of The Gambia; and to assess associated risk factors. METHODS: Sera of 599 adults and 615 small ruminants from 125 compounds within 12 villages were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using ELISA. Vaginal swabs and milk samples of 155 small ruminants were tested using PCR to investigate shedding of C...
December 17, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986822/the-excreted-microbiota-of-bats-evidence-of-niche-specialization-based-on-multiple-body-habitats
#14
Muriel Dietrich, Teresa Kearney, Ernest C J Seamark, Wanda Markotter
Animal-associated microbiotas form complex communities, which play crucial functions for their host, including susceptibility to infections. Despite increasing attention to bats as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens, their microbiota is poorly documented, especially for samples potentially implicated in pathogen transmission such as urine and saliva. Here, using low-biomass individual samples, we examined the composition and structure of bacterial communities excreted by insectivorous bats, focusing on three body habitats (saliva, urine and faeces)...
December 15, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976471/coxiella-burnetii-serological-reactions-and-bacterial-shedding-in-primiparous-dairy-cows-in-an-endemically-infected-herd-impact-on-milk-yield-and-fertility
#15
M Freick, H Enbergs, J Walraph, R Diller, J Weber, A Konrath
Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) is the causative agent of Q fever both in humans and animals. The objectives of this study were to investigate seropositivity and bacterial shedding in heifers and primiparous cows in an endemically infected herd and to assess the effects on post-partum diseases, fertility and milk production. At the age of 9 months, 96 Holstein heifers were included. Sampling was performed reproduction-orientated: at the beginning of the study, at detection of first pregnancy, 3 weeks before expected calving date (blood serum), at parturition and after 21, 42, 100 and 150 days in milk (DIM) (blood serum, vaginal swabs and milk)...
December 15, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966221/determination-of-the-microbial-community-features-of-haemaphysalis-flava-in-different-developmental-stages-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#16
Deyong Duan, Tianyin Cheng
In this study, we analyzed the in vivo microbial community structure and diversity differences of Haemaphysalis flava (H. flava) in four developmental stages (egg, larva, nymph, and adult) to determine which bacterial genera could be propagated through transovarial transmission and transmitted by transstadial transmission during different developmental stages of H. flava. Paired-end sequencing of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) of H. flava in four developmental stage samples was conducted using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958239/investigation-of-zoonotic-infections-in-risk-groups-in-ordu-university-hospital-turkey
#17
Y Cetinkol, Ö Enginyurt, B Çelebi, A A Yıldırım, S Çankaya, O C Aktepe
AIMS: Zoonotic diseases, which are a major public health problem in our city, have a negative impact on public health and also cause economic losses due to yield losses of animals and deaths. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of tularemia, bartonellosis, brucellosis, Q fever, and cystic echinococcosis in the risk groups for zoonotic infection. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety serum samples were taken from people in the risk groups in covering veterinarian, butchers, farmers and examined with the following tests: Microagglutination test for tularemia, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for bartonellosis, standard tube agglutination test for brucellosis, IFAT IgG for Q fever, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay IgG test for cystic hydatid...
January 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928094/seroconversion-to-causes-of-febrile-illness-in-mongolian-peacekeepers-deployed-to-south-sudan
#18
Altangerel Enkhtsetseg, Rendoo Davadoorj, Stefan Fernandez, Duangrat Mongkolsirichaikul, Damdin Altantuul, Erdene Elbegdorj, Lkhagvasuren Ganchimeg, Samuel L Yingst
Immediately before deployment (Fall 2012) and after deployment (Spring 2013) in support of United Nations peacekeeping operations, Mongolian Armed Forces medical personnel obtained serum samples from the first contingent of Mongolian peacekeepers deploying to South Sudan to monitor serologic evidence of exposure to diseases that cause acute febrile illness. A total of 632 paired samples were tested for IgG antibody for the following (number of seroconversions in parentheses): Rickettsia (spotted fever and typhus groups) (25), West Nile fever virus (WNV) (23), Coxiella burnetii (causative agent of Q fever) (12), dengue virus (8), leptospirosis (6), chikungunya virus (0), Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus (0), Japanese encephalitis virus (0), and Rift Valley fever virus (0)...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918958/drivers-of-airborne-human-to-human-pathogen-transmission
#19
REVIEW
Sander Herfst, Michael Böhringer, Basel Karo, Philip Lawrence, Nicola S Lewis, Michael J Mina, Charles J Russell, John Steel, Rik L de Swart, Christian Menge
Airborne pathogens - either transmitted via aerosol or droplets - include a wide variety of highly infectious and dangerous microbes such as variola virus, measles virus, influenza A viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis. Emerging zoonotic pathogens, for example, MERS coronavirus, avian influenza viruses, Coxiella, and Francisella, would have pandemic potential were they to acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Here, we synthesize insights from microbiological, medical, social, and economic sciences to provide known mechanisms of aerosolized transmissibility and identify knowledge gaps that limit emergency preparedness plans...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894847/pcr-screening-of-tick-borne-agents-in-sensitive-conservation-areas-southeast-portugal
#20
Maria Margarida Santos-Silva, Pedro Melo, Nuno Santos, Sandra Antunes, Luís Raposo Duarte, Joana Ferrolho, Natacha Milhano, Patrícia Tavares Santos, Ana Domingos, Ana Sofia Santos
The Southeast region of Portugal, particularly the Guadiana valley, is currently the reintroduction territory of Lynx pardinus (Iberian lynx), one of the most endangered felids in the world that is only found in the Iberian Peninsula. Over the last century, populations have declined, placing L. pardinus at extremely high risk of extinction in the wild and relying on reintroduction projects. Among the aspects taken into account in the establishment of new populations is the sanitary status of the selected habitats, especially concerning infectious diseases, including tick-borne pathogens (TBPs)...
November 25, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
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