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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626230/engineering-of-obligate-intracellular-bacteria-progress-challenges-and-paradigms
#1
REVIEW
Erin E McClure, Adela S Oliva Chávez, Dana K Shaw, Jason A Carlyon, Roman R Ganta, Susan M Noh, David O Wood, Patrik M Bavoil, Kelly A Brayton, Juan J Martinez, Jere W McBride, Raphael H Valdivia, Ulrike G Munderloh, Joao H F Pedra
It is estimated that approximately one billion people are at risk of infection with obligate intracellular bacteria, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms that govern their life cycles. The difficulty in studying Chlamydia spp., Coxiella spp., Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Orientia spp. is, in part, due to their genetic intractability. Recently, genetic tools have been developed; however, optimizing the genomic manipulation of obligate intracellular bacteria remains challenging...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620582/physicochemical-and-nutritional-requirements-for-axenic-replication-suggest-physiological-basis-for-coxiella-burnetii-niche-restriction
#2
Eduardo Vallejo Esquerra, Hong Yang, Savannah E Sanchez, Anders Omsland
Bacterial obligate intracellular parasites are clinically significant animal and human pathogens. Central to the biology of these organisms is their level of adaptation to intracellular replication niches associated with physicochemical and nutritional constraints. While most bacterial pathogens can adapt to a wide range of environments, severe niche restriction-an inability to thrive in diverse environments-is a hallmark of bacterial obligate intracellular parasites. Herein the physicochemical and nutritional factors underlying the physiological basis for niche restriction in the zoonotic bacterial obligate intracellular parasite and Q fever agent Coxiella burnetii are characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616504/q-fever-in-an-endemic-region-of-north-queensland-australia-a-10%C3%A2-year-review
#3
Pirathaban Sivabalan, Apoorva Saboo, James Yew, Robert Norton
BACKGROUND: Q fever is a zoonotic infection caused by Coxiella burnetii. Endemic Q fever has long been recognised in north Queensland, with north Queensland previously acknowledged to have the highest rate of notification in Australia. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the demographics and exposure of patients diagnosed with Q fever in an endemic region of north Queensland, to identify trends and exposure factors for the acquisition of Q fever. METHODS: A retrospective study looking at patients in the region that had tested positive for Q fever by case ascertainment between 2004 and 2014...
June 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616479/human-q-fever-incidence-is-associated-to-spatiotemporal-environmental-conditions
#4
J P G Van Leuken, A N Swart, J Brandsma, W Terink, J Van de Kassteele, P Droogers, F Sauter, A H Havelaar, W Van der Hoek
Airborne pathogenic transmission from sources to humans is characterised by atmospheric dispersion and influence of environmental conditions on deposition and reaerosolisation. We applied a One Health approach using human, veterinary and environmental data regarding the 2009 epidemic in The Netherlands, and investigated whether observed human Q fever incidence rates were correlated to environmental risk factors. We identified 158 putative sources (dairy goat and sheep farms) and included 2339 human cases. We performed a high-resolution (1 × 1 km) zero-inflated regression analysis to predict incidence rates by Coxiella burnetii concentration (using an atmospheric dispersion model and meteorological data), and environmental factors - including vegetation density, soil moisture, soil erosion sensitivity, and land use data - at a yearly and monthly time-resolution...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615092/-purification-of-the-recombinant-com1-and-adaa-of-coxiella-burnetii-and-identification-of-the-antigenicity
#5
Jingxian Liu, Yihong Ji, Zhiyang Shi, Yongjun Jiao
Objective To express and purify two kinds of antigens of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii), the main outer membrane protein Com1 and the acute disease antigen A (adaA), in prokaryotic expression system and to validate the two recombinant antigens by mass spectrometry and identify their antigenicity. Methods The gene sequences encoding Com1 and adaA were separately synthesized and constructed into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-20b(+). The constructed vectors were transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3), and the recombinant proteins were induced by IPTG...
June 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613410/a-case-of-q-fever-after-liver-transplantation
#6
Lindsay A Petty, Helen S Te, Kenneth Pursell
Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a zoonosis that causes both acute and chronic disease in humans. Few cases have been reported in solid organ transplants, and this case highlights the need to include Q fever in the differential diagnosis for fever of unknown origin in solid organ transplant hosts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 14, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607026/efficacy-of-a-paromomycin-plus-chloroquine-combination-therapy-in-experimental-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#7
Gert-Jan Wijnant, Katrien Van Bocxlaer, Vanessa Yardley, Sudaxshina Murdan, Simon Croft
The 4-aminoquinoline chloroquine (CQ) is clinically used in combination with doxycycline to cure chronic Q-fever, as it enhances the activity of the antibiotic against the causative Coxiella burnetii bacteria residing within macrophage phagolysosomes. As there is a similar cellular host-pathogen biology for Leishmania parasites, this study aimed to determine whether such an approach could be also the basis for a new, improved treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We have evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of combinations of CQ with standard drugs paromomycin (PM), miltefosine and amphotericin B against Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana In 72-hour intracellular anti-leishmanial assays, outcomes were variable for different drugs...
June 12, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596399/whole-genome-sequence-of-coxiella-burnetii-nine-mile-rsa439-phase-ii-clone-4-a-laboratory-workhorse-strain
#8
Jess A Millar, Paul A Beare, Abraham S Moses, Craig A Martens, Robert A Heinzen, Rahul Raghavan
Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile RSA439 (phase II, clone 4), a laboratory strain used extensively to investigate the biology of this intracellular bacterial pathogen. The genome consists of a 1.97-Mb chromosome and a 37.32-kb plasmid.
June 8, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593481/molecular-survey-of-coxiella-burnetii-in-wildlife-and-ticks-at-wildlife-livestock-interfaces-in-kenya
#9
David Ndeereh, Gerald Muchemi, Andrew Thaiyah, Moses Otiende, Samer Angelone-Alasaad, Michael J Jowers
Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, a zoonotic disease of public health importance. The role of wildlife and their ticks in the epidemiology of C. burnetii in Kenya is unknown. This study analysed the occurrence and prevalence of the pathogen in wildlife and their ticks at two unique wildlife-livestock interfaces of Laikipia and Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) with the aim to determine the potential risk of transmission to livestock and humans. Blood from 79 and 73 animals in Laikipia and MMNR, respectively, and 756 and 95 ixodid ticks in each of the areas, respectively, was analysed...
June 7, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582983/occurrence-of-i-coxiella-burnetii-i-i-ehrlichia-canis-i-i-rickettsia-i-species-and-i-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-i-like-bacterium-in-ticks-collected-from-dogs-and-cats-in-south-africa
#10
Khethiwe Mtshali, Ryo Nakao, Chihiro Sugimoto, Oriel Thekisoe
Ticks are major vectors of arthropod-borne infections and transmit a wide variety of zoonotic pathogens. This study was conducted mainly to determine the occurrence of canine tick-borne bacterial and rickettsial pathogens especially those with zoonotic potential. We examined 276 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 38 Haemaphysalis elliptica and 4 Amblyomma hebraeum ticks from 90 dogs and 4 cats from the Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, North West and Mpumalanga provinces. DNA of Coxiella burnetii (41%), Ehrlichia or Anaplasma (18%), Rickettsia spp...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581349/detection-of-coxiella-burnetii-in-urban-river-water
#11
Emilio D'Ugo, Massimo Sdanganelli, Cinzia Grasso, Fabio Magurano, Stefania Marcheggiani, Bas Boots, Melissa Baggieri, Laura Mancini
Previous molecular-based studies have identified microorganisms of zoonotic and human nature in surface waters. Contaminated water can lead to human health issues, and the detection of pathogenic microorganisms is a valuable tool for the prevention of their spread. Water samples were taken from the River Tiber in and out of the city of Rome. Genetic analysis of the sequences obtained showed the presence of Coxiella burnetii in both the analyzed sites. Blast analysis showed that two sequences were identical to each other...
June 5, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580918/crystal-structure-of-rv1220c-a-sam-dependent-o-methyltransferase-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
Qiaoling Yan, Neil Shaw, Lanfang Qian, Dunquan Jiang
Rv1220c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is annotated as an O-methyltransferase (MtbOMT). Currently, no structural information is available for this protein. Here, the crystal structure of MtbOMT refined to 2.0 Å resolution is described. The structure reveals the presence of a methyltransferase fold and shows clear electron density for one molecule of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which was apparently bound by the protein during its production in Escherichia coli. Although the overall structure of MtbOMT resembles the structures of O-methyltransferases from Cornybacterium glutamicum, Coxiella burnetti and Alfa alfa, differences are observed in the residues that make up the active site...
June 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545568/symbiont-dynamics-of-the-tibetan-tick-haemaphysalis-tibetensis-acari-ixodidae
#13
Rongrong Wang, Ningxin Li, Jiannan Liu, Tuo Li, Ming Liu, Zhijun Yu, Jingze Liu
BACKGROUND: Characterization of the microbial diversity and symbiont dynamics of ticks may help to understand the development of ticks and reveal new strategies to control tick-transmitted pathogens, which has not yet been explored in the Tibetan tick Haemaphysalis tibetensis. This tick species is widely distributed in the Tibetan Plateau, and is recognized as one of the primary parasites affecting domestic and wild animals. METHODS: In the present study, the endosymbionts of H...
May 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540258/horizontally-acquired-biosynthesis-genes-boost-coxiella-burnetii-s-physiology
#14
Abraham S Moses, Jess A Millar, Matteo Bonazzi, Paul A Beare, Rahul Raghavan
Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of acute Q fever and chronic endocarditis, has a unique biphasic life cycle, which includes a metabolically active intracellular form that occupies a large lysosome-derived acidic vacuole. C. burnetii is the only bacterium known to thrive within such an hostile intracellular niche, and this ability is fundamental to its pathogenicity; however, very little is known about genes that facilitate Coxiella's intracellular growth. Recent studies indicate that C. burnetii evolved from a tick-associated ancestor and that the metabolic capabilities of C...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539197/candidatus-neoehrlichia-mikurensis-and-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-detected-in-the-blood-of-norwegian-patients-with-erythema-migrans
#15
H Quarsten, A Grankvist, L Høyvoll, I B Myre, T Skarpaas, V Kjelland, C Wenneras, S Noraas
The most common tick-borne human disease in Norway is Lyme borreliosis. Ticks in Norway also harbour less known disease-causing agents such as Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Borrelia miyamotoi and Rickettsia helvetica. However, human infections caused by these pathogens have never been described in Norway. The main aims of the study were to evaluate the contribution of several tick-borne bacterial agents, other than Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, to zoonotic diseases in Norway and to determine their clinical pictures...
May 13, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529959/getting-inside-type-i-ifns-type-i-ifns-in-intracellular-bacterial-infections
#16
REVIEW
Deann T Snyder, Jodi F Hedges, Mark A Jutila
Type I interferons represent a unique and complex group of cytokines, serving many purposes during innate and adaptive immunity. Discovered in the context of viral infections, type I IFNs are now known to have myriad effects in infectious and autoimmune disease settings. Type I IFN signaling during bacterial infections is dependent on many factors including whether the infecting bacterium is intracellular or extracellular, as different signaling pathways are activated. As such, the repercussions of type I IFN induction can positively or negatively impact the disease outcome...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529926/manipulation-of-host-cholesterol-by-obligate-intracellular-bacteria
#17
REVIEW
Dhritiman Samanta, Minal Mulye, Tatiana M Clemente, Anna V Justis, Stacey D Gilk
Cholesterol is a multifunctional lipid that plays important metabolic and structural roles in the eukaryotic cell. Despite having diverse lifestyles, the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens Chlamydia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia all target cholesterol during host cell colonization as a potential source of membrane, as well as a means to manipulate host cell signaling and trafficking. To promote host cell entry, these pathogens utilize cholesterol-rich microdomains known as lipid rafts, which serve as organizational and functional platforms for host signaling pathways involved in phagocytosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502643/are-brucellosis-q-fever-and-melioidosis-potential-causes-of-febrile-illness-in-madagascar
#18
Ides Boone, Klaus Henning, Angela Hilbert, Heinrich Neubauer, Vera von Kalckreuth, Denise Myriam Dekker, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Gi Deok Pak, Andreas Krüger, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Hagen Frickmann, Jean Noël Heriniaina, Raphael Rakotozandrindrainy, Jean Philibert Rakotondrainiarivelo, Tsiry Razafindrabe, Benedikt Hogan, Jürgen May, Florian Marks, Sven Poppert, Sascha Al Dahouk
Brucellosis, Q fever and melioidosis are zoonoses, which can lead to pyrexia. These diseases are often under-ascertained and underreported because of their unspecific clinical signs and symptoms, insufficient awareness by physicians and public health officers and limited diagnostic capabilities, especially in low-resource countries. Therefore, the presence of Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii and Burkholderia pseudomallei was investigated in Malagasy patients exhibiting febrile illness. In addition, we analyzed zebu cattle and their ticks as potential reservoirs for Brucella and C...
May 11, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502642/molecular-detection-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-wild-red-foxes-vulpes-vulpes-from-central-italy
#19
Valentina Virginia Ebani, Guido Rocchigiani, Simona Nardoni, Fabrizio Bertelloni, Violetta Vasta, Roberto Amerigo Papini, Ranieri Verin, Alessandro Poli, Francesca Mancianti
Spleen samples from 153 red foxes, shot during regular hunting season in the province of Pisa (Central Italy), were examined to detect DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia sp./Theileria sp. DNA of vector-borne pathogens was detected in 120 (78.43%; 95% CI: 71.06-84.66%) foxes. Specifically, 75 (49%; 95% CI: 40.86-57.22%) animals scored PCR-positive per H. canis, 68 (44.44%; 95% CI: 36.42-52.69%) for E. canis, 35 (22.88%; 95% CI: 16...
May 11, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493973/prevalence-of-coxiella-burnetii-in-cattle-at-south-korean-national-breeding-stock-farms
#20
Min-Goo Seo, In-Ohk Ouh, Seung-Hun Lee, Jong Wan Kim, Man Hee Rhee, Oh-Deog Kwon, Tae-Hwan Kim, Dongmi Kwak
This is the first study to evaluate the serologic and molecular prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in cattle at national breeding stock farms in South Korea. These government farms have well-organized biosecurity and management systems to prevent livestock diseases. Of the 736 cattle in this study, 77 tested positive for antibodies against C. burnetii antigens (10.5%, 95% CI: 8.3-12.7) and 11 were positive for a C. burnetti infection on PCR analysis (1.5%, 95% CI: 0.6-2.4). Since the 16S rRNA sequences of C. burnetii from all 11 PCR-positive samples were identical, three representative samples (C-CN-3 from the southern region, C-JJ-9 from Jeju Island, and C-CB-37 from the central region) are described in this paper...
2017: PloS One
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