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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053173/the-williams-legacy-a-critical-reappraisal-of-his-nine-predictions-about-the-evolution-of-senescence
#1
Jean-Michel Gaillard, Jean-François Lemaître
Williams' evolutionary theory of senescence based on antagonistic pleiotropy has become a landmark in evolutionary biology, and more recently in biogerontology and evolutionary medicine. In his original article, Williams launched a set of nine 'testable deductions' from his theory. Although some of these predictions have been repeatedly discussed, most have been overlooked and no systematic evaluation of the whole set of Williams' original predictions has been performed. For the sixtieth anniversary of the publication of the Williams' paper, we provide an updated evaluation of all these predictions...
October 20, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039737/onsager-s-missing-steps-retraced
#2
Peter Palffy-Muhoray, Epifanio G Virga, Xiaoyu Zheng
Onsager's paper on phase transition and phase coexistence in anisotropic colloidal systems is a landmark in the theory of lyotropic liquid crystals. However, an uncompromising scrutiny of Onsager's original derivation reveals that it would be rigorously valid only for ludicrous values of the system's number density (of the order of the reciprocal of the number of particles). Based on Penrose's tree identity and an appropriate variant of the mean-field approach for purely repulsive, hard-core interactions, our theory shows that Onsager's theory is indeed valid for a reasonable range of densities...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982262/adaptive-designs-the-swiss-army-knife-among-clinical-trial-designs
#3
Frank Bretz, Paul Gallo, Willi Maurer
There has been considerable progress in the development and implementation of adaptive designs over the past 30 years. A major driver for this class of novel designs is the possibility to increase the information value of clinical trial data to enable better decisions, leading to more efficient drug development processes and improved late-stage success rates. In the first part of this article, we review the development of adaptive designs from different perspectives. We trace back key historical papers, report on landmark adaptive design clinical trials, review major cross-industry collaborations, and highlight key regulatory guidance documents...
October 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961107/image-segmentation-using-disjunctive-normal-bayesian-shape-and-appearance-models
#4
Fitsum Mesadi, Ertunc Erdil, Mujdat Cetin, Tolga Tasdizen
The use of appearance and shape priors in image segmentation is known to improve accuracy; however, existing techniques have several drawbacks. For instance, most active shape and appearance models require landmark points and assume unimodal shape and appearance distributions, and the level set representation does not support construction of local priors. In this paper, we present novel appearance and shape models for image segmentation based on a differentiable implicit parametric shape representation called disjunctive normal shape model (DNSM)...
September 26, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945607/local-density-based-optimal-granulation-and-manifold-information-granule-description
#5
Ji Xu, Guoyin Wang, Tianrui Li, Witold Pedrycz
Constructing information granules (IGs) has been of significant interest to the discipline of granular computing. The principle of justifiable granularity has been proposed to guide the design of IGs, opening an avenue of pursuits of building IGs carried out on a basis of well-defined and intuitively appealing principles. However, how to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the resulting constructs is an open issue. In this paper, we present a local-density-based optimal granulation model (LoDOG), exhibiting evident advantages: 1) it can detect arbitrarily-shaped IGs and 2) it finds the optimal granulation solutions with O(N) complexity, once the leading tree structure has been constructed...
September 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944045/child-psychiatry-a-scientometric-analysis-1980-2016
#6
Sadiq Naveed, Ahmed Waqas, Salman Majeed, Muhammad Zeshan, Nusrat Jahan, Muhammad Haaris Sheikh
Background: The field of child and adolescent psychiatry lags behind adult psychiatry significantly. In recent years, it has witnessed a significant increase in the publication of journals and articles. This study provides a detailed bibliometric analysis of articles published from 1980 to 2016, in the top seven journals of child and adolescent psychiatry. Methods: Using the Web of Science core collection, we selected 9,719 research papers published in seven psychiatric journals from 1980 to 2016. We utilized the Web of Science Analytics tool and Network Analysis Interface for Literature Studies (NAILS) Project scripts to delineate the general trends of publication in these journals...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936489/landmark-based-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-using-longitudinal-structural-mr-images
#7
Jun Zhang, Mingxia Liu, Le An, Yaozong Gao, Dinggang Shen
In this paper, we propose a landmark-based feature extraction method for AD diagnosis using longitudinal structural MR images, which requires no nonlinear registration or tissue segmentation in the application stage and is robust to the inconsistency among longitudinal scans. Specifically, (1) the discriminative landmarks are first automatically discovered from the whole brain, which can be efficiently localized using a fast landmark detection method for the testing images; (2) High-level statistical spatial features and contextual longitudinal features are then extracted based on those detected landmarks...
October 2016: Bayesian and Graphical Models for Biomedical Imaging: BAMBI 2014
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936280/enhancing-diffusion-mri-measures-by-integrating-grey-and-white-matter-morphometry-with-hyperbolic-wasserstein-distance
#8
Wen Zhang, Jie Shi, Jun Yu, Liang Zhan, Paul M Thompson, Yalin Wang
In order to improve the preclinical diagnose of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is a great deal of interest in analyzing the AD related brain structural changes with magnetic resonance image (MRI) analyses. As the major features, variation of the structural connectivity and the cortical surface morphometry provide different views of structural changes to determine whether AD is present on presymptomatic patients. However, the large scale tensor-valued information and relatively low imaging resolution in diffusion MRI (dMRI) have created huge challenges for analysis...
2017: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932825/editorial
#9
EDITORIAL
Adrian Saftoiu
Dear colleagues, It is my great pleasure and honor to introduce the September 2017 Issue of Ultrasound International Open (UIO), already in its eight number from the initial appearance of the journal in 2015. Recently, UIO has reached the antechamber of journals applying for Impact Factor, being accepted in ESCI (Emerging Sources Citation Index). Consequently, UIO will soon appear in the Web of Science, a major step forward for the journal. The enthusiasm and hard work of the editors, as well as of the entire Thieme support team was invaluable for this endeavor! Three landmark papers are published in the issue, along with 4 case presentations and 1 letter to the editor...
June 2017: Ultrasound International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918063/a-pca-based-method-for-determining-craniofacial-relationship-and-sexual-dimorphism-of-facial-shapes
#10
Wuyang Shui, Mingquan Zhou, Steve Maddock, Taiping He, Xingce Wang, Qingqiong Deng
Previous studies have used principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate the craniofacial relationship, as well as sex determination using facial factors. However, few studies have investigated the extent to which the choice of principal components (PCs) affects the analysis of craniofacial relationship and sexual dimorphism. In this paper, we propose a PCA-based method for visual and quantitative analysis, using 140 samples of 3D heads (70 male and 70 female), produced from computed tomography (CT) images...
September 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916398/in-vivo-analysis-of-sternal-angle-sternal-and-sternocostal-kinematics-in-supine-humans-during-breathing
#11
Benoît Beyer, Véronique Feipel, Victor Sholukha, Laurence Chèze, Serge Van Sint Jan
This paper aims at contributing to the understanding of the combination of in vivo sternum displacement, sternal angle variations and sternocostal joints (SCJ) kinematics of the seven first rib pairs over the inspiratory capacity (IC). Retrospective codified spiral-CT data obtained at total lung capacity (TLC), middle of inspiratory capacity (MIC) and at functional residual capacity (FRC) were used to compute kinematic parameters of the bones and joints of interest in a sample of 12 asymptomatic subjects. 3D models of rib, thoracic vertebra, manubrium and sternum were processed to determine anatomical landmarks (ALs) on each bone...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895902/millimeter-scale-track-irregularity-surveying-based-on-zupt-aided-ins-with-sub-decimeter-scale-landmarks
#12
Qingan Jiang, Wenqi Wu, Yun Li, Mingming Jiang
Railway track irregularity surveying is important for the construction and the maintenance of railway lines. With the development of inertial devices, systems based on Inertial Navigation System (INS) have become feasible and popular approaches in track surveying applications. In order to overcome the requirement of high precision control points, this paper proposes a railway track irregularity measurement approach using the INS combined with the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) technique and sub-decimeter scale landmarks...
September 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880160/pvr-patch-to-volume-reconstruction-for-large-area-motion-correction-of-fetal-mri
#13
Amir Alansary, Martin Rajchl, Steven G McDonagh, Maria Murgasova, Mellisa Damodaram, David F A Lloyd, Alice Davidson, Mary Rutherford, Joseph V Hajnal, Daniel Rueckert, Bernhard Kainz
In this paper we present a novel method for the correction of motion artifacts that are present in fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of the whole uterus. Contrary to current slice-to-volume registration (SVR) methods, requiring an inflexible anatomical enclosure of a single investigated organ, the proposed patch-to-volume reconstruction (PVR) approach is able to reconstruct a large field of view of non-rigidly deforming structures. It relaxes rigid motion assumptions by introducing a specific amount of redundant information that is exploited with parallelized patch-wise optimization, super-resolution, and automatic outlier rejection...
September 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875551/lung-field-segmentation-using-weighted-sparse-shape-composition-with-robust-initialization
#14
Junfeng Xiong, Yeqin Shao, Jingchen Ma, Yacheng Ren, Qian Wang, Jun Zhao
PURPOSE: Lung field segmentation for chest radiography is critical to pulmonary disease diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a new deformable model using weighted sparse shape composition with robust initialization to achieve robust and accurate lung field segmentation. METHODS: Our method consists of three steps: initialization, deformation and regularization. The steps of deformation and regularization are iteratively employed until convergence. First, since a deformable model is sensitive to the initial shape, a robust initialization is obtained by using a novel voting strategy, which allows the reliable patches on the image to vote for each landmark of the initial shape...
September 6, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875138/new-method-for-an-evaluation-of-the-esthetical-improvements-resulting-from-a-mandibular-angle-reduction
#15
Joo-Hwan Kim, Se-Jin Han, Moon-Young Kim
OBJECTIVES: This paper proposes Han's ratio as an objective and quantitative comparative result obtained from pre and postoperative data in patients with a mandibular angle reduction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients, 12 men and 18 women, who visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with the chief complaints of skeletal mandibular prognathism and prominent mandibular angle were selected. The subjects were classified into 3 groups according to the types of surgical procedures involved...
August 2017: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871591/network-of-breathing-multifunctional-role-of-the-diaphragm-a-review
#16
Janusz Kocjan, Mariusz Adamek, Bożena Gzik-Zroska, Damian Czyżewski, Mateusz Rydel
The diaphragm is the primary muscle involved in active inspiration and serves also as an important anatomical landmark that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavity. However, the diaphragm muscle like other structures and organs in the human body has more than one function, and displays many anatomic links throughout the body, thereby forming a 'network of breathing'. Besides respiratory function, it is important for postural control as it stabilises the lumbar spine during loading tasks. It also plays a vital role in the vascular and lymphatic systems, as well as, is greatly involved in gastroesophageal functions such as swallowing, vomiting, and contributing to the gastroesophageal reflux barrier...
2017: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861700/a-method-for-going-from-2d-laparoscope-to-3d-acquisition-of-surface-landmarks-by-a-novel-computer-vision-approach
#17
Marc Garbey, Toan B Nguyen, Albert Y Huang, Vid Fikfak, Brian J Dunkin
PURPOSE: This paper presents a method to use the Smart Trocars-our new surgical instrument recognition system-or any accurate localization system of surgical instrument for acquiring intraoperative surface data. Complex laparoscopic surgeries need a proper guidance system which requires registering the preoperative data from a CT or MRI scan to the intraoperative patient state. The Smart Trocar can be used to localize the instruments when it comes to contact with the soft tissue surface...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858786/a-functional-regression-approach-to-facial-landmark-tracking
#18
Enrique Sanchez-Lozano, Georgios Tzimiropoulos, Brais Martinez, Fernando De la Torre, Michel Valstar
Linear regression is a fundamental building block in many face detection and tracking algorithms, typically used to predict shape displacements from image features through a linear mapping. This paper presents a Functional Regression solution to the least squares problem, which we coin Continuous Regression, resulting in the first real-time incremental face tracker. Contrary to prior work in Functional Regression, in which B-splines or Fourier series were used, we propose to approximate the input space by its first-order Taylor expansion, yielding a closed-form solution for the continuous domain of displacements...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857194/local-incompressible-registration-for-liver-ablation-surgery-assessment
#19
Tianyu Fu, Qin Li, Dingkun Liu, Danni Ai, Hong Song, Ping Liang, Yongtian Wang, Jian Yang
PURPOSE: In liver microwave ablation (MWA) surgery, the ablation area covers the tumor to generate tissue necrosis and treat the cancer. As the liver deforms during the operation, deviation between the target area determined during pre-operative planning and the resultant ablation area is inevitable. Therefore, an accurate assessment of tumor coverage is crucial for treatment. Through registration between the pre- and post-operative livers, the ablation area is warped on the pre-operative liver for the computation of tumor coverage...
August 30, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845557/treatment-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-australia-and-new-zealand-a-position-statement-from-the-thoracic-society-of-australia-and-new-zealand-and-the-lung-foundation-australia
#20
Helen E Jo, Lauren K Troy, Gregory Keir, Daniel C Chambers, Anne Holland, Nicole Goh, Margaret Wilsher, Sally de Boer, Yuben Moodley, Christopher Grainge, Helen Whitford, Sally Chapman, Paul N Reynolds, Ian Glaspole, David Beatson, Leonie Jones, Peter Hopkins, Tamera J Corte
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fibrosing interstitial lung disease (ILD) of unknown aetiology with a median survival of only 2-5 years. It is characterized by progressive dyspnoea and worsening lung function, ultimately resulting in death. Until recently, there were no effective therapies for IPF; however, with the publication of two landmark clinical trials in 2014, the anti-fibrotic therapies, nintedanib and pirfenidone, have gained widespread approval. This position paper aims to highlight the current evidence for the treatment of IPF, with particular application to the Australian and New Zealand population...
August 27, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
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