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Landmark paper

Barry Danby Michael
This Commentary focuses on the landmark paper about hypoxia in radiotherapy by Gray, Scott et al published in 1953. By then, it was known that hypoxic regions in tumours could make them resistant to radiation treatment and that this was a possible cause of failure. The paper proposed that oxygen breathing could substantially decrease this resistance without incurring significant additional damage to normal tissues, thus reducing the likelihood of recurrence. Although the paper's supporting data were in some respects incomplete, the case it made was convincing and it prompted pilot clinical trials that combined radiotherapy with oxygen breathing, including under elevated pressure...
June 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Vijayalakshmi Chandrasekhar, Chandrasekhar Krishnamurti
Born in 1883 in Kyme, Greece, George Papanicolaou obtained his medical degree in 1904 from the University of Athens and doctorate in Zoology in 1910 from the University of Munich. He migrated to the USA in 1913 and worked as an assistant at the Department of Anatomy in the Cornell Medical College. There, Papanicolaou examined vaginal smears under his microscope, charted the cyclic ovarian and uterine changes every day and harvested the oocytes at the appropriate time. He published his research on the cytologic patterns in guinea pigs in the American Journal of Anatomy in 1917...
June 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Qi Zeng, Qingyan Wang, Jianfeng Jason Zheng, Wolfgang Kainz, Ji Chen
A typical cochlear implant system under Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) procedures may couple with the radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) and results in an intensified electric field at the lead tip. As a result, the RF energy deposited in human tissues around the lead tip may induce heating and cause tissue damage concerns. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the RF-EMF-induced heating for cochlear implant system in 1.5T MRI coil and highlight the factors that have significant effects on the heating...
June 12, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Rahul Mukherjee, Raffaella Nenna, Alice Turner
The landmark YONIV trial addressed key practical questions surrounding the early use of ward-based noninvasive ventilation, which is now an established evidence-based treatment for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure
June 2018: Breathe
Masahito Oshina, Chiaki Horii, Shima Hirai, Yoshitaka Matsubayashi, Yuki Taniguchi, Naoto Hayashi, Sakae Tanaka, Yasushi Oshima
STUDY DESIGN: Anatomic study using computed tomographic scans. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper was to determine the trajectory of pedicle screw insertions, in regard to posterior bony landmarks encountered during standard posterior exposure of the spine between the seventh cervical (C7) and the fifth thoracic (T5) vertebrae, when lateral fluoroscopic and radiographic guidance may be obstructed by the scapula and shoulders. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Only a few studies have evaluated the intraoperative sagittal trajectory of pedicle screw insertion...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
Aaron Alexander-Bloch, Haochang Shou, Siyuan Liu, Theodore D Satterthwaite, David C Glahn, Russell T Shinohara, Simon N Vandekar, Armin Raznahan
A critical issue in many neuroimaging studies is the comparison between brain maps. Nonetheless, it remains unclear how one should test hypotheses focused on the overlap or spatial correspondence between two or more brain maps. This "correspondence problem" affects, for example, the interpretation of comparisons between task-based patterns of functional activation, resting-state networks or modules, and neuroanatomical landmarks. To date, this problem has been addressed with remarkable variability in terms of methodological approaches and statistical rigor...
May 31, 2018: NeuroImage
Jennifer S Pardo, Adelya Urmanche, Hannah Gash, Jaclyn Wiener, Nicholas Mason, Sherilyn Wilman, Keagan Francis, Alexa Decker
This paper introduces a conversational speech corpus collected during the completion of a map-matching task that is available for research purposes via the Montclair State University Digital Commons Data Repository. The Montclair Map Task is a new, role-neutral conversational task that involves paired iconic maps with labeled landmarks and a path drawn from a start point, around various landmarks, to a finish mark. One advantage of this task-oriented corpus is the ability to derive independent objective measures of task performance for both members of a conversational pair that can be related to aspects of communicative style...
June 1, 2018: Language and Speech
Hein Putter, Cristian Spitoni
The topic non-parametric estimation of transition probabilities in non-Markov multi-state models has seen a remarkable surge of activity recently. Two recent papers have used the idea of subsampling in this context. The first paper, by de Uña Álvarez and Meira-Machado, uses a procedure based on (differences between) Kaplan-Meier estimators derived from a subset of the data consisting of all subjects observed to be in the given state at the given time. The second, by Titman, derived estimators of transition probabilities that are consistent in general non-Markov multi-state models...
July 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Ahmed E Hussein, Darian R Esfahani, Galina I Moisak, Jamil A Rzaev, Konstantin V Slavin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the early 1990s, motor cortex stimulation (MCS) has been a unique treatment modality for patients with drug-resistant deafferentation pain. While underpowered studies and case reports have limited definitive, data-driven analysis of MCS in the past, recent research has brought new clarity to the MCS literature and has helped identify appropriate indications for MCS and its long-term efficacy. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, new research in MCS, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are analyzed and compared with historical landmark papers...
May 23, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Richard D Branson
Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) at home has been demonstrated to improve survival in patients with COPD and severe resting hypoxemia. Support for LTOT is based on 2 landmark trials published nearly 4 decades ago. These results form the basis for reimbursement and prescription of LTOT to this day. Recent work has demonstrated no outcome benefit of LTOT in stable COPD patients with moderate desaturation at rest or during activity. Oxygen therapy during activity and exercise has been shown to alleviate symptoms and maintain arterial oxygen saturation, but not improve long-term outcomes...
June 2018: Respiratory Care
Namkyoung Lee, Sumin Ahn, Dongsoo Han
Geomagnetic-based indoor positioning has drawn a great attention from academia and industry due to its advantage of being operable without infrastructure support and its reliable signal characteristics. However, it must overcome the problems of ambiguity that originate with the nature of geomagnetic data. Most studies manage this problem by incorporating particle filters along with inertial sensors. However, they cannot yield reliable positioning results because the inertial sensors in smartphones cannot precisely predict the movement of users...
May 17, 2018: Sensors
Alex Smedley, Nate Yusupov, Alaa Almousa, Thomas Solbach, Ahmed K Toma, Joan P Grieve
OBJECTIVE: To compare multidisciplinary team (MDT) decision making at our centre with the suggested management from the recently published Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysm Treatment Score (UIATS), with particular focus on disagreements between the two bodies of expert opinion. DESIGN: A retrospective audit of local practice. SUBJECTS: Adult patients with incidental cerebral saccular aneurysms referred to The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery Neurovascular MDT...
May 15, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Pietro Perotti, Marco Ferrari, Nausica Montalto, Davide Lancini, Alberto Paderno, Fabiola Incandela, Barbara Buffoli, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella, Cesare Piazza
Introduction: Carbon dioxide laser coagulation during transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) for laryngeal cancer allows control of bleeding from vessels smaller than 0.5 mm. Therefore, larger arteries and veins must be carefully managed by clipping and/or monopolar cautery. The aim of this paper is to detail endolaryngeal vascular anatomy and identify areas of possible bleeding during TLM. Methods: We performed an anatomical study on a series of 11 fresh-frozen human cadavers...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Mingxia Liu, Jun Zhang, Ehsan Adeli, Dinggang Shen
Jointly identifying brain diseases and predicting clinical scores have attracted increasing attention in the domain of computer-aided diagnosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, since these two tasks are highly correlated. Although several joint learning models have been developed, most existing methods focus on using human-engineered features extracted from MRI data. Due to the possible heterogeneous property between human-engineered features and subsequent classification/regression models, those methods may lead to sub-optimal learning performance...
September 2017: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
Guillermo Ruiz, Eduard Ramon, Jaime García, Federico M Sukno, Miguel A González Ballester
The use of 3D imaging has increased as a practical and useful tool for plastic and aesthetic surgery planning. Specifically, the possibility of representing the patient breast anatomy in a 3D shape and simulate aesthetic or plastic procedures is a great tool for communication between surgeon and patient during surgery planning. For the purpose of obtaining the specific 3D model of the breast of a patient, model-based reconstruction methods can be used. In particular, 3D morphable models (3DMM) are a robust and widely used method to perform 3D reconstruction...
May 2, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Jing Chen, Yi Zhang, Wei Xue
In this paper, we propose UILoc, an unsupervised indoor localization scheme that uses a combination of smartphone sensors, iBeacons and Wi-Fi fingerprints for reliable and accurate indoor localization with zero labor cost. Firstly, compared with the fingerprint-based method, the UILoc system can build a fingerprint database automatically without any site survey and the database will be applied in the fingerprint localization algorithm. Secondly, since the initial position is vital to the system, UILoc will provide the basic location estimation through the pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) method...
April 28, 2018: Sensors
Jirui Lin, Laiyuan Xiao, Tao Wu
BACKGROUND: Video-based face recognition has attracted much attention owning to its wide range of applications such as video surveillance. There are various approaches for facial feature extraction. Feature vectors extracted by these approaches tend to have large dimension and may include redundant information for face representation, which limits the application of methods with high accuracy such as machine learning. OBJECTIVE: Facial landmarks represent the intrinsic characteristics of human face, which can be utilized to decrease redundant information and reduce the computation complexity...
2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Benjamin Groisser, Ron Kimmel, Guy Feldman, Nimrod Rozen, Alon Wolf
Spine shape can be reconstructed from stereoradiography, but often requires specialized infrastructure or fails to account for subject posture. In this paper a protocol is presented for stereo reconstructions that integrates surface recordings with radiography and naturally accounts for variations in patient posture. Low cost depth cameras are added to an existing radiographic system to capture patient pose. A statistical model of human body shape is learned from public datasets and registered to depth scans, providing 3D correspondence across images for stereo reconstruction of radiographic landmarks...
April 23, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Sunita Vs Bandewar, Amita Pitre, Lakshmi Lingam
It is five years since the fatal gang rape of Jyothi Singh (Nirbhaya), a physiotherapy student, on December 16, 2012, in New Delhi, the capital of India. The legal and policy reforms triggered by the Nirbhaya case will remain a watershed moment in the history of efforts towards seeking justice for survivors of gender-based violence in India. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 and the "Guidelines and protocols: Medico-legal care for survivors/victims of sexual violence" issued by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in March 2014 are two landmark reforms...
March 28, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Xin-Guang Liu, Xiao-Chuan Bai, Fang-Ping Chen, Yun-Feng Cheng, Ke-Sheng Dai, Mei-Yun Fang, Jian-Ming Feng, Yu-Ping Gong, Tao Guo, Xin-Hong Guo, Yue Han, Luo-Jia Hong, Yu Hu, Bao-Lai Hua, Rui-Bing Huang, Yan Li, Jun Peng, Mi-Mi Shu, Jing Sun, Pei-Yan Sun, Yu-Qian Sun, Chun-Sen Wang, Shu-Jie Wang, Xiao-Min Wang, Cong-Ming Wu, Wen-Man Wu, Zhen-Yu Yan, Feng-E Yang, Lin-Hua Yang, Ren-Chi Yang, Tong-Hua Yang, Xu Ye, Guang-Sen Zhang, Lei Zhang, Chang-Cheng Zheng, Hu Zhou, Min Zhou, Rong-Fu Zhou, Ze-Ping Zhou, Hong-Li Zhu, Tie-Nan Zhu, Ming Hou
Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a bleeding disorder commonly encountered in clinical practice. The International Working Group (IWG) on ITP has published several landmark papers on terminology, definitions, outcome criteria, bleeding assessment, diagnosis, and management of ITP. The Chinese consensus reports for diagnosis and management of adult ITP have been updated to the 4th edition. Based on current consensus positions and new emerging clinical evidence, the thrombosis and hemostasis group of the Chinese Society of Hematology issued Chinese guidelines for management of adult ITP, which aim to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinical decision making...
June 2018: International Journal of Hematology
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