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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527810/hif-1%C3%AE-stabilizing-agent-fg-4997-rescues-human-cd34-cell-mobilization-in-response-to-g-csf-in-immuno-deficient-mice
#1
Bianca Nowlan, Katarzyna Futrega, Marion E Brunck, Gail Walkinshaw, Lee E Flippin, Michael R Doran, Jean-Pierre Levesque
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is routinely used in the clinic to mobilize hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPC) into the patient's blood for collection and subsequent transplantation. However a significant proportion of patients who have previously received chemotherapy or radiotherapy and requiring autologous HSPC transplantation, cannot mobilize the minimal threshold of mobilized HSPC to achieve rapid and successful hematopoietic reconstitution. Although several alternatives to the G-CSF regime have been tested, few are in use in the clinic...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527722/crispr-cas9-mediated-ccr5-ablation-in-human-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells-confers-hiv-1-resistance-in%C3%A2-vivo
#2
Lei Xu, Huan Yang, Yang Gao, Zeyu Chen, Liangfu Xie, Yulin Liu, Ying Liu, Xiaobao Wang, Hanwei Li, Weifeng Lai, Yuan He, Anzhi Yao, Liying Ma, Yiming Shao, Bin Zhang, Chengyan Wang, Hu Chen, Hongkui Deng
Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with a naturally occurring CCR5 mutation confers a loss of detectable HIV-1 in the patient, making ablation of the CCR5 gene in HSCs an ideal therapy for an HIV-1 cure. Although CCR5 disruption has been attempted in CD4(+) T cells and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), efficient gene editing with high specificity and long-term therapeutic potential remains a major challenge for clinical translation. Here, we established a CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system in human CD34(+) HSPCs and achieved efficient CCR5 ablation evaluated in long-term reconstituted NOD/Prkdc(scid)/IL-2Rγ(null) mice...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527331/analysis-of-zip-zrt-irt-related-protein-transporter-gene-expression-in-murine-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#3
Mayu Nishikawa, Hideki Mori, Masayuki Hara
Zinc plays important roles for brain development. Zrt-, Irt-related protein (ZIP) is a major transporter family to regulate the intracellular zinc levels. Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) are more sensitive than their differentiated progeny (neural/glial cells) to zinc in vitro (Nishikawa et al., 2015). We analyzed relative gene expression of 14 different ZIPs in murine NSPCs and differentiated cells by real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. Expression of Zip4 and that of Zip12 drastically increased, while that of Zip8 clearly decreased after differentiation of NSPCs...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527294/activation-of-hypoxia-signaling-in-stromal-progenitors-impairs-kidney-development
#4
Katharina Gerl, Dominik Steppan, Michaela Fuchs, Charlotte Wagner, Carsten Willam, Armin Kurtz, Birgül Kurt
Intrauterine hypoxia is a reason for impaired kidney development. The cellular and molecular pathways along which hypoxia exerts effects on nephrogenesis are not well understood. They are likely triggered by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), and their effects appear to be dependent on the cell compartment contributing to kidney formation. In this study, we investigated the effects of HIF activation in the developing renal stroma, which also essentially modulates nephron development from the metanephric mesenchyme...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526755/the-matrix-protein-tiggrin-regulates-plasmatocyte-maturation-in-drosophila-larva
#5
Chen U Zhang, Ken M Cadigan
The lymph gland (LG) is a major source of hematopoiesis during Drosophila development. In this tissue, prohemocytes differentiate into multiple lineages including macrophage-like plasmatocytes, which comprise the vast majority of mature hemocytes. Previous studies have uncovered genetic pathways that regulate prohemocyte maintenance and some cell fate choices between hemocyte lineages. However, less is known about how the plasmatocyte pool of the LG is established and matures. Here we report that Tiggrin, a matrix protein expressed in the LG, is a specific regulator of plasmatocyte maturation...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526606/identification-of-emsox2-a-member-of-the-sox-family-of-transcription-factors-as-a-potential-regulator-of-echinococcus-multilocularis-germinative-cells
#6
Zhe Cheng, Fan Liu, Mengya Dai, Jianjian Wu, Xiu Li, Xinrui Guo, Huimin Tian, Zhijie Heng, Ying Lu, Xiaoli Chai, Yanhai Wang
Larvae of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis cause alveolar echinococcosis (AE), one of the most lethal helminthic infections in humans. The germinative cells, a population of stem cell-like cells, are considered to drive the continuous growth of the metacestodes within the host. The mechanisms and relative molecules controlling the behavior of germinative cells are poorly understood. Sox transcription factors play important roles in maintenance and regulation of stem/progenitor cells. We here describe the identification of a Sox family member in E...
May 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526415/lnk-deficiency-aggregates-palmitate-induced-preadipocyte-apoptosis
#7
Jie-Yi Du, Chen-Chen Jin, Guo-Hao Wang, Xiong-Qing Huang, Jian-Ding Cheng, Xue-Jun Wen, Xiao-Miao Zhao, Guan-Lei Wang
LNK (SH2B3) is an intracellular adaptor protein that negatively regulates cellular proliferation or self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and some other progenitor cells. LNK is also recognized as a key regulator of insulin resistance and inflammatory responses in several tissues and organs. It is unknown the function of LNK in adipose tissue. We previously demonstrated that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mouse model had elevated serum free fatty acids (FFAs) levels and increased preadipocyte apoptosis in visceral fat tissue, showing the occurrence of lipotoxicity...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526138/gata-factors-master-regulators-of-gene-expression-in-trophoblast-progenitors
#8
Soumen Paul, Pratik Home, Bhaswati Bhattacharya, Soma Ray
Mammalian reproduction is critically dependent on trophoblast cells, which ensure embryo implantation and placentation. Development of trophoblast cell lineages is a multi-step process and relies upon proper spatial and temporal gene expression, which is regulated by multiple transcription factors. However, most of the transcription factors that are implicated in trophoblast development regulate gene expression at a specific developmental stage or in a specific trophoblast subtype. In contrast, recent studies from our group and other laboratories indicate that conserved GATA family of transcription factors, GATA2 and GATA3, are important to regulate gene expression at multiple stages of trophoblast development...
May 10, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525381/the-cell-of-origin-dictates-the-temporal-course-of-neurofibromatosis-1-nf1-low-grade-glioma-formation
#9
Anne C Solga, Joseph A Toonen, Yuan Pan, Patrick J Cimino, Yu Ma, Guillaume A Castillon, Scott M Gianino, Mark H Ellisman, Da Yong Lee, David H Gutmann
Low-grade gliomas are one of the most common brain tumors in children, where they frequently form within the optic pathway (optic pathway gliomas; OPGs). Since many OPGs occur in the context of the Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome, we have previously employed Nf1 genetically-engineered mouse (GEM) strains to study the pathogenesis of these low-grade glial neoplasms. In the light of the finding that human and mouse low-grade gliomas are composed of Olig2+ cells and that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) give rise to murine high-grade gliomas, we sought to determine whether Olig2+ OPCs could be tumor-initiating cells for Nf1 optic glioma...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524367/transplantation-of-human-villous-trophoblasts-preserves-cardiac-function-in-mice-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#10
Zegen Wang, Ningzheng Dong, Yayan Niu, Zhiwei Zhang, Ce Zhang, Meng Liu, Tiantian Zhou, Qingyu Wu, Ke Cheng
Over the past decade, cell therapies have provided promising strategies for the treatment of ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Particularly, the beneficial effects of stem cells, including bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have been demonstrated by substantial preclinical and clinical studies. Nevertheless stem cell therapy is not always safe and effective. Hence, there is an urgent need for alternative sources of cells to promote cardiac regeneration...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523979/pacap-promotes-matrix-driven-adhesion-of-cultured-adult-murine-neural-progenitors
#11
James A Waschek, Joseph R Cohen, Gloria C Chi, Tomasz J Proszynski, Pawel Niewiadomski
New neurons are born throughout the life of mammals in germinal zones of the brain known as neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These niches contain a subpopulation of cells known as adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs), which self-renew and give rise to new neurons and glia. aNPCs are regulated by many factors present in the niche, including the extracellular matrix (ECM). We show that the neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) affects subventricular zone-derived aNPCs by increasing their surface adhesion...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523122/sex-differences-in-rat-placental-development-from-pre-implantation-to-late-gestation
#12
J I Kalisch-Smith, D G Simmons, M Pantaleon, K M Moritz
BACKGROUND: A male fetus is suggested to be more susceptible to in utero and birth complications. This may be due in part to altered morphology or function of the XY placenta. We hypothesised that sexual dimorphism begins at the blastocyst stage with sex differences in the progenitor trophectoderm (TE) and its derived trophoblast lineages, as these cells populate the majority of cell types within the placenta. We investigated sex-specific differences in cell allocation in the pre-implantation embryo and further characterised growth and gene expression of the placental compartments from the early stages of the definitive placenta through to late gestation...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523072/delayed-endothelial-progenitor-cell-therapy-promotes-bone-defect-repair-in-a-clinically-relevant-rat-model
#13
Brent D Bates, Charles Godbout, David J Ramnaraign, Emil H Schemitsch, Aaron Nauth
The repair of segmental bone defects remains a significant challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have successfully promoted the repair of acute defects in animal models; however, the ability of EPCs to induce the repair of chronic nonhealing defects, such as those often encountered clinically, has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of EPCs delivered in delayed fashion to induce the repair of nonhealing defects in a clinically relevant model...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522881/notch-signaling-and-maintenance-of-sox2-expression-in-rat-anterior-pituitary-cells
#14
Khongorzul Batchuluun, Morio Azuma, Ken Fujiwara, Takashi Yashiro, Motoshi Kikuchi
After publication of reports describing the presence of stem/progenitor cells among non-hormone-producing cells in the pituitary, the mechanism responsible for proliferation and differentiation generated considerable interest. Several studies have suggested that Notch signaling is involved. In the present study, we examined the histochemical relationship between Notch signaling molecules and the transcription factor SOX2 in rat pituitary. Combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that Notch2 mRNA and SOX2 were co-expressed at embryonic day 14...
April 27, 2017: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522527/lineage-dependent-spatial-and-functional-organization-of-the-mammalian-enteric-nervous-system
#15
Reena Lasrado, Werend Boesmans, Jens Kleinjung, Carmen Pin, Donald Bell, Leena Bhaw, Sarah McCallum, Hui Zong, Liqun Luo, Hans Clevers, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Vassilis Pachnis
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is essential for digestive function and gut homeostasis. Here we show that the amorphous neuroglia networks of the mouse ENS are composed of overlapping clonal units founded by postmigratory neural crest-derived progenitors. The spatial configuration of ENS clones depends on proliferation-driven local interactions of ENS progenitors with lineally unrelated neuroectodermal cells, the ordered colonization of the serosa-mucosa axis by clonal descendants, and gut expansion. Single-cell transcriptomics and mutagenesis analysis delineated dynamic molecular states of ENS progenitors and identified RET as a regulator of neurogenic commitment...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522408/multipotency-and-therapeutic-potential-of-ng2-cells
#16
REVIEW
Martin Valny, Pavel Honsa, Jan Kriska, Miroslava Anderova
NG2 cells represent one of the most proliferative glial cell populations in the intact mammalian central nervous system (CNS). They are well-known for their ability to renew themselves or to generate new oligodendrocytes during development as well as in adulthood, therefore also being termed oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Following CNS injuries, such as demyelination, trauma or ischemia, the proliferative capacity of NG2 cells rapidly increases and moreover, their differentiation potential broadens, as documented by numerous reports also describing their differentiation into astrocytes or even neurons...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521042/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-modelling-of-hlhs-underlines-the-contribution-of-dysfunctional-notch-signalling-to-impaired-cardiogenesis
#17
Chunbo Yang, Yaobo Xu, Min Yu, David Lee, Sameer Alharti, Nicola Hellen, Noor Ahmad Shaik, Babajan Banaganapalli, Hussein Ali Mohamoud Sheikh, Elango Ramu, Stefan Przyborski, Gennadiy Tenin, Simon Williams, John O'Sullivan, Osman O Al-Radi, Jameel Atta, Sian E Harding, Bernard Keavney, Majlinda Lako, Lyle Armstrong
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is among the most severe forms of congenital heart disease. Although the consensus view is that reduced flow through the left heart during development is a key factor in the development of the condition, the molecular mechanisms leading to hypoplasia of left heart structures are unknown. We have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from five HLHS patients and two unaffected controls, differentiated these to cardiomyocytes and identified reproducible in vitro cellular and functional correlates of the HLHS phenotype...
May 17, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521038/ventricular-zone-disruption-in-human-neonates-with-intraventricular-hemorrhage
#18
James P McAllister, Maria Montserrat Guerra, Leandro Castaneyra Ruiz, Antonio J Jimenez, Dolores Dominguez-Pinos, Deborah Sival, Wilfred den Dunnen, Diego M Morales, Robert E Schmidt, Esteban M Rodriguez, David D Limbrick
To determine if ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) alterations are associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, we compared postmortem frontal and subcortical brain samples from 12 infants with IVH and 3 nonneurological disease controls without hemorrhages or ventriculomegaly. Birth and expiration estimated gestational ages were 23.0-39.1 and 23.7-44.1 weeks, respectively; survival ranges were 0-42 days (median, 2.0 days). Routine histology and immunohistochemistry for neural stem cells (NSCs), neural progenitors (NPs), multiciliated ependymal cells (ECs), astrocytes (AS), and cell adhesion molecules were performed...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520806/als-skeletal-muscle-shows-enhanced-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-fibrosis-and-induction-of-fibro-adipogenic-progenitor-markers
#19
David Gonzalez, Osvaldo Contreras, Daniela L Rebolledo, Juan Pablo Espinoza, Brigitte van Zundert, Enrique Brandan
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease in which upper and lower motoneurons degenerate leading to muscle wasting, paralysis and eventually death from respiratory failure. Several studies indicate that skeletal muscle contributes to disease progression; however the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Fibrosis is a common feature in skeletal muscle under chronic damage conditions such as those caused by muscular dystrophies or denervation. However, the exact mechanisms of fibrosis induction and the cellular bases of this pathological response are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520518/arrested-development-infantile-hemangioma-and-the-stem-cell-teratogenic-hypothesis
#20
Shaghayegh Harbi, Hannah Park, Michael Gregory, Peter Lopez, Luis Chiriboga, Paolo Mignatti
BACKGROUND: Early-life programming is defined by the adaptive changes made by the fetus in response to an adverse in utero environment. Infantile hemangioma (IH), a vascular anomaly, is the most common tumor of infancy. Here we take IH as the tumor model to propose the stem cell teratogenic hypothesis of tumorigenesis and the potential involvement of the immune system. OBJECTIVES: Teratogenic agents include chemicals, heavy metals, pathogens, and ionizing radiation...
May 18, 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
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