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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445929/the-kinesin-motor-protein-kif7-is-required-for-t-cell-development-and-normal-mhc-expression-on-thymic-epithelial-cells-tec-in-the-thymus
#1
Ching-In Lau, Alessandro Barbarulo, Anisha Solanki, José Ignacio Saldaña, Tessa Crompton
Kif7 is a ciliary kinesin motor protein that regulates mammalian Hedgehog pathway activation through influencing structure of the primary cilium. Here we show that Kif7 is required for normal T-cell development, despite the fact that T-cells lack primary cilia. Analysis of Kif7-deficient thymus showed that Kif7-deficiency increases the early CD44+CD25+CD4-CD8- thymocyte progenitor population but reduces differentiation to CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) cell. At the transition from DP to mature T-cell, Kif7-deficiency selectively delayed maturation to the CD8 lineage...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445828/targeting-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-nuclear-translocator-complex-with-dmog-and-stemregenin-1-improves-primitive-hematopoietic-stem-cell-expansion
#2
Carlo Stephan Jackson, Chrisna Durandt, Ilse Janse van Rensburg, Vincent Praloran, Philippe Brunet de la Grange, Michael Sean Pepper
Culture conditions used for the expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSCs and HPCs, collectively HSPCs) should ideally favor the self renewal of long-term HSCs. At 20% O2, the synthesis of HIF-1α is balanced by its hydroxylation and proteasomal degradation. This favors HSPC differentiation, but can be prevented by culturing CD34+ cord blood cells in the presence of dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG). This differentiation may also be reduced by culturing the cells in the presence of Stemregenin 1, an antagonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)...
April 20, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445734/opposing-actions-of-fgf8a-on-notch-signaling-distinguish-two-muller-glial-cell-populations-that-contribute-to-retina-growth-and-regeneration
#3
Jin Wan, Daniel Goldman
The teleost retina grows throughout life and exhibits a robust regenerative response following injury. Critical to both these events are Muller glia (or, Muller glial cells; MGs), which produce progenitors for retinal growth and repair. We report that Fgf8a may be an MG niche factor that acts through Notch signaling to regulate spontaneous and injury-dependent MG proliferation. Remarkably, forced Fgf8a expression inhibits Notch signaling and stimulates MG proliferation in young tissue but increases Notch signaling and suppresses MG proliferation in older tissue...
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445731/hair-follicle-terminal-differentiation-is-orchestrated-by-distinct-early-and-late-matrix-progenitors
#4
Arlee L Mesler, Natalia A Veniaminova, Madison V Lull, Sunny Y Wong
During development and regeneration, matrix progenitors undergo terminal differentiation to form the concentric layers of the hair follicle. These differentiation events are thought to require signals from the mesenchymal dermal papilla (DP); however, it remains unclear how DP-progenitor cell interactions govern specific cell fate decisions. Here, we show that the hair follicle differentiated layers are specified asynchronously, with early matrix progenitors initiating differentiation before surrounding the DP...
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445549/impact-of-the-c-mybe308g-mutation-on-mouse-myelopoiesis-and-dendritic-cell-development
#5
Peter Papathanasiou, Sawang Petvises, Ying-Ying Hey, Andrew C Perkins, Helen C O'Neill
Booreana mice carrying the c-Myb308G point mutation were analyzed to determine changes in early hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and among mature cells in the periphery. This point mutation led to increased numbers of early hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), with a subsequent reduction in the development of B cells, erythroid cells, and neutrophils, and increased numbers of myeloid cells and granulocytes. Myelopoiesis was further investigated by way of particular subsets affected. A specific question addressed whether booreana mice contained increased numbers of dendritic-like cells (L-DC subset) recently identified in the spleen, since L-DCs arise in vitro by direct differentiation from HSPCs co-cultured over splenic stroma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445475/grhl3-binding-and-enhancers-rearrange-as-epidermal-keratinocytes-transition-between-functional-states
#6
Rachel Herndon Klein, Ziguang Lin, Amelia Soto Hopkin, William Gordon, Lam C Tsoi, Yun Liang, Johann E Gudjonsson, Bogi Andersen
Transcription factor binding, chromatin modifications and large scale chromatin re-organization underlie progressive, irreversible cell lineage commitments and differentiation. We know little, however, about chromatin changes as cells enter transient, reversible states such as migration. Here we demonstrate that when human progenitor keratinocytes either differentiate or migrate they form complements of typical enhancers and super-enhancers that are unique for each state. Unique super-enhancers for each cellular state link to gene expression that confers functions associated with the respective cell state...
April 26, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444901/pge2-receptor-subtype-1-ep1-regulates-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-osteogenic-differentiation-by-modulating-cellular-energy-metabolism
#7
M Feigenson, R A Eliseev, J H Jonason, B N Mills, R J O'Keefe
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors capable of differentiation into osteoblasts and can potentially serve as a source for cell-based therapies for bone repair. Many factors have been shown to regulate MSC differentiation into the osteogenic lineage such as the Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2)/Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signaling pathway that is critical for bone repair. PGE2 binds four different receptors EP1-4. While most studies focus on the role PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 in MSC differentiation, our study focuses on the less studied, receptor subtype 1 (EP1) in MSC function...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444843/evaluation-of-two-automated-cell-counters-for-the-analysis-of-hematopoietic-progenitor-cell-apheresis-products
#8
S Gils, B Cauwelier, H Devos, I Vanlaere, S Roggeman, J Emmerechts
INTRODUCTION: Routine hematology parameters in hematopoietic progenitor cell apheresis products (HPC-A) are usually determined using automated cell counters. These instruments, however, are designed to analyze whole blood samples, that differ considerably from HPC-A in blood cell composition. This study evaluates the performance of two automated cell counters for the analysis of HPC-A. METHODS: Routine hematology parameters [red blood cells (RBC), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), white blood cells (WBC), WBC differentiation, and platelets (PLT)] were determined on the Unicel DxH 800 instrument (Beckman Coulter) and the XN-350 instrument (Sysmex)...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444312/early-posthatch-thermal-stress-affects-breast-muscle-development-and-satellite-cell-growth-and-characteristics-in-broilers
#9
Yogev Piestun, Tomer Patael, Shlomo Yahav, Sandra G Velleman, Orna Halevy
Heat or cold stress, can disrupt well-being and physiological responses in birds. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of continuous heat exposure in the first 2 wk of age on muscle development in broilers, with an emphasis on the pectoralis muscle satellite cell population. Chicks were reared for 13 d under either commercial conditions or a temperature regime that was 5°C higher. Body and muscle weights, as well as absolute muscle growth were lower in heat-exposed chicks from d 6 onward. The number of satellite cells derived from the experimental chicks was higher in the heat-treated group on d 3 but lower on d 8 and 13 compared to controls...
April 24, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444230/apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-%C3%AE%C2%B54-diminishes-neurotrophic-function-of-human-ipsc-derived-astrocytes
#10
Jing Zhao, Mary D Davis, Yuka Atagi, Mitsuru Shinohara, Neill R Graff-Radford, Steven G Younkin, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Takahisa Kanekiyo, Guojun Bu
The ε4 allele of the APOE gene encoding apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a strong genetic risk factor for aging-related cognitive decline as well as late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to the common ε3 allele. In the central nervous system, apoE is produced primarily by astrocytes and functions in transporting lipids including cholesterol to support neuronal homeostasis and synaptic integrity. Although mouse models and corresponding primary cells have provided valuable tools for studying apoE isoform-dependent functions, recent studies have shown that human astrocytes have distinct gene expression profile compare with rodent astrocytes...
April 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444128/low-dose-ionizing-radiation-induces-therapeutic-neovascularization-in-a-pre-clinical-model-of-hindlimb-ischemia
#11
Augusto Ministro, Paula de Oliveira, Raquel J Nunes, André Dos Santos Rocha, Adriana Correia, Tânia Carvalho, José Rino, Pedro Faísca, Jorg D Becker, J Goyri-O'Neill, Filomena Pina, Esmeralda Poli, Bruno Silva-Santos, Fausto Pinto, Marc Mareel, Karine Serre, Susana Constantino Rosa Santos
We have previously shown that low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) induces angiogenesis but there is no evidence that they induce neovascularization in the setting of peripheral arterial disease. Here, we investigated the use of LDIR as an innovative and non-invasive strategy to stimulate therapeutic neovascularization using a model of experimentally induced hindlimb ischemia (HLI). Methods and results: After surgical induction of unilateral HLI, both hindlimbs of female C57BL/6 mice were sham-irradiated or irradiated with four daily fractions of 0...
April 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443964/effects-of-chronic-exercise-on-endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-microparticles-in-professional-runners
#12
Célia Regina de Oliveira Bittencourt, Maria Cristina de Oliveira Izar, Carolina Nunes França, Valdir Lauro Schwerz, Rui Manuel Dos Santos Póvoa, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein Fonseca
BACKGROUND: The effects of chronic exposure to exercise training on vascular biomarkers have been poorly explored. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to compare the amounts of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and endothelial (EMP) and platelet (PMP) microparticles between professional runners and healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-five half-marathon runners and 24 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in the study. EPCs (CD34+/KDR+, CD133+/KDR+, and CD34+/CD133+), EMP (CD51+) and PMP (CD42+/CD31+) were quantified by flow-cytometry...
March 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442994/egf-enhances-oligodendrogenesis-from-glial-progenitor-cells
#13
Junlin Yang, Xuejun Cheng, Jiajun Qi, Binghua Xie, Xiaofeng Zhao, Kang Zheng, Zunyi Zhang, Mengsheng Qiu
Emerging evidence indicates that epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling plays a positive role in myelin development and repair, but little is known about its biological effects on the early generation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells. In this study, we investigated the role of EGF in early OL development with isolated glial restricted precursor (GRP) cells. It was found that EGF collaborated with Platelet Derived Growth Factor-AA (PDGFaa) to promote the survival and self-renewal of GRP cells, but predisposed GRP cells to develop into O4(-) early-stage oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in the absence of or PDGFaa...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442989/perinatal-brain-injury-as-a-consequence-of-preterm-birth-and-intrauterine-inflammation-designing-targeted-stem-cell-therapies
#14
REVIEW
Madison C B Paton, Courtney A McDonald, Beth J Allison, Michael C Fahey, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Chorioamnionitis is a major cause of preterm birth and brain injury. Bacterial invasion of the chorion and amnion, and/or the placenta, can lead to a fetal inflammatory response, which in turn has significant adverse consequences for the developing fetal brain. Accordingly, there is a strong causal link between chorioamnionitis, preterm brain injury and the pathogenesis of severe postnatal neurological deficits and cerebral palsy. Currently there are no treatments to protect or repair against brain injury in preterm infants born after pregnancy compromised by intrauterine infection...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442784/the-rna-binding-protein-marf1-promotes-cortical-neurogenesis-through-its-rnase-activity-domain
#15
Yoshitaka Kanemitsu, Masashi Fujitani, Yuki Fujita, Suxiang Zhang, You-Qiang Su, Yukio Kawahara, Toshihide Yamashita
Cortical neurogenesis is a fundamental process of brain development that is spatiotemporally regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Although recent evidence has highlighted the significance of transcription factors in cortical neurogenesis, little is known regarding the role of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in the post-transcriptional regulation of cortical neurogenesis. Here, we report that meiosis arrest female 1 (MARF1) is an RBP that is expressed during neuronal differentiation. Cortical neurons expressed the somatic form of MARF1 (sMARF1) but not the oocyte form (oMARF1)...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442710/lsh-hells-regulates-self-renewal-proliferation-of-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#16
Yixing Han, Jianke Ren, Eunice Lee, Xiaoping Xu, Weishi Yu, Kathrin Muegge
Epigenetic mechanisms are known to exert control over gene expression and determine cell fate. Genetic mutations in epigenetic regulators are responsible for several neurologic disorders. Mutations of the chromatin remodeling protein Lsh/HELLS can cause the human Immunodeficiency, Centromere instability and Facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome, which is associated with neurologic deficiencies. We report here a critical role for Lsh in murine neural development. Lsh depleted neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) display reduced growth, increases in apoptosis and impaired ability of self-renewal...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442356/unbiased-stereological-analysis-of-the-fate-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-in-the-adult-mouse-brain-and-effect-of-reference-memory-training
#17
Jenna J Boulanger, Claude Messier
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) are glial cells that differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes during early stages of post-natal life. However, OPCs persist beyond developmental myelination and represent an important population of cycling cells in the grey and white matter of the adult brain. Here, we used unbiased systematic stereological analysis to determine the total number of OPCs in the neocortex and corpus callosum of the adult mouse. We found that the ratio of OPCs to neurons is of 1: 10 in the adult neocortex...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441929/endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-plaque-burden-in-stented-coronary-artery-segments-an-optical-coherence-tomography-study-six-months-after-elective-pci
#18
Sylvia Otto, Kristina Nitsche, Christian Jung, Aleh Kryvanos, Andrey Zhylka, Kerstin Heitkamp, Juan-Luis Gutiérrez-Chico, Björn Goebel, P Christian Schulze, Hans R Figulla, Tudor C Poerner
BACKGROUND: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are involved in neovascularization and endothelial integrity. They might be protective in atherosclerosis. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a precise intracoronary imaging modality that allows assessment of subintimal plaque development. We evaluated the influence of EPC on coronary plaque burden in stable disease and implemented a novel computational plaque analysis algorithm using OCT. METHODS: Forty-three patients (69...
April 26, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441528/phosphorylation-of-neurog3-links-endocrine-differentiation-to-the-cell-cycle-in-pancreatic-progenitors
#19
Nicole A J Krentz, Dennis van Hoof, Zhongmei Li, Akie Watanabe, Mei Tang, Cuilan Nian, Michael S German, Francis C Lynn
During pancreatic development, proliferating pancreatic progenitors activate the proendocrine transcription factor neurogenin 3 (NEUROG3), exit the cell cycle, and differentiate into islet cells. The mechanisms that direct robust NEUROG3 expression within a subset of progenitor cells control the size of the endocrine population. Here we demonstrate that NEUROG3 is phosphorylated within the nucleus on serine 183, which catalyzes its hyperphosphorylation and proteosomal degradation. During progression through the progenitor cell cycle, NEUROG3 phosphorylation is driven by the actions of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4/6 at G1/S cell-cycle checkpoint...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441409/a-hypomorphic-piga-gene-mutation-causes-severe-defects-in-neuron-development-and-susceptibility-to-complement-mediated-toxicity-in-a-human-ipsc-model
#20
Xuan Yuan, Zhe Li, Andrea C Baines, Eleni Gavriilaki, Zhaohui Ye, Zhexing Wen, Evan M Braunstein, Leslie G Biesecker, Linzhao Cheng, Xinzhong Dong, Robert A Brodsky
Mutations in genes involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis underlie a group of congenital syndromes characterized by severe neurodevelopmental defects. GPI anchored proteins have diverse roles in cell adhesion, signaling, metabolism and complement regulation. Over 30 enzymes are required for GPI anchor biosynthesis and PIGA is involved in the first step of this process. A hypomorphic mutation in the X-linked PIGA gene (c.1234C>T) causes multiple congenital anomalies hypotonia seizure syndrome 2 (MCAHS2), indicating that even partial reduction of GPI anchored proteins dramatically impairs central nervous system development, but the mechanism is unclear...
2017: PloS One
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