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progenitor cells

Mariella G Filbin, Dominik Sturm
Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms in children and adolescents and are thought to arise from their glial progenitors or stem cells. Although the exact cells of origin for most pediatric gliomas remain to be identified, our current understanding is that specific cell populations during CNS development are susceptible to particular oncogenic events during certain time windows and thus give rise to pediatric gliomas with distinct histological, molecular, and clinical features...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Eric M Hill, Christian P Petersen
Most animals undergo homeostatic tissue maintenance, yet those capable of robust regeneration in adulthood use mechanisms significantly overlapping with homeostasis. Here we show in planarians that modulations to body-wide patterning systems shift the target site for eye regeneration while still enabling homeostasis of eyes outside this region. The uncoupling of homeostasis and regeneration, which can occur during normal positional rescaling after axis truncation, is not due to altered injury signaling or stem cell activity, nor specific to eye tissue...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Tony G Walsh, Alastair W Poole
Our understanding of platelet function has traditionally focused on their roles in physiological hemostasis and pathological thrombosis, the latter being causative of vessel occlusion and subsequent ischemic damage to various tissues. In particular, numerous in vivo studies have implicated causative roles for platelets in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury to the myocardium. However, platelets clearly have more complex pathophysiological roles particularly as a result of the heterogeneous nature of biologically active cargo secreted from their granules, or contained within released microparticles or exosomes...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Y P Tsui, Graham K Shea, Y S Chan, Daisy K Y Shum
Our goal is to derive phenotypically stable Schwann cells from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for use in transplantation studies of central/peripheral nerve injuries. With the adult rat as model, here we describe steps that foster (1) expansion of the BMSC subpopulation of neural progenitors as neurosphere cells, (2) differentiation of the progenitors into Schwann cell-like cells in adherent culture supplemented with soluble factors, and (3) cell-intrinsic switch of Schwann cell-like cells to the Schwann cell fate following co-culture with sensory neurons purified from dorsal root ganglia...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eva C Thoma
Direct conversion of one somatic cell type into another represents a promising approach to obtain patient-specific cells for numerous applications. Here, we describe a method allowing the transdifferentiation of human postnatal fibroblasts into functional Schwann cells via a transient progenitor stage. The conversion process is solely based on chemical treatment and does not require the overexpression of ectopic genes. The resulting induced Schwann cells (iSCs) can be characterized by expression of Schwann cell-specific proteins and neuro-supportive and myelination capacity in vitro...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xin Deng, Wen Zhao, Laijun Song, Wei Ying, Xinbin Guo
Glioma is one of the most common aggressive neuroepithelial malignant tumors in the central nervous system. It has a high recurrence rate and poor prognosis, primarily due to the fact that novel therapeutic agents cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been reported to move across the BBB and access the tumor site. However, whether EPCs expressing the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induce glioma cell apoptosis requires further investigation...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Ronan Lagadec, Maxence Lanoizelet, Nuria Sánchez-Farías, Fanny Hérard, Arnaud Menuet, Hélène Mayeur, Bernard Billoud, Isabel Rodriguez-Moldes, Eva Candal, Sylvie Mazan
Analysis of the establishment of epithalamic asymmetry in two non-conventional model organisms, a cartilaginous fish and a lamprey, has suggested that an essential role of Nodal signalling, likely to be ancestral in vertebrates, may have been largely lost in zebrafish. In order to decipher the cellular mechanisms underlying this divergence, we have characterised neurogenetic asymmetries during habenular development in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula and addressed the mechanism involved in this process. As in zebrafish, neuronal differentiation starts earlier on the left side in the catshark habenulae, suggesting the conservation of a temporal regulation of neurogenesis...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Arantza Infante, Clara I Rodríguez
Aging is a complex biological process, which involves multiple mechanisms with different levels of regulation. Senescent cells are known to secrete senescence-associated proteins, which exert negative influences on surrounding cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the common progenitors for bone, cartilage and adipose tissue (which are especially affected tissues in aging), are known to secrete a broad spectrum of biologically active proteins with both paracrine and autocrine functions in many biological processes...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kutay Deniz Atabay, Samuel A LoCascio, Thom de Hoog, Peter W Reddien
During animal regeneration cells must organize into discrete and functional systems. We show that self-organization, along with patterning cues, govern progenitor behavior in planarian regeneration. Surgical paradigms allowed manipulation of planarian eye regeneration in predictable locations and numbers, generating alternative stable neuroanatomical states for wild-type animals with multiple functional ectopic eyes. We utilized animals with multiple ectopic eyes and eye transplantation to demonstrate that broad progenitor specification, combined with self-organization, allows anatomy maintenance during regeneration...
March 15, 2018: Science
Shiwei Zheng, Efthymia Papalexi, Andrew Butler, William Stephenson, Rahul Satija
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to diverse cell types in the blood system, yet our molecular understanding of the early trajectories that generate this enormous diversity in humans remains incomplete. Here, we leverage Drop-seq, a massively parallel single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) approach, to individually profile 20,000 progenitor cells from human cord blood, without prior enrichment or depletion for individual lineages based on surface markers. Our data reveal a transcriptional compendium of progenitor states in human cord blood, representing four committed lineages downstream from HSC, alongside the transcriptional dynamics underlying fate commitment...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Systems Biology
Jie Gao, Gang Zhao, Wei Li, Jiayuan Zhang, Yanling Che, Meiyu Song, Shan Gao, Bin Zeng, Yuanhong Wang
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in diabetes-associated complications, including diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). Recent reports showed that miR-155 downregulation promotes wound healing in diabetic rats and ameliorates endothelial injury induced by high glucose, but its role in DFU is unknown. We found that miR-155 was overexpressed in EPCs from patients with DFU and in high glucose-induced EPCs from healthy people. Reductions in cell viability, migration, tube formation and nitric oxide production, as well as increases in lactated hydrogenase, cell apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species induced by high glucose, were enhanced by miR-155 overexpression and restrained by miR-155 inhibition...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Daniel J Dennis, Sisu Han, Carol Schuurmans
The formation of functional neural circuits in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) requires that appropriate numbers of the correct types of neuronal and glial cells are generated in their proper places and times during development. In the embryonic CNS, multipotent progenitor cells first acquire regional identities, and then undergo precisely choreographed temporal identity transitions (i.e. time-dependent changes in their identity) that determine how many neuronal and glial cells of each type they will generate...
March 12, 2018: Brain Research
Yu Wu, Ze-Yang Ding, Guan-Nan Jin, Yi-Xiao Xiong, Bin Yu, Yi-Min Sun, Wei Wang, Hui-Fang Liang, Bixiang Zhang, Xiao-Ping Chen
Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are a subpopulation of cells which was usually expanded in chronic liver injury and are contributed to liver regeneration through differentiating into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a dynamic process which is important for the progression of liver fibrosis and cancer initiation. This study demonstrated that LE/6 and WB-F344 cells, both of which were HPC derived cell lines, were undergoing partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition states, which was indicated by the co-expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and zona occludin 1), and mesenchymal markers (vimentin, fibronectin, collagen 1and α-SMA)...
March 12, 2018: Biochimie
Meixiang Zhang, Justine Ngo, Filomena Pirozzi, Ying-Pu Sun, Anthony Wynshaw-Boris
BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been widely used to generate cellular models harboring specific disease-related genotypes. Of particular importance are ESC and iPSC applications capable of producing dorsal telencephalic neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that are representative of the cerebral cortex and overcome the challenges of maintaining a homogeneous population of cortical progenitors over several passages in vitro. While previous studies were able to derive NPCs from pluripotent cell types, the fraction of dorsal NPCs in this population is small and decreases over several passages...
March 15, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Bárbara da Silva, Ryan K Mathew, Euan S Polson, Jennifer Williams, Heiko Wurdak
Organoid methodology provides a platform for the ex vivo investigation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying brain development and disease. The high-grade brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is considered a cancer of unmet clinical need, in part due to GBM cell infiltration into healthy brain parenchyma, making complete surgical resection improbable. Modeling the process of GBM invasion in real time is challenging as it requires both tumor and neural tissue compartments. Here, we demonstrate that human GBM spheroids possess the ability to spontaneously infiltrate early-stage cerebral organoids (eCOs)...
March 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
Alborz Karimzadeh, Vanessa M Scarfone, Erika Varady, Connie Chao, Karin Grathwohl, John W Fathman, David A Fruman, Thomas Serwold, Matthew A Inlay
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the self-renewing multipotent progenitors to all blood cell types. Identification and isolation of HSCs for study has depended on the expression of combinations of surface markers on HSCs that reliably distinguish them from other cell types. However, the increasing number of markers required to isolate HSCs has made it tedious, expensive, and difficult for newcomers, suggesting the need for a simpler panel of HSC markers. We previously showed that phenotypic HSCs could be separated based on expression of CD11a and that only the CD11a negative fraction contained true HSCs...
March 15, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Oscar Arias-Carrion, Emmanuel Ortega-Robles, Benito de Celis-Alonso, Artur Palasz, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, Miguel A Mendez-Rojas, Jose Salas-Pacheco, Elias Manjarrez
Adult neurogenesis, a specific form of brain plasticity in mammals occurring in the subventricular zone, is subject to complex regulations. Hypocretin/orexin neurons are implicated in the regulation of sleep and arousal states among other functions. Here, we found orexin afferent projections in the rat subventricular zone, which is a neurogenic region. We therefore studied in detail the origin of the orexinergic innervation to the subventricular zone in rats. Post-mortem retrograde tracing combined with immunofluorescence procedures indicate orexinergic projections toward the subventricular zone...
March 13, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Aurora Bernal, Lorena Arranz
The neuroepithelial stem cell protein, or Nestin, is a cytoskeletal intermediate filament initially characterized in neural stem cells. However, current extensive evidence obtained in in vivo models and humans shows presence of Nestin+ cells with progenitor and/or regulatory functions in a number of additional tissues, remarkably bone marrow. This review presents the current knowledge on the role of Nestin in essential stem cell functions, including self-renewal/proliferation, differentiation and migration, in the context of the cytoskeleton...
March 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Cheryl Q E Lee, Margherita Turco, Lucy Gardner, Benjamin Simons, Myriam Hemberger, Ashley Moffett
During pregnancy the trophoblast cells of the placenta are the only fetal cells in direct contact with maternal blood and decidua. Their functions include transport of nutrients and oxygen, secretion of pregnancy hormones, remodelling the uterine arteries, and communicating with maternal cells. Despite the importance of trophoblast cells in placental development and successful pregnancy, little is known about the identity, location and differentiation of human trophoblast progenitors. We identify a proliferative trophoblast niche at the base of the cytotrophoblast cell columns in first trimester placentas that is characterised by integrin α2 (ITGA2) expression...
March 14, 2018: Development
Suijuan Zhong, Shu Zhang, Xiaoying Fan, Qian Wu, Liying Yan, Ji Dong, Haofeng Zhang, Long Li, Le Sun, Na Pan, Xiaohui Xu, Fuchou Tang, Jun Zhang, Jie Qiao, Xiaoqun Wang
The mammalian prefrontal cortex comprises a set of highly specialized brain areas containing billions of cells and serves as the centre of the highest-order cognitive functions, such as memory, cognitive ability, decision-making and social behaviour. Although neural circuits are formed in the late stages of human embryonic development and even after birth, diverse classes of functional cells are generated and migrate to the appropriate locations earlier in development. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex contributes to cognitive deficits and the majority of neurodevelopmental disorders; there is therefore a need for detailed knowledge of the development of the prefrontal cortex...
March 14, 2018: Nature
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