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Grapevine copper

SongTao Jiu, Chen Wang, Ting Zheng, Zhongjie Liu, XiangPeng Leng, Tariq Pervaiz, Abolfazl Lotfi, JingGui Fang, XiaoMin Wang
A 2000-bp 5'-flanking region of VvPAL-like was isolated from 'Summer Black' grapevine by PCR amplification, named pVvPAL-like. To gain a better understanding of the expression and regulatory mechanism of VvPAL-like, a chimeric expression unit consisting of the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene under the control of a 2000-bp fragment of the VvPAL-like promoter was transformed into tobacco via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Histochemical staining showed that the full-length promoter directs efficient expression of the reporter gene in cotyledons and hypocotyls, stigma, style, anthers, pollen, ovary, trichomes, and vascular bundles of transgenic plants...
November 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Henrique Noronha, Diogo Araújo, Carlos Conde, Ana P Martins, Graça Soveral, François Chaumont, Serge Delrot, Hernâni Gerós
A MIP (Major Intrinsic Protein) subfamily called Uncharacterized Intrinsic Proteins (XIP) was recently described in several fungi and eudicot plants. In this work, we cloned a XIP from grapevine, VvXIP1, and agrobacterium-mediated transformation studies in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed that the encoded aquaporin shows a preferential localization at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Stopped-flow spectrometry in vesicles from the aqy-null yeast strain YSH1172 overexpressing VvXIP1 showed that VvXIP1 is unable to transport water but is permeable to glycerol...
2016: PloS One
Xiangpeng Leng, Haifeng Jia, Xin Sun, Lingfei Shangguan, Qian Mu, Baoju Wang, Jinggui Fang
Grapevine is one of the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crop worldwide. With the industrialization and the popular application of cupric fungicides in grape industry, copper stress and copper pollution are also the factors affecting grape production and berry and wine quality. Here, 3,843 transcripts were significantly differently expressed genes in response to Cu stress by RNA-seq, which included 1,892 up-regulated and 1,951 down-regulated transcripts. During this study we found many known and novel Cu-induced and -repressed genes...
December 17, 2015: Scientific Reports
R Guzzon, S Gugole, R Zanzotti, M Malacarne, R Larcher, C von Wallbrunn, E Mescalchin
AIMS: We compare the evolution of the microbiota of grapes grown following conventional or biodynamic protocols during the final stage of ripening and wine fermentation in a year characterized by adverse climatic conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: The observations were made in a vineyard subdivided into two parts, cultivated using a biodynamic and traditional approach in a year which saw a combination of adverse events in terms of weather, creating the conditions for extensive proliferation of vine pests...
February 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Xiangpeng Leng, Qian Mu, Xiaomin Wang, Xiaopeng Li, Xudong Zhu, Lingfei Shangguan, Jinggui Fang
With more copper and copper-containing compounds used as bactericides and fungicides in viticulture, copper homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis) has become one of the serious environmental crises with great risk. To better understand the regulation of Cu homeostasis in grapevine, grapevine seedlings cultured in vitro with different levels of Cu were utilized to investigate the tolerance mechanisms of grapevine responding to copper availability at physiological and molecular levels. The results indicated that Cu contents in roots and leaves arose with increasing levels of Cu application...
November 2015: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Saloua Hatmi, Charlotte Gruau, Patricia Trotel-Aziz, Sandra Villaume, Fanja Rabenoelina, Fabienne Baillieul, Philippe Eullaffroy, Christophe Clément, Ali Ferchichi, Aziz Aziz
Environmental factors including drought stress may modulate plant immune responses and resistance to pathogens. However, the relationship between mechanisms of drought tolerance and resistance to pathogens remained unknown. In this study, the effects of drought stress on polyamine (PA) homeostasis and immune responses were investigated in two grapevine genotypes differing in their drought tolerance; Chardonnay (CHR), as sensitive and Meski (MSK), as tolerant. Under drought conditions, MSK plants showed the lowest leaf water loss and reduction of photosynthetic efficiency, and expressed a lower level of NCED2, a gene involved in abscisic acid biosynthesis, compared with CHR plants...
February 2015: Journal of Experimental Botany
Eduardo Girotto, Carlos A Ceretta, Gustavo Brunetto, Alcione Miotto, Tadeu L Tiecher, Lessandro De Conti, Cledimar R Lourenzi, Felipe Lorensini, Paulo I Gubiani, Leandro S da Silva, Fernando T Nicoloso
Grapevines grown on acid soils with low fertility in southern Brazil are treated with intense foliar applications of copper (Cu) fungicides, resulting in an increased level of Cu in the soil and increased toxicity. The present study evaluated the accumulation and bioavailability of Cu, and soils with varying levels of Cu from the main producing regions of southern Brazil were collected. The forms of Cu present in the soil were assessed using chemical extractants; additionally, oat cultivation was performed, reflecting the use of the plant as an indicator of Cu bioavailability...
December 2014: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
K A Mackie, H P Schmidt, T Müller, E Kandeler
We investigated the ability of summer (Avena sativa [oat], Trifolium incarnatum [crimson clover], Chenopodium [goosefoot]) and winter (Vicia villosa [hairy vetch], Secale Cereale L. [Rye], Brassica napus L. partim [rape]) cover crops, including a mixed species treatment, to extract copper from an organic vineyard soil in situ and the microbial communities that may support it. Clover had the highest copper content (14.3mgCukg(-1) DM). However, it was the amount of total biomass production that determined which species was most effective at overall copper removal per hectare...
December 1, 2014: Science of the Total Environment
J Cambrollé, J L García, M E Figueroa, M Cantos
We evaluate copper tolerance and accumulation in Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris in populations from a copper contaminated site and an uncontaminated site, and in the grapevine rootstock "41B", investigating the effects of copper (0-23 mM) on growth, photosynthetic performance and mineral nutrient content. The highest Cu treatment induced nutrient imbalances and inhibited photosynthetic function, causing a drastic reduction in growth in the three study plants. Effective concentration was higher than 23 mM Cu in the wild grapevines and around 9 mM in the "41B" plants...
February 2015: Chemosphere
Viviana Martins, António Teixeira, Elias Bassil, Eduardo Blumwald, Hernâni Gerós
Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800's, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture; however their intensive use has raised phytotoxicity concerns. In this study, the composition of grape berries and leaves upon Bordeaux mixture treatment was investigated during the fructification season by a metabolomic approach. Four applications of Bordeaux mixture till 3 weeks before harvest were performed following the regular management practices of organic viticulture...
September 2014: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Viviana Martins, Elias Bassil, Mohsen Hanana, Eduardo Blumwald, Hernâni Gerós
The Vitis vinifera copper transporter 1 is capable of self-interaction and mediates intracellular copper transport. An understanding of copper homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is particularly relevant to viticulture in which copper-based fungicides are intensively used. In the present study, the Vitis vinifera copper transporter 1 (VvCTr1), belonging to the Ctr family of copper transporters, was cloned and functionally characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that VvCTr1 monomers are small peptides composed of 148 amino acids with 3 transmembrane domains and several amino acid residues typical of Ctr transporters...
July 2014: Planta
Kai-Wei Juang, Yung-I Lee, Hung-Yu Lai, Bo-Ching Chen
The phytotoxic effects of excess copper (Cu) on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. var. Kyoho) were examined, both from macroscopic and microscopic perspectives, by using a fifteen-day hydroponic experiments. The influence of magnesium (Mg) on Cu phytotoxicity to, and accumulation and translocation in grapevines was also observed. For phytotoxicity effect, results showed that a relative low median growth inhibition level of Cu was found for grapevine roots (0.809-3.671μM). Moreover, Cu toxicity was significantly alleviated by Mg treatment at Mg(2+) activity between 0...
June 2014: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Pei-Yi Chen, Yung-I Lee, Bo-Ching Chen, Kai-Wei Juang
We assessed the effects of background concentrations of calcium (Ca) in solution on rhizotoxicity of copper (Cu) in and the accumulation and translocation of Cu by the grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. var. Kyoho. Grapevine cuttings in a hydroponic system were exposed to Cu-spiked solutions (0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 25 μM) with two Ca backgrounds (0.5 and 5 mM) for 15 days. We found that when Cu exposure exceeded 5 μM, no new white roots were generated from the cuttings. When exposed to a Cu concentration of 25 μM, the lateral roots were sparse, appeared dark and exhibited malformed terminal swellings...
December 2013: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Saloua Hatmi, Patricia Trotel-Aziz, Sandra Villaume, Michel Couderchet, Christophe Clément, Aziz Aziz
Abiotic factors inducing osmotic stress can influence the plant immune response and resistance to pathogen infections. In this study, the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG)- and sucrose-induced osmotic stress on polyamine (PA) homeostasis and the basal immune response in grapevine plantlets before and after Botrytis cinerea infection was determined. Pharmacological approaches were also addressed to assess the contribution of osmotic stress-induced PA oxidation to the regulation of defence responses and the susceptibility of grapevine to B...
January 2014: Journal of Experimental Botany
Gerardo Puopolo, Oscar Giovannini, Ilaria Pertot
The bacterial genus Lysobacter represents a still underdeveloped source of biocontrol agents able to protect plants against pathogenic oomycetes. In this work the L. capsici strain AZ78 was evaluated with regard to the biological control of Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew. L. capsici AZ78 is able to resist copper ions and its resistance to this metal is probably due to the presence of genes coding for copper oxidase (copA) and copper exporting PIB-type ATPases (ctpA). The presence of both genes was also detected in other members of the Lysobacter genus...
July 2014: Microbiological Research
R Lo Scalzo, M Fibiani, P Pietromarchi, C Mandalà, A La Torre
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of natural products and low-rate copper formulations against grapevine downy mildew, in order to reduce or replace copper use in organic farming, and to assess the effects on the qualitative parameters of grape, must and wine of the different treatments. The trial was carried out in an organic vineyard in accordance with the EPPO/OEPP guidelines. Plots were prepared, each containing 12 vine-plants and repeated four times in randomized blocks. At harvest, representative grape samples were picked off from the plots treated with the different products: for each treatment, a random sub-sample was kept for analyses, the remaining part was processed to produce wine...
2012: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
D El Azzi, J Viers, M Guiresse, A Probst, D Aubert, J Caparros, F Charles, K Guizien, J L Probst
For centuries, many Mediterranean catchments were covered with vineyards in which copper was widely applied to protect grapevines against fungus. In the Mediterranean-type flow regime, brief and intense flood events increase the stream water discharge by up to 10 times and cause soil leaching and storm runoff. Because vineyards are primarily cultivated on steep slopes, high Cu fluxes are discharged by surface water runoff into the rivers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the riverine behavior and transport of anthropogenic Cu by coupling a sequential chemical extraction (SCE) procedure, used to determine Cu partitioning between residual and non-residual fractions, with δ(65)Cu isotopic measurements in each fraction...
October 1, 2013: Science of the Total Environment
J Cambrollé, J L García, R Ocete, M E Figueroa, M Cantos
The present study evaluates the tolerance and accumulation potential of Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris under moderate and high external Cu levels. A greenhouse experiment was conducted in order to investigate the effects of a range of external Cu concentrations (0-23mmolL(-1)) on growth and photosynthetic performance by measuring gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and photosynthetic pigments. We also measured the total copper, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and sodium concentrations in the plant tissues...
September 2013: Chemosphere
Patricia Agudelo-Romero, Cristina Bortolloti, Maria Salomé Pais, Antonio Fernández Tiburcio, Ana Margarida Fortes
Grapevine (Vitis species) is the most economically important fruit crop worldwide. Ripening of non-climacteric fruits such as grapes has been the subject of intense research. Despite this interest, little is known on the role played by polyamines in the onset of ripening of non-climacteric fruits. These growth regulators have been involved in plant development and stress responses. Molecular and biochemical studies were developed in three important Portuguese cultivars (Trincadeira, Touriga Nacional and Aragonês) during the year 2008 and in Trincadeira during 2007 in order to gather insights on the role of polyamines in grape ripening...
June 2013: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Bo-Ching Chen, Pei-Chi Ho, Kai-Wei Juang
Copper toxicity and accumulation in plants are affected by physicochemical characteristics of soil solutions such as the concentrations of coexistent cations (e.g., Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Na(+), and H(+)). The biotic ligand model (BLM) approach has been proposed to predict metal phyto-toxicity and -accumulation by taking into account the effects of coexistent cations, given the assumption of the partition equilibrium of metal ions between soil solution and solid phase. The alleviation effects of Mg on Cu toxicity and accumulation in grapevine roots were the main concerns in this study and were investigated by using a hydroponic experiment of grapevine cuttings...
January 2013: Ecotoxicology
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