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Grapevine copper

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905481/reducing-copper-use-in-the-environment-the-use-of-larixol-and-larixyl-acetate-to-treat-downy-mildew-caused-by-plasmopara-viticola-in-viticulture
#1
Barbara Thuerig, Emily E James, Hans-Jakob Schärer, Moses K Langat, Dulcie A Mulholland, Jonas Treutwein, Ina Kleeberg, Mathias Ludwig, Praveen Jayarajah, Oscar Giovannini, Emilia Markellou, Lucius Tamm
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts might provide sustainable alternatives to copper fungicides, which are still widely used despite their unfavourable ecotoxicological profile. Larch bark extract and its constituents, larixyl acetate and larixol, have been shown to be effective against grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) under semi-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to reduce the gap between innovation and the registration of a marketable product, namely to develop scalable extraction processes and to evaluate and optimize performance of larch extracts under different conditions...
September 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759217/chitosan-and-laminarin-as-alternatives-to-copper-for-plasmopara-viticola-control-effect-on-grape-amino-acid
#2
T Garde-Cerdán, V Mancini, M Carrasco-Quiroz, A Servili, G Gutiérrez-Gamboa, R Foglia, E P Pérez-Álvarez, G Romanazzi
Copper fungicide use is limited by the European regulation; therefore, new strategies have been developed to prevent grapevine downy mildew (GDM). However, there is poor information about their effects on grape amino acid composition. This field trial aimed to evaluate the effect on grape amino acid composition of chitosan and of a mixture of laminarin and Saccharomyces extracts (LamE), applied in different strategies with copper hydroxide. The results showed that all the treatments applied to grapevines decreased the concentration of several amino acids...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674744/ectopic-expression-of-csd1-and-csd2-targeting-genes-of-mir398-in-grapevine-is-associated-with-oxidative-stress-tolerance
#3
XiangPeng Leng, Peipei Wang, Xudong Zhu, Xiaopeng Li, Ting Zheng, Lingfei Shangguan, Jinggui Fang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs of -21 nucleotides that play an important role in diverse plant physiological processes at the post-transcriptional level by directing mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Previous studies have indicated that down-regulation of miR398 in response to oxidative stress allows up-regulation of the two target genes, cytosolic CSD1 and chloroplastic CSD2 (copper/zinc superoxide dismutase), resulting in protecting the plants to tolerate oxidative stress. In this study, we provide evidence that grapevine miR398 (Vv-miR398), by regulating the expression of its target genes, VvCSD1 and VvCSD2, mediates responses of grapevine to copper (Cu) stress which have been magnified due to increase in Cu-containing pesticide application...
July 3, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550468/probing-the-contractile-vacuole-as-achilles-heel-of-the-biotrophic-grapevine-pathogen-plasmopara-viticola
#4
Viktoria Tröster, Tabea Setzer, Thomas Hirth, Anna Pecina, Andreas Kortekamp, Peter Nick
The causative agent of Grapevine Downy Mildew, the oomycete Plasmopara viticola, poses a serious threat to viticulture. In the current work, the contractile vacuole of the zoospore is analysed as potential target for novel plant protection strategies. Using a combination of electron microscopy, spinning disc confocal microscopy, and video differential interference contrast microscopy, we have followed the genesis and dynamics of this vacuole required during the search for the stomata, when the non-walled zoospore is exposed to hypotonic conditions...
September 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390013/glyoxal-oxidases-their-nature-and-properties
#5
REVIEW
Marianne Daou, Craig B Faulds
H2O2 has been found to be required for the activity of the main microbial enzymes responsible for lignin oxidative cleavage, peroxidases. Along with other small radicals, it is implicated in the early attack of plant biomass by fungi. Among the few extracellular H2O2-generating enzymes known are the glyoxal oxidases (GLOX). GLOX is a copper-containing enzyme, sharing high similarity at the level of active site structure and chemistry with galactose oxidase. Genes encoding GLOX enzymes are widely distributed among wood-degrading fungi especially white-rot degraders, plant pathogenic and symbiotic fungi...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562678/characterization-of-vvpal-like-promoter-from-grapevine-using-transgenic-tobacco-plants
#6
SongTao Jiu, Chen Wang, Ting Zheng, Zhongjie Liu, XiangPeng Leng, Tariq Pervaiz, Abolfazl Lotfi, JingGui Fang, XiaoMin Wang
A 2000-bp 5'-flanking region of VvPAL-like was isolated from 'Summer Black' grapevine by PCR amplification, named pVvPAL-like. To gain a better understanding of the expression and regulatory mechanism of VvPAL-like, a chimeric expression unit consisting of the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene under the control of a 2000-bp fragment of the VvPAL-like promoter was transformed into tobacco via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Histochemical staining showed that the full-length promoter directs efficient expression of the reporter gene in cotyledons and hypocotyls, stigma, style, anthers, pollen, ovary, trichomes, and vascular bundles of transgenic plants...
November 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504956/the-grapevine-uncharacterized-intrinsic-protein-1-vvxip1-is-regulated-by-drought-stress-and-transports-glycerol-hydrogen-peroxide-heavy-metals-but-not-water
#7
Henrique Noronha, Diogo Araújo, Carlos Conde, Ana P Martins, Graça Soveral, François Chaumont, Serge Delrot, Hernâni Gerós
A MIP (Major Intrinsic Protein) subfamily called Uncharacterized Intrinsic Proteins (XIP) was recently described in several fungi and eudicot plants. In this work, we cloned a XIP from grapevine, VvXIP1, and agrobacterium-mediated transformation studies in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed that the encoded aquaporin shows a preferential localization at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Stopped-flow spectrometry in vesicles from the aqy-null yeast strain YSH1172 overexpressing VvXIP1 showed that VvXIP1 is unable to transport water but is permeable to glycerol...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26673527/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-grapevine-in-response-to-copper-stress
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Xiangpeng Leng, Haifeng Jia, Xin Sun, Lingfei Shangguan, Qian Mu, Baoju Wang, Jinggui Fang
Grapevine is one of the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crop worldwide. With the industrialization and the popular application of cupric fungicides in grape industry, copper stress and copper pollution are also the factors affecting grape production and berry and wine quality. Here, 3,843 transcripts were significantly differently expressed genes in response to Cu stress by RNA-seq, which included 1,892 up-regulated and 1,951 down-regulated transcripts. During this study we found many known and novel Cu-induced and -repressed genes...
December 17, 2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26600207/evaluation-of-the-oenological-suitability-of-grapes-grown-using-biodynamic-agriculture-the-case-of-a-bad-vintage
#9
R Guzzon, S Gugole, R Zanzotti, M Malacarne, R Larcher, C von Wallbrunn, E Mescalchin
AIMS: We compare the evolution of the microbiota of grapes grown following conventional or biodynamic protocols during the final stage of ripening and wine fermentation in a year characterized by adverse climatic conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: The observations were made in a vineyard subdivided into two parts, cultivated using a biodynamic and traditional approach in a year which saw a combination of adverse events in terms of weather, creating the conditions for extensive proliferation of vine pests...
February 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26054906/transporters-chaperones-and-p-type-atpases-controlling-grapevine-copper-homeostasis
#10
Xiangpeng Leng, Qian Mu, Xiaomin Wang, Xiaopeng Li, Xudong Zhu, Lingfei Shangguan, Jinggui Fang
With more copper and copper-containing compounds used as bactericides and fungicides in viticulture, copper homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis) has become one of the serious environmental crises with great risk. To better understand the regulation of Cu homeostasis in grapevine, grapevine seedlings cultured in vitro with different levels of Cu were utilized to investigate the tolerance mechanisms of grapevine responding to copper availability at physiological and molecular levels. The results indicated that Cu contents in roots and leaves arose with increasing levels of Cu application...
November 2015: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25385768/drought-stress-tolerance-in-grapevine-involves-activation-of-polyamine-oxidation-contributing-to-improved-immune-response-and-low-susceptibility-to-botrytis-cinerea
#11
Saloua Hatmi, Charlotte Gruau, Patricia Trotel-Aziz, Sandra Villaume, Fanja Rabenoelina, Fabienne Baillieul, Philippe Eullaffroy, Christophe Clément, Ali Ferchichi, Aziz Aziz
Environmental factors including drought stress may modulate plant immune responses and resistance to pathogens. However, the relationship between mechanisms of drought tolerance and resistance to pathogens remained unknown. In this study, the effects of drought stress on polyamine (PA) homeostasis and immune responses were investigated in two grapevine genotypes differing in their drought tolerance; Chardonnay (CHR), as sensitive and Meski (MSK), as tolerant. Under drought conditions, MSK plants showed the lowest leaf water loss and reduction of photosynthetic efficiency, and expressed a lower level of NCED2, a gene involved in abscisic acid biosynthesis, compared with CHR plants...
February 2015: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25245214/copper-availability-assessment-of-cu-contaminated-vineyard-soils-using-black-oat-cultivation-and-chemical-extractants
#12
Eduardo Girotto, Carlos A Ceretta, Gustavo Brunetto, Alcione Miotto, Tadeu L Tiecher, Lessandro De Conti, Cledimar R Lourenzi, Felipe Lorensini, Paulo I Gubiani, Leandro S da Silva, Fernando T Nicoloso
Grapevines grown on acid soils with low fertility in southern Brazil are treated with intense foliar applications of copper (Cu) fungicides, resulting in an increased level of Cu in the soil and increased toxicity. The present study evaluated the accumulation and bioavailability of Cu, and soils with varying levels of Cu from the main producing regions of southern Brazil were collected. The forms of Cu present in the soil were assessed using chemical extractants; additionally, oat cultivation was performed, reflecting the use of the plant as an indicator of Cu bioavailability...
December 2014: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25217742/cover-crops-influence-soil-microorganisms-and-phytoextraction-of-copper-from-a-moderately-contaminated-vineyard
#13
K A Mackie, H P Schmidt, T Müller, E Kandeler
We investigated the ability of summer (Avena sativa [oat], Trifolium incarnatum [crimson clover], Chenopodium [goosefoot]) and winter (Vicia villosa [hairy vetch], Secale Cereale L. [Rye], Brassica napus L. partim [rape]) cover crops, including a mixed species treatment, to extract copper from an organic vineyard soil in situ and the microbial communities that may support it. Clover had the highest copper content (14.3mgCukg(-1) DM). However, it was the amount of total biomass production that determined which species was most effective at overall copper removal per hectare...
December 1, 2014: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25025740/evaluating-wild-grapevine-tolerance-to-copper-toxicity
#14
J Cambrollé, J L García, M E Figueroa, M Cantos
We evaluate copper tolerance and accumulation in Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris in populations from a copper contaminated site and an uncontaminated site, and in the grapevine rootstock "41B", investigating the effects of copper (0-23 mM) on growth, photosynthetic performance and mineral nutrient content. The highest Cu treatment induced nutrient imbalances and inhibited photosynthetic function, causing a drastic reduction in growth in the three study plants. Effective concentration was higher than 23 mM Cu in the wild grapevines and around 9 mM in the "41B" plants...
February 2015: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25022258/metabolic-changes-of-vitis-vinifera-berries-and-leaves-exposed-to-bordeaux-mixture
#15
Viviana Martins, António Teixeira, Elias Bassil, Eduardo Blumwald, Hernâni Gerós
Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800's, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture; however their intensive use has raised phytotoxicity concerns. In this study, the composition of grape berries and leaves upon Bordeaux mixture treatment was investigated during the fructification season by a metabolomic approach. Four applications of Bordeaux mixture till 3 weeks before harvest were performed following the regular management practices of organic viticulture...
September 2014: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24691572/copper-homeostasis-in-grapevine-functional-characterization-of-the-vitis-vinifera-copper-transporter-1
#16
Viviana Martins, Elias Bassil, Mohsen Hanana, Eduardo Blumwald, Hernâni Gerós
The Vitis vinifera copper transporter 1 is capable of self-interaction and mediates intracellular copper transport. An understanding of copper homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is particularly relevant to viticulture in which copper-based fungicides are intensively used. In the present study, the Vitis vinifera copper transporter 1 (VvCTr1), belonging to the Ctr family of copper transporters, was cloned and functionally characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that VvCTr1 monomers are small peptides composed of 148 amino acids with 3 transmembrane domains and several amino acid residues typical of Ctr transporters...
July 2014: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24632121/influence-of-magnesium-on-copper-phytotoxicity-to-and-accumulation-and-translocation-in-grapevines
#17
Kai-Wei Juang, Yung-I Lee, Hung-Yu Lai, Bo-Ching Chen
The phytotoxic effects of excess copper (Cu) on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. var. Kyoho) were examined, both from macroscopic and microscopic perspectives, by using a fifteen-day hydroponic experiments. The influence of magnesium (Mg) on Cu phytotoxicity to, and accumulation and translocation in grapevines was also observed. For phytotoxicity effect, results showed that a relative low median growth inhibition level of Cu was found for grapevine roots (0.809-3.671μM). Moreover, Cu toxicity was significantly alleviated by Mg treatment at Mg(2+) activity between 0...
June 2014: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24211513/effects-of-calcium-on-rhizotoxicity-and-the-accumulation-and-translocation-of-copper-by-grapevines
#18
Pei-Yi Chen, Yung-I Lee, Bo-Ching Chen, Kai-Wei Juang
We assessed the effects of background concentrations of calcium (Ca) in solution on rhizotoxicity of copper (Cu) in and the accumulation and translocation of Cu by the grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. var. Kyoho. Grapevine cuttings in a hydroponic system were exposed to Cu-spiked solutions (0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 25 μM) with two Ca backgrounds (0.5 and 5 mM) for 15 days. We found that when Cu exposure exceeded 5 μM, no new white roots were generated from the cuttings. When exposed to a Cu concentration of 25 μM, the lateral roots were sparse, appeared dark and exhibited malformed terminal swellings...
December 2013: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24170740/osmotic-stress-induced-polyamine-oxidation-mediates-defence-responses-and-reduces-stress-enhanced-grapevine-susceptibility-to-botrytis-cinerea
#19
Saloua Hatmi, Patricia Trotel-Aziz, Sandra Villaume, Michel Couderchet, Christophe Clément, Aziz Aziz
Abiotic factors inducing osmotic stress can influence the plant immune response and resistance to pathogen infections. In this study, the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG)- and sucrose-induced osmotic stress on polyamine (PA) homeostasis and the basal immune response in grapevine plantlets before and after Botrytis cinerea infection was determined. Pharmacological approaches were also addressed to assess the contribution of osmotic stress-induced PA oxidation to the regulation of defence responses and the susceptibility of grapevine to B...
January 2014: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24140153/lysobacter-capsici-az78-can-be-combined-with-copper-to-effectively-control-plasmopara-viticola-on-grapevine
#20
Gerardo Puopolo, Oscar Giovannini, Ilaria Pertot
The bacterial genus Lysobacter represents a still underdeveloped source of biocontrol agents able to protect plants against pathogenic oomycetes. In this work the L. capsici strain AZ78 was evaluated with regard to the biological control of Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew. L. capsici AZ78 is able to resist copper ions and its resistance to this metal is probably due to the presence of genes coding for copper oxidase (copA) and copper exporting PIB-type ATPases (ctpA). The presence of both genes was also detected in other members of the Lysobacter genus...
July 2014: Microbiological Research
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