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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109209/nostoc-thermotolerans-sp-nov-a-soil-dwelling-species-of-nostoc-cyanobacteria-isolated-from-madhya-pradesh-india
#1
Archana Suradkar, Chelsea Villanueva, Lira A Gaysina, Dale A Casamatta, Aniket Saraf, Gandhali Dighe, Ratnaprabha Mergu, Prashant Singh
A filamentous, soil dwelling cyanobacterial strain (9C-PS) was isolated from Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, India and is being described as new species of Nostoc. Extensive morphological and molecular characterization along with thorough assessment of ecology was performed. The style of filament orientation, type and nature of the sheath (e.g., distribution and visibility across the trichome), and vegetative and heterocyte cell dimensions and shape were assessed for more than a year employing both culture and naturally occurring samples...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102915/transgenerational-effects-alter-plant-defense-and-resistance-in-nature
#2
Jack Colicchio
Trichomes, or leaf hairs, are epidermal extensions that take a variety of forms and perform many functions in plants, including herbivore defense. In this study, I document genetically determined variation, within-generation plasticity, and a direct role of trichomes in herbivore defense for Mimulus guttatus. After establishing the relationship between trichomes and herbivory, I test for transgenerational effects of wounding on trichome density and herbivore resistance. Patterns of inter-annual variation in herbivore density and the high cost of plant defense makes plant-herbivore interactions a system in which transgenerational phenotypic plasticity (TPP) is apt to evolve...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094805/the-genome-sequence-of-barbarea-vulgaris-facilitates-the-study-of-ecological-biochemistry
#3
Stephen L Byrne, Pernille Østerbye Erthmann, Niels Agerbirk, Søren Bak, Thure Pavlo Hauser, Istvan Nagy, Cristiana Paina, Torben Asp
The genus Barbarea has emerged as a model for evolution and ecology of plant defense compounds, due to its unusual glucosinolate profile and production of saponins, unique to the Brassicaceae. One species, B. vulgaris, includes two 'types', G-type and P-type that differ in trichome density, and their glucosinolate and saponin profiles. A key difference is the stereochemistry of hydroxylation of their common phenethylglucosinolate backbone, leading to epimeric glucobarbarins. Here we report a draft genome sequence of the G-type, and re-sequencing of the P-type for comparison...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078746/a-gly65val-substitution-in-an-actin-ghact_li1-disrupts-cell-polarity-and-f-actin-organization-resulting-in-dwarf-lintless-cotton-plants
#4
Gregory N Thyssen, David D Fang, Rickie B Turley, Christopher B Florane, Ping Li, Christopher P Mattison, Marina Naoumkina
Actin polymerizes to form part of the cytoskeleton and organize polar growth in all eukaryotic cells. Species with numerous actin genes are especially useful for the dissection of actin molecular function due to redundancy and neofunctionalization. Here, we investigated the role of a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) actin gene in the organization of actin filaments in lobed cotyledon pavement cells and the highly-elongated single-celled trichomes that comprise cotton lint fibers. Using mapping-by-sequencing, virus-induced gene silencing, and molecular modeling, we identified the causative mutation of the dominant dwarf Ligon-lintless Li1 short fiber mutant as a single Gly65Val amino acid substitution in a polymerization domain of an actin gene, GhACT_LI1 (Gh_D04G0865)...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064192/leaf-anatomy-bvoc-emission-and-co2-exchange-of-arctic-plants-following-snow-addition-and-summer-warming
#5
Michelle Schollert, Minna Kivimäenpää, Anders Michelsen, Daan Blok, Riikka Rinnan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Climate change in the Arctic is projected to increase temperature, precipitation and snowfall. This may alter leaf anatomy and gas exchange either directly or indirectly. Our aim was to assess whether increased snow depth and warming modify leaf anatomy and affect biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and CO2 exchange of the widespread arctic shrubs Betula nana and Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum METHODS: Measurements were conducted in a full-factorial field experiment in Central West Greenland, with passive summer warming by open-top chambers and snow addition using snow fences...
January 7, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062726/seasonal-variability-in-physiological-and-anatomical-traits-contributes-to-invasion-success-of-prosopis-juliflora-in-tropical-dry-forest
#6
Marciel T Oliveira, Gustavo M Souza, Silvia Pereira, Deborah A S Oliveira, Karla V Figueiredo-Lima, Emília Arruda, Mauro G Santos
We investigated whether there were consistent differences in the physiological and anatomical traits and phenotypic variability of an invasive (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.) and native species (Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan) in response to seasonality in a tropical dry forest. The water potential, organic solutes, gas exchange, enzymes of the antioxidant system, products of oxidative stress and anatomical parameters were evaluated in both species in response to seasonality. An analysis of physiological responses indicated that the invasive P...
January 5, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045446/biological-activities-of-essential-oils-from-plant-chemoecology-to-traditional-healing-systems
#7
REVIEW
Javad Sharifi-Rad, Antoni Sureda, Gian Carlo Tenore, Maria Daglia, Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Marco Valussi, Rosa Tundis, Marzieh Sharifi-Rad, Monica R Loizzo, Adedayo Oluwaseun Ademiluyi, Razieh Sharifi-Rad, Seyed Abdulmajid Ayatollahi, Marcello Iriti
Essential oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives arising from two different isoprenoid pathways. Essential oils are produced by glandular trichomes and other secretory structures, specialized secretory tissues mainly diffused onto the surface of plant organs, particularly flowers and leaves, thus exerting a pivotal ecological role in plant. In addition, essential oils have been used, since ancient times, in many different traditional healing systems all over the world, because of their biological activities...
January 1, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039677/antixenosis-and-antibiosis-resistance-in-rice-cultivars-against-chilo-suppressalis-walker-lepidoptera-crambidae
#8
M A Tabari, S A A Fathi, G Nouri-Ganbalani, A Moumeni, J Razmjou
The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an important pest afflicting rice in most rice-growing countries in the world. Deliniating the categories of resistance in rice genotypes under field conditions could be helpful in managment of this pest. Two categories of resistance, antixenosis and antibiosis, were examined in ten popular and diverse rice genotypes of different origin that had been selected for their resistance to the striped stem borer in a previous study. Significant differences were found between genotypes for the number of egg masses, number of eggs, preference index, larval and pupal weight, larval development time, larval survival rate, larval mine length, and leaf trichome density...
December 31, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034911/auxin-regulates-cotton-fiber-initiation-via-ghpin-mediated-auxin-transport
#9
Mi Zhang, Jian-Yan Zeng, Hui Long, Yue-Hua Xiao, Xing-Ying Yan, Yan Pei
Cotton fibers are seed trichomes that make cotton unique compared with other plants. At anthesis, IAA, a major auxin in plants, accumulates in the fiber cell to promote cell initiation. However, many important aspects of this process are not clear. Here, auxin distribution patterns indicated by auxin-dependent DR5::GUS (β-glucuronidase) expression in cotton ovules were studied during fiber cell differentiation and cell initiation [-2 to 2 DPA (days post-anthesis)]. The nucellus and fiber cell were two major sites where auxin accumulates...
December 29, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034756/atgis-a-c2h2-zinc-finger-transcription-factor-from-arabidopsis-regulates-glandular-trichome-development-through-ga-signaling-in-tobacco
#10
Yihua Liu, Dongdong Liu, Rui Hu, Changmei Hua, Imran Ali, Aidong Zhang, Bohan Liu, Minjie Wu, Linli Huang, Yinbo Gan
Glandular trichome is specialized multicellular structures that have capability to synthesize and secrete secondary metabolites and protect plants from biotic and abiotic stresses. Our previous results revealed that the C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factors (GIS) acts upstream of GL3/EGL3-GL1-TTG1transcriptional activator complex to regulate trichome initiation through GA signal in Arabidopsis. In the present study, we are reporting that ectopic expression of AtGIS could regulate glandular trichome development through GA signaling in tobacco...
December 26, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017815/ultrastructure-of-chemoreceptive-tarsal-sensilla-in-an-armored-harvestman-and-evidence-of-olfaction-across-laniatores-arachnida-opiliones
#11
Guilherme Gainett, Peter Michalik, Carsten H G Müller, Gonzalo Giribet, Giovanni Talarico, Rodrigo H Willemart
Harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) are especially dependent on chemical cues and are often regarded as animals that rely mainly on contact chemoreception. Information on harvestman sensilla is scarce when compared to other arachnid orders, especially concerning internal morphology. Using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, we investigated tarsal sensilla on the distal tarsomeres (DT) of all leg pairs in Heteromitobates discolor (Laniatores, Gonyleptidae). Furthermore, we explored the typological diversity of sensilla present on the DT I and II in members of the suborder Laniatores, which include two thirds of the formally described opilionid fauna, using species from 17 families representing all main laniatorian lineages...
December 22, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001315/glandular-trichome-specific-wrky-1-promotes-artemisinin-biosynthesis-in-artemisia-annua
#12
Minghui Chen, Tingxiang Yan, Qian Shen, Xu Lu, Qifang Pan, Youran Huang, Yueli Tang, Xueqing Fu, Meng Liu, Weimin Jiang, Zongyou Lv, Pu Shi, Ya-Nan Ma, Xiaolong Hao, Lida Zhang, Ling Li, Kexuan Tang
Artemisinin is a type of sesquiterpene lactone well known as an antimalarial drug, and is specifically produced in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua. However, the regulatory network for the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway remains poorly understood. Exploration of trichome-specific transcription factors would facilitate the elucidation of regulatory mechanism of artemisinin biosynthesis. The WRKY transcription factor GLANDULAR TRICHOME-SPECIFIC WRKY 1 (AaGSW1) was cloned and analysed in A. annua. AaGSW1 exhibited similar expression patterns to the trichome-specific genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway and AP2/ERF transcription factor AaORA...
December 21, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995375/leaf-structure-affects-a-plant-s-appearance-combined-multiple-mechanisms-intensify-remarkable-foliar-variegation
#13
Yun-Shiuan Chen, Peter Chesson, Ho-Wei Wu, Shang-Hung Pao, Jian-Wei Liu, Lee-Feng Chien, Jean W H Yong, Chiou-Rong Sheue
The presence of foliar variegation challenges perceptions of leaf form and functioning. But variegation is often incorrectly identified and misinterpreted. The striking variegation found in juvenile Blastus cochinchinensis (Melastomataceae) provides an instructive case study of mechanisms and their ecophysiological implications. Variegated (white and green areas, vw and vg) and non-variegated leaves (normal green leaves, ng) of seedlings of Blastus were compared structurally with microtechniques, and characterized for chlorophyll content and fluorescence...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994813/conjunctival-leiomyoma-a-rare-tumor-of-the-ocular-surface
#14
Tayyab Afghani, Furqan Ahmed Khan, Hassan Mansoor
PURPOSE: To report a case of conjuctival leiomyoma. CASE REPORT: An 18-year-old female patient presented with a conjunctival growth in the left eye for a 2-year-period with no change in size. She merely presented for cosmetic reasons. Visual acuity was 20/20 in each eye. The lesion had prominent vessels and was not adherent to the sclera. The growth resembled a benign lesion of the conjunctiva. The tough and vascular tissue was excised and sent for histopathology...
October 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976466/fast-sampling-analyses-and-chemometrics-for-plant-breeding-bitter-acids-xanthohumol-and-terpenes-in-lupulin-glands-of-hops-humulus-lupulus
#15
Daniel P Killeen, Oliver C Watkins, Catherine E Sansom, David H Andersen, Keith C Gordon, Nigel B Perry
INTRODUCTION: The valuable secondary metabolites in hops (bitter acids, xanthohumol, volatile monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) are sequestered in lupulin glands (extracellular trichomes) which can be collected and analysed with little or no sample preparation. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether high throughput screening of lupulin glands composition, by fast analyses and chemometrics, could be used for breeder selection of hops with key flavour attributes. METHODS: Lupulin glands from 139 plants (39 cultivars/advanced selections) were analysed by Raman and (1) H NMR spectroscopy, and head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-FID...
January 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966738/fine-mapping-and-candidate-gene-analysis-of-brtri1-a-gene-controlling-trichome-development-in-chinese-cabbage-brassica-rapa-l-ssp-pekinensis
#16
X L Ye, F Y Hu, J Ren, S N Huang, W J Liu, H Feng, Z Y Liu
Trichomes are derived from the epidermis and constitute an ideal system for studying cell division in plants. Here, a Chinese cabbage doubled haploid (DH) line (FT) without trichomes was crossed with another DH line (PurDH-1) with trichomes to develop an F2 population for fine mapping of trichome control genes. Genetic analysis showed that the trichome phenotype was controlled by a single dominant gene, Brtri1. Using 1226 glabrous individuals in the F2 segregation population, Brtri1 was localized to a 16.84 kb region between markers Pur6-31 and Pur6-39 on chromosome A06...
December 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936004/effects-of-drought-stress-on-fusarium-crown-rot-development-in-barley
#17
Xinlun Liu, Chunji Liu
Fusarium crown rot (FCR), caused by various Fusarium species, is a chronic disease of cereals in many semi-arid regions worldwide. To clarify what effects drought-stress may have on FCR development, visual assessment, histological analysis and quantitative PCR were used to analyse the infection process of F. pseudograminearum in barley. This study observed for the first time that the severity of FCR symptom reflects the quantity of pathogens in infected tissues of barley under both drought-stressed and well-watered conditions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931115/secretory-structures-and-essential-oil-composition-in-stachys-officinalis-l-trevisan-subsp-officinalis-lamiaceae-from-italy
#18
Claudia Giuliani, Roberto Maria Pellegrino, Roberta Selvaggi, Corrado Tani, Bruno Tirillini, Laura Maleci Bini
The secretory structures and the volatile fraction of Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevisan subsp. officinalis (Lamiaceae) from Italy were studied for the first time. Peltate and small capitate trichomes were observed on the whole plant (leaves and inflorescences). In the peltate trichomes, an unusual polyphenols content was evidenced by the histochemical methods. The volatile fraction was obtained by a solvent extract from the distillation water of leaves and inflorescences and analysed by GC-MS. Forty-four constituents for leaves, representing 94...
May 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930305/artemisia-annua-mutant-impaired-in-artemisinin-synthesis-demonstrates-importance-of-nonenzymatic-conversion-in-terpenoid-metabolism
#19
Tomasz Czechowski, Tony R Larson, Theresa M Catania, David Harvey, Geoffrey D Brown, Ian A Graham
Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone produced by Artemisia annua glandular secretory trichomes, is the active ingredient in the most effective treatment for malaria currently available. We identified a mutation that disrupts the amorpha-4,11-diene C-12 oxidase (CYP71AV1) enzyme, responsible for a series of oxidation reactions in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. Detailed metabolic studies of cyp71av1-1 revealed that the consequence of blocking the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway is the redirection of sesquiterpene metabolism to a sesquiterpene epoxide, which we designate arteannuin X...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920785/a-jasmonate-inducible-defense-trait-transferred-from-wild-into-cultivated-tomato-establishes-increased-whitefly-resistance-and-reduced-viral-disease-incidence
#20
Rocío Escobar-Bravo, Juan M Alba, Clara Pons, Antonio Granell, Merijn R Kant, Enrique Moriones, Rafael Fernández-Muñoz
Whiteflies damage tomatoes mostly via the viruses they transmit. Cultivated tomatoes lack many of the resistances of their wild relatives. In order to increase protection to its major pest, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its transmitted Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV), we introgressed a trichome-based resistance trait from the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium into cultivated tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. The tomato backcross line BC5S2 contains acylsucrose-producing type-IV trichomes, unlike cultivated tomatoes, and exhibits increased, yet limited protection to whiteflies at early development stages...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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