Read by QxMD icon Read


Liangliang Chen, Yuancheng Peng, Juan Tian, Xiaohong Wang, Zhaosheng Kong, Tonglin Mao, Ming Yuan, Yunhai Li
How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1) mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Hayden Wilson, David Mycock, Isabel M Weiersbye
Tamarix usneoides is a halophyte tree endemic to south-western Africa. This species is known to excrete a range of ions from specialised glandular structures on its leaves. To understand the mechanisms involved in the transport, sequestration and excretion of ions by the glands, a study was performed on salt gland distribution and ultrastructure. The glands are vesiculated trichomes, comprised of eight cells viz., two basal collecting cells and six excretory cells, partially bounded by a secondary cell wall which, could serve as an impermeable barrier, forcing excess ions to move from the apoplast of the surrounding tissue into the cytoplasm of the basal excretory cells...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Shu Harn Te, Boon Fei Tan, Janelle R Thompson, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
Genomes of two filamentous benthic cyanobacteria were obtained from cocultures obtained from two freshwater lakes. The cultures were obtained by first growing cyanobacterial trichome on solid medium, followed by subculturing in freshwater media. Subsequent shotgun sequencing, de novo assembly, and genomic binning yielded almost complete genomes of Oscillatoriales USR 001 and Nostoc sp. MBR 210.
October 13, 2016: Genome Announcements
Zhineng Li, Shaohua Zeng, Yanbang Li, Mingyang Li, Erik Souer
Epimedium L. (Berberidaceae, Ranales), a perennial traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has become a new popular landscape plant for ground cover and pot culture in many countries based on its excellent ornamental characteristics and, distinctive and diverse floral morphology. However, little is known about the molecular genetics of flower development in Epimedium sagittatum. Here, we describe the characterization of EsSVP that encodes a protein sharing 68, 54, and 35% similarity with SVP, AGAMOUS-like 24 (AGL24) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) in Arabidopsis, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lucas Busta, Daniela Hegebarth, Edward Kroc, Reinhard Jetter
Wax coverage on developing Arabidopsis leaf epidermis cells is constant and thus synchronized with cell expansion. Wax composition shifts from fatty acid to alkane dominance, mediated by CER6 expression. Epidermal cells bear a wax-sealed cuticle to hinder transpirational water loss. The amount and composition of the cuticular wax mixture may change as organs develop, to optimize the cuticle for specific functions during growth. Here, morphometrics, wax chemical profiling, and gene expression measurements were integrated to study developing Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and, thus, further our understanding of cuticular wax ontogeny...
October 11, 2016: Planta
Melissa Yit Yee Kam, Li Chin Chai, Chiew Foan Chin
Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker (Aponogetonaceae) is a commercially important ornamental aquatic plant species with traditional medicinal uses. Due to the low survival rate of seedlings, propagation by conventional means has been met with many difficulties. In this study, botanical aspects of A. ulvaceus were examined with regards to the morphology, anatomy and physiology of the plant and an efficient protocol for its in vitro propagation using immature tuber explants has been established. The existence of glandular trichomes on the leaves was discovered and the occurrence of circumnutation in A...
2016: SpringerPlus
Cristina Rostkowska, Caroline M Mota, Taísa C Oliveira, Fernanda M Santiago, Lilian A Oliveira, Gaspar H Korndörfer, Regina M Q Lana, Monica L Rossi, Neusa L Nogueira, Xavier Simonnet, Tiago W P Mineo, Deise A O Silva, José R Mineo
Artemisia annua is used as a source of artemisinin, a potent therapeutic agent used for the treatment of infectious diseases, chiefly malaria. However, the low concentration (from 0.01 to 1.4% of dried leaf matter) of artemisinin in the plant obtained with the traditional cropping system makes it a relatively expensive drug, especially in developing countries. Considering that artemisinin and silicon (Si) are both stored in A. annua glandular trichomes, and that Si accumulation has never been investigated, this study aimed to look into Si effects on A...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Katalin Solymosi, Attila Köfalvi
Cannabis is one of the earliest cultivated plants. Cannabis of industrial utility and culinary value is generally termed as hemp. Conversely, cannabis that is bred for medical, spiritual and recreational purposes is called marijuana. The female marijuana plant produces a significant quantity of bio- and psychoactive phytocannabinoids, which regained the spotlight with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system of the animals in the early 90's. Nevertheless, marijuana is surrounded by controversies, debates and misconceptions related to its taxonomic classification, forensic identification, medical potential, legalization and its long-term health consequences...
October 4, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Karolina Stefanowicz, Nausicaä Lannoo, Yafei Zhao, Lore Eggermont, Jonas Van Hove, Bassam Al Atalah, Els J M Van Damme
BACKGROUND: A small group of F-box proteins consisting of a conserved F-box domain linked to a domain homologous to the glycan-binding protein has been identified within the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Previously, the so-called F-box-Nictaba protein, encoded by the gene At2g02360, was shown to be a functional lectin which binds N-acetyllactosamine structures. Here, we present a detailed qRT-PCR expression analysis of F-box-Nictaba in Arabidopsis plants upon different stresses and hormone treatments...
October 4, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Jia-Ping Wu, Shu Nu Chang-Lee, Cecilia Hsuan Day, Tsung-Jung Ho, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Li-Chin Chung, Jin-Ming Hwang, Gwo-Ping Jong, Wei-Wen Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
BACKGROUND: Examining aging rats exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) engenders changes in left ventricular remodeling due to age- or disease-dependent alterations. METHODS: Rats were placed in whole-body exposure chambers and exposed to 10 cigarettes. Filtered air was introduced into the chamber at a low rate. Rats were exposed to SHS for 30 min, twice a day, 5 days per week for 1 month. After 4 weeks SHS exposure, rats were sacrificed for morphological study with trichome staining and left ventricular remodeling related protein analysis using western blot...
September 2016: Acta Cardiol Sin
Johannes W Stratmann, Carlton J Bequette
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Zhen Peng, Shoupu He, Junling Sun, Zhaoe Pan, Wenfang Gong, Yanli Lu, Xiongming Du
The capacity for ion compartmentalization among different tissues and cells is the key mechanism regulating salt tolerance in plants. In this study, we investigated the ion compartmentalization capacity of two upland cotton genotypes with different salt tolerances under salt shock at the tissue, cell and molecular levels. We found that the leaf glandular trichome could secrete more salt ions in the salt-tolerant genotype than in the sensitive genotype, demonstrating the excretion of ions from tissue may be a new mechanism to respond to short-term salt shock...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jennifer F Parker, Philip J Hopley, Brian F Kuhn
The Buxton-Norlim Limeworks southwest of Taung, South Africa, is renowned for the discovery of the first Australopithecus africanus fossil, the 'Taung Child'. The hominin was recovered from a distinctive pink calcrete that contains an abundance of invertebrate ichnofauna belonging to the Coprinisphaera ichnofacies. Here we describe the first fossil bee's nest, attributed to the ichnogenus Celliforma, from the Plio-Pleistocene of Africa. Petrographic examination of a cell lining revealed the preservation of an intricate organic matrix lined with the calcitic casts of numerous plant trichomes-a nesting behaviour unique to the modern-day carder bees (Anthidiini)...
2016: PloS One
F Sohrabi, H R Nooryazdan, B Gharati, Z Saeidi
The resistance of 11 tomato cultivars (Ps-6515, Berlina, Poolad, Petoprid-5, Zaman, Matin, Golsar, Sandokan-F1, Golshan-616, Sadeen-95 and Sadeen-21) to the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) was investigated under field conditions. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications. Data analysis indicated that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) among cultivars regarding leaflet damage, leaf damage, overall plant damage, number of mines per leaf, number of holes on the stem, and fruit...
September 27, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
Yuan Cheng, Lili Lu, Zhaoen Yang, Zhixia Wu, Wenqiang Qin, Daoqian Yu, Zhongying Ren, Yi Li, Lingling Wang, Fuguang Li, Zuoren Yang
Calcium signaling regulates many developmental processes in plants. Calmodulin (CaM) is one of the most conserved calcium sensors and has a flexible conformation in eukaryotes. The molecular functions of CaM are unknown in cotton, which is a major source of natural fiber. In this study, a Gossypium hirsutum L.CaM7-like gene was isolated from upland cotton. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the GhCaM7-like gene was highly conserved as compared with Arabidopsis AtCaM7. The GhCaM7-like gene showed a high expression level in elongating fibers...
September 15, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Tingxiang Yan, Minghui Chen, Qian Shen, Ling Li, Xueqing Fu, Qifang Pan, Yueli Tang, Pu Shi, Zongyou Lv, Weimin Jiang, Ya-Nan Ma, Xiaolong Hao, Xiaofen Sun, Kexuan Tang
Glandular trichomes are generally considered biofactories that produce valuable chemicals. Increasing glandular trichome density is a very suitable way to improve the productivity of these valuable metabolites, but little is known about the regulation of glandular trichome formation. Phytohormone jasmonate (JA) promotes glandular trichome initiation in various plants, but its mechanism is also unknown. By searching transcription factors regulated by JA in Artemisia annua, we identified a novel homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 1 (AaHD1), which positively controls both glandular and nonglandular trichome initiations...
September 23, 2016: New Phytologist
Julie V Hopper, Nicholas J Mills
What happens when an exotic herbivore invades and encounters novel host plants and enemies? Here, we investigate the impacts of host plant quality and plant architecture on an exotic generalist herbivore, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its interactions with resident parasitoids in California. Using artificial diet and five plant species, we found significant effects of diet on the fitness of E. postvittana under laboratory conditions. In the field, based on a common garden experiment with host plants of nine species, we found that larval parasitism varied among plant species by a factor of 2...
December 2016: Oecologia
Chun-Juan Dong, Ai-Min Wu, Shao-Jun Du, Kai Tang, Yun Wang, Jin-Yuan Liu
GRIM-19 (Gene associated with Retinoid-Interferon-induced Mortality 19) is a subunit of mitochondrial respiratory complex I in mammalian systems, and it has been demonstrated to be a multifunctional protein involved in the cell cycle, cell motility and innate immunity. However, little is known about the molecular functions of its homologues in plants. Here, we characterised GhMCS1, an orthologue of human GRIM-19 from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and found that it was essential for maintaining complex integrity and mitochondrial function in cotton...
2016: PloS One
Eugenia Ioannidi, Stamatis Rigas, Dikran Tsitsekian, Gerasimos Daras, Anastasios Alatzas, Antonis Makris, Georgia Tanou, Anagnostis Argiriou, Dimitrios Alexandrou, Scott Poethig, Polydefkis Hatzopoulos, Angelos K Kanellis
Epidermal cell differentiation is a paramount and conserved process among plants. In Arabidopsis, a ternary complex formed by MYB, bHLH transcription factors and TTG1 modulates unicellular trichome morphogenesis. The formation of multicellular glandular trichomes of the xerophytic shrub Cistus creticus that accumulate labdane-type diterpenes, has attained much attention renowned for its medicinal properties. Here, we show that C. creticus TTG1 (CcTTG1) interacts with the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPLA/B) proteins, putative homologs of AtSPL4/5 that in turn interact with AtTTG1...
September 8, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Joëlle Sasse, Markus Schlegel, Lorenzo Borghi, Friederike Ullrich, Miyoung Lee, Guo-Wei Liu, José-Luis Giner, Oliver Kayser, Laurent Bigler, Enrico Martinoia, Tobias Kretzschmar
As a first line of defense against insect herbivores many plants store high concentrations of toxic and deterrent secondary metabolites in glandular trichomes. Plant Pleiotropic Drug Resistance (PDR)-type ABC transporters are known secondary metabolite transporters and several have been implicated in pathogen or herbivore defense. Here, we report on Petunia hybrida PhPDR2 as a major contributor to trichome-related chemical defense. PhPDR2 was found to localize to the plasma membrane and be predominantly expressed in multicellular glandular trichomes of leaves and stems...
September 15, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"