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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550014/distributions-of-mutational-effects-and-the-estimation-of-directional-selection-in-divergent-lineages-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Briton Park, Matthew T Rutter, Charles B Fenster, V Vaughan Symonds, Mark C Ungerer, Jeffrey P Townsend
Mutations are crucial to evolution, providing the ultimate source of variation on which natural selection acts. Due to their key role, the distribution of mutational effects on quantitative traits is a key component to any inference regarding historical selection on phenotypic traits. In this paper, we expand on a previously developed test for selection that could be conducted assuming a Gaussian mutation effect distribution by developing approaches to also incorporate any of a family of heavy-tailed Laplace distributions of mutational effects...
May 26, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548035/scanning-electron-microscopy-coupled-with-energy-dispersive-spectrometric-analysis-reveals-for-the-first-time-weddellite-and-sylvite-crystals-on-the-surface-of-involucral-bracts-and-petals-of-two-xeranthemum-l-compositae-species
#2
Milan Gavrilović, Suzana Erić, Petar D Marin, Núria Garcia-Jacas, Alfonso Susanna, Pedja Janaćković
In this work, weddellite and sylvite crystals are identified for the first time on the involucral bracts and petals of Xeranthemum annuum and Xeranthemum cylindraceum using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometric (SEM-EDS) analysis. Well-developed crystals of weddellite (CaC2O4·2H2O) occur in the form of a tetragonal bipyramid (hhl), rarely in combination of a bipyramid and tetragonal prism (h00). Indumentum of involucral bracts of X. cylindraceum consists of nonglandular and glandular trichomes...
June 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535196/characterization-of-antixenosis-in-soybean-genotypes-to-bemisia-tabaci-hemiptera-aleyrodidae-biotype-b
#3
E L L Baldin, P L Cruz, R Morando, I F Silva, J P F Bentivenha, L R S Tozin, T M Rodrigues
Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) is one of the most important soybean pest worldwide. Herein, 15 soybean genotypes were evaluated, to characterize the occurrence of antixenosis to B. tabaci biotype B. Initially, a multiple-choice test with all genotypes was carried out, evaluating the settling and oviposition preference at 3 d after infestation, and the colonization by nymphs after 48 d of infestation. Subsequently, a no-choice test, using 14 genotypes, was conducted with infested plants individually, and the number of eggs was counted after 72 h...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533790/aapdr3-a-pdr-transporter-3-is-involved-in-sesquiterpene-%C3%AE-caryophyllene-transport-in-artemisia-annua
#4
Xueqing Fu, Pu Shi, Qian He, Qian Shen, Yueli Tang, Qifang Pan, Yanan Ma, Tingxiang Yan, Minghui Chen, Xiaolong Hao, Pin Liu, Ling Li, Yuliang Wang, Xiaofen Sun, Kexuan Tang
Artemisinin, a sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide, isolated from the plant Artemisia annua L., is widely used in the treatment of malaria. Another sesquiterpenoid, β-caryophyllene having antibiotic, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and local anesthetic activities, is also presented in A. annua. The role played by sesquiterpene transporters in trichomes and accumulation of these metabolites is poorly understood in A. annua and in trichomes of other plant species. We identified AaPDR3, encoding a pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) transporter located to the plasma membrane from A...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528483/fossil-record-of-ephedra-in-the-lower-cretaceous-aptian-argentina
#5
Gabriela G Puebla, Ari Iglesias, María A Gómez, Mercedes B Prámparo
Fossil plants from the Lower Cretaceous (upper Aptian) of the La Cantera Formation, Argentina, are described. The fossils studied represent a leafy shooting system with several orders of articulated and striated axes and attached leaves with unequivocal ephedroid affinity. We also found associated remains of ovulate cones with four whorls of sterile bracts, which contain two female reproductive units (FRU). Ovulate cone characters fit well within the genus Ephedra. Special characters in the ovulate cones including an outer seed envelope with two types of trichomes, allowed us to consider our remains as a new Ephedra species...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520744/indoor-simulations-reveal-differences-among-plant-species-in-capturing-particulate-matter
#6
Jungang Chen, Xinxiao Yu, Huaxing Bi, Yanlin Fu
A number of studies have focused on the capacity of urban trees and shrubs to serve as efficient biological filters to mitigate air pollution. In this study, five different tree species were assessed for this function. Kerria japonica, Sophora japonica, Philadelphus pekinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, and Prunus persica 'Atropurpurea' were tested in a deposition chamber using (NH4)2SO4 particles. We quantified and compared the capability of all tested trees to remove particles by assessing deposition velocity, a measure of the ability to remove particles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489027/direct-analyses-of-secondary-metabolites-by-mass-spectrometry-imaging-msi-from-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-l-trichomes
#7
Denise Brentan Silva, Anna-Katharina Aschenbrenner, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Otmar Spring
Helianthus annuus (sunflower) displays non-glandular trichomes (NGT), capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), and linear glandular trichomes (LGT), which reveal different chemical compositions and locations in different plant tissues. With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques, efficient methods were developed to analyze the tissue distribution of secondary metabolites (flavonoids and sesquiterpenes) and proteins inside of trichomes...
May 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485033/localisation-of-two-bioactive-labdane-diterpenoids-in-the-peltate-glandular-trichomes-of-leonurus-japonicus-by-laser-microdissection-coupled-with-uplc-ms-ms
#8
Chao-Jiang Xiao, Yan-Chun Liu, Shi-Hong Luo, Juan Hua, Yan Liu, Sheng-Hong Li
INTRODUCTION: Glandular trichomes of plants are biochemical factories that could produce, store and secrete copious pharmaceutically important natural products. The Labiatae plant Leonurus japonicus is an important traditional Chinese medicine used to treat gynecological diseases, and has abundant peltate glandular trichomes (PGTs), in which the secondary metabolites accumulated are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To study the secondary metabolites specifically accumulated in the PGTs of L...
May 9, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483052/loss-of-type-iv-glandular-trichomes-is-a-heterochronic-trait-in-tomato-and-can-be-reverted-by-promoting-juvenility
#9
Eloisa Vendemiatti, Agustin Zsögön, Geraldo Felipe Ferreira E Silva, Frederico Almeida de Jesus, Lucas Cutri, Cassia Regina Fernandes Figueiredo, Francisco André Ossamu Tanaka, Fábio Tebaldi Silveira Nogueira, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres
Glandular trichomes are structures with widespread distribution and deep ecological significance. In the Solanum genus, type-IV glandular trichomes provide resistance to insect pests. The occurrence of these structures is, however, poorly described and controversial in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to screen a series of well-known commercial tomato cultivars, revealing the presence of type-IV trichomes on embryonic (cotyledons) and juvenile leaves...
June 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460081/low-vapor-pressure-deficit-reduces-glandular-trichome-density-and-modifies-the-chemical-composition-of-cuticular-waxes-in-silver-birch-leaves
#10
Jenna Lihavainen, Viivi Ahonen, Sarita Keski-Saari, Anu Sõber, Elina Oksanen, Markku Keinänen
Cuticular wax layer is the first barrier against the outside environment and the first defense encountered by herbivores and pathogens. The effects of environmental factors on cuticular chemistry, and on the formation of glandular trichomes that account for the storage and secretion of lipophilic compounds to the leaf surface are poorly understood. Low vapor pressure deficit (VPD) has shown to reduce the nitrogen (N) status of plants. Thus, we studied the effects of elevated air humidity, indicated as VPD, and the effect of N fertilization on cuticular waxes and glandular trichome density in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth)...
April 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437889/safety-of-sucrose-esters-from-physalis-peruviana-l-in-a-28-day-repeated-dose-study-in-mice
#11
Yanet C Ocampo, Daneiva C Caro, David E Rivera, Luis A Franco
Although extracts and consumed foods from Physalis species contain sucrose esters from their glandular trichomes, there is no experimental data available on their toxicological effects. As peruvioses A and B isolated from Physalis peruviana L. calyces have proved to be effective anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory compounds, this work aimed to investigate their sub-acute toxicity study and genotoxicity. For this, CD-1(ICR) mice were treated intraperitoneally with peruvioses at doses of 2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days, to simulate therapeutic and over-therapeutic dosage levels...
June 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437677/localization-of-enhancer-of-try-and-cpc1-protein-in-arabidopsis-root-epidermis
#12
Rumi Tominaga-Wada, Tetsuya Kurata, Takuji Wada
CAPRICE (CPC) is a R3-type MYB transcription factor, which induces root-hair cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. The CPC homologous gene ENHANCER TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1) has a similar function to CPC, and acts in concert with CPC. The CPC protein moves between root epidermal cells, from hairless cells to the neighboring cells, and promotes root-hair differentiation. Therefore, ETC1 is predicted to have movement ability similar to that of CPC. In this study, we generated ETC1:ETC1:GFP and CPC:ETC1:GFP transgenic plants to clarify whether ETC1 exhibits cell-to-cell movement...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430024/cacao-phylloplane-the-first-battlefield-against-moniliophthora-perniciosa-the-causal-agent-of-witches-broom-disease
#13
Dayanne Silva Monteiro Almeida, Karina Peres Gramacho, Thyago H Santana Cardoso, Fabienne Micheli, Fátima Cerqueira Alvim, Carlos Priminho Priminho Pirovani
The phylloplane is the first contact surface between Theobroma cacao and the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease (WBD). We evaluated the index of short glandular trichomes (SGTs) in the cacao phylloplane and the effect of irrigation on the disease index of cacao genotypes with/without resistance to WBD, and identified proteins present in the phylloplane. The resistant and susceptible genotype CCN51 and Catongo presented a mean index of 1600 and 700 SGTs•cm-2, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424725/a-genome-scale-analysis-of-the-pin-gene-family-reveals-its-functions-in-cotton-fiber-development
#14
Yuzhou Zhang, Peng He, Zuoren Yang, Gai Huang, Limin Wang, Chaoyou Pang, Hui Xiao, Peng Zhao, Jianing Yu, Guanghui Xiao
The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein, the most important polar auxin transporter, plays a critical role in the distribution of auxin and controls multiple biological processes. However, characterizations and functions of this gene family have not been identified in cotton. Here, we identified the PIN family in Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium arboreum, and Gossypium raimondii. This gene family was divided into seven subgroups. A chromosomal distribution analysis showed that GhPIN genes were evenly distributed in eight chromosomes and that the whole genome and dispersed duplications were the main duplication events for GhPIN expansion...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421526/impact-of-the-toxicity-of-cylindrospermopsis-raciborskii-woloszynska-seenayya-subba-raju-on-laboratory-rats-in-vivo
#15
Nevena B Đorđević, Sanja Lj Matić, Snežana B Simić, Snežana M Stanić, Vladimir B Mihailović, Nevena M Stanković, Vesna D Stanković, Andrija R Ćirić
In vivo laboratory studies of toxicity were performed on Wistar rats using a methanol extract produced by the natural population of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (abundance of 2.13 × 10(5) trichomes mL(-1)) collected at Aleksandrovac Lake (Serbia). HPLC analysis showed that the extract contains 6.65 μg cylindrospermopsin (CYN) mg(-1). The rats were killed 24 or 72 h after a single intraperitoneal injection of C. raciborskii extract in concentrations of 1500, 3000, 6000 and 12,000 μg kg(-1) body weight (bw) and an equivalent amount of CYN as present in the highest dose of the extract (79...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408661/multiomics-of-tomato-glandular-trichomes-reveals-distinct-features-of-central-carbon-metabolism-supporting-high-productivity-of-specialized-metabolites
#16
Gerd Balcke, Stefan Bennewitz, Nick Bergau, Benedikt Athmer, Anja Henning, Petra Majovsky, José M Jiménez-Gómez, Wolfgang Hoehenwarter, Alain F Tissier
Glandular trichomes are metabolic cell factories with the capacity to produce large quantities of secondary metabolites. Little is known about the connection between central carbon metabolism and metabolic productivity for secondary metabolites in glandular trichomes. To address this gap in our knowledge, we performed comparative metabolomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and 13C-labeling of type VI glandular trichomes and leaves from a cultivated (Solanum lycopersicum LA4024) and a wild (Solanum habrochaites LA1777) tomato accession...
April 13, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405279/fine-scale-frequency-differentiation-along-a-herbivory-gradient-in-the-trichome-dimorphism-of-a-wild-arabidopsis
#17
Yasuhiro Sato, Hiroshi Kudoh
Geographic variation is commonly observed in plant resistance traits, where plant species might experience different selection pressure across a heterogeneous landscape. Arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera is dimorphic for trichome production, generating two morphs, trichome-producing (hairy) and trichomeless (glabrous) plants. Trichomes of A. halleri are known to confer resistance against the white butterfly, cabbage sawfly, and brassica leaf beetle, but not against flea beetles. We combined leaf damage, microclimate, and microsatellite loci data of 26 A...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400779/making-plants-break-a-sweat-the-structure-function-and-evolution-of-plant-salt-glands
#18
REVIEW
Maheshi Dassanayake, John C Larkin
Salt stress is a complex trait that poses a grand challenge in developing new crops better adapted to saline environments. Some plants, called recretohalophytes, that have naturally evolved to secrete excess salts through salt glands, offer an underexplored genetic resource for examining how plant development, anatomy, and physiology integrate to prevent excess salt from building up to toxic levels in plant tissue. In this review we examine the structure and evolution of salt glands, salt gland-specific gene expression, and the possibility that all salt glands have originated via evolutionary modifications of trichomes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398346/chemical-microenvironments-and-single-cell-carbon-and-nitrogen-uptake-in-field-collected-colonies-of-trichodesmium-under-different-pco2
#19
Meri J Eichner, Isabell Klawonn, Samuel T Wilson, Sten Littmann, Martin J Whitehouse, Matthew J Church, Marcel Mm Kuypers, David M Karl, Helle Ploug
Gradients of oxygen (O2) and pH, as well as small-scale fluxes of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and O2 were investigated under different partial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in field-collected colonies of the marine dinitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Microsensor measurements indicated that cells within colonies experienced large fluctuations in O2, pH and CO2 concentrations over a day-night cycle. O2 concentrations varied with light intensity and time of day, yet colonies exposed to light were supersaturated with O2 (up to ~200%) throughout the light period and anoxia was not detected...
June 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395186/ultramicroscopy-reveals-a-layer-of-multiply-folded-membranes-around-the-tannin-accumulating-vacuole-in-honeysuckle-petal-trichomes
#20
Shengnan Qu, Navid Chapman, Zhengyan Xia, Mingxiao Feng, Shangcai Feng, Zhen Wang, Lin Liu
Transmission electron microscopy was used to reveal a layer of multiply folded membranes that closely surrounded the tannin-accumulating vacuole in cells of honeysuckle petal trichomes. A huge amount of tannins were deposited in the peripheral region and the center of the vacuole. The prolific membranes extended to the tannins deposited along the vacuole periphery. It was difficult to distinguish the vacuole membrane, and it seemed as if it was the layer of multiply folded membranes that separated the vacuole lumen from the cytoplasm...
August 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
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