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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920785/a-jasmonate-inducible-defense-trait-transferred-from-wild-into-cultivated-tomato-establishes-increased-whitefly-resistance-and-reduced-viral-disease-incidence
#1
Rocío Escobar-Bravo, Juan M Alba, Clara Pons, Antonio Granell, Merijn R Kant, Enrique Moriones, Rafael Fernández-Muñoz
Whiteflies damage tomatoes mostly via the viruses they transmit. Cultivated tomatoes lack many of the resistances of their wild relatives. In order to increase protection to its major pest, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its transmitted Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV), we introgressed a trichome-based resistance trait from the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium into cultivated tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. The tomato backcross line BC5S2 contains acylsucrose-producing type-IV trichomes, unlike cultivated tomatoes, and exhibits increased, yet limited protection to whiteflies at early development stages...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916935/genome-wide-survey-reveals-transcriptional-differences-underlying-the-contrasting-trichome-phenotypes-of-two-sister-desert-poplars
#2
Jianchao Ma, Xiaodong He, Xiaotao Bai, Zhimin Niu, Bingbing Duan, Ningning Chen, Xuemin Shao, Dongshi Wan
Trichomes, which are widely used as an important diagnostic characteristic in plant species delimitation, play important roles in plant defense and adaptation to adverse environments. In this study, we used two sister poplar species, Populus pruinosa and Populus euphratica-which have, respectively, dense and sparse trichomes-to examine the genetic differences associated with these contrasting phenotypes. The results showed that 42 and 45 genes could be identified as candidate genes related to trichomes in P...
December 1, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908429/callose-associated-silica-deposition-in-arabidopsis
#3
Thibault Brugiére, Christopher Exley
The mechanism of biological silicification in plants remains to be elucidated. There are strong arguments supporting a role for the plant extracellular matrix and the β-1-3-glucan, callose, has been identified as a possible template for silica deposition in the common horsetail, Equisetum arvense. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which is not known as a silica accumulator, can be engineered to produce mutants in which, following a pathogen-associated molecular pattern challenge, callose production in leaves is either induced (35S:PMR4-GFP) or not (pmr4)...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890582/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-a-perilla-frutescens-cytochrome-p450-enzyme-that-catalyzes-the-later-steps-of-perillaldehyde-biosynthesis
#4
Yumi Fujiwara, Michiho Ito
Perilla produces the cyclohexanoid monoterpene perillaldehyde as a major constituent of an essential oil that is accumulated in its glandular trichomes. Perillaldehyde is a marker compound for quality control of soyo and has biological activities such as antibacterial, sedative, or vasodilatory effects. The predicted perillaldehyde formation involves the cyclization of geranyl diphosphate, hydroxylation, and oxidation, and cytochrome P450 plays a crucial role in perillaldehyde biosynthesis. In this study, a cytochrome P450-type enzyme with perillyl alcohol and perillaldehyde synthase activities was isolated by analyzing an expressed sequence tag library from several oil types of pure lines of perilla...
November 24, 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888523/the-cotton-%C3%AE-galactosyltransferase-1-galt1-that-galactosylates-arabinogalactan-proteins-participates-in-controlling-fiber-development
#5
Li-Xia Qin, Yun Chen, Wei Zeng, Yang Li, Lu Gao, Deng-Di Li, Antony Bacic, Wen-Liang Xu, Xue-Bao Li
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated proteins which play pivotal roles in diverse developmental processes in plants. Type II AG glycans, mostly O-linked to the hydroxyproline residues of the protein backbone, account for up to 95% w/w of the AGP, but their functions are still largely unclear. Cotton fibers are extremely elongated single-cell trichomes on the seed epidermis. However, little is known of the molecular basis governing the regulation of fiber cell development. Here, we characterized the role of a CAZy glycosyltransferase (GT) family 31 member GhGalT1 in cotton fiber development...
November 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870264/a-hot-topic-the-genetics-of-adaptation-to-geothermal-vents-in-mimulus-guttatus
#6
Kathleen G Ferris
Identifying the individual loci and mutations that underlie adaptation to extreme environments has long been a goal of evolutionary biology. However, finding the genes that underlie adaptive traits is difficult for several reasons. First, because many traits and genes evolve simultaneously as populations diverge, it is difficult to disentangle adaptation from neutral demographic processes. Second, finding the individual loci involved in any trait is challenging given the respective limitations of quantitative and population genetic methods...
November 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867107/draft-genome-sequence-of-mentha-longifolia-l-and-development-of-resources-for-mint-cultivar-improvement
#7
Kelly J Vining, Sean R Johnson, Amirhossein Ahkami, Iris Lange, Amber N Parrish, Susan C Trapp, Rodney B Croteau, Shannon C K Straub, Iovanna Pandelova, B Markus Lange
The genus Mentha encompasses species cultivated for their essential oils, which are formulated into a vast array of consumer products. Desirable oil characteristics and resistance to the fungal disease Verticillium wilt are top priorities for the mint industry. However, cultivated mints have complex polyploid genomes and are sterile. Breeding efforts, therefore, require the development of genomic resources for fertile mint species. Here, we present draft de novo genome and plastome assemblies for a wilt-resistant South African accession of Mentha longifolia (L...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865008/biosynthesis-of-the-psychotropic-plant-diterpene-salvinorin-a-discovery-and-characterization-of-the-salvia-divinorum-clerodienyl-diphosphate-synthase
#8
Kyle A Pelot, Rod Mitchell, Moonhyuk Kwon, David M Hagelthorn, Jacob F Wardman, Angela Chiang, Jörg Bohlmann, Dae-Kyun Ro, Philipp Zerbe
Salvia divinorum commonly known as diviner's sage, is an ethnomedicinal plant of the mint family (Lamiaceae). S. divinorum is rich in clerodane-type diterpenoids, which accumulate predominantly in leaf glandular trichomes. The main bioactive metabolite, salvinorin A, is the first non-nitrogenous natural compound known to function as an opioid-receptor agonist, and is undergoing clinical trials for potential use in treating neuropsychiatric diseases and drug addictions. We report here the discovery and functional characterization of two S...
November 19, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864442/two-trichome-birefringence-like-proteins-mediate-xylan-acetylation-which-is-essential-for-leaf-blight-resistance-in-rice
#9
Yaping Gao, Congwu He, Dongmei Zhang, Xiangling Liu, Zuopeng Xu, Tian Yanbao, Xue-Hui Liu, Shanshan Zang, Markus Pauly, Yihua Zhou, Baocai Zhang
Acetylation is a ubiquitous modification on cell wall polymers, which play a structural role in plant growth and stress defenses. However, the mechanisms for how crop plants accomplish cell-wall polymer O-acetylation are largely unknown. Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of two trichome birefringence-like (tbl) mutants in rice, which are affected in xylan O-acetylation. ostbl1 and ostbl2 single mutant and the tbl1 tbl2 double mutant displayed a stunted growth phenotype with varied degree of dwarfism...
November 18, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833892/pharmacognostic-specification-of-zanthoxylum-limonella-dennst-alston-fruits-and-seeds-in-thailand
#10
Rawiwan Charoensup, Thidarat Duangyod, Pravaree Phuneerub, Chatubhong Singharachai
Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston. (Rutaceae) or Ma-khwaen is one of the medicinal plants in Thai traditional medicine. To investigate the pharmacognostic specifications and chemical constituents of Z. limonella fruits and seeds. Fruits and seeds of Z. limonella were collected from 15 sources throughout Thailand; then examined the pharmacognostic specification following WHO guideline of quality control method for medicinal plant materials. Microscopic determination of Z. limonella powders demonstrated fragment of mesocarp, fragment of brown vitta, oil glands, fragment of endocarp, and endosperm containing oil globule, trichome and pale brown stone cells...
October 2016: Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828995/plant-responses-to-brief-touching-a-mechanism-for-early-neighbour-detection
#11
Dimitrije Markovic, Neda Nikolic, Robert Glinwood, Gulaim Seisenbaeva, Velemir Ninkovic
In natural habitats plants can be exposed to brief and light contact with neighbouring plants. This mechanical stimulus may represent a cue that induces responses to nearby plants. However, little is known about the effect of touching on plant growth and interaction with insect herbivores. To simulate contact between plants, a soft brush was used to apply light and brief mechanical stimuli to terminal leaves of potato Solanum tuberosum L. The number of non-glandular trichomes on the leaf surface was counted on images made by light microscope while glandular trichomes and pavement cells were counted on images made under scanning electronic microscope...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822760/cyanobacteria-in-iron-banded-formations-of-the-kursk-magnetic-anomaly
#12
A Yu Rozanov, M M Astafieva, L V Zaitseva, N A Alfimova, S B Felitsyn
Fossilized cyanobacteria(?) represented by trichomes enclosed in common sheaths were detected in early Proterozoic iron banded formations of the Kursk magnetic anomaly (limonite-martite ores of the Lebedinsky mine and iron banded formations of the Korobkovskoye deposit). These fossils morphologically similar to current representatives of the genus Microcoleus were buried in situ.
September 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811296/structure-of-the-thoracic-spiracular-valves-and-their-contribution-to-the-unidirectional-gas-exchange-in-flying-blowflies-calliphora-vicina
#13
Lutz T Wasserthal, Anja S Fröhlich
The operation of the thoracic spiracular valves was analysed using anatomical and physiological techniques. Dense spiracular filter trichomes impede a diffusive gas exchange. However, the hinged posterior filter flap of the metathoracic spiracle (Sp2) opens passively during upstroke of the wings and closes by the suction of the sub-atmospheric tracheal pressure during the down stroke, which supports a unidirectional respiratory airflow. The action of the interior spiracular valve lids was recorded by photocell-sensors oriented above the enlarged spiracles and projected onto the screen of a video camera...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788433/structural-changes-of-arthrospira-sp-after-low-energy-sonication-treatment-for-microalgae-harvesting-elucidating-key-parameters-to-detect-the-rupture-of-gas-vesicles
#14
Martí Lecina, Benjamin Sanchez, Carles Solà, Jordi Prat, Mònica Roldán, Mariona Hernández, Ramon Bragós, Carlos J Paredes, Jordi J Cairó
The buoyancy suppression by low energy sonication (LES) treatment (0.8W·mL(-1), 20kHz, 10s) has recently been proposed as an initial harvesting step for Arthrospira sp. This paper aims to describe the structural changes in Arthrospira sp. after LES treatment and to present how these structural changes affect the results obtained by different analytical techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs of trichomes evidenced the gas vesicles rupture but also revealed a rearrangement of thylakoids and more visible phycobilisomes were observed...
October 24, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768706/tcs1-a-microtubule-binding-protein-interacts-with-kcbp-zwichel-to-regulate-trichome-cell-shape-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
Liangliang Chen, Yuancheng Peng, Juan Tian, Xiaohong Wang, Zhaosheng Kong, Tonglin Mao, Ming Yuan, Yunhai Li
How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1) mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739879/the-salt-glands-of-tamarix-usneoides-e-mey-ex-bunge-south-african-salt-cedar
#16
Hayden Wilson, David Mycock, Isabel M Weiersbye
Tamarix usneoides is a halophyte tree endemic to south-western Africa. This species is known to excrete a range of ions from specialised glandular structures on its leaves. To understand the mechanisms involved in the transport, sequestration and excretion of ions by the glands, a study was performed on salt gland distribution and ultrastructure. The glands are vesiculated trichomes, comprised of eight cells viz., two basal collecting cells and six excretory cells, partially bounded by a secondary cell wall which, could serve as an impermeable barrier, forcing excess ions to move from the apoplast of the surrounding tissue into the cytoplasm of the basal excretory cells...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738032/draft-genome-sequences-of-two-benthic-cyanobacteria-oscillatoriales-usr-001-and-nostoc-sp-mbr-210-isolated-from-tropical-freshwater-lakes
#17
Shu Harn Te, Boon Fei Tan, Janelle R Thompson, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
Genomes of two filamentous benthic cyanobacteria were obtained from cocultures obtained from two freshwater lakes. The cultures were obtained by first growing cyanobacterial trichome on solid medium, followed by subculturing in freshwater media. Subsequent shotgun sequencing, de novo assembly, and genomic binning yielded almost complete genomes of Oscillatoriales USR 001 and Nostoc sp. MBR 210.
October 13, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733858/leaf-like-sepals-induced-by-ectopic-expression-of-a-short-vegetative-phase-svp-like-mads-box-gene-from-the-basal-eudicot-epimedium-sagittatum
#18
Zhineng Li, Shaohua Zeng, Yanbang Li, Mingyang Li, Erik Souer
Epimedium L. (Berberidaceae, Ranales), a perennial traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has become a new popular landscape plant for ground cover and pot culture in many countries based on its excellent ornamental characteristics and, distinctive and diverse floral morphology. However, little is known about the molecular genetics of flower development in Epimedium sagittatum. Here, we describe the characterization of EsSVP that encodes a protein sharing 68, 54, and 35% similarity with SVP, AGAMOUS-like 24 (AGL24) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) in Arabidopsis, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730411/changes-in-cuticular-wax-coverage-and-composition-on-developing-arabidopsis-leaves-are-influenced-by-wax-biosynthesis-gene-expression-levels-and-trichome-density
#19
Lucas Busta, Daniela Hegebarth, Edward Kroc, Reinhard Jetter
Wax coverage on developing Arabidopsis leaf epidermis cells is constant and thus synchronized with cell expansion. Wax composition shifts from fatty acid to alkane dominance, mediated by CER6 expression. Epidermal cells bear a wax-sealed cuticle to hinder transpirational water loss. The amount and composition of the cuticular wax mixture may change as organs develop, to optimize the cuticle for specific functions during growth. Here, morphometrics, wax chemical profiling, and gene expression measurements were integrated to study developing Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and, thus, further our understanding of cuticular wax ontogeny...
October 11, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730019/the-biology-and-in-vitro-propagation-of-the-ornamental-aquatic-plant-aponogeton-ulvaceus
#20
Melissa Yit Yee Kam, Li Chin Chai, Chiew Foan Chin
Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker (Aponogetonaceae) is a commercially important ornamental aquatic plant species with traditional medicinal uses. Due to the low survival rate of seedlings, propagation by conventional means has been met with many difficulties. In this study, botanical aspects of A. ulvaceus were examined with regards to the morphology, anatomy and physiology of the plant and an efficient protocol for its in vitro propagation using immature tuber explants has been established. The existence of glandular trichomes on the leaves was discovered and the occurrence of circumnutation in A...
2016: SpringerPlus
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