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Atul Kabra, Rohit Sharma, Shivali Singla, Ruchika Kabra, Uttam Singh Baghel
BACKGROUND: Myrica esculenta (Family: Myricaceae) commonly known as Kaiphala or Katphala is a widely used medicinal plant in Ayurveda. In spite of its numerous medicinal attributes, no published work is available till date on pharmacognostical characterization and HPTLC analysis of its leaves. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the pharmacognostical, physicochemical, and HPTLC profiles of M. esculenta leaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The measures taken for pharmacognostical characterization were organoleptic study, macroscopy, microscopy, powder microscopy, leaf constant, fluorescence analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening and HPTLC spectra profile...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Chanchan Liu, Narayanan Srividya, Amber N Parrish, Wei Yue, Mingqiu Shan, Qinan Wu, B Markus Lange
Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet, commonly known as Japanese catnip, is used for the treatment of colds, headaches, fevers, and skin rashes in traditional Asian medicine (China, Japan and Korea). The volatile oil and its constituents have various demonstrated biological activities, but there is currently limited information regarding the site of biosynthesis. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated the presence of three distinct glandular trichome types which, based on their morphological features, are referred to as peltate, capitate and digitiform glandular trichomes...
March 10, 2018: Phytochemistry
Aditi Jain, Saurabh Anand, Neer K Singh, Sandip Das
The impact of polyploidy on functional diversification of cis-regulatory elements is poorly understood. This is primarily on account of lack of well-defined structure of cis-elements and a universal regulatory code. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of sequence and functional diversification of paralogous and homeologous promoter elements associated with MIR164 from Brassica. The availability of whole genome sequence allowed us to identify and isolate a total of 42 homologous copies of MIR164 from diploid species-Brassica rapa (A-genome), Brassica nigra (B-genome), Brassica oleracea (C-genome), and allopolyploids-Brassica juncea (AB-genome), Brassica carinata (BC-genome) and Brassica napus (AC-genome)...
March 12, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Mathieu Pottier, Dimitri Gilis, Marc Boutry
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) fixes atmospheric CO2 into organic compounds and is composed of eight copies each of a large subunit (RbcL) and a small subunit (RbcS). Recent reports have revealed unusual RbcS, which are expressed in particular tissues and confer higher catalytic rate, lesser affinity for CO2 , and a more acidic profile of the activity versus pH. The resulting Rubisco was proposed to be adapted to a high CO2 environment and recycle CO2 generated by the metabolism. These RbcS belong to a cluster named T (for trichome), phylogenetically distant from cluster M, which gathers well-characterized RbcS expressed in mesophyll or bundle-sheath tissues...
March 7, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Marie Shoorooei, Abdul Hadi Hoseinzadeh, Reza Maali-Amiri, Hossein Allahyari, Masoud Torkzadeh-Mahani
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus uticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is globally one of the most devastating pests that feed on numerous crops, including common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of genotype and morphological attributes of common bean on T. uticae. Forty common bean accessions were used to investigate antixenosis and antibiosis through assessing mite feeding preference and reproduction under laboratory conditions. Three resistant (i.e., 56, 63, 238) and two susceptible (i...
March 9, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Xiaodong Shi, Yuxi Gu, Tingwei Dai, Yang Wu, Peng Wu, Ying Xu, Fang Chen
Trichomes are epidermal outgrowths of plant tissues that can secrete or store large quantities of secondary metabolites, which contribute to plant defense responses against stress. The use of bioengineering methods for regulating the development of trichomes and metabolism is a widely researched topic. In the present study, we demonstrate that JcZFP8, a C2H2 zinc finger protein gene from Jatropha curcas L., can regulate trichome development in transgenic tobacco. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we performed transcriptome profiling of overexpression JcZFP8 transgenic plants and wild-type tobacco...
March 5, 2018: Gene
Cui Li, Peng Wang, Enzo Lombi, Miaomiao Cheng, Caixian Tang, Daryl L Howard, Neal W Menzies, Peter M Kopittke
The present study investigated the role of trichomes in absorption of foliar-applied Zn fertilizers in soybean and tomato. Using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy for in situ analyses of hydrated leaves, we found that upon the foliar-application of ZnSO4, Zn accumulated within 15 min in some non-glandular trichomes of soybean, but not tomato. However, analyses of cross sections of soybean leaves did not show any marked accumulation of Zn in tissues surrounding trichomes. Furthermore, when near-isogenic lines of soybean differing 10-fold in trichome density were used to compare Zn absorption, it was found that foliar Zn absorption was not related to trichome density...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Elina Oksanen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Jareerat Chunthawodtiporn, Theresa Hill, Kevin Stoffel, Allen Van Deynze
Bell pepper ( L.) is a group of fruit vegetables that has large variation in fruit shape, fruit size, and horticultural traits. Using unadapted sources of germplasm to bring in novel alleles while maintaining favorable quality and horticultural traits is challenging for breeding in pepper. A genetic map with 318 loci from genotype-by-sequencing (GBS) and single nucleotide polymorphism assays was generated from a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cultivated bell-type 'Maor' and a landrace highly resistant to , 'Criollo de Morelos-334'...
March 2018: Plant Genome
Benjamín Valencia-Nieto, Victoria Sosa, Judith Márquez-Guzmán
Background: Epidendreae is one of the most diverse tribes among the orchids with remarkable variation in life form, floral morphology and pollination syndromes. Its circumscription was recently revised and subtribes Agrostophyllinae and Calypsoinae were transferred into this tribe. One of the principal floral characters utilized in classification of orchids is the incumbency or bending of the column. This study records and compares late stages of anther, column and lip development, and discusses anther characters in fifteen representative taxa of five of the six subtribes in Epidendreae with respect to classification and pollination biology...
2018: PeerJ
Ulrike Steiner, Eckhard Leistner
Naturally occurring and semisynthetic ergot alkaloids play a role in health care or as recreational drugs in Western and indigenous Mexican societies. Evidence is summarized that ergot alkaloids present in Central American Convolvulaceae like Turbina corymbosa, Ipomoea violacea , and Ipomoea asarifolia are colonized by different species of a newly described clavicipitaceous fungal genus named Periglandula . The fungi are associated with peltate glandular trichomes on the adaxial leaf surface of its host plants...
March 2, 2018: Planta Medica
Pengyu Cheng, Hongjuan Li, Linlin Yuan, Huiyong Li, Lele Xi, Junjie Zhang, Jin Liu, Yingdian Wang, Heping Zhao, Huixin Zhao, Shengcheng Han
The ERA ( E. coli RAS-like protein)-related GTPase (ERG) is a nuclear-encoded GTPase with two conserved domains: a GTPase domain and a K Homology (KH) domain. ERG plays a vital role in early seed development in Antirrhinum majus . However, the mechanism that regulates seed development remains unclear. Blasting the genome sequence revealed two homologies of ERG, AtERG1, and AtERG2 in Arabidopsis . In this study, we found that AtERG2 is localized in the mitochondria and binds mitochondrial 18S RNA. Promoter and transcript analyses indicated that AtERG2 was mainly expressed in the leaf vein, trichome, and ovule...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alexander V Pinevich, Eugeny E Andronov, Elizaveta V Pershina, Agnia A Pinevich, Helena Y Dmitrieva
Reliance on pure cultures was introduced at the beginning of microbiology as a discipline and has remained significant although their adaptive properties are essentially dissimilar from those of mixed cultures and environmental populations. They are needed for (i) taxonomic identification; (ii) diagnostics of pathogens; (iii) virulence and pathogenicity studies; (iv) elucidation of metabolic properties; (v) testing sensitivity to antibiotics; (vi) full-length genome assembly; (vii) strain deposition in microbial collections; and (viii) description of new species with name validation...
February 27, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Amara Noor Hussain, Muhammad Zafar, Mushtaq Ahmad, Raees Khan, Ghulam Yaseen, Muhammad Saleem Khan, Abdul Nazir, Amir Muhammad Khan, Shabnum Shaheen
Palynological features as well as comparative foliar epidermal using light and scanning electron microscope (SEM) of 17 species (10genera) of Amaranthaceae have been studied for its taxonomic significance. Different foliar and palynological micro-morphological characters were examined to explain their value in resolving the difficulty in identification. All species were amphistomatic but stomata on abaxial surface were more abundant. Taxonomically significant epidermal character including stomata type, trichomes (unicellular, multicellular, and capitate) and epidermal cells shapes (polygonal and irregular) were also observed...
February 27, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Elena T Iakimova, Ernst J Woltering
In this work, the involvement of programmed cell death (PCD) in the wound-induced postharvest browning disorder and senescence in butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) fresh-cuts was studied. At the wounded (cut, bruised) sites, rapid browning, loss of chlorophyll and massive cell death, accompanied with accumulation of reactive oxygen species and increased electrolyte leakage occurred in a narrow strip of tissue adjacent the injury. The dead cell morphology (protoplast and nuclei shrinkage) together with the biochemical and physiological changes resembled necrotic PCD type...
February 22, 2018: Protoplasma
Yael Tzubari, Liel Magnezi, Avraham Be'er, Ilana Berman-Frank
Trichodesmium spp. are diazotrophic cyanobacteria that exist as single filaments (trichomes) and as macroscopic colonies of varying shapes formed by aggregating trichomes. The causes and dynamics of colony formation and disassociation are not yet elucidated. we demonstrate that limited availability of dissolved phosphorus (P) or iron (Fe) stimulated trichome mobility and induced colony formation in Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 cultures. The specific nutrient limitation differentially affected the rate of colony formation and morphology of the colonies...
February 20, 2018: ISME Journal
Bartosz J Płachno, Piotr Świątek, Małgorzata Stpiczyńska, Vitor Fernandes Oliveira Miranda
In the genus Genlisea as well as in its sister genus Utricularia, the palate probably plays a key role in providing the colour, mechanical and olfactory stimuli to attract insect pollinators and to guide them to the generative structures and the nectary spur. However, information about the micro-morphology of the palate of Genlisea is scarce. This study aims to examine the structure of the palate in Genlisea hispidula in detail as well as the palate from other five species from the subgenus Genlisea. In particular, its aim is to ascertain whether these palates function as an area for the osmophores in the flower or whether they produce nectar...
February 14, 2018: Protoplasma
Sen Yang, Yanling Cai, Xingwang Liu, Mingming Dong, Yaqi Zhang, Shuying Chen, Wenbo Zhang, Yujing Li, Min Tang, Xuling Zhai, Yiqun Weng, Huazhong Ren
The fruit epidermal features such as the number and size of trichomes or spines are important fruit quality traits for cucumber production. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying fruit spine formation in cucumber. Here, we reported functional characterization of the cucumber CsMYB6 gene, which encodes a MIXTA-like MYB transcription factor that is an important player in regulating fruit trichome development in cucumber. Spatial-temporal expression analyses revealed high level expression of CsMYB6 in the epidermis of cucumber ovaries during fruit spine initiation, which was similar to CsTRY, a homolog of the Arabidopsis TRY gene that also plays a key role in trichome development...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Luiz Henrique M Fonseca, Lúcia G Lohmann
Combining high-throughput sequencing data with amplicon sequences allows the reconstruction of robust phylogenies based on comprehensive sampling of characters and taxa. Here, we combine Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing data to infer the phylogeny of the "Adenocalymma-Neojobertia" clade (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae), a diverse lineage of Neotropical plants, using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches. We used NGS to obtain complete or nearly-complete plastomes of members of this clade, leading to a final dataset with 54 individuals, representing 44 members of ingroup and 10 outgroups...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
B Khadhraoui, M Turk, A S Fabiano-Tixier, E Petitcolas, P Robinet, R Imbert, M El Maâtaoui, F Chemat
There are more than 1300 articles in scientific literature dealing with positive impacts of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) such as reduction of extraction time, diminution of solvent and energy used, enhancement in yield and even selectivity, intensification of diffusion, and eliminating wastes. This present study aims to understand what are the mechanism(s) behind these positive impacts which will help to design a decision tool for UAE of natural products. Different microscopic observations (Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (e-SEM), Cyto-histochemistry) have been used for spacial and temporal localization of metabolites in rosemary leaves, which is one of the most studied and most important plant for its antioxidant metabolites used in food industry, during conventional and ultrasound extraction...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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