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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812643/a-submarine-volcanic-eruption-leads-to-a-novel-microbial-habitat
#1
Roberto Danovaro, Miquel Canals, Michael Tangherlini, Antonio Dell'Anno, Cristina Gambi, Galderic Lastras, David Amblas, Anna Sanchez-Vidal, Jaime Frigola, Antoni M Calafat, Rut Pedrosa-Pàmies, Jesus Rivera, Xavier Rayo, Cinzia Corinaldesi
Submarine volcanic eruptions are major catastrophic events that allow investigation of the colonization mechanisms of newly formed seabed. We explored the seafloor after the eruption of the Tagoro submarine volcano off El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago. Near the summit of the volcanic cone, at about 130 m depth, we found massive mats of long, white filaments that we named Venus's hair. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that these filaments are made of bacterial trichomes enveloped within a sheath and colonized by epibiotic bacteria...
April 24, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810231/cr-induced-cellular-injury-and-necrosis-in-glycine-max-l-biochemical-mechanism-of-oxidative-damage-in-chloroplast
#2
Kalimuthu Balasaraswathi, Sivalingam Jayaveni, Janardhanam Sridevi, Dhanasingh Sujatha, Kavati Phebe Aaron, Chellan Rose
Chromium-induced toxicity and mechanisms of cell death involved in plants are yet to be fully elucidated. To understand the events of these processes, the stress response of the soybean plant using trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds, namely, basic chromium sulphate (BCS) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was investigated. The leaf surface morphology for stomatal aperture, wax deposition and presence of trichomes for chromium accumulation was examined by SEM-EDAX and light microscopy. The leaf mesophyll cell integrity was identified by trypan blue staining; chlorophyll autofluorescence, ROS generation and mitochondrial function were studied by fluorescence microscopy using different dyes...
August 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806605/phytochemistry-of-european-primula-species
#3
REVIEW
Paola S Colombo, Guido Flamini, Graziella Rodondi, Claudia Giuliani, Laura Santagostini, Gelsomina Fico
The genus Primula is the largest among the Primulaceae and is widespread mainly in the cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Since the beginning of the Twentieth century, several studies on the phytochemical composition of different species of Primula have been carried out. The main constituents examined were tissue and epicuticular flavonoids and saponins, which are of therapeutic significance. Only in recent years studies of the volatiles emitted by leaves and flowers have been carried out as well, but they are restricted to a small number of species...
August 11, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798890/evaluation-of-cortez-onestep-chlamydia-rapicard%C3%A2-insta-test-for-the-detection-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-in-pregnant-women-at-mbare-polyclinic-in-harare-zimbabwe
#4
Stephen Stephen, Chiwoneso Gwyneth Elizabeth Muchaneta-Kubara, Marshall Wesley Munjoma, Gibson Mandozana
BACKGROUND: Cervical chlamydia infection poses high risk of pregnancy complications and neonatal infection. Reference methods for the detection of chlamydia infection are not available for routine use in developing countries. Point-of-care (POC) tests can bridge this gap. This study evaluated Cortez Onestep Chlamydia Rapicard™ insta test for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women at Mbare Polyclinic and determined the prevalence of C. trachomatis. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study in 242 pregnant women aged ≥18 years attending their first ANC visit at Mbare polyclinic in Harare, Zimbabwe...
2017: International Journal of MCH and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794684/argyrella-richardsiae-a-new-species-of-melastomataceae-from-the-wet-miombo-woodlands-of-south-central-africa
#5
Marie Claire Veranso-Libalah, Robert Douglas Stone, Gudrun Kadereit
A new species from the wet miombo woodlands of Tanzania and Angola, Argyrella richardsiae Veranso-Libalah & G.Kadereit, sp. nov. (Melastomataceae, Melastomateae), is described and illustrated. Although the widespread Argyrella canescens also occurs in Tanzania and northeastern Angola, A. richardsiae is morphologically most similar to Argyrella bambutorum known only from the Northwest of Cameroon, but differs by its indumentum of glandular trichomes on the entire plant (versus a mixture of stellate and glandular trichomes in other species of Argyrella), leaf-blades with serrulate margins (versus entire margins in A...
2017: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780852/dual-beam-depth-profiling-and-imaging-with-argon-and-bismuth-clusters-of-prenylated-stilbenes-on-glandular-trichomes-of-macaranga-vedeliana
#6
Tiphaine Péresse, Nicolas Elie, David Touboul, Van Cuong Pham, Vincent Dumontet, Fanny Roussi, Marc Litaudon, Alain Brunelle
Using a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer equipped with an argon cluster ion for sputtering and a bismuth liquid metal ion source for analysis, both surfaces of leaves and fruits of Macaranga vedeliana, an endemic New Caledonian species have been for the first time analyzed by a dual beam depth profiling. To prevent in-vacuum evaporation of the liquid content of the small glandular trichomes covering fruits and leaves surfaces, and also to be able to analyze their liquid content while preventing any sublimation of the latter, the samples were kept frozen during the whole experiment using a nitrogen cooled sample holder...
August 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771148/influence-of-environmental-variables-on-saxitoxin-yields-by-cylindrospermopsis-raciborskii-in-a-mesotrophic-subtropical-reservoir
#7
Simone Pereira Casali, André Cordeiro Alves Dos Santos, Patrícia Bortoletto de Falco, Maria do Carmo Calijuri
Saxitoxins are a class of toxins produced by at least two groups of evolutionarily distant organisms (cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates). While the toxicity of these toxins is relatively well characterized, to date little is known about their drivers and ecological functions, especially in lower latitude tropical and subtropical freshwater ecosystems. In the present study, we aimed to obtain a better understanding of the main drivers of saxitoxin concentrations in aquatic environments. We investigated the relationships among saxitoxin concentrations in a mesotrophic subtropical reservoir dominated by the cyanobacteria Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii with physical, chemical and biological water variables...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754623/structural-re-arrangement-of-depolymerized-sodium-alginate-enriches-peltate-glandular-trichomes-and-essential-oil-production-of-spearmint
#8
Yawar Sadiq, M Masroor A Khan, Asfia Shabbir, Bilal Ahmad, Hassan Jaleel, Moin Uddin, Lalit Varshney
Over the past decade, radiation-degraded polysaccharides have been used as regulators of growth and development of plants in several crop plants. In quest of the possible reasons of previously established growth-promotion activity of irradiated sodium alginate (ISA), structural parameters of irradiated and un-irradiated sodium alginate were analysed using Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) studies to develop an understanding of structure-property relationship...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747889/distribution-of-silicified-microstructures-regulation-of-cinnamyl-alcohol-dehydrogenase-and-lodging-resistance-in-silicon-and-paclobutrazol-mediated-oryza-sativa
#9
Deivaseeno Dorairaj, Mohd Razi Ismail
Lodging is a phenomenon that affects most of the cereal crops including rice, Oryza sativa. This is due to the fragile nature of herbaceous plants whose stems are non-woody, thus affecting its ability to grow upright. Silicon (Si), a beneficial nutrient is often used to toughen and protect plants from biotic and abiotic stresses. Deposition of Si in plant tissues enhances the rigidity and stiffness of the plant as a whole. Silicified cells provide the much needed strength to the culm to resist breaking. Lignin plays important roles in cell wall structural integrity, stem strength, transport, mechanical support, and plant pathogen defense...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745103/computer-vision-for-high-throughput-quantitative-phenotyping-a-case-study-of-grapevine-downy-mildew-sporulation-and-leaf-trichomes
#10
Konstantin Divilov, Tyr Wiesner-Hanks, Paola Barba, Lance Cadle-Davidson, Bruce I Reisch
Quantitative phenotyping of downy mildew sporulation is frequently used in plant breeding and genetic studies, as well as in studies focused on pathogen biology, such as chemical efficacy trials. In these scenarios, phenotyping a large number of genotypes or treatments can be advantageous, but is often limited by time and cost. We present a novel computational pipeline dedicated to estimating the percent area of downy mildew sporulation from images of inoculated grapevine leaf discs in a manner that is time and cost efficient...
July 26, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736815/a-widespread-cyanobacterium-supported-by-polyphasic-approach-proposition-of-koinonema-pervagatum-gen-sp-nov-oscillatoriales
#11
Bruna Buch, Mariéllen Dornelles Martins, Luis Henrique Z Branco
Several new genera originally classified as the genus Phormidium, a polyphyletic and taxonomically complex genus within the Oscillatoriales, were recently described. The simple morphology of Phormidium does not reflect its genetic diversity and the delimitation of a natural group is not possible with traditional classification systems based on morphology alone. Therefore, this study used morphological, ecological and molecular approaches to evaluate four populations morphologically similar to Ammassolinea, Kamptonema and Ancylothrix (simple, curved and gradually attenuated at the ends trichome), found in subtropical and tropical Brazilian regions...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724619/plant-glandular-trichomes-natural-cell-factories-of-high-biotechnological-interest
#12
Alexandre Huchelmann, Marc Boutry, Charles Hachez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716406/the-tomato-b-type-cyclin-gene-slcycb2-plays-key-roles-in-reproductive-organ-development-trichome-initiation-terpenoids-biosynthesis-and-prodenia-litura-defense
#13
Shenghua Gao, Yanna Gao, Cheng Xiong, Gang Yu, Jiang Chang, Qihong Yang, Changxian Yang, Zhibiao Ye
Cyclins exist extensively in various plant species. Among them, B-type cyclins play important roles in the transition of G2-to-M. However, few B-type cyclins have been reported to participate in reproductive organ development and trichome formation. In this study, transgene analysis showed that SlCycB2 overexpression caused abnormal flower with the unclosed stamen, shortened style and aberrant pollen. In addition, nearly all non-glandular trichomes, as well as the glandular ones were disappeared. On the contrary, suppression of SlCycB2 could promote type III and type V trichomes formation...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701351/characterization-of-trichome-expressed-bahds-in-petunia-reveals-distinct-acylsugar-assembly-mechanisms
#14
Satya Swathi Nadakuduti, Joseph B Uebler, Xiaoxiao Liu, Arthur Daniel Jones, Cornelius S Barry
Acylsugars are synthesized in the glandular trichomes of the Solanaceae family and are implicated in protection against abiotic and biotic stress. Acylsugars are comprised of either sucrose or glucose esterified with varying numbers of acyl chains of differing length. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), acylsugar assembly requires four acylsugar acyltransferases (ASATs), of the BAHD super family. Tomato ASATs catalyze the sequential esterification of acyl-CoA thioesters to the R4, R3, R3', and R2 position of sucrose, yielding a tetra-acylsucrose...
July 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698355/tissue-specific-control-of-the-endocycle-by-the-anaphase-promoting-complex-cyclosome-inhibitors-uvi4-and-del1
#15
Jefri Heyman, Stefanie Polyn, Thomas Eekhout, Lieven De Veylder
The endocycle represents a modified mitotic cell cycle that in plants is often coupled to cell enlargement and differentiation. Endocycle onset is controlled by activity of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting cell cycle factors for destruction. CELL CYCLE SWITCH 52 (CCS52) proteins represent rate-limiting activator subunits of the APC/C. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), mutations in either CCS52A1 or CCS52A2 activators result in a delayed endocycle onset, whereas their overexpression triggers increased DNA ploidy levels...
July 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686187/cuticular-waxes-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-shoots-cell-type-specific-composition-and-biosynthesis
#16
REVIEW
Daniela Hegebarth, Reinhard Jetter
It is generally assumed that all plant epidermis cells are covered with cuticles, and the distinct surface geometries of pavement cells, guard cells, and trichomes imply functional differences and possibly different wax compositions. However, experiments probing cell-type-specific wax compositions and biosynthesis have been lacking until recently. This review summarizes new evidence showing that Arabidopsis trichomes have fewer wax compound classes than pavement cells, and higher amounts of especially long-chain hydrocarbons...
July 7, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673028/sugary-secretions-of-wasp-galls-a-want-to-be-extrafloral-nectar
#17
Adriana Aranda-Rickert, Carolina Rothen, Patricia Diez, Ana María González, Brigitte Marazzi
Background and Aims: The most widespread form of protective mutualisms is represented by plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) that attract ants and other arthropods for indirect defence. Another, but less common, form of sugary secretion for indirect defence occurs in galls induced by cynipid wasps. Until now, such galls have been reported only for cynipid wasps that infest oak trees in the northern hemisphere. This study provides the first evidence of galls that exude sugary secretions in the southern hemisphere and asks whether they can be considered as analogues of plants' EFNs...
June 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667412/exogenous-salicylic-acid-mediated-modulation-of-arsenic-stress-tolerance-with-enhanced-accumulation-of-secondary-metabolites-and-improved-size-of-glandular-trichomes-in-artemisia-annua-l
#18
Anjana Kumari, Neha Pandey, Shashi Pandey-Rai
The present study was undertaken to find out individual and interactive effects of arsenic (As) and salicylic acid (SA) on an important medicinal plant, Artemisia annua. As uptake and its accumulation was detected and found to be maximum in roots at higher As concentration (150 μM). Under As treatments, H2O2 and MDA content were induced. Biomass and chlorophyll content were negatively affected under As treatments. Furthermore, enzymatic (SOD, CAT, APX, and GR) and non-enzymatic antioxidants were also enhanced under As treatments...
June 30, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649093/ntl8-regulates-trichome-formation-in-arabidopsis-by-directly-activating-r3-myb-genes-try-and-tcl1
#19
Hainan Tian, Xianling Wang, Hongyan Guo, Yuxin Cheng, Chunjiang Hou, Jin-Gui Chen, Shucai Wang
The NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC (NAC) are plant-specific transcription factors that regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development and plant response to environmental stimuli. We report here the identification of NTM1-LIKE8 (NTL8), a membrane-associated NAC transcription factor, as a novel regulator of trichome formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). From an activation-tagged Arabidopsis population, we identified a dominant, gain-of-function mutant with glabrous inflorescence stem. By using plasmid rescue and RT-PCR analyses, we found that NTL8 was tagged; thus, the mutant was named ntl8-1 Dominant (ntl8-1D)...
August 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644898/spatio-temporal-orientation-of-microtubules-controls-conical-cell-shape-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-petals
#20
Huibo Ren, Xie Dang, Xianzhi Cai, Peihang Yu, Yajun Li, Shanshan Zhang, Menghong Liu, Binqing Chen, Deshu Lin
The physiological functions of epidermal cells are largely determined by their diverse morphologies. Most flowering plants have special conical-shaped petal epidermal cells that are thought to influence light capture and reflectance, and provide pollinator grips, but the molecular mechanisms controlling conical cell shape remain largely unknown. Here, we developed a live-confocal imaging approach to quantify geometric parameters of conical cells in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana). Through genetic screens, we identified katanin (KTN1) mutants showing a phenotype of decreased tip sharpening of conical cells...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
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