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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325008/mineralized-trichomes-in-boraginales-complex-microscale-heterogeneity-and-simple-phylogenetic-patterns
#1
Adeel Mustafa, Hans-Jürgen Ensikat, Maximilian Weigend
Background and Aims: Boraginales are often characterized by a dense cover of stiff, mineralized trichomes, which may act as a first line of defence against herbivores. Recent studies have demonstrated that the widely reported silica and calcium carbonate in plant trichomes may be replaced by calcium phosphate. The present study investigates mineralization patterns in 42 species from nine families of the order Boraginales to investigate detailed patterns of mineralization and the possible presence of a phylogenetic signal in different mineralization patterns...
January 6, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321851/specificity-of-herbivore-induced-responses-in-an-invasive-species-alternanthera-philoxeroides-alligator-weed
#2
Mu Liu, Fang Zhou, Xiaoyun Pan, Zhijie Zhang, Milton B Traw, Bo Li
Herbivory-induced responses in plants can both negatively affect subsequently colonizing herbivores and mitigate the effect of herbivory on the host. However, it is still less known whether plants exhibit specific responses to specialist and generalist herbivores in non-secondary metabolite traits and how specificity to specialists and generalists differs between invasive and native plant populations. We exposed an invasive plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides, to Agasicles hygrophila (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; specialist), Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae; generalist), manual clipping, or application of exogenous jasmonic acid and examined both the specificity of elicitation in traits of fitness (e...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315936/biosynthesis-of-bioactive-diterpenoids-in-the-medicinal-plant-vitex-agnus-castus
#3
Allison Maree Heskes, Tamil C M Sundram, Berin Alain Boughton, Niels Bjerg Jensen, Nikolaj Lervad Hansen, Christoph Crocoll, Federico Cozzi, Simon Rasmussen, Britta Hamberger, Björn Hamberger, Dan Staerk, Birger Lindberg Møller, Irini Pateraki
Vitex agnus-castus L. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant historically used throughout the Mediterranean region to treat menstrual cycle disorders and is still used today as a clinically effective treatment for premenstrual syndrome. The pharmaceutical activity of the plant extract is linked to its ability to lower prolactin levels. This feature has been attributed to the presence of dopaminergic diterpenoids that can bind to dopamine receptors in the pituitary gland. Phytochemical analyses of V. agnus-castus show that it contains an enormous array of structurally related diterpenoids and, as such holds potential as a rich source of new dopaminergic drugs...
January 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301954/deubiquitinase-otu5-affects-root-responses-to-phosphate-starvation
#4
Ivan Kulich, Zdeňka Vojtíková, Peter Sabol, Jitka Ortmannová, Vilém Neděla, Eva Tihlaříková, Viktor Žárský
Biogenesis of the plant secondary cell wall involves many important aspects, such as phenolic compound deposition and often silica incrustation. Previously, we demonstrated the importance of the exocyst subunit EXO70H4 for biogenesis of the trichome secondary cell wall, namely for deposition of the autofluorescent and callose-rich cell wall layer. Here, we reveal that EXO70H4-driven cell wall biogenesis is constitutively active in the mature trichome, but can also be activated elsewhere upon pathogen attack, giving this study a broader significance with an overlap into phytopathology...
January 4, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301045/ozone-triggered-surface-uptake-and-stress-volatile-emissions-in-nicotiana-tabacum-wisconsin
#5
Arooran Kanagendran, Leila Pazouki, Shuai Li, Bin Liu, Astrid Kännaste, Ülo Niinemets
Ozone is a strong oxidant and a key stress elicitor. The immediate and longer term impacts of ozone are poorly understood in species with emission of both de novo synthesized and stored volatiles, such a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), which has terpene-containing glandular trichomes on the leaf surface. In this study, we exposed N. tabacum 'Wisconsin' leaves to acute ozone doses of 0 (control), 400, 600, 800, and 1000 ppb for 30 min and studied the effects of ozone exposure on ozone uptake, gas-exchange characteristics, and emissions of lipoxygenase pathway volatiles, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288621/arabidopsis-acyl-coa-binding-protein1-interacts-with-sterol-c4-methyl-oxidase1-2-to-modulate-gene-expression-of-homeodomain-leucine-zipper-iv-transcription-factors
#6
Shiu-Cheung Lung, Pan Liao, Edward C Yeung, An-Shan Hsiao, Yan Xue, Mee-Len Chye
Fatty acids (FAs) and sterols constitute building blocks of eukaryotic membranes and lipid signals. Co-regulation of FA and sterol synthesis is mediated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins in animals but remains elusive in plants. We reported recently that Arabidopsis ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN1 (ACBP1) modulates sterol synthesis via protein-protein interaction with STEROL C4-METHYL OXIDASE1-1 (SMO1-1). Herein, ACBP1 was demonstrated to co-express and interact with SMO1-2 by yeast two-hybrid, co-localization, pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and β-glucuronidase assays...
December 30, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234879/calcium-phosphate-in-plant-trichomes-the-overlooked-biomineral
#7
Maximilian Weigend, Adeel Mustafa, Hans-Jürgen Ensikat
Calcium phosphate was unknown as a plant biomineral until recently reported in Neotropical Loasaceae. Here, we demonstrate its widespread occurrence in the trichomes of several plant families, including Brassicaceae. Calcium phosphate is the primary biomineral in, e.g., the bones and teeth of higher animals; in plants, it was only recently discovered in the stinging hairs and scabrid-glochidiate trichomes of South American Loasaceae (Ensikat et al. in Sci Rep UK 6:26073, 2016), where it appears to be deposited highly specifically, often replacing the common plant biomineral silica...
December 12, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234041/evolution-of-a-flipped-pathway-creates-metabolic-innovation-in-tomato-trichomes-through-bahd-enzyme-promiscuity
#8
Pengxiang Fan, Abigail M Miller, Xiaoxiao Liu, A Daniel Jones, Robert L Last
Plants produce hundreds of thousands of structurally diverse specialized metabolites via multistep biosynthetic networks, including compounds of ecological and therapeutic importance. These pathways are restricted to specific plant groups, and are excellent systems for understanding metabolic evolution. Tomato and other plants in the nightshade family synthesize protective acylated sugars in the tip cells of glandular trichomes on stems and leaves. We describe a metabolic innovation in wild tomato species that contributes to acylsucrose structural diversity...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225609/efficiency-of-trichome-based-plant-defense-in-phaseolus-vulgaris-depends-on-insect-behavior-plant-ontogeny-and-structure
#9
Zhenlong Xing, Yongqiang Liu, Wanzhi Cai, Xinzheng Huang, Shengyong Wu, Zhongren Lei
Plant trichomes often function as physical barriers in preventing arthropod feeding and oviposition. Even though insects are frequently reported being entrapped and killed by trichome traps, the actual trapping behavior has not yet been described in detail. Capture experiments showed that capture efficiency during the plant's vegetative stage was considerably higher than in the fruiting and cotyledon stages. The ventral surface of the leaf was more effective in trapping flies than other parts of the plant. Capture-events monitoring showed that the mouthparts, legs, and ovipositor of Liriomyza trifolii adults are the body parts involved in entrapment by surface trichomes on Phaseolus vulgaris plants, and subsequently, deter their ability to feed, walk, and oviposit...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218139/herbivory-by-leaf-cutter-ants-changes-the-glandular-trichomes-density-and-the-volatile-components-in-an-aromatic-plant-model
#10
Luiz Ricardo Dos Santos Tozin, Marcia Ortiz Mayo Marques, Tatiane Maria Rodrigues
Herbivory can induce several structural and functional alterations in the plant secretory system. Glandular trichomes are the main sites of production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with several chemical properties in Lamiaceae species. Ocimum species usually have three morphotypes of glandular trichomes (morphotype I is peltate and has a wide four-celled head; morphotype II is capitate and has a unicellular head; and morphotype III is capitate with a bicellular head) which produce a great amount of terpenes, although other chemical categories of substances are also produced...
November 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201586/silicon-bioavailability-in-exocarp-of-cucumis-sativus-linn
#11
Deepika Tripathi, Mrigank Mauli Dwivedi, Durgesh Kumar Tripathi, Devendra Kumar Chauhan
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) techniques have been used to detect the silicon bioavailability in the exocarp of warty cucumber surface. Warts appear at the time of anthesis and are remnant part of spines/trichomes which on further fruit maturation abscised from the exocarp. Results of EPMA and phytolith analysis clearly revealed that the surface of exocarp (fruit) of Cucumis sativus Linn. containing warts has greater quantity of silicon as compared to the other part of the fruit...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189094/fijiwingspolarity-an-open-source-toolkit-for-semi-automated-detection-of-cell-polarity
#12
Leonard L Dobens, Anna Shipman, Jeffrey D Axelrod
Epithelial cells are defined by apical-basal and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, the latter of which establishes an orthogonal plane of polarity in the epithelial sheet. PCP signaling is required for normal cell migration, differentiation, stem cell generation and tissue repair, and defects in PCP have been associated with developmental abnormalities, neuropathologies and cancers. While the molecular mechanism of PCP is incompletely understood, the deepest insights have come from Drosophila, where PCP is manifest in hairs and bristles across the adult cuticle and organization of the ommatidia in the eye...
November 30, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181275/morphological-and-molecular-data-confirm-the-transfer-of-homostylous-species-in-the-typically-distylous-genus-galianthe-rubiaceae-and-the-description-of-the-new-species-galianthe-vasquezii-from-peru-and-colombia
#13
Javier Elias Florentín, Andrea Alejandra Cabaña Fader, Roberto Manuel Salas, Steven Janssens, Steven Dessein, Elsa Leonor Cabral
Galianthe (Rubiaceae) is a neotropical genus comprising 50 species divided into two subgenera, Galianthe subgen. Galianthe, with 39 species and Galianthe subgen. Ebelia, with 11 species. The diagnostic features of the genus are: usually erect habit with xylopodium, distylous flowers arranged in lax thyrsoid inflorescences, bifid stigmas, 2-carpellate and longitudinally dehiscent fruits, with dehiscent valves or indehiscent mericarps, plump seeds or complanate with a wing-like strophiole, and pollen with double reticulum, rarely with a simple reticulum...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170423/bamboo-sheath-a-modified-branch-based-on-the-anatomical-observations
#14
Shuguang Wang
Culm sheath has always been considered a modified leaf. In this study, the anatomical structure of the culm sheath from Fargesia yunnanensis was analyzed to determine whether it originated from the foliage leaf blade or from the branch. The vascular bundles of the culm sheath showed greater similarity to the branches in shape and anatomical structure. In contrast to foliage blades, there are no midribs in culm sheaths. Stomatal density in the culm sheath is greater in the adaxial than it is in the abaxial epidermis, which is the opposite of that found in foliage leaf blades, and that density shows greater similarity to branches than it does to foliage blades...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165850/the-tcp4-transcription-factor-regulates-trichome-cell-differentiation-by-directly-activating-glabrous-inflorescence-stems-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
B Vijaya Lakshmi Vadde, Krishna Reddy Challa, Utpal Nath
Trichomes are the first cell type to be differentiated during the morphogenesis of leaf epidermis and serve as an ideal model to study cellular differentiation. A large number of genes involved in the patterning and differentiation of trichome cells have been studied over past decades, and the majority of these genes encode transcription factors that specifically regulate epidermal cell development. However, the upstream regulators of these genes that link early leaf morphogenesis with cell type differentiation are less studied...
November 22, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158699/a-new-disjunct-dendrothrix-euphorbiaceae-tribe-hippomaneae-a-guiana-shield-element-in-sub-andean-cordilleras-of-ecuador-and-peru
#16
Kenneth J Wurdack
Dendrothrix condorensis K.Wurdack, sp. nov. from the sub-Andean cordilleras of Ecuador and Peru is described and illustrated. The new species is geographically widely separated from its likely closest relative, D. yutajensis, which is endemic to the Guiana Shield region of southern Venezuela and adjacent Brazil, and notably differs in leaf morphology. Vegetative (i.e., epidermal micropapillae, trichomes) and reproductive (i.e., cymule glands, flowers, pollen) micromorphological features were examined with SEM...
2017: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158643/in-vitro-propagation-ex-vitro-rooting-and-leaf-micromorphology-of-bauhinia-racemosa-lam-a-leguminous-tree-with-medicinal-values
#17
Udit Sharma, Vinod Kataria, N S Shekhawat
A micropropagation system for Bauhinia racemosa Lam. was developed involving axillary shoot proliferation and ex vitro rooting using nodal explants obtained from mature tree. MS medium with 3.0 mg l(-1) BA (6-benzyladenine) was optimum for shoot bud induction. For shoot multiplication, mother explants were transferred repeatedly on medium containing low concentration of BA (0.75 mg l(-1)). Number of shoots was increased up to two passages and decreased thereafter. Shoot multiplication was further enhanced on MS medium containing 0...
October 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147724/glabrous-cmgl-encodes-a-hd-zip-iv-transcription-factor-playing-roles-in-multicellular-trichome-initiation-in-melon
#18
Huayu Zhu, Xiaofen Sun, Qi Zhang, Pengyao Song, Qianmei Hu, Xiaojing Zhang, Xiang Li, Jianbin Hu, Junsong Pan, Shouru Sun, Yiqun Weng, Luming Yang
Map-based cloning identified CmGL that encodes a HD-ZIP type IV transcription factor that controls multicellular trichome initiation in melon. Trichomes are small hairs covering the aerial parts of plants that originate from the epidermal cells, which can protect plants against the damage by insects and pathogens. The regulatory pathway of unicellular trichomes has been well studied in the model plant Arabidopsis. Little is known about the genetic control and regulation of trichome development in melon (Cucumis melo L...
November 17, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129534/mechanical-shielding-of-rapidly-growing-cells-buffers-growth-heterogeneity-and-contributes-to-organ-shape-reproducibility
#19
Nathan Hervieux, Satoru Tsugawa, Antoine Fruleux, Mathilde Dumond, Anne-Lise Routier-Kierzkowska, Tamiki Komatsuzaki, Arezki Boudaoud, John C Larkin, Richard S Smith, Chun-Biu Li, Olivier Hamant
A landmark of developmental biology is the production of reproducible shapes, through stereotyped morphogenetic events. At the cell level, growth is often highly heterogeneous, allowing shape diversity to arise. Yet, how can reproducible shapes emerge from such growth heterogeneity? Is growth heterogeneity filtered out? Here, we focus on rapidly growing trichome cells in the Arabidopsis sepal, a reproducible floral organ. We show via computational modeling that rapidly growing cells may distort organ shape...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117529/arabidopsis-leaf-trichomes-as-acoustic-antennae
#20
Shaobao Liu, Jiaojiao Jiao, Tian Jian Lu, Feng Xu, Barbara G Pickard, Guy M Genin
The much studied plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been reported recently to react to the sounds of caterpillars of Pieris rapae chewing on its leaves by promoting synthesis of toxins that can deter herbivory. Identifying participating receptor cells-potential "ears"-of Arabidopsis is critical to understanding and harnessing this response. Motivated in part by other recent observations that Arabidopsis trichomes (hair cells) respond to mechanical stimuli such as pressing or brushing by initiating potential signaling factors in themselves and in the neighboring skirt of cells, we analyzed the vibrational responses of Arabidopsis trichomes to test the hypothesis that trichomes can respond acoustically to vibrations associated with feeding caterpillars...
November 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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