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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319794/apoplastic-gamma-glutamyl-transferase-activity-encoded-by-ggt1-and-ggt2-is-important-for-vegetative-and-generative-development
#1
Sabrina Giaretta, Dinesh Prasad, Ilaria Forieri, Teofilo Vamerali, Anna Rita Trentin, Markus Wirtz, Rüdiger Hell, Antonio Masi
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT; EC 2.3.2.2) is the only enzyme capable of degrading glutathione (GSH) in extra-cytosolic spaces. In plant cells, the GGT1 and GGT2 isoforms are located in the apoplast, bound respectively to the cell wall and the plasma membrane. GGT1 is expressed throughout plants, mainly in the leaves and vascular system, while GGT2 is more specifically expressed in seeds and trichomes, and weakly in roots. Their role in plant physiology remains to be clarified, however. Obtaining the ggt1/ggt2 double mutant can offer more clues than the corresponding single mutants, and to prevent any compensatory expression between the two isoforms...
March 10, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299506/identification-of-the-ligand-of-pru-p-3-a-peach-ltp
#2
Nuria Cubells-Baeza, Cristina Gómez-Casado, Leticia Tordesillas, Carmen Ramírez-Castillejo, María Garrido-Arandia, Pablo González-Melendi, María Herrero, Luis F Pacios, Araceli Díaz-Perales
Pru p 3, a peach LTP, is located in pollinated flower styles and secreting downy hairs, transporting a derivative of camptothecin bound to phytosphingosine. Pru p 3 may inhibit a second pollination and may keep away herbivores until seed maturation. The allergen Pru p 3, a peach lipid transfer protein, has been well studied. However, its physiological function remains to be elucidated. Our results showed that Pru p 3 usually carries a lipid ligand that play an essential role in its function in plants. Using ESI-qToF, we observed that the ligand was a derivative of camptothecin binding to phytosphingosine, wich that is inserted into the hydrophobic tunnel of the protein...
March 15, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295841/morphogenesis-and-developmental-ultrastructure-of-nicotiana-tabacum-short-glandular-trichomes
#3
Branka Uzelac, Dušica Janošević, Dragana Stojičić, Snežana Budimir
The anatomy and ultrastructure of the short glandular trichomes occurring on young expanding leaves of Nicotiana tabacum were investigated using light and transmission electron microscopy. The objective of the present research was to characterize the cellular changes that occur during morphogenesis of short glandular trichomes, from initiation to senescence. Ultrastructural analysis of their secretory cells revealed characteristics common to gland cells: numerous mitochondria in highly organized cytoplasm, large nuclei, and an elaborate network of endoplasmic reticulum...
March 11, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290058/flower-palate-structure-of-the-aquatic-bladderworts-utricularia-bremii-heer-and-u-minor-l-from-section-utricularia-lentibulariaceae
#4
Bartosz J Płachno, Małgorzata Stpiczyńska, Łukasz Krajewski, Piotr Świątek, Lubomír Adamec, Vitor Fernandes Oliveira Miranda
There is an enormous diversity in the structure of the flower palate of the carnivorous rootless genus Utricularia. This study aims to examine the structure of the palates in Utricularia bremii Heer and U. minor L of the Utricularia sect. Utricularia, which have a glandular palate type. In both species, the palate has only one type of glandular trichomes. Because of the occurrence of cell wall ingrowths in its glandular cells, any exudation may be transported via eccrinous secretion. It was proposed that the palate trichomes of the examined species act as scent glands and that the palate may play a role as an unguentarium...
March 13, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279808/description-of-new-genera-and-species-of-marine-cyanobacteria-from-the-portuguese-atlantic-coast
#5
Ângela Brito, Vitor Ramos, Rita Mota, Steeve Lima, Arlete Santos, Jorge Vieira, Cristina P Vieira, Jan Kaštovský, Vitor M Vasconcelos, Paula Tamagnini
Aiming at increasing the knowledge on marine cyanobacteria from temperate regions, we previously isolated and characterized 60 strains from the Portuguese foreshore and evaluate their potential to produce secondary metabolites. About 15% of the obtained 16S rRNA gene sequences showed less than 97% similarity to sequences in the databases revealing novel biodiversity. Herein, seven of these strains were extensively characterized and their classification was re-evaluated. The present study led to the proposal of five new taxa, three genera (Geminobacterium, Lusitaniella, and Calenema) and two species (Hyella patelloides and Jaaginema litorale)...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275149/o-acyl-sugars-protect-a-wild-tobacco-from-both-native-fungal-pathogens-and-a-specialist-herbivore
#6
Van Thi Luu, Alexander Weinhold, Chhana Ullah, Stefanie Dressel, Matthias Schoettner, Klaus Gase, Emmanuel Gaquerel, Shuqing Xu, Ian T Baldwin
O-acyl sugars (O-AS) are abundant trichome-specific metabolites that function as indirect defenses against herbivores of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata; whether they also function as generalized direct defenses against herbivores and pathogens remains unknown. We characterized natural variation in O-AS among 26 accessions and examined their influence on two native fungal pathogens, Fusarium brachygibbosum U4 and Alternaria sp. U10, and the specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta. At least 15 different O-AS structures belonging to three classes were found in N...
March 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274946/ontogeny-and-the-process-of-biomineralization-in-the-trichomes-of-loasaceae
#7
Adeel Mustafa, Hans-Jürgen Ensikat, Maximilian Weigend
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: South American Loasaceae have a morphologically complex trichome cover, which is characterized by multiple biomineralization. The current study investigates the ontogeny of these complex trichomes and the process of their biomineralization, since both are very poorly understood. METHODS: The development of stinging trichomes on various parts of the plants and the process of mineralization were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX)...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258381/a-glabra1-ortholog-on-lg-a9-controls-trichome-number-in-the-japanese-leafy-vegetables-mizuna-and-mibuna-brassica-rapa-l-subsp-nipposinica-l-h-bailey-evidence-from-qtl-analysis
#8
Yaichi Kawakatsu, Hokuto Nakayama, Kaori Kaminoyama, Kaori Igarashi, Masaki Yasugi, Hiroshi Kudoh, Atsushi J Nagano, Kentaro Yano, Nakao Kubo, Seisuke Kimura
Brassica rapa show a wide range of morphological variations. In particular, the leaf morphologies of the Japanese traditional leafy vegetables Mizuna and Mibuna (Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica L. H. Bailey) are distinctly different, even though they are closely related cultivars that are easy to cross. In addition to the differences in the gross morphology of leaves, some cultivars of Mibuna (Kyo-nishiki) have many trichomes on its leaves, whereas Mizuna (Kyo-mizore) does not. To identify the genes responsible for the different number of trichomes, we performed a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of Mizuna and Mibuna...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254777/the-maize-mid-complementing-activity-homolog-cell-number-regulator13-narrow-odd-dwarf-coordinates-organ-growth-and-tissue-patterning
#9
Marisa Rosa, Maria Jazmin Abraham-Juarez, Michael W Lewis, João Pedro Fonseca, Wang Tian, Vicente Ramirez, Sheng Luan, Markus Pauly, Sarah Hake
Organogenesis occurs through cell division, expansion, and differentiation. How these cellular processes are coordinated remains elusive. The maize (Zea mays) leaf provides a robust system to study cellular differentiation due to its distinct tissues and cell types. The narrow odd dwarf (nod) mutant displays defects at both the cellular and tissue level that increase in severity throughout growth. nod mutant leaves have reduced size due to fewer and smaller cells compared to wild type. The juvenile-to-adult transition is delayed and proximal distal-patterning is abnormal in this mutant...
March 2, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251315/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-hd-zip-iv-transcription-factor-family-in-gossypium-arboreum-and-gahdg11-involved-in-osmotic-tolerance-in-transgenic-arabidopsis
#10
Eryong Chen, Xueyan Zhang, Zhaoen Yang, Xiaoqian Wang, Zuoren Yang, Chaojun Zhang, Zhixia Wu, Depei Kong, Zhao Liu, Ge Zhao, Hamama Islam Butt, Xianlong Zhang, Fuguang Li
HD-ZIP IV proteins belong to the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factor family and are involved in trichome development and drought stress in plants. Although some functions of the HD-ZIP IV group are well understood in Arabidopsis, little is known about their function in cotton. In this study, HD-ZIP genes were identified from three Gossypium species (G. arboreum, G. raimondii and G. hirsutum) and clustered into four families (HD-ZIP I, II, III and IV) to separate HD-ZIP IV from the other three families...
March 1, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250069/photosynthetic-trichomes-contain-a-specific-rubisco-with-a-modified-ph-dependent-activity
#11
Raphaëlle Laterre, Mathieu Pottier, Claire Remacle, Marc Boutry
Ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is the most abundant enzyme in plants and is responsible for CO2 fixation during photosynthesis. This enzyme is assembled from eight large subunits (RbcL) encoded by a single chloroplast gene, and eight small subunits (RbcS) encoded by a nuclear gene family. Rubisco is primarily found in the chloroplasts of mesophyll (C3 plants), bundle-sheath (C4 plants) and guard cells. In certain species, photosynthesis also takes place in the secretory cells of glandular trichomes, which are epidermal outgrowths (hairs) involved in the secretion of specialized metabolites...
March 1, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228510/non-glandular-trichomes-of-solanum-carolinense-deter-feeding-by-manduca-sexta-caterpillars-and-cause-damage-to-the-gut-peritrophic-matrix
#12
Rupesh R Kariyat, Jason D Smith, Andrew G Stephenson, Consuelo M De Moraes, Mark C Mescher
Plant trichomes constitute a first line of defence against insect herbivores. The pre- and post-ingestive defensive functions of glandular trichomes are well documented and include direct toxicity, adhesion, antinutrition and defence gene induction. By contrast, the defensive functions of non-glandular trichomes are less well characterized, although these structures are thought to serve as physical barriers that impede herbivore feeding and movement. We experimentally varied the density of stellate non-glandular trichomes in several ways to explore their pre- and post-ingestive effects on herbivores...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216162/genome-wide-identification-of-glabra3-downstream-genes-for-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-and-trichome-formation-in-arabidopsis
#13
Chenhao Gao, Dong Li, Changyu Jin, Shaowei Duan, Shuanghui Qi, Kaige Liu, Hanchen Wang, Haoli Ma, Jiangbo Hai, Mingxun Chen
GLABRA3 (GL3), a bHLH transcription factor, has previously proved to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis, however, its downstream targeted genes are still largely unknown. Here, we found that GL3 was widely present in Arabidopsis vegetative and reproductive organs. New downstream targeted genes of GL3 for anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation were identified in young shoots and expanding true leaves by RNA sequencing. GL3-mediated gene expression was tissue specific in the two biological processes...
April 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207974/aamyb1-and-its-orthologue-atmyb61-affect-terpene-metabolism-and-trichome-development-in-artemisia-annua-and-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Luis Matías-Hernández, Weimin Jiang, Ke Yang, Kexuan Tang, Peter E Brodelius, Soraya Pelaz
The effective anti-malarial drug artemisinin (AN) isolated from Artemisia annua is relatively expensive due to the low content in the plant as it is only synthesized within the glandular trichomes. Therefore, genetic engineering of A. annua is one of the most promising approaches to improve AN yield. In this work, AaMYB1 transcription factor has been identified and characterized. When AaMYB1 is overexpressed in A. annua, either exclusively in trichomes or in the whole plant, essential AN biosynthetic genes are also overexpressed and consequently AN amount significantly increased...
February 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198089/a-comprehensive-proteome-map-of-glandular-trichomes-of-hop-humulus-lupulus-l-female-cones-identification-of-biosynthetic-pathways-of-the-major-terpenoid-related-compounds-and-possible-transport-proteins
#15
Antoine Champagne, Marc Boutry
Female flowers of hop (Humulus lupulus) are an essential source of terpenoid-related compounds, which are mainly used as flavoring in the beer brewing process. The compounds involved are bitter acids, terpenophenolics, as well as mono- and sesquiterpenoids. In this work, we analyzed the proteome of purified glandular trichomes (lupulin glands) from female flowers, which produce and accumulate these compounds. An extensive 2D-LC-MS/MS analysis identified 1,015 proteins. Of these, most correspond to housekeeping and primary metabolism-related proteins, albeit predominantly including amino acid and lipid metabolism, which feeds the specialized (secondary) metabolism...
February 15, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188954/comparative-glandular-trichome-transcriptome-based-gene-characterization-reveals-reasons-for-differential-menthol-biosynthesis-in-mentha-species
#16
Md Qussen Akhtar, Nida Qamar, Pallavi Yadav, Pallavi Kulkarni, Ajay Kumar, Ajit Kumar Shasany
The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome was carried out. In addition to the MVA and MEP pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPS) transcripts were identified from annotation in M...
February 11, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182032/pharmacognostical-standardization-of-upodika-basella-alba-l-an-important-ayurvedic-antidiabetic-plant
#17
T R Shantha, P Patchaimal, M Prathapa Reddy, R Kishore Kumar, Devesh Tewari, Vandana Bharti, G Venkateshwarlu, A K Mangal, M M Padhi, K S Dhiman
OBJECTIVE: To establish the pharmacognostic standards for the correct identification and standardization of an important Antidiabetic plant described in Ayurveda. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standardization was carried out on the leaf and stem of Basella alba L. with the help of the macro-morphological, microscopic, physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical studies. RESULTS: Several specific characters were identified viz. clustered calcium oxalate crystals in the cortex region, absence of trichomes, succulent, thick, mucilaginous, fibrous stem...
July 2016: Ancient Science of Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178583/detection-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-medicago-sativa-l-by-fluorescence-microscopy
#18
Wilber S Alves, Evelin A Manoel, Noemi S Santos, Rosane O Nunes, Giselli C Domiciano, Marcia R Soares
Green technologies, such as phytoremediation, are effective for removing organic pollutants derived from oil and oil products, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the increasing popularity of these sustainable remediation techniques, methods based on fluorescence microscopy and multiphoton microscopy for the environmental monitoring of such pollutants have emerged in recent decades as effective tools for phytoremediation studies aimed at understanding the fate of these contaminants in plants...
January 19, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174584/an-efficient-visual-screen-for-crispr-cas9-activity-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Florian Hahn, Otho Mantegazza, André Greiner, Peter Hegemann, Marion Eisenhut, Andreas P M Weber
The CRISPR/Cas9 system enables precision editing of the genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and likely of any other organism. Tools and methods for further developing and optimizing this widespread and versatile system in Arabidopsis would hence be welcomed. Here, we designed a generic vector system that can be used to clone any sgRNA sequence in a plant T-DNA vector containing an ubiquitously expressed Cas9 gene. With this vector, we explored two alternative marker systems for tracking Cas9-mediated gene-editing in vivo: BIALAPHOS RESISTANCE (BAR) and GLABROUS1 (GL1)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160379/spearmint-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-msmyb-negatively-regulates-monoterpene-production-and-suppresses-the-expression-of-geranyl-diphosphate-synthase-large-subunit-msgpps-lsu
#20
Vaishnavi Amarr Reddy, Qian Wang, Niha Dhar, Nadimuthu Kumar, Prasanna Nori Venkatesh, Chakravarthy Rajan, Deepa Panicker, Vishweshwaran Sridhar, Hui-Zhu Mao, Rajani Sarojam
Many aromatic plants, such as spearmint, produce valuable essential oils in specialized structures called peltate glandular trichomes (PGTs). Understanding the regulatory mechanisms behind the production of these important secondary metabolites will help design new approaches to engineer them. Here, we identified a PGT-specific R2R3-MYB gene, MsMYB, from comparative RNA-Seq data of spearmint and functionally characterized it. Analysis of MsMYB-RNAi transgenic lines showed increased levels of monoterpenes, and MsMYB-overexpressing lines exhibited decreased levels of monoterpenes...
February 3, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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