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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099842/brown-adipogenic-reprogramming-induced-by-a-small-molecule
#1
Baoming Nie, Tao Nie, Xiaoyan Hui, Ping Gu, Liufeng Mao, Kuai Li, Ran Yuan, Jiashun Zheng, Haixia Wang, Ke Li, Shibing Tang, Yu Zhang, Tao Xu, Aimin Xu, Donghai Wu, Sheng Ding
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has attracted considerable research interest because of its therapeutic potential to treat obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Augmentation of brown fat mass and/or its function may represent an attractive strategy to enhance energy expenditure. Using high-throughput phenotypic screening to induce brown adipocyte reprogramming in committed myoblasts, we identified a retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist, bexarotene (Bex), that efficiently converted myoblasts into brown adipocyte-like cells...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099124/browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-lessons-from-experimental-models
#2
Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Vanessa Souza-Mello, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) and have a white fat-like phenotype that when stimulated acquires a brown fat-like phenotype, leading to increased thermogenesis. This phenomenon is known as browning and is more likely to occur in subcutaneous fat depots. Browning involves the expression of many transcription factors, such as PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, which is the hallmark of thermogenesis...
January 18, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090143/acute-exercise-regulates-adipogenic-gene-expression-in-white-adipose-tissue
#3
Y Shen, H Zhou, W Jin, H J Lee
White adipose tissue expansion is associated with both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes. Exercise training results in adipocyte hypotrophy by activating lipolysis, but it is poorly understood whether exercise regulates adipogenesis by altering adipogenic gene expression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single bout of swimming exercise on adipogenic gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: a sedentary control group and a 120-minute swimming exercise group...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065708/an-exploratory-propensity-score-matched-comparison-of-second-generation-and-first-generation-baroreflex-activation-therapy-systems
#4
Rolf Wachter, Marcel Halbach, George L Bakris, John D Bisognano, Hermann Haller, Joachim Beige, Abraham A Kroon, Mitra K Nadim, Eric G Lovett, Jill E Schafer, Peter W de Leeuw
Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) is a device-based therapy for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. In a randomized, controlled trial, the first-generation system significantly reduced blood pressure (BP) versus sham. Although an open-label validation study of the second-generation system demonstrated similar BP reductions, controlled data are not presently available. Therefore, this investigation compares results of first- and second-generation BAT systems. Two cohorts of first-generation BAT system patients were generated with propensity matching to compare against the validation group of 30 second-generation subjects...
December 16, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060251/in-vivo-model-for-testing-effect-of-hypoxia-on-tumor-metastasis
#5
Sung-Hyeok Hong, Jason U Tilan, Susana Galli, Rachel Acree, Katherine Connors, Akanksha Mahajan, Larissa Wietlisbach, Taylor Polk, Ewa Izycka-Swieszewska, Yi-Chien Lee, Luciane R Cavalli, Olga C Rodriguez, Chris Albanese, Joanna B Kitlinska
Hypoxia has been implicated in the metastasis of Ewing sarcoma (ES) by clinical observations and in vitro data, yet direct evidence for its pro-metastatic effect is lacking and the exact mechanisms of its action are unclear. Here, we report an animal model that allows for direct testing of the effects of tumor hypoxia on ES dissemination and investigation into the underlying pathways involved. This approach combines two well-established experimental strategies, orthotopic xenografting of ES cells and femoral artery ligation (FAL), which induces hindlimb ischemia...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049691/pdgfr%C3%AE-controls-the-balance-of-stromal-and-adipogenic-cells-during-adipose-tissue-organogenesis
#6
Chengyi Sun, William L Berry, Lorin E Olson
Adipose tissue is distributed in depots throughout the body with specialized roles in energy storage and thermogenesis. PDGFRα is a marker of adipocyte precursors, and increased PDGFRα activity causes adipose tissue fibrosis in adult mice. However, the function of PDGFRα during adipose tissue organogenesis is unknown. Here, by analyzing mice with juxtamembrane or kinase domain point mutations that increase PDGFRα activity (V561D or D842V), we found that PDGFRα activation inhibits embryonic white adipose tissue organogenesis in a tissue-autonomous manner...
January 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049156/rutin-ameliorates-obesity-through-brown-fat-activation
#7
Xiaoxue Yuan, Gang Wei, Yilin You, Yuanyuan Huang, Hyuek Jong Lee, Meng Dong, Jun Lin, Tao Hu, Hanlin Zhang, Chuanhai Zhang, Huiqiao Zhou, Rongcai Ye, Xiaolong Qi, Baiqiang Zhai, Weidong Huang, Shunai Liu, Wen Xie, Qingsong Liu, Xiaomeng Liu, Chengbi Cui, Donghao Li, Jicheng Zhan, Jun Cheng, Zengqiang Yuan, Wanzhu Jin
Increasing energy expenditure through activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a critical approach to treating obesity and diabetes. In this study, rutin, a natural compound extracted from mulberry and a drug used as a capillary stabilizer clinically for many years without any side effects, regulated whole-body energy metabolism by enhancing BAT activity. Rutin treatment significantly reduced adiposity, increased energy expenditure, and improved glucose homeostasis in both genetically obese (Db/Db) and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice...
January 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046166/expression-of-uncoupling-protein-1-in-bovine-muscle-cells
#8
M A Abd Eldaim, O Hashimoto, H Ohtsuki, T Yamada, M Murakami, K Onda, R Sato, Y Kanamori, Y Qiao, S Tomonaga, T Matsui, M Funaba
Uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) is predominantly expressed in brown/beige adipocytes in mammals. Although myogenic cells have been suggested to commit to a brown adipocyte lineage through the induction of Prdm16 expression, Prdm16 is also expressed in skeletal muscle. Thus, we examined expression of Ucp1 in bovine myogenic cells. Considering that Ucp1 is a principle molecule that induces energy expenditure in brown/beige adipocytes, expression of Ucp1 is not preferable in beef cattle because of potential decrease in energy (fattening) efficiency...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045125/metabolic-heterogeneity-of-activated-beige-brite-adipocytes-in-inguinal-adipose-tissue
#9
Yun-Hee Lee, Sang-Nam Kim, Hyun-Jung Kwon, James G Granneman
Sustained β3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) activation simultaneously upregulates fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in mouse brown, beige, and white adipose tissues; however, the cellular basis of this dual regulation is not known. Treatment of mice with the ADRB3 agonist CL316,243 (CL) increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) protein within the same cells in classic brown and white adipose tissues. Surprisingly, in inguinal adipose tissue, CL-upregulated FASN and MCAD in distinct cell populations: high MCAD expression occurred in multilocular adipocytes that co-expressed UCP1+, whereas high FASN expression occurred in paucilocular adipocytes lacking detectable UCP1...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038720/prevalence-and-characterization-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-patients-with-symptomatic-bradyarrhythmias-requiring-pacemaker-implantation
#10
Mohammad S Alai, Jahangir Rashid Beig, Sanjay Kumar, Irfan Yaqoob, Imran Hafeez, Ajaz A Lone, Mohammad Iqbal Dar, Hilal A Rather
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and characterization of CAD in high risk patients requiring pacemaker implantation for symptomatic bradyarrhythmias. METHODS: This study included 100 patients with symptomatic sinus node dysfunction or atrioventricular block, who were at high risk of CAD or had previously documented atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASCVD). Coronary angiography was performed before pacemaker implantation. CAD was defined as the presence of any degree of narrowing in at least one major coronary artery or its first order branch...
December 2016: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032190/litorivivens-aequoris-sp-nov-a-gammaproteobacterium-isolated-from-seawater
#11
Sangeun Jun, Jaewoo Yoon
A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, beige-pigmented, motile, chemoheterotrophic, rod-shaped or ovoid bacterium, designated strain KMU-37(T), was isolated from seawater at Najeong Beach in the Republic of Korea. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate was affiliated with the genus Litorivivens, class Gammaproteobacteria, showing highest sequence similarity (97.4%) to Litorivivens lipolytica HJTF-7(T). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strains KMU-37(T) and L...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028078/ire1%C3%AE-in-pomc-neurons-is-required-for-thermogenesis-and-glycemia
#12
Ting Yao, Zhuo Deng, Yong Gao, Jia Sun, Xingxing Kong, Yiru Huang, Zhenyan He, Yanchao Xu, Yongsheng Chang, Kai-Jiang Yu, Brianna G Findley, Eric D Berglund, Rui-Tao Wang, Hongbo Guo, Hong Chen, Xu Li, Randal J Kaufman, Jianqun Yan, Tiemin Liu, Kevin W Williams
Whether neuronal inositol-requiring enzyme 1(Ire1) is required for the proper regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis is unclear. We found that pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc)-specific deficiency of Ire1α accelerated diet-induced obesity concomitant with a decrease in energy expenditure. This hypometabolic phenotype included deficits in thermogenic responses to diet and cold exposure as well as 'beiging' of white adipose tissue. We also demonstrate that loss of Ire1α in Pomc neurons impaired whole-body glucose and insulin tolerance as well as hepatic insulin sensitivity...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026903/impaired-adrenergic-agonist-dependent-beige-adipocyte-induction-in-aged-mice
#13
Woongchul Shin, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Ken Machida, Ayumi Tsubota, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Kimura
OBJECTIVE: There are two types of thermogenic adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein (UCP)-1: the brown adipocyte activated by adrenergic stimulation and the beige adipocyte that appears within the white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to chronic adrenergic stimulation. This study examined age-related changes in responses of both types of adipocytes to adrenergic stimulation in mice. METHODS: Aged (age 20 months) and young (4 months) mice were injected daily with either saline or β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 (CL; 0...
December 27, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012150/at1-receptor-antagonist-induces-thermogenic-beige-adipocytes-in-the-inguinal-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice
#14
Francielle Graus-Nunes, Tamiris Lima Rachid, Felipe de Oliveira Santos, Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva, Vanessa Souza-Mello
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether losartan is able to induce beige adipocytes formation, focusing on the thermogenic gene expression and adipocyte remodeling in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice received a control diet (10% energy as lipids) or a high-fat diet (50% energy as lipids) for 10 weeks, followed by a 5-week treatment with losartan: control group, control-losartan group (10 mg/Kg/day), high-fat group and high-fat-losartan group (10 mg/Kg/day)...
December 23, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011041/establishment-of-a-patient-derived-xenograft-of-canine-enteropathy-associated-t-cell-lymphoma-large-cell-type
#15
K S Im, J H Kim, A J Graef, I Cornax, D M Seelig, M G O'Sullivan, R C Kovi, J F Modiano
The pathogenesis of canine T-cell lymphoma remains incompletely understood, partly because there are no well-established in-vivo models to study these malignancies. For this study, we generated a patient-derived tumour xenograft (PDTX) from a 10-year-old neutered male golden retriever dog with enteropathy-associated intestinal T-cell lymphoma, large cell type. One of two female, 15-week-old beige/nude/XID mice developed a visible tumour 7 weeks after sections of tumour material from the spleen were surgically implanted...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008247/new-silver-nanoparticles-induce-apoptosis-like-process-in-e-coli-and-interfere-with-mammalian-copper-metabolism
#16
Iurii A Orlov, Tatiana P Sankova, Polina S Babich, Ilya M Sosnin, Ekaterina Yu Ilyechova, Demid A Kirilenko, Pavel N Brunkov, Gennadii L Ataev, Alexey E Romanov, Ludmila V Puchkova
Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are new functional materials that are widely used in biomedical and industrial technologies. Two main features that make SNPs valuable are their strong antibacterial effects and low toxicity to eukaryotes. In this study, SNPs were synthesized using a modified method of reducing the metal ions to their atomic state followed by crystallization. SNPs were characterized by UV/vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SNPs were spherically shaped with an average linear dimension of 20 nm...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006803/-i-bythaelurus-i-i-bachi-i-n-sp-a-new-deep-water-catshark-carcharhiniformes-%C3%A2-scyliorhinidae-from-the-southwestern-indian-ocean-with-a-review-of-i-bythaelurus-i-species-and-a-key-to-their-identification
#17
Simon Weigmann, David A Ebert, Paul J Clerkin, Matthias F W Stehmann, Gavin J P Naylor
A new deep-water catshark, Bythaelurus bachi, is described based on 44 specimens caught on the southern Madagascar Ridge in the southwestern Indian Ocean. The new species is the only stout-bodied Bythaelurus with oral papillae in the region and is distinguished from all congeners by the plain beige to light gray-brown coloration, high diversity in dermal denticle morphology, and presence of composite oral papillae. Despite resemblance in body shape, Bythaelurus bachi n. sp. is distinguished from its closest congener, B...
December 19, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006795/integrative-taxonomic-re-description-of-i-halisarca-i-i-magellanica-i-and-description-of-a-new-species-of-i-halisarca-i-porifera-demospongiae-from-chilean-patagonia
#18
Philippe Willenz, Alexander V Ereskovsky, Dennis V Lavrov
A series of recent expeditions in fjords and canals of Southern Chilean Patagonia allowed the re-collection of Halisarca magellanica Topsent, 1901 and the discovery of a new species, Halisarca desqueyrouxae sp. nov. The material studied was collected at depths ranging from 3 to 30 m at latitudes comprised between 42° and 49°S. Both species share the same habitat and show a morphological plasticity, but differ in their colour. Halisarca magellanica is bright pink to whitish with three morphs whereas H. desqueyrouxae sp...
December 21, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992452/enhancement-of-adipocyte-browning-by-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade
#19
Kana Tsukuda, Masaki Mogi, Jun Iwanami, Harumi Kanno, Hirotomo Nakaoka, Xiao-Li Wang, Hui-Yu Bai, Bao-Shuai Shan, Masayoshi Kukida, Akinori Higaki, Toshifumi Yamauchi, Li-Juan Min, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been highlighted as a new possible therapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders, because WAT browning could increase energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. The new clusters of adipocytes that emerge with WAT browning have been named 'beige' or 'brite' adipocytes. Recent reports have indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. The biological effects of angiotensin II, a major component of RAS, are mediated by two receptor subtypes, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986537/meaningful-respirometric-measurements-of-ucp1-mediated-thermogenesis
#20
Yongguo Li, Tobias Fromme, Martin Klingenspor
Regarding the enormous interest in brown and brite/beige adipose tissue in the context of metabolic disease, reliable quantification of thermogenesis in these adipocytes is a central issue. This requires an assay specific for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mediated thermogenesis in adherent intact cells. In a recent study we identified a major pitfall associated with established procedures generally applied for this purpose. Meaningful respirometry of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis imperatively requires activation of UCP1 and control over free fatty acid levels...
December 14, 2016: Biochimie
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