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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341928/a-novel-brown-adipocyte-enriched-long-non-coding-rna-that-is-required-for-brown-adipocyte-differentiation-and-sufficient-to-drive-thermogenic-gene-program-in-white-adipocytes
#1
Yan Xiong, Feng Yue, Zhihao Jia, Yun Gao, Wen Jin, Keping Hu, Yong Zhang, Dahai Zhu, Gongshe Yang, Shihuan Kuang
The thermogenic activities of brown and beige adipocytes can be exploited to reduce energy surplus and counteract obesity. Recent RNA sequencing studies have uncovered a number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) uniquely expressed in white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT), but whether and how these lncRNAs function in adipogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of a novel brown adipocyte-enriched LncRNA (AK079912), and its nuclear localization, function and regulation. The expression of AK079912 increases during brown preadipocyte differentiation and in response to cold-stimulated browning of white adipocytes...
January 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339725/tgr5-signalling-promotes-mitochondrial-fission-and-beige-remodelling-of-white-adipose-tissue
#2
Laura A Velazquez-Villegas, Alessia Perino, Vera Lemos, Marika Zietak, Mitsunori Nomura, Thijs Willem Hendrik Pols, Kristina Schoonjans
Remodelling of energy storing white fat into energy expending beige fat could be a promising strategy to reduce adiposity. Here, we show that the bile acid-responsive membrane receptor TGR5 mediates beiging of the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) under multiple environmental cues including cold exposure and prolonged high-fat diet feeding. Moreover, administration of TGR5-selective bile acid mimetics to thermoneutral housed mice leads to the appearance of beige adipocyte markers and increases mitochondrial content in the scWAT of Tgr5 +/+ mice but not in their Tgr5 -/- littermates...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331369/equisetum-telmateia-extracts-chemical-compositions-antioxidant-activity-and-antimicrobial-effect-on-the-growth-of-some-pathogenic-strain-causing-poisoning-and-infection
#3
Marzie Yeganegi, Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi, Seyed Ali Mortazavi, Javad Asili, Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani, Adel Beig Babaei
The aerial parts of Equisetum telmateia have been used as a source of biologically active compounds to treat inflammatory, diarrhea, stomach-ache, eczema and mouth infections in traditional medicine. The aim of this work is to evaluate the extraction yield, chemical compositions, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of E. telmateia extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. Chemical compositions E. telmateia was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a C18 column...
January 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330115/pediatric-onset-evans-syndrome-heterogeneous-presentation-and-high-frequency-of-monogenic-disorders-including-lrba-and-ctla4-mutations
#4
Caroline Besnard, Eva Levy, Nathalie Aladjidi, Marie-Claude Stolzenberg, Aude Magerus-Chatinet, Olivier Alibeu, Patrick Nitschke, Stéphane Blanche, Olivier Hermine, Eric Jeziorski, Judith Landman-Parker, Guy Leverger, Nizar Mahlaoui, Gérard Michel, Isabelle Pellier, Felipe Suarez, Isabelle Thuret, Geneviève de Saint-Basile, Capucine Picard, Alain Fischer, Bénédicte Neven, Frédéric Rieux-Laucat, Pierre Quartier
Evans syndrome (ES) is defined by the combination of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia. Clinical presentation includes manifestations of immune dysregulation, found in primary immune deficiencies, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome with FAS (ALPS-FAS), Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and Lipopolysaccharide-Responsive vesicle trafficking Beige-like and Anchor protein (LRBA) defects. We report the clinical history and genetic results of 18 children with ES after excluding ALPS-FAS...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329795/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-adipose-tissue-biology
#5
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329687/bubble-induced-color-doppler-feedback-correlates-with-histotripsy-induced-destruction-of-structural-components-in-liver-tissue
#6
Jonathan J Macoskey, Xi Zhang, Timothy L Hall, Jiaqi Shi, Shahaboddin Alahyari Beig, Eric Johnsen, Fred T Lee, Charles A Cain, Zhen Xu
Bubble-induced color Doppler (BCD) is a histotripsy-therapy monitoring technique that uses Doppler ultrasound to track the motion of residual cavitation nuclei that persist after the collapse of the histotripsy bubble cloud. In this study, BCD is used to monitor tissue fractionation during histotripsy tissue therapy, and the BCD signal is correlated with the destruction of structural and non-structural components identified histologically to further understand how BCD monitors the extent of treatment. A 500-kHz, 112-element phased histotripsy array is used to generate approximately 6- × 6- × 7-mm lesions within ex vivo bovine liver tissue by scanning more than 219 locations with 30-1000 pulses per location...
January 9, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322691/raspberry-supplementation-improves-insulin-signaling-and-promotes-brown-like-adipocyte-development-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice
#7
Tong Xing, Yifei Kang, Xinglian Xu, Bo Wang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
SCOPE: Excessive lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to chronic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Raspberry (RB) contains high amount of polyphenolics and dietary fibers. The objective of the study is to evaluate effects of RB supplementation on WAT morphology, inflammation and insulin signaling in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with a control diet or a HFD supplemented with 0 or 5% freeze dried RB for 12 weeks...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320712/serca2b-cycles-its-way-to-ucp1-independent-thermogenesis-in-beige-fat
#8
Emilio P Mottillo, Vanesa D Ramseyer, James G Granneman
A new study in Nature Medicine, by Ikeda et al. (2017), reports that calcium cycling in beige adipocytes elevates energy expenditure and glucose oxidation in the absence of uncoupling protein 1. Thermogenic calcium cycling in beige fat is mediated by SERCA2b and improves cold tolerance and metabolic status.
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320705/an-adipose-tissue-atlas-an-image-guided-identification-of-human-like-bat-and-beige-depots-in-rodents
#9
Fang Zhang, Guiyang Hao, Mengle Shao, Kien Nham, Yu An, Qiong Wang, Yi Zhu, Christine M Kusminski, Gedaa Hassan, Rana K Gupta, Qiwei Zhai, Xiankai Sun, Philipp E Scherer, Orhan K Oz
[18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT (18F-FDG-PET/CT) imaging has been invaluable for visualizing metabolically active adipose tissues in humans with potential anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects. To explore whether mice display human-like fat depots in anatomically comparable regions, we mapped fat depots using glucose or fatty acid imaging tracers, such as 18F-FDG through PET/CT or [123/125I]-β-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid with SPECT/CT imaging, to analogous depots in mice. Using this type of image analysis with both probes, we define a large number of additional areas of high metabolic activity corresponding to novel fat pads...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320703/three-dimensional-adipose-tissue-imaging-reveals-regional-variation-in-beige-fat-biogenesis-and-prdm16-dependent-sympathetic-neurite-density
#10
Jingyi Chi, Zhuhao Wu, Chan Hee J Choi, Lily Nguyen, Saba Tegegne, Sarah E Ackerman, Audrey Crane, François Marchildon, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Paul Cohen
While the cell-intrinsic pathways governing beige adipocyte development and phenotype have been increasingly delineated, comparatively little is known about how beige adipocytes interact with other cell types in fat. Here, we introduce a whole-tissue clearing method for adipose that permits immunolabeling and three-dimensional profiling of structures including thermogenic adipocytes and sympathetic innervation. We found that tissue architecture and sympathetic innervation differ significantly between subcutaneous and visceral depots...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320702/repression-of-adipose-tissue-fibrosis-through-a-prdm16-gtf2ird1-complex-improves-systemic-glucose-homeostasis
#11
Yutaka Hasegawa, Kenji Ikeda, Yong Chen, Diana L Alba, Daniel Stifler, Kosaku Shinoda, Takashi Hosono, Pema Maretich, Yangyu Yang, Yasushi Ishigaki, Jingyi Chi, Paul Cohen, Suneil K Koliwad, Shingo Kajimura
Adipose tissue fibrosis is a hallmark of malfunction that is linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, what regulates this process remains unclear. Here we show that the PRDM16 transcriptional complex, a dominant activator of brown/beige adipocyte development, potently represses adipose tissue fibrosis in an uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-independent manner. By purifying the PRDM16 complex, we identified GTF2IRD1, a member of the TFII-I family of DNA-binding proteins, as a cold-inducible transcription factor that mediates the repressive action of the PRDM16 complex on fibrosis...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311558/radiogenomic-analysis-of-hypoxia-pathway-is-predictive-of-overall-survival-in-glioblastoma
#12
Niha Beig, Jay Patel, Prateek Prasanna, Virginia Hill, Amit Gupta, Ramon Correa, Kaustav Bera, Salendra Singh, Sasan Partovi, Vinay Varadan, Manmeet Ahluwalia, Anant Madabhushi, Pallavi Tiwari
Hypoxia, a characteristic trait of Glioblastoma (GBM), is known to cause resistance to chemo-radiation treatment and is linked with poor survival. There is hence an urgent need to non-invasively characterize tumor hypoxia to improve GBM management. We hypothesized that (a) radiomic texture descriptors can capture tumor heterogeneity manifested as a result of molecular variations in tumor hypoxia, on routine treatment naïve MRI, and (b) these imaging based texture surrogate markers of hypoxia can discriminate GBM patients as short-term (STS), mid-term (MTS), and long-term survivors (LTS)...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306658/elevating-adipose-eosinophils-in-obese-mice-to-physiologically-normal-levels-does-not-rescue-metabolic-impairments
#13
W Reid Bolus, Kristin R Peterson, Merla J Hubler, Arion J Kennedy, Marnie L Gruen, Alyssa H Hasty
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a metabolic disorder that has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and leads to increased risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, asthma, certain cancers, and various other diseases. Obesity and its comorbidities are associated with impaired adipose tissue (AT) function. In the last decade, eosinophils have been identified as regulators of proper AT function. Our study aimed to determine whether normalizing the number of AT eosinophils in obese mice, to those of lean healthy mice, would reduce obesity and/or improve metabolic fitness...
December 16, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295856/fgf21-induced-by-carbon-monoxide-mediates-metabolic-homeostasis-via-the-perk-atf4-pathway
#14
Yeonsoo Joe, Sena Kim, Hyo Jeong Kim, Jeongmin Park, Yingqing Chen, Hyeok-Jun Park, Seung-Joo Jekal, Stefan W Ryter, Uh Hyun Kim, Hun Taeg Chung
The prevalence of metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, has rapidly increased, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome, a primary risk factor, remain incompletely understood. The small, gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO) has well-known anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiapoptotic effects in a variety of cellular- and tissue-injury models, whereas its potential effects on the complex pathways of metabolic disease remain unknown...
January 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290259/radiomics-and-radiogenomics-in-lung-cancer-a-review-for-the-clinician
#15
REVIEW
Rajat Thawani, Michael McLane, Niha Beig, Soumya Ghose, Prateek Prasanna, Vamsidhar Velcheti, Anant Madabhushi
Lung cancer is responsible for a large proportion of cancer-related deaths across the globe, with delayed detection being perhaps the most significant factor for its high mortality rate. Though the National Lung Screening Trial argues for screening of certain at-risk populations, the practical implementation of these screening efforts has not yet been successful and remains in high demand. Radiomics refers to the computerized extraction of data from radiologic images, and provides unique potential for making lung cancer screening more rapid and accurate using machine learning algorithms...
January 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288687/distinctive-effects-of-licarin-a-on-lipolysis-mediated-by-pka-and-on-formation-of-brown-adipocytes-from-c3h10t1-2-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Dahyeon Yoon, Khan Mohammad Imran, Yong-Sik Kim
Obesity increases with the positive energy imbalance and correlates with increased risks for metabolic diseases. Promotion of white adipose tissue beiging has received considerable attention due to possible usefulness for preventing obesity and the comorbidities. Licarin A (LA) is a compound derived from Mexican medicinal plant Aristolochia taliscana. Here, we report that LA stimulates the development of brown-like and beige-like adipocytes from C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells with phenotypic shifts to formation of smaller lipid droplets...
December 27, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286443/reprogramming-primary-amniotic-fluid-and-membrane-cells-to-pluripotency-in-xeno-free-conditions
#17
Jaroslav Slamecka, Javier Laurini, Troy Shirley, Simon Philipp Hoerstrup, Benedikt Weber, Laurie Owen, Steven McClellan
Autologous cell-based therapies got a step closer to reality with the introduction of induced pluripotent stem cells. Fetal stem cells, such as amniotic fluid and membrane mesenchymal stem cells, represent a unique type of undifferentiated cells with promise in tissue engineering and for reprogramming into iPSC for future pediatric interventions and stem cell banking. The protocol presented here describes an optimized procedure for extracting and culturing primary amniotic fluid and membrane mesenchymal stem cells and generating episomal induced pluripotent stem cells from these cells in fully chemically defined culture conditions utilizing human recombinant vitronectin and the E8 medium...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280351/mir-27b-3p-regulation-in-browning-of-human-visceral-adipose-related-to-central-obesity
#18
Jing Yu, Yifan Lv, Wenjuan Di, Juan Liu, Xiaocen Kong, Yunlu Sheng, Min Huang, Shan Lv, Hanmei Qi, Mei Gao, Hui Liang, Sarah Kim, Zan Fu, Hong Zhou, Guoxian Ding
OBJECTIVE: Given the rising prevalence of central obesity and the discovery that beige cells appear within white adipose tissue, strategies to enhance these energy-expending adipocytes or "browning" within white adipose depots have become of therapeutic interest to combat obesity and its associated disorders. This study focused on, the role of microRNA (miRNA)-27b-3p in human visceral adipose tissue (VAT) browning. METHODS: Expression of miR-27b-3p and UCP1 in VAT and serum of humans was measured...
December 27, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279393/designing-a-retrievable-and-scalable-cell-encapsulation-device-for-potential-treatment-of-type-1-diabetes
#19
Duo An, Alan Chiu, James A Flanders, Wei Song, Dahua Shou, Yen-Chun Lu, Lars G Grunnet, Louise Winkel, Camilla Ingvorsen, Nicolaj Strøyer Christophersen, Johannes Josef Fels, Fredrik Wolfhagen Sand, Yewei Ji, Ling Qi, Yehudah Pardo, Dan Luo, Meredith Silberstein, Jintu Fan, Minglin Ma
Cell encapsulation has been shown to hold promise for effective, long-term treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, challenges remain for its clinical applications. For example, there is an unmet need for an encapsulation system that is capable of delivering sufficient cell mass while still allowing convenient retrieval or replacement. Here, we report a simple cell encapsulation design that is readily scalable and conveniently retrievable. The key to this design was to engineer a highly wettable, Ca2+-releasing nanoporous polymer thread that promoted uniform in situ cross-linking and strong adhesion of a thin layer of alginate hydrogel around the thread...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277882/mesalazine-a-novel-etiology-for-drug-induced-urinary-calculi
#20
Blaise Corbery, Souhil Lebdai, Shahed Borojeni, Pierre Bigot, Abdel-Rahmène Azzouzi, Thibaut Culty
We report the case of a 23-year-old woman treated by mesalazine for ulcerative colitis and who subsequently presented recurrent renal colic due to mesalazine urinary stones. This is the second case described in the literature.Mesalazine stones are soft, friable and have an orange-beige color. They are not visible on non-contrast computed tomography (CT). Their diagnosis is based on morpho-constitutional analysis and CT-urography. Patients treatedby mesalazine who present renal colic should undergo CT-urography in order to make the diagnosis...
December 26, 2017: Urology Journal
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