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Qi Gao, Chao Lu, Xiao-Wen Wang, Jun-Wei Zhang, Youtao Song, You-Lin Xue
Irisin is found closely associated with promoting the browning of beige fat cells in white adipose tissue. The crystal structure reveals that irisin forms a continuous inter-subunit β-sheet dimer. Here, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation were performed to investigate the dissociation process and the intricate interactions between the two irisin monomers. In the process of MD, the interactions between the monomers were roughly analyzed through the average numbers of both hydrophobic contacts and H-bonds...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Hilal Ahmad Parray, Jameel Lone, Jong Pil Park, Jang Won Choi, Jong Won Yun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the browning and antioxidative effects of magnolol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as recruitment of beige-like adipocytes (browning) by natural compounds is being considered as a promising strategy to fight against obesity. METHODS: Magnolol-induced browning effect was evaluated by determining the expression levels of specific marker genes and proteins using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively...
February 5, 2018: Nutrition
Suhong Xiao, Ying-Sheng Tang, Praveen Kusumanchi, Sally P Stabler, Ying Zhang, Asok C Antony
Background: Epidemiologic and in vitro studies suggest independent linkages between poor folate and/or vitamin B-12 nutrition, genomic human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 viral integration, and cancer. However, there is no direct evidence in vivo to support the causative role of poor folate nutrition in HPV16 integration into the cellular genome. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that folate deficiency enables the integration of HPV16 into the genome of HPV16-harboring keratinocytes, and could thereby influence earlier transformation of these cells to cancer in an animal model...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Gholamreza Azizi, Hassan Abolhassani, Majid Zaki-Dizaji, Sima Habibi, Hamed Mohammadi, Mohammadreza Shaghaghi, Reza Yazdani, Juan-Manuel Anaya, Nima Rezaei, Lennart Hammarström, Asghar Aghamohammadi
BACKGROUND: Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one autoimmune disorder in a single patient. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) deficiency is one of the monogenic causes of polyautoimmunity. The aim of this study was to report the characteristics of polyautoimmunity in patients with LRBA deficiency. METHODS: A total of 14 LRBA deficiency patients with confirmed autoimmunity were enrolled in this study. For those patients with polyautoimmunity, demographic information, clinical records, laboratory, and molecular data were collected...
March 12, 2018: Immunological Investigations
Jianmei Zhang, Huixiao Wu, Shizhan Ma, Fei Jing, Chunxiao Yu, Ling Gao, Zhao Jiajun
The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic complications has inspired research on adipose tissues. Three kinds of adipose tissues are identified in mammals: brown adipose tissue (BAT), beige or brite adipose tissue and white adipose tissue (WAT). Beige adipocytes share some characteristics with brown adipocytes such as the expression of UCP1. Beige adipocytes can be activated by environmental stimuli or pharmacological treatment, and this change is accompanied by an increase in energy consumption...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Tiande Zou, Bo Wang, Qiyuan Yang, Jeanene M de Avila, Mei-Jun Zhu, Jinming You, Daiwen Chen, Min Du
Development of brown and beige/brite adipocytes increases thermogenesis and helps to reduce obesity and metabolic syndrome. Our previous study suggests that dietary raspberry can ameliorate metabolic syndromes in diet-induced obese mice. Here, we further evaluated the effects of raspberry on energy expenditure and adaptive thermogenesis and determined whether these effects were mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Mice deficient in the catalytic subunit of AMPKα1 and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with 5% raspberry (RAS) for 10 weeks...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Xiaoli Hou, Yongzhao Zhang, Wei Li, Alexander J Hu, Chi Luo, Wenhui Zhou, Jamie K Hu, Stefano G Daniele, Jinfeng Wang, Jinghao Sheng, Yongsheng Fan, Andrew S Greenberg, Stephen R Farmer, Miaofen G Hu
Whereas white adipose tissue depots contribute to the development of metabolic diseases, brown and beige adipose tissue has beneficial metabolic effects. Here we show that CDK6 regulates beige adipocyte formation. We demonstrate that mice lacking the CDK6 protein or its kinase domain (K43M) exhibit significant increases beige cell formation, enhanced energy expenditure, better glucose tolerance, and improved insulin sensitivity, and are more resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Re-expression of CDK6 in Cdk6-/- mature or precursor cells, or ablation of RUNX1 in K43M mature or precursor cells, reverses these phenotypes...
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Jens Lund, Lesli Hingstrup Larsen, Lotte Lauritzen
Numerous studies have shown that feeding rodents n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates adiposity. Moreover, meta-analyses of human dietary intervention studies indicate that fish oil (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) supplementation might reduce waist circumference. A recent line of research suggests that browning of white adipose depots and activation of uncoupled respiration in brown fat contributes to these effects. This mini-review summarizes the observations in rodents, highlights several mechanisms that might explain these observations and discusses the translational potential...
March 9, 2018: Adipocyte
Sicong He, Yitai An, Xuesong Li, Xiuqing Wei, Qiqi Sun, Zhenguo Wu, Jianan Y Qu
Activation of the thermogenic brown and beige fat is an effective means to increasing whole-body energy expenditure. In this work, a unique label-free method was developed to quantitatively assess the metabolism and thermogenesis of mouse adipose tissues in vivo. Specifically, an optical redox ratio based on the endogenous fluorescence of mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes (NADH and FAD) was used to measure the metabolic state of adipocytes. Our findings demonstrate that the optical redox ratio provides a label-free and real-time biomarker to determine the thermogenic response of brown, beige and white adipose tissues to a variety of physiological stimulations...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Lingyan Wu, Lina Zhang, Bohan Li, Haowen Jiang, Yanan Duan, Zhifu Xie, Lin Shuai, Jia Li, Jingya Li
Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic "brown-like" cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Maria Moysidou, Sevasti Karaliota, Elisavet Kodela, Maria Salagianni, Yassemi Koutmani, Antonia Katsouda, Konstantia Kodella, Panagiotis Tsakanikas, Styliani Ourailidou, Evangelos Andreakos, Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, Dimitris Skokos, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou, Kyoung-Jin Chung, Stefan Bornstein, Mark W Sleeman, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Katia P Karalis
Although accumulation of lymphocytes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity is linked to insulin resistance, it remains unclear whether lymphocytes also participate in the regulation of energy homeostasis in the WAT. Here, we demonstrate enhanced energy dissipation in Rag1-/- mice, increased catecholaminergic input to subcutaneous WAT, and significant beige adipogenesis. Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that CD8+ T cell deficiency accounts for the enhanced beige adipogenesis in Rag1-/- mice...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Adam C Lehnig, Kristin I Stanford
The beneficial effects of exercise on skeletal muscle and the cardiovascular system have long been known. Recent studies have focused on investigating the effects of exercise on adipose tissue and the effects that these exercise-induced adaptations have on overall metabolic health. Examination of exercise-induced adaptations in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) has revealed marked differences in each tissue with exercise. In WAT, there are changes to both subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and visceral WAT (vWAT), including decreased adipocyte size and lipid content, increased expression of metabolic genes, altered secretion of adipokines and increased mitochondrial activity...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Theresa Schoettl, Ingrid P Fischer, Siegfried Ussar
Adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ. Unlike other organs, adipose tissue is compartmentalized into individual depots and distributed throughout the body. These different adipose depots show major functional differences and risk associations for developing metabolic syndrome. Recent advances in lineage tracing demonstrate that individual adipose depots are composed of adipocytes that are derived from distinct precursor populations, giving rise to different populations of energy-storing white adipocytes...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Kevin M Tharp, Michael S Kang, Greg A Timblin, Jon Dempersmier, Garret E Dempsey, Peter-James H Zushin, Jaime Benavides, Catherine Choi, Catherine X Li, Amit K Jha, Shingo Kajimura, Kevin E Healy, Hei Sook Sul, Kaoru Saijo, Sanjay Kumar, Andreas Stahl
The activation of brown/beige adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism and the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression are essential for BAT-based strategies to improve metabolic homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that BAT utilizes actomyosin machinery to generate tensional responses following adrenergic stimulation, similar to muscle tissues. The activation of actomyosin mechanics is critical for the acute induction of oxidative metabolism and uncoupled respiration in UCP1+ adipocytes. Moreover, we show that actomyosin-mediated elasticity regulates the thermogenic capacity of adipocytes via the mechanosensitive transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ, which are indispensable for normal BAT function...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Hiroshi Mikamo, Meizi Jiang, Mahito Noro, Yasuo Suzuki, Nobuyuki Hiruta, Hiroyuki Unoki-Kubota, Wolfgang J Schneider, Hideaki Bujo
The upregulation of brown or brown-like beige adipocytes is a potential strategy for the prevention or treatment of diabetes and coronary artery diseases in obese patients. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) differs significantly from subcutaneous fat tissue (SAT) in metabolic properties. To investigate properties of EAT further, thermogenesis gene expression was investigated in human autopsy and murine samples, and adipocytes differentiated from EAT mesenchymal cells. Subsequently, analyzed EAT volume alterations were observed to be associated with weight reduction in obese patients by imaging...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Aneta Stefanidis, Nicole M Wiedmann, Sonika Tyagi, Andrew M Allen, Matthew J Watt, Brian J Oldfield
OBJECTIVE: The potential for brown adipose tissue (BAT) to be targeted as a therapeutic option to combat obesity has been heightened by the discovery of a brown-like form of inducible "beige" adipose tissue in white fat which has overlapping structural and functional properties to "classical" BAT. The likelihood that both beige and brown fat are recruited functionally by neural mechanisms, taken together with the lack of a detailed understanding of the nature of changes in the nervous system when white adipose tissue (WAT) is transformed to brown, provides the impetus for this study...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Oren Froy, Marta Garaulet
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of illnesses, such as insulin resistance and hypertension and has become a serious public health problem. Mammals have developed a circadian clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) that responds to the environmental light-dark cycle. Clocks similar to the one located in the SCN are found in peripheral tissues, such as the kidney, liver and adipose tissue. The circadian clock regulates metabolism and energy homeostasis in peripheral tissues by mediating activity and/or expression of key metabolic enzymes and transport systems...
February 27, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Rui Chen, Yin Ye, Chengcheng Yang, Yang Peng, Beige Zong, Fanli Qu, Zhenrong Tang, Yihua Wang, Xinliang Su, Hongyuan Li, Guanglun Yang, Shengchun Liu
PURPOSE: To assess the predictive role of pretreatment ki67 and Ki67 changes in breast cancer (BC) patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in various molecular subtypes. METHODS: 1010 BC patients who had undergone anthracycline and taxane-based NAC from January 2012 to July 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and pathological parameters of the patients were retrieved and the predictive factors for NAC response were evaluated. RESULTS: 705 patients showed clinical response (cRes), and 131 patients acquired pathologic complete response (pCR)...
February 26, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Lakshman Singh, Sonia Tyagi, Damian Myers, Gustavo Duque
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone marrow fat expresses mixed characteristics, which could correspond to white, brown, and beige types of fat. Marrow fat could act as either energy storing and adipokine secreting white fat or as a source of energy for hematopoiesis and bone metabolism, thus acting as brown fat. However, there is also a negative interaction between marrow fat and other elements of the bone marrow milieu, which is known as lipotoxicity. In this review, we will describe the good and bad roles of marrow fat in the bone, while focusing on the specific components of the negative effect of marrow fat on bone metabolism...
February 23, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Franz Maximilian Rasche, Ronny Rettig, Thomas Frese, Wilma Gertrud Rasche, Filip Barinka, Guenter Roesl, Frieder Keller, Tom H Lindner, Jochen G Schneider, Joachim Beige, Thomas Ebert, Stephan Schiekofer
INTRODUCTION: Endocrine disorders of the pituitary axes are frequent in patients with hemodialysis (CKD5D). The aim of this multicenter study (Leipzig (L), Quedlinburg and Blankenburg in the Harz region (Hz)) in CKD5D patients was to evaluate influences of CKD5D related factors, morphological and biochemical parameters, and serum iodine and prolactin concentrations on the pituitary-thyroid axis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 170 patients (L n=58; Hz n=112) were included in this prospective, non-interventional, cross-sectional study...
February 23, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
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