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Mukovhe Chad Phanguphangu
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of outer and middle ear pathologies in paediatrics in Limpopo, South Africa. DESIGN: Cross-sectional retrospective review of otoscopy results obtained during a school health screening campaign conducted between March and June 2015. Descriptive statistics through percentages and frequency tables were used to analyse the data. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between age, gender and pathologies observed...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Audiology
Michael P Platt, Christopher D Brook, Jacob Kuperstock, John H Krouse
IgE-mediated allergy plays a well-established role in both nasal and pulmonary diseases due to the common epithelium and shared mediator responses of the upper and lower airways. This "unified airway" concept has also been described in other sites within the head and neck that contain similar respiratory mucosa: the middle ear and the larynx. This review will highlight the data suggesting a role for IgE-mediated allergic disease in chronic laryngopharyngeal and middle ear disease and the role for allergy testing to aid in diagnosis and treatment of these disorders...
October 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Sheila Cardeña-Núñez, Luis Óscar Sánchez-Guardado, Rubén Corral-San-Miguel, Lucía Rodríguez-Gallardo, Faustino Marín, Luis Puelles, Pilar Aroca, Matías Hidalgo-Sánchez
The vertebrate inner ear is a complex three-dimensional sensorial structure with auditory and vestibular functions. The molecular patterning of the developing otic epithelium creates various positional identities, consequently leading to the stereotyped specification of each neurosensory and non-sensory element of the membranous labyrinth. The Iroquois (Iro/Irx) genes, clustered in two groups (A: Irx1, Irx2, and Irx4; and B: Irx3, Irx5, and Irx6), encode for transcriptional factors involved directly in numerous patterning processes of embryonic tissues in many phyla...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Verónica Mendiola-Islas, Carlos Lara, Pablo Corcuera, Pedro Luis Valverde
BACKGROUND: Territory owners usually defeat intruders. One explanation for this observation is the uncorrelated asymmetry hypothesis which argues that contests might be settled by an arbitrary convention such as "owners win." We studied the effect of territorial residency on contest asymmetries in the white-eared hummingbird (Hylocharis leucotis) in a fir forest from central Mexico. METHODS: Twenty white-eared male adult hummingbird territories were monitored during a winter season, recording the territorial behavior of the resident against intruding hummingbirds...
2016: PeerJ
Yilin Li, Xinhai Li, Zitan Song, Changqing Ding
We analyzed the synchronous relationship between forest cover and species distribution to explain the contraction in the distribution range of the brown eared-pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in China. Historical resources can provide effective records for reconstructing long-term distribution dynamics. The brown eared-pheasant's historical distribution from 25 to 1947 CE, which included the three provinces of Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Hebei based on this species' habitat selection criteria, the history of the forests, ancient climate change records, and fossil data...
2016: PeerJ
Mahdieh Arian, Azadeh Kamali, Mahbubeh Tabatabaeichehr, Parisa Arashnia
INTRODUCTION: Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare condition that can result in high mortality and morbidity rates if not treated immediately. CST may be aseptic or septic. Less common primary sites of infection include the tonsils, soft palate, middle ear, and orbit. Reported cases of middle ear infection are very rare, and response to treatment is poor. CASE PRESENTATION: The present study is a case report of acute otitis media which led to septic cavernous sinus thrombosis in a 56-year-old woman in Bojnord city, North Khorasan, Iran...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
F Hernández-Alfaro, M J Nieto, V Ruiz-Magaz, A Valls-Ontañón, I Méndez-Manjón, R Guijarro-Martínez
Increasing experience with alternative timing protocols in orthognathic surgery has given way to new surgical and orthodontic techniques to shorten treatment times, reduce biological costs, and improve the final outcome. A prospective evaluation of class III patients who received an inferior segmental osteotomy (ISO) for decompensation of significantly retroclined lower incisors in the context of 'surgery-first' (SF) or 'surgery-early' (SE) timing protocols was performed. Treatment was planned virtually. A thorough periodontal assessment was performed at baseline and periodically until debonding...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Venkatesh Aithal, Joseph Kei, Carlie Driscoll, Michio Murakoshi, Hiroshi Wada
OBJECTIVE: International Journal of Audiology To study the developmental characteristics of sweep frequency impedance (SFI) measures in healthy infants from birth to 6 months. DESIGN: All infants were assessed using high-frequency tympanometry (HFT), distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and SFI tests. SFI measures consisted of measurement of resonance frequency (RF) and mobility (ΔSPL) of the outer and middle ear. A mixed model analysis of variance was applied to the SFI data to examine the effect of age on RF and ΔSPL...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Audiology
Louise Barbier, Manuela Cesaretti, Federica Dondero, François Cauchy, Linda Khoy-Ear, Takeshi Aoyagi, Emmanuel Weiss, Olivier Roux, Safi Dokmak, Claire Francoz, Catherine Paugam-Burtz, Ailton Sepulveda, Jacques Belghiti, François Durand, Olivier Soubrane
BACKGROUND: Older liver grafts have been considered in the past decade due to organ shortage. The aim was to compare outcomes after liver transplantation with either younger or older donors. METHODS: Patients transplanted in our center between 2004 and 2014 with younger donors (younger than 60 years; n = 253) were compared with older donors (older than 75 years; n = 157). Multiorgan transplantations, split grafts, or non-heart-beating donors were not included. RESULTS: Donors in the older group were mostly women deceased from stroke, and only 3 patients had experienced cardiac arrest...
November 2016: Transplantation
Todd C Rae, Paul Martin Johnson, Wataru Yano, Eishi Hirasaki
The semicircular canals of the inner ear constitute the organ of balance, tracking head rotation during movement and facilitating stabilisation of vision. Morphological characteristics of the canals are correlated with agility scores related to locomotion. To date, however, the relationship between canal morphology and specific locomotor behaviours, such as leaping, is unclear. Knowledge of such a relationship could strengthen the inferences of locomotion of extinct taxa. To test this, crania of two sets of closely related primate species (Presbytis melalophos and P...
October 26, 2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Joerg T Albert, Andrei S Kozlov
The evolution of hearing in terrestrial animals has resulted in remarkable adaptations enabling exquisitely sensitive sound detection by the ear and sophisticated sound analysis by the brain. In this review, we examine several such characteristics, using examples from insects and vertebrates. We focus on two strong and interdependent forces that have been shaping the auditory systems across taxa: the physical environment of auditory transducers on the small, subcellular scale, and the sensory-ecological environment within which hearing happens, on a larger, evolutionary scale...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Henrik Smeds, Jeremy Wales, Filip Asp, Ulrika Löfkvist, Babak Falahat, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Lena Anmyr, Eva Karltorp
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if cochlear implantation is safe and constitutes an option for hearing rehabilitation of children with x-linked inner ear malformation. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective patient review in combination with a multidisciplinary follow-up. SETTING: Tertiary referral hospital and cochlear implant program. PATIENTS: Ten children with severe-profound mixed hearing loss and radiological findings consistent with Incomplete Partition type 3 cochlear malformation received cochlear implants during the years 2007 to 2015...
October 21, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Arne Liebau, Olivia Pogorzelski, Alec N Salt, Stefan K Plontke
OBJECTIVE: Controlled and uncontrolled studies with primary intratympanic or combined intratympanic and systemic application of glucocorticosteroids for idiopathic sudden hearing loss were analyzed by means of a meta-analysis in an attempt to establish optimal local drug delivery protocols. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 25 studies with 28 treatment groups between January 2000 and June 2014 were selected that adequately described drug delivery protocols. Cochlear drug levels were calculated by a validated computer model of drug dispersion in the inner ear fluids based on the concentration and volume of glucocorticoids applied, the time the drug remained in the middle ear, and the specific timing of injections...
October 21, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Forrest H Nielsen, Lu Ann K Johnson
Determination of whether magnesium (Mg) is a nutrient of public health concern has been hindered by questionable Dietary Recommended Intakes (DRIs) and problematic status indicators that make Mg deficiency assessment formidable. Balance data obtained since 1997 indicate that the EAR and RDA for 70-kg healthy individuals are about 175 and 250 mg/day, respectively, and these DRIs decrease or increase based on body weight. These DRIs are less than those established for the USA and Canada. Urinary excretion data from tightly controlled metabolic unit balance studies indicate that urinary Mg excretion is 40 to 80 mg (1...
October 24, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Anupam P Vedurmudi, Bruce A Young, J Leo van Hemmen
In internally coupled ears (ICE), the displacement of one eardrum creates pressure waves that propagate through air-filled passages in the skull, causing a displacement of the opposing eardrum and vice versa. In this review, a thorough mathematical analysis of the membranes, passages, and propagating pressure waves reveals how internally coupled ears generate unique amplitude and temporal cues for sound localization. The magnitudes of both of these cues are directionally dependent. On the basis of the geometry of the interaural cavity and the elastic properties of the two eardrums confining it at both ends, the present paper reviews the mathematical theory underlying hearing through ICE and derives analytical expressions for eardrum vibrations as well as the pressures inside the internal passages, which ultimately lead to the emergence of highly directional hearing cues...
October 25, 2016: Biological Cybernetics
Anne K Ellis, Mena Soliman, Lisa M Steacy, Daniel E Adams, Barnaby Hobsbawn, Terry J B Walker
BACKGROUND: The Environmental Exposure Unit (EEU) in Kingston, Ontario, Canada is a controlled allergen challenge facility (CACF) that has been previously clinically validated for the use of ragweed and grass pollen in clinical studies. In this study we aim to validate the use of birch pollen to challenge allergic participants. METHODS: A total of 59 volunteers were screened and 38 birch allergic participants and ten non-allergics completed the study, outside of tree pollen season...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Habiba O Usman, Carey D Balaban
BACKGROUND: Evidence of serotonergic involvement in vestibular pathway contributions to migraine and balance disorders is compelling. Serotonergic 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors are expressed extensively in inner ear ganglia of monkeys and rats. The serotonergic 5-HT1F receptor is also a target of triptans. This study describes its distribution in vestibular and trigeminal ganglia of monkeys. METHODS: Using primary polyclonal antibodies raised against oligopeptides specific for the human 5-HT1F receptor, neuronal somatic area and intensity of immunoreactive vestibular and trigeminal ganglia were quantified...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Francisco Rosa, Ana Silva, Cláudia Reis, Miguel Coutinho, Jorge Oliveira, Cecília Almeida E Sousa
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe the experience of a tertiary referral centre in Portugal, of the placement of BAHA in children. METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective analysis of all children for whom hearing rehabilitation with BAHA was indicated at a central hospital, between January 2003 and December 2014. RESULTS: 53 children were included. The most common indications for placement of BAHA were external and middle ear malformations (n=34, 64%) and chronic otitis media with difficult to control otorrhea (n=9, 17%)...
October 21, 2016: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
M P A Clark, B D Westerberg, J E Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: Chronic suppurative otitis media is a neglected condition affecting up to 330 million people worldwide, with the burden of the disease in impoverished countries. The need for non-governmental organisations to hardwire training into their programmes has been highlighted. An ear surgery simulator appropriate for training in resource-poor settings was developed, and its effectiveness in facilitating the acquisition of headlight and microsurgical skills necessary to safely perform procedures via the ear canal was investigated...
October 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
S Turkoglu Babakurban, O Topal, E Aydin, E Hizal, S Copur, M Demirbilek Ekici
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of Castellani's paint on symptomatic relief and skin flora in patients with an itchy external ear canal. METHODS: Subjective pruritus scores, and erythema and desquamation scores, were noted in 61 patients with an itchy external ear canal. External ear canal skin swabs were taken for bacterial and fungal cultures. Patients were then randomly divided into three groups: either Castellani's paint (group one) or steroid ear drops (group two) were instilled, or non-impacted cerumen was removed (group three)...
October 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
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