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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919445/cognitive-effects-of-labeled-addictolytic-medications
#1
REVIEW
Camille Noélie Pujol, Cecilia Paasche, Vincent Laprevote, Benoit Trojak, Pierre Vidailhet, Elisabeth Bacon, Laurence Lalanne
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug usage is pervasive throughout the world, and abuse of these substances is a major contributor to the global disease burden. Many pharmacotherapies have been developed over the last 50years to target addictive disorders. While the efficacy of these pharmacotherapies is largely recognized, their cognitive impact is less known. However, all substance abuse disorders are known to promote cognitive disorders like executive dysfunction and memory impairment...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860883/assessing-narcolepsy-with-cataplexy-in-children-and-adolescents-development-of-a-cataplexy-diary-and-the-ess-chad
#2
Y Grace Wang, Khadra Benmedjahed, Jérémy Lambert, Christopher J Evans, Steve Hwang, Jed Black, Murray W Johns
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate concepts for incorporation into a daily diary to capture cataplexy frequency and to assess the content validity of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale for Children and Adolescents (ESS-CHAD) in pediatric patients with narcolepsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Face-to-face concept elicitation and cognitive interviews were conducted with children (7-9 years; n=13) and adolescents (10-17 years; n=16) who have narcolepsy with cataplexy, and their parents/caregivers...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811136/determination-of-ghb-and-ghb-%C3%AE-o-glucuronide-in-hair-of-three-narcoleptic-patients-comparison-between-single-and-chronic-ghb-exposure
#3
Lena-Maria Mehling, Xin Wang, Sys-Stybe Johansen, Annika Spottke, Anna Heidbreder, Peter Young, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) can be used as a knock-out drug in drug facilitated crime (DFC). Due to its rapid metabolism and resulting narrow detection window, uncovering GHB use in DFC still constitutes a problem. In this experiment we determined the GHB and GHB-β-O-glucuronide (GHB-Gluc) concentrations in hair samples after single and chronic GHB exposures. Hair samples of three narcoleptic patients therapeutically taking sodium oxybate (GHB-sodium-salt) were collected. Patients 1 (P1) and 2 (P2) took the medication for nine and six years, respectively...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777172/narcolepsy-and-other-central-hypersomnias
#4
Yves Dauvilliers, Lucie Barateau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article focuses on the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and management of narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2, idiopathic hypersomnia, Kleine-Levin syndrome, and other central disorders of hypersomnolence, as defined in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition (ICSD-3). RECENT FINDINGS: In ICSD-3, the names of some central disorders of hypersomnolence have been changed: narcolepsy with cataplexy and narcolepsy without cataplexy have been renamed narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2, respectively...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735675/treatment-of-narcolepsy-and-other-organic-hypersomnias-in-children
#5
REVIEW
Suresh Kotagal
The comprehensive management of chronic disorders such as hypersomnias of childhood requires combining life-style changes with rational pharmacotherapy that is based on treating the symptoms that are most bothersome, the age, comorbidities, and metabolic and endocrine status of the patient. The excessive sleepiness of narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia is best treated with dextroamphetamine or methylphenidate preparations or modafinil/armodafinil. Cataplexy treatment requires sodium oxybate, tricyclic agents, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors...
June 20, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707076/correlation-of-changes-in-patient-reported-quality-of-life-with-physician-rated-global-impression-of-change-in-patients-with-narcolepsy-participating-in-a-clinical-trial-of-sodium-oxybate-a-post-hoc-analysis
#6
Richard K Bogan, Jed Black, Todd Swick, Mortimer Mamelak, Ruzica Kovacevic-Ristanovic, Kathleen F Villa, Fannie Mori, Jacques Montplaisir
INTRODUCTION: Narcolepsy patients report lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than the general population, as measured by the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). This analysis evaluated whether changes in SF-36 correlated with physician-rated Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGI-C). METHODS: Data were from 209 of 228 narcolepsy patients participating in an 8-week clinical trial of sodium oxybate. Changes from baseline for SF-36 subscales (Physical Functioning, Role Physical, Bodily Pain, General Health, Vitality, Social Functioning, Role Emotional, and Mental Health) and the summary scores were evaluated for correlation with CGI-C overall and by treatment group...
July 13, 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696669/in-vitro-reconstitution-of-oxya-enzymatic-activity-clarifies-late-steps-in-vancomycin-biosynthesis
#7
Clarissa C Forneris, Seyma Ozturk, Marcus I Gibson, Erik J Sorensen, Mohammad R Seyedsayamdost
Studies on the biosynthesis of glycopeptide antibiotics have provided many insights into the strategies that Nature employs to build architecturally strained molecules. A key structural feature of vancomycin, the founding member of this class, is a set of three aromatic cross-links that are introduced via yet unknown mechanisms. Previous reports have identified three cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in this process and demonstrated enzymatic activity for OxyB, which installs the first aromatic cross-link. However, the activities of the remaining two P450 enzymes have not been recapitulated...
September 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677318/the-cost-utility-of-sodium-oxybate-as-narcolepsy-treatment
#8
K Bolin, P Berling, P Wasling, H Meinild, J Kjellberg, P Jennum
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Based on class-I studies, sodium oxybate is regarded as a first-line treatment for both EDS and cataplexy. The cost-effectiveness of sodium oxybate is largely unknown, though. In this study, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of sodium oxybate as treatment for patients with narcolepsy as compared to standard treatment, by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (cost per quality-adjusted life year, QALY) for patients in a Swedish setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Calculations were performed using a Markov model with a 10-year time horizon...
July 5, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675258/narcolepsy-cataplexy-and-psychosis-a-case-study
#9
F Canellas-Dols, C Delgado, C Arango-Lopez, R Peraita-Adrados
AIMS: To report a challenging patient a girl who developed narcolepsyy with cataplexy (NT1) and a psychosis during adolescence. To discuss diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of the comorbid cases. CASE REPORT: A 14-year-old girl was referred to Sleep and Epilepsy Unit for excessive daytime sleepiness, impaired nocturnal sleep, binge eating and weight gain, over the last year. After being diagnosed with a NT1 the patient was treated with modafinil and sodium oxybate...
July 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668666/ghb-levels-in-breast-milk-of-women-with-narcolepsy-with-cataplexy-treated-with-sodium-oxybate
#10
Emily C Barker, Michelle Puchowicz, John Letterio, Kristine Higgins, Katherine M Sharkey
OBJECTIVE: To determine GHB levels in breast milk of women taking sodium oxybate (Xyrem) for treatment of narcolepsy and cataplexy. METHODS: Two women with narcolepsy and cataplexy treated with sodium oxybate before pregnancy collected breast milk for analysis of GHB concentration after resuming sodium oxybate postpartum. One woman collected samples across two consecutive nights (doses: 3.0 gm and 4.5 gm twice per night) five months after delivering her first child; the other collected samples on three separate days (doses: 2...
June 1, 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658981/pharmacotherapy-of-alcoholism-an-update-on-approved-and-off-label-medications
#11
Michael Soyka, Christian A Müller
Only a few medications are available for the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Areas covered: This paper discusses approved AUD medications, including the opioid antagonists naltrexone and nalmefene (the latter is licensed for reduction of alcohol consumption only), the putative glutamate receptor antagonist acamprosate and the aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor disulfiram. It also covers off-label medications of interest, including topiramate, gabapentin, ondansetron, varenicline, baclofen, sodium oxybate and antidepressants...
August 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619187/safety-and-efficacy-of-long-term-use-of-sodium-oxybate-for-narcolepsy-with-cataplexy-in-routine-clinical-practice
#12
Panagis Drakatos, Dimosthenis Lykouras, Grainne D'Ancona, Sean Higgins, Nadia Gildeh, Raluca Macavei, Ivana Rosenzweig, Joerg Steier, Adrian J Williams, Rexford Muza, Brian D Kent, Guy Leschziner
BACKGROUND: Sodium oxybate is licensed in Europe for the treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy in adults. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of sodium oxybate in clinical practice in patients with narcolepsy and cataplexy refractory to other treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective single centre study including patients with severe narcolepsy with cataplexy refractory to other treatments, who were initiated on sodium oxybate between 2009 and 2015...
July 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619175/sodium-oxybate-treatment-in-narcolepsy-and-its-effect-on-muscle-tone
#13
Geert Mayer, Andrea Rodenbeck, Karl Kesper
AIMS: To estimate the effect of the compound sodium oxybate (SO) on chin muscle tone in sleep, a re-analysis of the results of the international multicenter study SXB-15 was performed, applying a validated semi-automatic analysis of muscle tone. This analysis distinguishes short (<0.5 s) and long (>0.5 s) muscle activity indices per hour (SMI, LMI) in 116 patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. While stable stimulant medication was permitted, tricyclics and SSRIs were withdrawn. Polysomnographies were performed at baseline (V5), four weeks after titration of SO to 4...
July 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614089/sodium-oxybate-associated-confusion-in-the-older-adult
#14
Viral Doshi, Cory Cross, Kalyan Muppavarapu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534145/alterations-in-gene-expression-after-gamma-hydroxybutyric-acid-intake-a-pilot-study
#15
Lena-Maria Mehling, Annika Spottke, Anna Heidbreder, Peter Young, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess, Cornelius Courts
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) acts as an agonist of the GABAB receptor, where GHB induces a depressant effect in the central nervous system. Besides its therapeutic application, GHB is also used as a date rape drug. However, the detection of GHB ingestion proves to be difficult due to its narrow detection window. The aim of this pilot study was to assess differential gene expressions after GHB intake to identify potential biomarkers for the detection of GHB intake. To this aim, alteration in gene expression of ALDH5A1, AKR7A2, EREG, and PEA15 was investigated via quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490912/update-on-the-treatment-of-narcolepsy-clinical-efficacy-of-pitolisant
#16
REVIEW
Michael W Calik
Narcolepsy is a neurological disease that affects 1 in 2,000 individuals and is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). In 60-70% of individuals with narcolepsy, it is also characterized by cataplexy or a sudden loss of muscle tone that is triggered by positive or negative emotions. Narcolepsy decreases the quality of life of the afflicted individuals. Currently used drugs treat EDS alone (modafinil/armodafinil, methylphenidate, and amphetamine), cataplexy alone ("off-label" use of antidepressants), or both EDS and cataplexy (sodium oxybate)...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443381/pharmacological-management-of-narcolepsy-with-and-without-cataplexy
#17
Ulf Kallweit, Claudio L Bassetti
Narcolepsy is an orphan neurological disease and presents with sleep-wake, motoric, neuropsychiatric and metabolic symptoms. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is most commonly caused by an immune-mediated process including genetic and environmental factors, resulting in the selective loss of hypocretin-producing neurons. Narcolepsy has a major impact on workableness and quality of life. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the temporal available treatment options for narcolepsy (type 1 and 2) in adults, including authorization status by regulatory agencies...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424564/new-developments-in-the-management-of-narcolepsy
#18
REVIEW
Vivien C Abad, Christian Guilleminault
Narcolepsy is a life-long, underrecognized sleep disorder that affects 0.02%-0.18% of the US and Western European populations. Genetic predisposition is suspected because of narcolepsy's strong association with HLA DQB1*06-02, and genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in T-cell receptor loci. Narcolepsy pathophysiology is linked to loss of signaling by hypocretin-producing neurons; an autoimmune etiology possibly triggered by some environmental agent may precipitate hypocretin neuronal loss...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366329/sodium-oxybate-for-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-a-report-on-two-patients
#19
Keivan Kaveh Moghadam, Fabio Pizza, Alberto Primavera, Raffaele Ferri, Giuseppe Plazzi
BACKGROUND: REM-sleep behavior disorder (RBD) therapy is based on small to medium-sized case series, as no large controlled clinical trials have been performed. The most used and widely recognized effective drugs are clonazepam and melatonin, with anecdotal reports on the potential benefit of other drug classes. METHODS: We report on two patients suffering from idiopathic RBD presenting with almost nightly complex and violent episodes, refractory to conventional drugs...
April 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363449/medication-induced-sleepwalking-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Helen M Stallman, Mark Kohler, Jason White
Medications that trigger sleepwalking may inadvertently put the patient at risk of injury to themselves and/or others, and contribute to poor treatment adherence. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to identify drugs that may increase the risk of sleepwalking. A search of CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDirect was conducted with the keywords 'sleepwalking' OR 'somnambulism'. Of the original 83 sourced papers, 62 met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently included for review...
January 29, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
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