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Rapid eye movement sleep

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422603/rem-sleep-respiratory-behaviours-mental-content-in-narcoleptic-lucid-dreamers
#1
Delphine Oudiette, Pauline Dodet, Nahema Ledard, Emilie Artru, Inès Rachidi, Thomas Similowski, Isabelle Arnulf
Breathing is irregular during rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, whereas it is stable during non-REM sleep. Why this is so remains a mystery. We propose that irregular breathing has a cortical origin and reflects the mental content of dreams, which often accompany REM sleep. We tested 21 patients with narcolepsy who had the exceptional ability to lucid dream in REM sleep, a condition in which one is conscious of dreaming during the dream and can signal lucidity with an ocular code. Sleep and respiration were monitored during multiple naps...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412984/neurodegenerative-disorders-and-sleep
#2
REVIEW
Raman K Malhotra
Sleep disorders are commonly found in cerebral degenerative disorders. The sleep disorders may be caused by the primary symptoms of the neurologic disease or may result from damage to sleep-controlling centers in the brain. Common sleep disorders found in this population include insomnia, hypersomnia, sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome, circadian rhythm disorders, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The latter disorder can present years before other neurologic symptoms or signs are present, serving as a precursor of neurodegenerative conditions...
March 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412983/parasomnias-and-sleep-related-movement-disorders-in-older-adults
#3
REVIEW
Alex Iranzo
Parasomnias and sleep-related movement disorders are important problems in older adults. Sleep paralysis is rare, but may occur in families. In a minority of patients with disorders of arousal, the episodes persist until the age of 70. Zolpidem and other medications may induce sleepwalking and sleep-related eating. Most patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder eventually develop Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies. Anti-IgLON5 disease includes abnormal behaviors in NREM and REM sleep...
March 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410738/effect-of-a-medicinal-plant-passiflora-incarnata-l-on-sleep
#4
Fructuoso Ayala Guerrero, Graciela Mexicano Medina
INTRODUCTION: Extracts of the plant Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae) were administered intraperitoneally in order to test its effects on sleep. METHOD: Experiments were carried out on chronically implanted male adult wistar rats to obtain cerebral (EEG), ocular (EOG) and muscular (EMG) activities throughout their states of vigilance. Polygraphic recordings were taken during 9 continuous hours before and after the extract administration (500 mg/kg). RESULTS: Passiflora incarnata induced a significant increment in the total sleep time (p<0...
July 2017: Sleep Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402071/sleep-disturbances-as-a-risk-factor-for-stroke
#5
REVIEW
Dae Lim Koo, Hyunwoo Nam, Robert J Thomas, Chang-Ho Yun
Sleep, a vital process of human being, is carefully orchestrated by the brain and consists of cyclic transitions between rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep. Autonomic tranquility during NREM sleep is characterized by vagal dominance and stable breathing, providing an opportunity for the cardiovascular-neural axis to restore homeostasis, in response to use, distress or fatigue inflicted during wakefulness. Abrupt irregular swings in sympathovagal balance during REM sleep act as phasic loads on the resting cardiovascular system...
January 2018: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398217/excitatory-pathways-from-the-lateral-habenula-enable-propofol-induced-sedation
#6
Cigdem Gelegen, Giulia Miracca, Mingzi Z Ran, Edward C Harding, Zhiwen Ye, Xiao Yu, Kyoko Tossell, Catriona M Houston, Raquel Yustos, Edwin D Hawkins, Alexei L Vyssotski, Hailong L Dong, William Wisden, Nicholas P Franks
The lateral habenula has been widely studied for its contribution in generating reward-related behaviors [1, 2]. We have found that this nucleus plays an unexpected role in the sedative actions of the general anesthetic propofol. The lateral habenula is a glutamatergic, excitatory hub that projects to multiple targets throughout the brain, including GABAergic and aminergic nuclei that control arousal [3-5]. When glutamate release from the lateral habenula in mice was genetically blocked, the ability of propofol to induce sedation was greatly diminished...
January 29, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395984/sleep-and-emotional-processing
#7
REVIEW
Daniela Tempesta, Valentina Socci, Luigi De Gennaro, Michele Ferrara
A growing body of literature suggests that sleep plays a critical role in emotional processing. This review aims at synthesizing current evidence on the role of sleep and sleep loss in the modulation of emotional reactivity, emotional memory formation, empathic behavior, fear conditioning, threat generalization and extinction memory. Behavioral and neurophysiological evidence suggesting that rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep plays an important role in emotional processing is also discussed. Furthermore, we examine the relations between sleep and emotions by reviewing the functional neuroimaging studies that elucidated the brain mechanisms underlying these relations...
December 22, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387255/comparison-of-positional-and-rapid-eye-movement-dependent-sleep-apnea-syndromes
#8
Fatih Uzer, Asli Bostancı Toptas, Ummuhan Okur, Selen Bozkurt, Ebru Dogrul, Murat Turhan, Aykut Cilli
AIM: We aimed to compare the clinical, epidemiological, and polysomnographic features of rapid eye movement (REM)-dependent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and positional OSAS which are two separate clinical entities. METHODS: Between January 2014 and December 2015, at the Akdeniz University Medical Faculty Hospital, patients who were diagnosed REM-dependent and positional OSAS with polysomnography were retrospectively studied. RESULTS: In this study, 1727 patients were screened consecutively...
January 2018: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386491/-a-case-of-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-mimicking-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#9
Yoko Fujii, Mutsumi Okura, Hidekazu Uemori, Mitsutaka Taniguchi, Motoharu Ohi
The rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by dream-enacting behaviors related to the loss of the normal generalized skeletal muscle atonia during REM sleep, and shows REM sleep without atonia (RWA) during polysomnography (PSG). Patients with idiopathic RBD have been known to have a siginificantly increased risk of developing one of the α-synucleiopathies later in life, therefore the diagnosis of RBD is very important and must be dealt with carefully. A 51-year-old man was identified presenting dream-enacting behaviors and unpleasant dreams suggesting the diagnosis of RBD, in addition to snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness...
January 31, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386443/-electromyography-analysis-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder
#10
Natsuko Nakano, Fumiya Kinoshita, Hiroki Takada, Meiho Nakayama
Polysomnography (PSG), which records physiological phenomena including brain waves, breathing status, and muscle tonus, is useful for the diagnosis of sleep disorders as a gold standard. However, measurement and analysis are complex for several specific sleep disorders, such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Usually, brain waves during REM sleep indicate an awakening pattern under relaxed conditions of skeletal and antigravity muscles. However, these muscles are activated during REM sleep when patients suffer from RBD...
2018: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381247/nrem-sleep-eeg-activity-and-procedural-memory-a-comparison-between-young-neurotypical-and-autistic-adults-without-sleep-complaints
#11
Annie-Claude Rochette, Isabelle Soulières, Claude Berthiaume, Roger Godbout
Delta EEG activity (0.75-3.75 Hz) during non-Rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep reflects the thalamo-cortical system contribution to memory consolidation. The functional integrity of this system is thought to be compromised in the Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This lead us to investigate the topography of NREM sleep Delta EEG activity in young adults with ASD and typically-developed individuals (TYP). The relationship between Delta EEG activity and sensory-motor procedural information was also examined using a rotary pursuit task...
January 30, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380907/dopamine-reuptake-transporter-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-and-transcranial-sonography-as-imaging-markers-of-prediagnostic-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Alastair J Noyce, John Dickson, Richard N Rees, Jonathan P Bestwick, Ioannis U Isaias, Marios Politis, Gavin Giovannoni, Thomas T Warner, Andrew J Lees, Anette Schrag
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine whether prediagnostic features of Parkinson's disease (PD) were associated with changes in dopamine reuptake transporter-single-photon emission computed tomography and transcranial sonography. METHODS: Prediagnostic features of PD (risk estimates, University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire, and finger-tapping scores) were assessed in a large cohort of older U...
January 30, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379037/detection-of-time-frequency-and-direction-resolved-communication-within-brain-networks
#13
Barry Crouch, Linda Sommerlade, Peter Veselcic, Gernot Riedel, Björn Schelter, Bettina Platt
Electroencephalography (EEG) records fast-changing neuronal signalling and communication and thus can offer a deep understanding of cognitive processes. However, traditional data analyses which employ the Fast-Fourier Transform (FFT) have been of limited use as they do not allow time- and frequency-resolved tracking of brain activity and detection of directional connectivity. Here, we applied advanced qEEG tools using autoregressive (AR) modelling, alongside traditional approaches, to murine data sets from common research scenarios: (a) the effect of age on resting EEG; (b) drug actions on non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep EEG (pharmaco-EEG); and (c) dynamic EEG profiles during correct vs incorrect spontaneous alternation responses in the Y-maze...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372314/adaptive-servo-ventilation-and-sleep-quality-in-treatment-emergent-central-sleep-apnea-and-central-sleep-apnea-in-patients-with-heart-disease-and-preserved-ejection-fraction
#14
Katharina Heider, Michael Arzt, Christoph Lerzer, Leonie Kolb, Michael Pfeifer, Lars S Maier, Florian Gfüllner, Maximilian Valentin Malfertheiner
BACKGROUND: Reduced sleep quality is associated with impaired quality of life and increased mortality in patients with heart failure. The aim of this study was to observe changes in sleep fragmentation and sleep quality in patients with heart disease and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (pEF) treated with adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) therapy for treatment of emergent central sleep apnea (TECSA) or central sleep apnea (CSA). METHODS: 114 patients with structural heart disease and pEF introduced to ASV therapy between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed...
January 25, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368365/phlorotannin-supplement-decreases-wake-after-sleep-onset-in-adults-with-self-reported-sleep-disturbance-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-clinical-and-polysomnographic-study
#15
Min Young Um, Jin Young Kim, Jin Kyu Han, Jinkyung Kim, Hyejin Yang, Minseok Yoon, Jiyoung Kim, Seung Wan Kang, Suengmok Cho
Our previous study demonstrated that phlorotannin supplement had a sleep-promoting effect in rodents. In the present study, we investigated whether the phlorotannin supplement could improve sleep in subjects with self-reported sleep disturbances. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 24 subjects consumed either a placebo or phlorotannin supplement (500 mg/day) for 1 week, 30-60 min prior to bedtime. Sleep parameters were assessed at baseline and at 1 week with sleep questionnaires and polysomnography...
January 24, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367602/regulation-of-rem-and-non-rem-sleep-by-periaqueductal-gabaergic-neurons
#16
Franz Weber, Johnny Phong Hoang Do, Shinjae Chung, Kevin T Beier, Mike Bikov, Mohammad Saffari Doost, Yang Dan
Mammalian sleep consists of distinct rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) states. The midbrain region ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is known to be important for gating REM sleep, but the underlying neuronal mechanism is not well understood. Here, we show that activating vlPAG GABAergic neurons in mice suppresses the initiation and maintenance of REM sleep while consolidating NREM sleep, partly through their projection to the dorsolateral pons. Cell-type-specific recording and calcium imaging reveal that most vlPAG GABAergic neurons are strongly suppressed at REM sleep onset and activated at its termination...
January 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366989/different-effects-of-apnea-during-rapid-eye-movement-period-on-peripheral-arterial-stiffness-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#17
Cheng-Yu Lin, Chin-Shan Ho, Wei-Chuan Tsai, Ju-Yi Chen
BAKGROUND AND AIMS: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) contributes to cardiovascular diseases, including arterial stiffness. The association between OSA and peripheral arterial stiffness indices remains controversial. METHODS: This study recruited 275 patients who were referred for sleep apnea study. Arterial stiffness was assessed by peripheral compliance index (CI) and central pulse wave velocity derived from digital volume pulse (PWVDVP) by photoplethysmography. Overnight polysomnography and autonomic nerve system function tests were also conducted...
January 12, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366374/poststroke-depressive-symptoms-are-associated-with-increased-oxidative-deoxyribonucleic-acid-damage
#18
Chung-Yao Chen, Chia-Ling Chen, Yao-Hung Yang, Chien-Hui Ho, Wen-Chun Tseng
Poststroke depression is independently associated with poor health outcomes, such as increased mortality, disability, anxiety, and lower quality of life. Identifying the potential biomarkers and detailed mechanisms of poststroke depression may improve the effectiveness of therapeutic intervention. In this cross-sectional study, the authors recruited patients with subacute ischemic stroke who were consecutively admitted for neurorehabilitation. Depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), with a cutoff based on a summed-items score of 10...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362011/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-cognitive-profile-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-with-lewy-bodies
#19
Paul C Donaghy, John-Paul Taylor, John T O'Brien, Nicola Barnett, Kirsty Olsen, Sean J Colloby, Jim Lloyd, George Petrides, Ian G McKeith, Alan J Thomas
BACKGROUND: The accurate clinical characterisation of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study was to compare the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive profile of MCI with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) with Alzheimer's disease MCI (MCI-AD). METHODS: Participants were ⩾60 years old with MCI. Each had a thorough clinical and neuropsychological assessment and 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane single photon emission computed tomography FP-CIT SPECT)...
January 24, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358069/pupil-size-coupling-to-cortical-states-protects-the-stability-of-deep-sleep-via-parasympathetic-modulation
#20
Özge Yüzgeç, Mario Prsa, Robert Zimmermann, Daniel Huber
During wakefulness, pupil diameter can reflect changes in attention, vigilance, and cortical states. How pupil size relates to cortical activity during sleep, however, remains unknown. Pupillometry during natural sleep is inherently challenging since the eyelids are usually closed. Here, we present a novel head-fixed sleep paradigm in combination with infrared back-illumination pupillometry (iBip) allowing robust tracking of pupil diameter in sleeping mice. We found that pupil size can be used as a reliable indicator of sleep states and that cortical activity becomes tightly coupled to pupil size fluctuations during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep...
January 11, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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