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Rapid eye movement sleep

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109896/the-nlrp3-inflammasome-modulates-sleep-and-nrem-sleep-delta-power-induced-by-spontaneous-wakefulness-sleep-deprivation-and-lipopolysaccharide
#1
Mark R Zielinski, Dmitry Gerashchenko, Svetlana A Karpova, Varun Konanki, Robert W McCarley, Fayyaz S Sutterwala, Robert E Strecker, Radhika Basheer
Both sleep loss and pathogens can enhance brain inflammation, sleep, and sleep intensity as indicated by electroencephalogram delta (δ) power. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is increased in the cortex after sleep deprivation (SD) and in response to the Gram-negative bacterial cell-wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS), although the exact mechanisms governing these effects are unknown. The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome protein complex forms in response to changes in the local environment and, in turn, activates caspase-1 to convert IL-1β into its active form...
January 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100730/sleep-to-remember
#2
Susan J Sara
Scientific investigation into the possible role of sleep in memory consolidation began with the early studies of Jenkins and Dallenbach (1924). Despite nearly a century of investigation with a waxing and waning of interest, the role of sleep in memory processing remains controversial and elusive. This review provides the historical background for current views and considers the relative contribution of two sleep states, rapid eye movement sleep and slow-wave sleep, to offline memory processing. The sequential hypothesis, until now largely ignored, is discussed, and recent literature supporting this view is reviewed...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095975/sleep-related-abnormal-sexual-behaviors-sexsomnia-successfully-treated-with-a-mandibular-advancement-device-a-case-report
#3
Imran S Khawaja, Thomas D Hurwitz, Carlos H Schenck
Sleep-related abnormal sexual behaviors (sexsomnia) are classified as a subtype of non-rapid eye movement sleep parasomnias. There are reported cases of control of sexsomnia with treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with continuous positive airway pressure. We present a case of sexsomnia controlled with the treatment of OSA with a mandibular advancement device.
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093830/age-affects-sleep-microstructure-more-than-sleep-macrostructure
#4
Johanna F A Schwarz, Torbjörn Åkerstedt, Eva Lindberg, Georg Gruber, Håkan Fischer, Jenny Theorell-Haglöw
It is well known that the quantity and quality of physiological sleep changes across age. However, so far the effect of age on sleep microstructure has been mostly addressed in small samples. The current study examines the effect of age on several measures of sleep macro- and microstructure in 211 women (22-71 years old) of the 'Sleep and Health in Women' study for whom ambulatory polysomnography was registered. Older age was associated with significantly lower fast spindle (effect size f(2)  = 0.32) and K-complex density (f(2)  = 0...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093029/low-doses-of-mirtazapine-or-quetiapine-for-transient-insomnia-a-randomised-double-blind-cross-over-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Julie Karsten, Loes A Hagenauw, Jeanine Kamphuis, Marike Lancel
Low doses of the antidepressant mirtazapine or the neuroleptic quetiapine are often prescribed off-label for insomnia. However, studies on the effects on sleep and hangover effects the following day are scarce. In this randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial, the influence of 7.5 mg mirtazapine and 50 mg quetiapine on both normal sleep and sleep disturbed by acoustic stress (traffic noise) as a model for transient insomnia was assessed. Additionally, hangover effects on next-day alertness and cognitive functioning were examined...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092659/rem-sleep-selectively-prunes-and-maintains-new-synapses-in-development-and-learning
#6
Wei Li, Lei Ma, Guang Yang, Wen-Biao Gan
The functions and underlying mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep remain unclear. Here we show that REM sleep prunes newly formed postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse motor cortex during development and motor learning. This REM sleep-dependent elimination of new spines facilitates subsequent spine formation during development and when a new motor task is learned, indicating a role for REM sleep in pruning to balance the number of new spines formed over time. Moreover, REM sleep also strengthens and maintains newly formed spines, which are critical for neuronal circuit development and behavioral improvement after learning...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090684/predict-pd-an-online-approach-to-prospectively-identify-risk-indicators-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Alastair J Noyce, Lea R'Bibo, Luisa Peress, Jonathan P Bestwick, Kerala L Adams-Carr, Niccolo E Mencacci, Christopher H Hawkes, Joseph M Masters, Nicholas Wood, John Hardy, Gavin Giovannoni, Andrew J Lees, Anette Schrag
BACKGROUND: A number of early features can precede the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: To test an online, evidence-based algorithm to identify risk indicators of PD in the UK population. METHODS: Participants aged 60 to 80 years without PD completed an online survey and keyboard-tapping task annually over 3 years, and underwent smell tests and genotyping for glucocerebrosidase (GBA) and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations...
January 16, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088873/developmental-changes-in-ultradian-sleep-cycles-across-early-childhood
#8
Sean Lopp, William Navidi, Peter Achermann, Monique LeBourgeois, Cecilia Diniz Behn
Nocturnal human sleep is composed of cycles between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. In adults, the structure of ultradian cycles between NREM and REM sleep is well characterized; however, less is known about the developmental trajectories of ultradian sleep cycles across early childhood. Cross-sectional studies indicate that the rapid ultradian cycling of active-quiet sleep in infancy shifts to a more adult-like pattern of NREM-REM sleep cycling by the school-age years, yet longitudinal studies elucidating the details of this transition are scarce...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087252/novel-method-for-evaluation-of-eye-movements-in-patients-with-narcolepsy
#9
Julie A E Christensen, Lykke Kempfner, Helle L Leonthin, Mathias Hvidtfelt, Miki Nikolic, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Poul Jennum
BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy causes abnormalities in the control of wake-sleep, non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep and REM sleep, which inlcudes specific eye movements (EMs). In this study, we aim to evaluate EM characteristics in narcolepsy as compared to controls using an automated detector. METHODS: We developed a data-driven method to detect EMs during sleep based on two EOG signals recorded as part of a polysomnography (PSG). The method was optimized using the manually scored hypnograms from 36 control subjects...
December 21, 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078839/widespread-membrane-potential-changes-and-cardiorespiratory-synchronization-involved-in-anxiety-and-sleep-wake-transitions
#10
R Jerath, S M Cearley, M Jensen
Located within the ascending reticular activating system are nuclei which release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These nuclei have widespread projections that extend into the limbic system and throughout cortex. Activation of these neurotransmitters during awake states leads to arousal, while inhibition leads to the loss of consciousness experienced during slow-wave sleep. Previously, we proposed a mechanism in which cardiorespiratory synchronization may underlie the widespread hyperpolarization that occurs throughout the brain during slow-wave sleep...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077261/ventral-medullary-control-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-and-atonia
#11
Michael C Chen, Ramalingam Vetrivelan, Chun-Ni Guo, Catie Chang, Patrick M Fuller, Jun Lu
Discrete populations of neurons at multiple levels of the brainstem control rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and the accompanying loss of postural muscle tone, or atonia. The specific contributions of these brainstem cell populations to REM sleep control remains incompletely understood. Here we show in rats that viral vector-based lesions of the ventromedial medulla at a level rostral to the inferior olive (pSOM) produced violent myoclonic twitches and abnormal electromyographic spikes, but not complete loss of tonic atonia, during REM sleep...
January 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070566/interleukin-37-expression-in-mice-alters-sleep-responses-to-inflammatory-agents-and-influenza-virus-infection
#12
Christopher J Davis, Mark R Zielinski, Danielle Dunbrasky, Ping Taishi, Charles A Dinarello, James M Krueger
Multiple interactions between the immune system and sleep are known, including the effects of microbial challenge on sleep or the effects of sleep loss on facets of the immune response. Cytokines regulate, in part, sleep and immune responses. Here we examine the role of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-37 (IL-37) on sleep in a mouse strain that expresses human IL-37b (IL37tg mice). Constitutive expression of the IL-37 gene in the brains of these mice under resting conditions is low; however, upon an inflammatory stimulus, expression increases dramatically...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066138/potentiation-of-decursinol-angelate-on-pentobarbital-induced-sleeping-behaviors-via-the-activation-of-gabaa-ergic-systems-in-rodents
#13
Jae Hoon Woo, Tae-Woo Ha, Jae-Seon Kang, Jin Tae Hong, Ki-Wan Oh
Angelicae Gigantis Radix (AGR, Angelica gigas) has been used for a long time as a traditional folk medicine in Korea and oriental countries. Decursinol angelate (DCA) is structurally isomeric decursin, one of the major components of AGR. This study was performed to confirm whether DCA augments pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors via the activation of GABAA-ergic systems in animals. Oral administration of DCA (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) markedly suppressed spontaneous locomotor activity. DCA also prolonged sleeping time, and decreased the sleep latency by pentobarbital (42 mg/kg), in a dose-dependent manner, similar to muscimol, both at the hypnotic (42 mg/kg) and sub-hypnotic (28 mg/kg) dosages...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063152/dysfunction-of-central-control-of-breathing-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
Bradley N Howell, Daniel S Newman
Dysfunction in central control of breathing in some amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients is not adequately detected with standard evaluation for respiratory dysfunction. Nocturnal oximetry reveals periodic desaturations despite normal respiratory muscle movements. Continuous diaphragmatic electromyography has provided in vivo data consistent with impaired central control of diaphragm motor units. Current understanding of central control of breathing identifies the pre-Botzinger complex as the inspiratory rhythm generator...
January 7, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062220/sleep-lung-function-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-myasthenia-gravis-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Ezequiel Fernandes Oliveira, Sergio Roberto Nacif, Jessica Julioti Urbano, Anderson Soares Silva, Claudia Santos Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo Perez, Melissa Nunes Polaro, Berenice Cataldo Oliveira Valerio, Roberto Stirbulov, Giuseppe Insalaco, Acary Sousa Bulle Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco Oliveira
The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological variables of lung function, respiratory muscle strength, and sleep in clinically stable patients with myasthenia gravis. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted in accordance with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. Patients adhering to the eligibility criteria were consecutively recruited from the Research Department of Neuromuscular Diseases at the Federal University of Sao Paulo and the Department of Neurology at Santa Casa de Misericordia of Sao Paulo and were referred to the Nove de Julho University Sleep Laboratory (Sao Paulo, Brazil)...
November 25, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060294/manipulation-of-epileptiform-electrocorticograms-ecogs-and-sleep-in-rats-and-mice-by-acupuncture
#16
Pei-Lu Yi, Shuo-Bin Jou, Yi-Jou Wu, Fang-Chia Chang
Ancient Chinese literature has documented that acupuncture possesses efficient therapeutic effects on epilepsy and insomnia. There is, however, little research to reveal the possible mechanisms behind these effects. To investigate the effect of acupuncture on epilepsy and sleep, several issues need to be addressed. The first is to identify the acupoints, which correspond between humans, rats, and mice. Furthermore, the depth of insertion of the acupuncture needle, the degree of needle twist in manual needle acupuncture, and the stimulation parameters for electroacupuncture (EA) need to be determined...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041883/phase-locked-inhibition-but-not-excitation-underlies-hippocampal-ripple-oscillations-in-awake-mice-in%C3%A2-vivo
#17
Jian Gan, Shih-Ming Weng, Alejandro J Pernía-Andrade, Jozsef Csicsvari, Peter Jonas
Sharp wave-ripple (SWR) oscillations play a key role in memory consolidation during non-rapid eye movement sleep, immobility, and consummatory behavior. However, whether temporally modulated synaptic excitation or inhibition underlies the ripples is controversial. To address this question, we performed simultaneous recordings of excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and IPSCs) and local field potentials (LFPs) in the CA1 region of awake mice in vivo. During SWRs, inhibition dominated over excitation, with a peak conductance ratio of 4...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041664/early-gene-activation-initiates-neuroinflammation-prior-to-vsv-neuroinvasion-impact-on-antiviral-responses-and-sleep
#18
Richard P Ciavarra, Patric Lundberg, Mayumi Machida, Marta A Ambrozewicz, Laurie L Wellman, Kimberly Breving, Christina Steel, Larry D Sanford
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is rapidly and persistently suppressed during vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) encephalitis in C57Bl/6J (B6) mice. REM sleep suppression was associated with a complex global brain chemokine/cytokine response with bimodal kinetics although regionally distinct cytokine profiles were readily identified. Cytokine mRNA was translated either immediately or suppressed until the pathogen was cleared from the CNS. Innate signaling pathway (TLRs, RIG-I) activation occurred rapidly and sequentially prior to VSV neuroinvasion suggesting that antiviral states are quickly established in the CNS in advance of viral pathogen penetration...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039375/cholinergic-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-neurons-of-the-ppt-have-distinct-effects-on-sleep-wake-behavior-in-mice
#19
Daniel Kroeger, Loris L Ferrari, Gaetan Petit, Carrie E Mahoney, Patrick M Fuller, Elda Arrigoni, Thomas E Scammell
: The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) has long been implicated in the regulation of cortical activity and behavioral states, including rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. For example, electrical stimulation of the PPT region during sleep leads to rapid awakening, whereas lesions of the PPT in cats reduce REM sleep. Though these effects have been linked with the activity of cholinergic PPT neurons, the PPT also includes intermingled glutamatergic and GABAergic cell populations, and the precise roles of cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic PPT cell groups in regulating cortical activity and behavioral state remains unknown...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019085/zinc-rich-oysters-as-well-as-zinc-yeast-and-astaxanthin-enriched-food-improved-sleep-efficiency-and-sleep-onset-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-healthy-individuals
#20
Hitomi Saito, Yoan Cherasse, Rina Suzuki, Makoto Mitarai, Fumitaka Ueda, Yoshihiro Urade
SCOPE: Zinc is an essential mineral that plays an important role in the body. We previously reported that orally feeding zinc-enriched yeast to mice induces non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. In addition, astaxanthin, an antioxidant abundant in seafood such as salmon and krill, is able to chelate minerals and may promote zinc absorption, which in return may also improve sleep. The purpose of our study was to examine the effect of zinc-rich and astaxanthin-containing food on sleep in humans...
December 25, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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