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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821753/dynamic-reconfiguration-of-cortical-functional-connectivity-across-brain-states
#1
Iain Stitt, Karl J Hollensteiner, Edgar Galindo-Leon, Florian Pieper, Eva Fiedler, Thomas Stieglitz, Gerhard Engler, Guido Nolte, Andreas K Engel
Throughout each day, the brain displays transient changes in state, as evidenced by shifts in behavior and vigilance. While the electrophysiological correlates of brain states have been studied for some time, it remains unclear how large-scale cortico-cortical functional connectivity systematically reconfigures across states. Here, we investigate state-dependent shifts in cortical functional connectivity by recording local field potentials (LFPs) during spontaneous behavioral transitions in the ferret using chronically implanted micro-electrocorticographic (µECoG) arrays positioned over occipital, parietal, and temporal cortical regions...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821651/role-of-somatostatin-positive-cortical-interneurons-in-the-generation-of-sleep-slow-waves
#2
Chadd M Funk, Kayla Peelman, Michele Bellesi, William Marshall, Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi
During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep cortical and thalamic neurons oscillate every second or so between ON periods characterized by membrane depolarization and wake-like tonic firing, and OFF periods characterized by membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silence. Cortical slow waves - the hallmark of NREM sleep - reflect near-synchronous OFF periods in cortical neurons. However, the mechanisms triggering such OFF periods are unclear, as there is little evidence for somatic inhibition. We studied cortical inhibitory interneurons that express somatostatin (SOM), because ∼70% of them are Martinotti cells that target diffusely layer I and can block excitatory transmission presynaptically, at glutamatergic terminals, and postsynaptically, at apical dendrites, without inhibiting the soma...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809834/quantifying-infra-slow-dynamics-of-spectral-power-and-heart-rate-in-sleeping-mice
#3
Laura M J Fernandez, Sandro Lecci, Romain Cardis, Gil Vantomme, Elidie Béard, Anita Lüthi
Three vigilance states dominate mammalian life: wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, and REM sleep. As more neural correlates of behavior are identified in freely moving animals, this three-fold subdivision becomes too simplistic. During wakefulness, ensembles of global and local cortical activities, together with peripheral parameters such as pupillary diameter and sympathovagal balance, define various degrees of arousal. It remains unclear the extent to which sleep also forms a continuum of brain states-within which the degree of resilience to sensory stimuli and arousability, and perhaps other sleep functions, vary gradually-and how peripheral physiological states co-vary...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808850/non-rem-sleep-disordered-breathing-affects-performance-on-the-psychomotor-vigilance-task
#4
Takuro Kitamura, Soichiro Miyazaki, Hiroshi Kadotani, Takashi Kanemura, Harun Bin Sulaiman, Shoko Takeuchi, Takahisa Tabata, Hideaki Suzuki
PURPOSE: Although many studies have investigated the clinical importance of sleep apnea on rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep, the relationship between behavioral performance and apneic events during different sleep phases remains unclear. In the present study, we sought to investigate the effect of sleep phase fragmentation due to sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) during REM and NREM on the vigilance and sustainability of attention based on psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance...
August 14, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805589/visual-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Richard A Armstrong
This chapter describes the visual problems likely to be encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether such signs are useful in differentiating the parkinsonian syndromes. Visual dysfunction in PD may involve visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, pupil reactivity, saccadic and pursuit eye movements, motion perception, visual fields, and visual processing speeds. In addition, disturbance of visuospatial orientation, facial recognition problems, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, and chronic visual hallucinations may be present...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802939/sleep-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Cristian Falup-Pecurariu, Ştefania Diaconu
The spectrum of sleep problems in Parkinson's disease (PD) is broad. These symptoms are recognized as being clinically relevant by the PD patients and may seriously affect their quality of life. Some studies reveal the occurrence of sleep disorders in more than half of the PD patients. The etiology is multifactorial and it mainly involves the degeneration of the sleep-regulating structures. Sleep disorders in PD can be classified into: disturbances of sleep and disturbances of wakefulness. Generic and specific scales were designed to help the screening and evaluation of sleep dysfunction...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795452/resistance-training-does-not-alter-same-day-sleep-architecture-in-institutionalized-older-adults
#7
Jeffrey E Herrick, Shipra Puri, Kathy C Richards
Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in institutionalized older adults that reduces their quality of life and may contribute to progression of cognitive impairment. While we found that a 7-week combination of resistance training, walking and social activity significantly improved sleep in institutionalized older adults compared with a usual care control group, no one to our knowledge has determined the acute effects of resistance training on same-day sleep in this population. Given the effort required to promote exercise adherence in institutionalized older adults and to obtain a positive training effect, understanding of the acute effects of resistance training on same-day sleep architecture should be elucidated, especially with respect to unintended consequences...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794189/time-of-day-influences-on-respiratory-sequelae-following-maximal-electroshock-induced-seizures-in-mice
#8
Benton S Purnell, Michael A Hajek, Gordon F Buchanan
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in refractory epilepsy patients. While specific mechanisms underlying SUDEP are not well understood, evidence suggests most SUDEP occurs due to seizure-induced respiratory arrest. SUDEP also tends to happen at night. While this may be due to circumstances humans find themselves in at night, such as being alone without supervision or sleeping prone, or due to independent influences of sleep state, there are a number of reasons why the night (i...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790302/formation-and-suppression-of-acoustic-memories-during-human-sleep
#9
Thomas Andrillon, Daniel Pressnitzer, Damien Léger, Sid Kouider
Sleep and memory are deeply related, but the nature of the neuroplastic processes induced by sleep remains unclear. Here, we report that memory traces can be both formed or suppressed during sleep, depending on sleep phase. We played samples of acoustic noise to sleeping human listeners. Repeated exposure to a novel noise during Rapid Eye Movements (REM) or light non-REM (NREM) sleep leads to improvements in behavioral performance upon awakening. Strikingly, the same exposure during deep NREM sleep leads to impaired performance upon awakening...
August 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782870/rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behaviour-disorder-and-striatal-dopamine-depletion-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#10
S J Chung, Y Lee, J J Lee, P H Lee, Y H Sohn
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is related to striatal dopamine depletion. This study was performed to confirm whether clinically probable RBD (cpRBD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a specific pattern of striatal dopamine depletion. METHODS: A prospective survey was conducted using the RBD Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ) in 122 patients with PD who had undergone dopamine transporter (DAT) positron emission tomography scan...
August 7, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781201/seven-tesla-mri-of-the-substantia-nigra-in-patients-with-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder
#11
Daniela Frosini, Mirco Cosottini, Graziella Donatelli, Mauro Costagli, Laura Biagi, Claudio Pacchetti, Michele Terzaghi, Pietro Cortelli, Dario Arnaldi, Enrica Bonanni, Michela Tosetti, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Roberto Ceravolo
INTRODUCTION: Susceptibility-weighted imaging of the substantia nigra (SN) both at 7 and 3 Tesla (T) has shown high accuracy in distinguishing patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy subjects (HS). Patients with rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder (RBD) can develop synucleinopathies, and such risk is higher with dopamine transporter single photon emission tomography (123I-FP-CIT SPECT) evidence of nigro-striatal dysfunction. We aimed at evaluating SN 7T magnetic resonance imaging (7T-MRI) in patients with RBD and determining the agreement between MRI and 123I-FP-CIT SPECT...
August 2, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777180/sleep-wake-disorders-of-childhood
#12
Suresh Kotagal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep-wake disorders occur in 10% to 28% of children and differ somewhat in pathophysiology and management from sleep-wake disorders in adults. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of key childhood sleep disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of sleep in memory consolidation and in the facilitation of learning has been increasingly recognized, even at the toddler stage. Cataplexy, a key feature of narcolepsy type 1, may be subtle in childhood and characterized by transient muscle weakness isolated to the face...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777179/comorbid-sleep-disturbances-in-neurologic-disorders
#13
Yo-El S Ju, Aleksandar Videnovic, Bradley V Vaughn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides a review of disturbances of sleep comorbid with common neurologic disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: A wide variety of neurologic disorders are frequently complicated by comorbid sleep disturbances. In many cases, a bidirectional relationship appears to occur between sleep function and the neurologic disease, such that treatment of comorbid sleep disturbances may improve the symptoms of the neurologic disease. SUMMARY: Neurologic disorders are often associated with abnormalities of sleep...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777175/non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-and-overlap-parasomnias
#14
Muna Irfan, Carlos H Schenck, Michael J Howell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the spectrum of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep parasomnias, including sleepwalking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors, which represent the range of phenotypic disorders of arousal from non-REM sleep that occurs in children and adults. RECENT FINDINGS: The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition (ICSD-3) classifies parasomnias according to the sleep stage they emerge from: REM, non-REM, or other...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777174/rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-other-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-parasomnias
#15
Birgit Ho Gl, Alex Iranzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The most common rapid eye movement (REM) parasomnia encountered by neurologists is REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and nightmares are so frequent that every neurologist should be able to differentiate them from the dream enactment of RBD. Isolated sleep paralysis is relatively common and is often mistaken for other neurologic disorders. This article summarizes the current state of the art in the diagnosis of RBD, discusses the role of specific questionnaires and polysomnography in the diagnosis of RBD, and reviews recent studies on idiopathic RBD as an early feature of a synucleinopathy, secondary RBD, and its management...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777171/diagnostic-approach-and-investigation-in-sleep-medicine
#16
Michael H Silber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides a clinical approach to the appropriate investigation and diagnosis of sleep disorders commonly seen by neurologists. RECENT FINDINGS: Home sleep apnea testing in appropriate situations can replace laboratory polysomnography in many cases of uncomplicated sleep apnea. Multiple sleep latency tests must be performed meticulously and interpreted in the clinical setting to avoid overdiagnoses of narcolepsy. Human leukocyte antigen testing has limited utility in establishing a diagnosis of narcolepsy because a positive test has low specificity...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777170/brain-circuitry-controlling-sleep-and-wakefulness
#17
Richard L Horner, John H Peever
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article outlines the fundamental brain mechanisms that control sleep-wake patterns and reviews how pathologic changes in these control mechanisms contribute to common sleep disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Discrete but interconnected clusters of cells located within the brainstem and hypothalamus comprise the circuits that generate wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, and REM sleep. These clusters of cells use specific neurotransmitters, or collections of neurotransmitters, to inhibit or excite their respective sleep- and wake-promoting target sites...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774636/sleep-as-a-new-target-for-improving-outcomes-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-ipf
#18
REVIEW
Charalampos Mermigkis, Izolde Bouloukaki, Sophia E Schiza
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) represents the most common type of interstitial pneumonias but remains a disease with a poor outcome. In recent years, two drugs (pirfenidone and nintedanib) have shown promising results at stalling disease progression, however, the interplay of sleep disruption or sleep disorders overall and in relation to medication effectiveness remains understudied. In the past, there was limited interest related to the role of sleep in IPF. Treating physicians tended to point only on the daily disabling symptoms disregarding the possible significant role of sleep alterations or co-existing sleep disorders...
July 31, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770440/clinical-significance-of-rem-sleep-behavior-disorders-and-other-non-motor-symptoms-of-parkinsonism
#19
REVIEW
Hong Jin, Jin-Ru Zhang, Yun Shen, Chun-Feng Liu
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is one of the most common non-motor symptoms of parkinsonism, and it may serve as a prodromal marker of neurodegenerative disease. The mechanism underlying RBD is unclear. Several prospective studies have reported that specific non-motor symptoms predict a conversion risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease, including olfactory dysfunction, abnormal color vision, autonomic dysfunction, excessive daytime sleepiness, depression, and cognitive impairment. Parkinson's disease (PD) with RBD exhibits clinical heterogeneity with respect to motor and non-motor symptoms compared with PD without RBD...
August 3, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770434/assessment-of-the-septal-area-neuronal-activity-during-penile-erections-in-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-and-waking-in-the-rats
#20
Kamalesh K Gulia, Yukihiko Kayama, Yoshimasa Koyama
To understand the central mechanism of penile erections during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and waking, single units were recorded from the septal area in un-anesthetized head-restrained rats simultaneous with erections. Erectile events were assessed by pressure in the bulb of the corpus spongiosum of the penis and bulbospongiosus-muscle activity. Of 143 recorded neurons, 36% showed increased activity (E-type) and 24% decreased activity (I-type) during different phases of erection in REM sleep, while 10% were E-type and 35% were I-type during erections in waking...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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