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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549077/clinical-criteria-for-subtyping-parkinson-s-disease-biomarkers-and-longitudinal-progression
#1
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Yashar Zeighami, Alain Dagher, Ronald B Postuma
Parkinson's disease varies widely in clinical manifestations, course of progression and biomarker profiles from person to person. Identification of distinct Parkinson's disease subtypes is of great priority to illuminate underlying pathophysiology, predict progression and develop more efficient personalized care approaches. There is currently no clear way to define and divide subtypes in Parkinson's disease. Using data from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative, we aimed to identify distinct subgroups via cluster analysis of a comprehensive dataset at baseline (i...
May 25, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548300/first-night-effect-on-cardiac-autonomic-function-in-different-female-reproductive-states
#2
Irina Virtanen, Nea Kalleinen, Anna S Urrila, Päivi Polo-Kantola
Decreases in heart rate variability, a marker of autonomic nervous system function, are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Heart rate variability increases in non-rapid eye movement sleep, peaking in slow-wave sleep. Therefore, decreasing the amount of deep sleep, for example, by introducing patients to a sleep laboratory environment, could decrease heart rate variability, increasing cardiovascular risk. We studied four groups of women with no previous sleep laboratory experience: young [n = 11, 23...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544930/neural-oscillations-demonstrate-that-general-anesthesia-and-sedative-states-are-neurophysiologically-distinct-from-sleep
#3
REVIEW
Oluwaseun Akeju, Emery N Brown
General anesthesia is a man-made neurophysiological state comprised of unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, and immobility along with maintenance of physiological stability. Growing evidence suggests that anesthetic-induced neural oscillations are a primary mechanism of anesthetic action. Each anesthetic drug class produces distinct oscillatory dynamics that can be related to the circuit mechanisms of drug action. Sleep is a naturally occurring state of decreased arousal that is essential for normal health...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544929/rem-sleep-and-memory
#4
REVIEW
Richard Boyce, Sylvain Williams, Antoine Adamantidis
Memory consolidation, a process which stabilizes recently acquired information into long-term storage, is thought to be optimized during sleep. Although recent evidence indicates that non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMs) is directly involved in memory consolidation, the role of rapid-eye movement sleep (REMs) in this process has remained controversial due to the extreme difficulty in experimentally isolating neural activity during REMs. Using a combination of electrophysiological recording and optogenetic techniques, recent work demonstrated for the first time that neural activity occurring specifically during REMs is required for spatial and contextual memory consolidation...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533747/selective-inhibition-of-orexin-2-receptors-prevents-stress-induced-acth-release-in-mice
#5
Sujin Yun, Michelle Wennerholm, Jonathan E Shelton, Pascal Bonaventure, Michael A Letavic, Brock T Shireman, Timothy W Lovenberg, Christine Dugovic
Orexins peptides exert a prominent role in arousal-related processes including stress responding, by activating orexin-1 (OX1R) and orexin-2 (OX2R) receptors located widely throughout the brain. Stress or orexin administration stimulates hyperarousal, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone release, and selective OX1R blockade can attenuate several stress-induced behavioral and cardiovascular responses but not the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation. As opposed to OX1R, OX2R are preferentially expressed in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus which is involved in the HPA axis regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525628/modulation-of-the-muscle-activity-during-sleep-in-cervical-dystonia
#6
E Antelmi, R Ferri, F Provini, C Scaglione, F Mignani, F Rundo, S Vandi, M Fabbri, F Pizza, G Plazzi, P Martinelli, R Liguori
Introduction: Impaired sleep has been reported as an important non-motor feature in dystonia, but so far, subjective complaints have never been compared with nocturnal video-polysomnographic recording, which is the gold standard to assess sleep-related disorders. Methods: Twenty patients with idiopathic isolated cervical dystonia and 22 healthy controls underwent extensive clinical investigations, neurological examination and questionnaires screening for excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep-related disorders...
May 19, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524102/sleep-promoting-effects-and-possible-mechanisms-of-action-associated-with-a-standardized-rice-bran-supplement
#7
Hyejin Yang, Minseok Yoon, Min Young Um, Jaekwang Lee, Jonghoon Jung, Changho Lee, Yun-Tai Kim, Sangoh Kwon, Boknam Kim, Suengmok Cho
Natural sleep aids are becoming more popular due to the widespread occurrence of sleep disorders. The objective of this study was to assess the sleep-promoting effects of rice bran-a product that is considered as a functional ingredient. To evaluate the sleep-promoting effects of a standardized rice bran supplement (RBS), we employed a pentobarbital-induced sleep test and conducted analyses of sleep architecture. In addition, the effect of RBS on a caffeine-induced sleep disturbance was investigated. Oral administration of RBS (500 and 1000 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease in sleep latency and increase in sleep duration in pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice...
May 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522097/sleep-spindle-density-in-narcolepsy
#8
Julie Anja Engelhard Christensen, Miki Nikolic, Mathias Hvidtfelt, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Poul Jennum
BACKGROUND: Patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) show alterations in sleep stage transitions, rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep due to the loss of hypocretinergic signaling. However, the sleep microstructure has not yet been evaluated in these patients. We aimed to evaluate whether the sleep spindle (SS) density is altered in patients with NT1 compared to controls and patients with narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). METHODS: All-night polysomnographic recordings from 28 NT1 patients, 19 NT2 patients, 20 controls (C) with narcolepsy-like symptoms, but with normal cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin levels and multiple sleep latency tests, and 18 healthy controls (HC) were included...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522082/brain-perfusion-during-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-successfully-identifies-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#9
Pauline Brayet, Dominique Petit, Andrée-Ann Baril, Nadia Gosselin, Jean-François Gagnon, Jean-Paul Soucy, Serge Gauthier, Marie-Jeanne Kergoat, Julie Carrier, Isabelle Rouleau, Jacques Montplaisir
INTRODUCTION: Prodromal markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been derived from wakefulness. However, brain perfusion during rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep could be a sensitive marker of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), as activation of REM sleep relies more on the cholinergic system. METHODS: Eight subjects with aMCI, and 16 controls, underwent two single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans with tracer injected during REM sleep then wakefulness...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522076/sleep-wake-stability-in-narcolepsy-patients-with-normal-low-and-unmeasurable-hypocretin-levels
#10
Mathias Hvidtfelt Hansen, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Poul Jennum
OBJECTIVE: To compare diurnal and nocturnal electrophysiological data from narcolepsy patients with undetectable (<20 pg/mL), low (20-110 pg/mL) and normal (>110 pg/mL) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 levels. PATIENTS/METHODS: A total of 109 narcolepsy patients and 37 controls were studied; all had available CSF hypocretin-1 measurements. The sleep laboratory studies were conducted between 2008 and 2014. The study retrospectively examined measurements of sleep stage transitions in diurnal and nocturnal continuous polysomnography...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513589/decoding-material-specific-memory-reprocessing-during-sleep-in-humans
#11
M Schönauer, S Alizadeh, H Jamalabadi, A Abraham, A Pawlizki, S Gais
Neuronal learning activity is reactivated during sleep but the dynamics of this reactivation in humans are still poorly understood. Here we use multivariate pattern classification to decode electrical brain activity during sleep and determine what type of images participants had viewed in a preceding learning session. We find significant patterns of learning-related processing during rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep, which are generalizable across subjects. This processing occurs in a cyclic fashion during time windows congruous to critical periods of synaptic plasticity...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513079/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-other-synucleinopathies
#12
REVIEW
Erik K St Louis, Angelica R Boeve, Bradley F Boeve
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by dream enactment and complex motor behaviors during rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep atonia loss (rapid eye movement sleep without atonia) during polysomnography. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder may be idiopathic or symptomatic and in both settings is highly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration, especially Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure...
May 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513054/is-there-a-common-motor-dysregulation-in-sleepwalking-and-rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder
#13
Mehdi Haridi, Sebastian Weyn Banningh, Marion Clé, Smaranda Leu-Semenescu, Marie Vidailhet, Isabelle Arnulf
This study sought to determine if there is any overlap between the two major non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement parasomnias, i.e. sleepwalking/sleep terrors and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We assessed adult patients with sleepwalking/sleep terrors using rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder screening questionnaires and determined if they had enhanced muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep. Conversely, we assessed rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder patients using the Paris Arousal Disorders Severity Scale and determined if they had more N3 awakenings...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509336/application-of-the-movement-disorder-society-prodromal-parkinson-s-disease-research-criteria-in-2-independent-prospective-cohorts
#14
Andrea Pilotto, Sebastian Heinzel, Ulrike Suenkel, Stefanie Lerche, Kathrin Brockmann, Benjamin Roeben, Eva Schaeffer, Isabel Wurster, Rezzak Yilmaz, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone, Anna-Katharina von Thaler, Florian G Metzger, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Ron B Postuma, Walter Maetzler, Daniela Berg
BACKGROUND: The research criteria for prodromal PD of the MDS propose a new approach for the assessment of the individual probability of prodromal PD. These criteria require a testing of their reliability in different prospective cohorts. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to evaluate the MDS prodromal PD criteria in 2 independent prospective studies. METHODS: Prodromal PD probabilities of the Tübingen Evaluation of Risk Factors for Early Detection of Neurodegeneration cohort (TREND study, n = 650, recruited by the presence of probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, depression, and/or hyposmia or none of these at baseline and 2-, 4-, and 6-year follow-up) and the population-based Prospective Evaluation of Risk Factors for Idiopathic Parkinson's Syndrome cohort (PRIPS Tübingen subsample; n = 715, baseline and 3- and 5-year follow-up) were calculated...
May 16, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506629/hippocampal-information-processing-across-sleep-wake-cycles
#15
REVIEW
Kenji Mizuseki, Hiroyuki Miyawaki
According to a two-stage memory consolidation model, during waking theta states, afferent activity from the neocortex to the hippocampus induces transient synaptic modification in the hippocampus, where the information is deposited as a labile form of memory trace. During subsequent sharp-wave ripples (SPW-Rs), the newly acquired hippocampal information is transferred to the neocortex and stored as a long-lasting memory trace. Consistent with this hypothesis, waking theta states and SPW-Rs distinctly control information flow in the hippocampal-entorhinal loop...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501499/sleep-in-vertebrate-and-invertebrate-animals-and-insights-into-the-function-and-evolution-of-sleep
#16
REVIEW
Shinichi Miyazaki, Chih-Yao Liu, Yu Hayashi
Many mammalian species, including humans, spend a substantial fraction of their life sleeping. Sleep deprivation in rats ultimately leads to death, indicating the essential role of sleep. Exactly why sleep is so essential, however, remains largely unknown. From an evolutionary point of view, almost all animal species that have been investigated exhibit sleep or sleep-like states, suggesting that sleep may benefit survival. In certain mammalian and avian species, sleep can be further divided into at least two stages, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM sleep...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488395/shorter-duration-of-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-slow-waves-in-epha4-knockout-mice
#17
Marlène Freyburger, Gaétan Poirier, Julie Carrier, Valérie Mongrain
Slow waves occurring during non-rapid eye movement sleep have been associated with neurobehavioural performance and memory. In addition, the duration of previous wakefulness and sleep impacts characteristics of these slow waves. However, molecular mechanisms regulating the dynamics of slow-wave characteristics remain poorly understood. The EphA4 receptor regulates glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity, which have both been linked to sleep slow waves. To investigate if EphA4 regulates slow-wave characteristics during non-rapid eye movement sleep, we compared individual parameters of slow waves between EphA4 knockout mice and wild-type littermates under baseline conditions and after a 6-h sleep deprivation...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486925/the-mutual-interaction-between-sleep-and-epilepsy-on-the-neurobiological-basis-and-therapy
#18
Yi-Qun Wang, Meng-Qi Zhang, Rui Li, Wei-Min Qu, Zhi-Li Huang
Sleep and epilepsy are mutually related in a complex, bidirectional manner. However, our understanding of this relationship remains unclear. In this paper, we address the issues involved in these phenomena and also discuss the various therapies used to modify them. The literatures of the neurobiological basis of the interactions between sleep and epilepsy indicate that non-rapid eye movement sleep and idiopathic generalized epilepsy share the same thalamocortical networks. Neuromodulators-such as adenosine, melatonin, prostaglandin D2, serotonin, and histamine-promote wakefulness and are considered to have antiepilepsy effects; antiepileptic drugs, in turn, also have effects on sleep...
May 8, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483860/rapid-eye-movement-sleep-predominant-central-sleep-apnea-relieved-by-positive-airway-pressure-a-case-report
#19
Noah P Jouett, Michael L Smith, Donald E Watenpaugh, Maryam Siddiqui, Maleeha Ahmad, Farrukh Siddiqui
Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) is characterized by intermittent apneas and hypopneas during sleep that result from absent central respiratory drive. CSA occurs almost exclusively during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep due to enhanced neuronal ventilatory drive during REM sleep that makes central apneas highly unlikely to form. A 45-year-old obese African American female presented with co-existing Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and CSA, not in the form of mixed or complex sleep apnea. Peculiarly, her CSA occurred only during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, which is exceedingly rare...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482421/-effect-of-home-noninvasive-positive-pressure-ventilation-on-patients-with-severe-stable-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-meta-analysis
#20
Y Liu, B Dai, J Su, Y Peng, W Tan, H W Zhao
Objective: To evaluate the effect of home noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) on patients with severe stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) by meta-analysis. Methods: The data of this meta-analysis was retrieved from the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, Wanfang, Weipu and CNKI databases from January 1980 to January 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on comparison of the effect of home NPPV in patients with severe stable COPD were enrolled. The enrolled data were divided into different subgroups in terms of the levels of inspiratory positive airway pressure(IPAP), different duration of ventilation per day, and different levels of baseline hypercapnia on change in PaCO(2)...
May 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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