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Positive expiratory pressure

Arnoldo Santos, Luca Lucchetta, M Ignacio Monge-Garcia, Joao Batista Borges, Gerardo Tusman, Goran Hedenstierna, Anders Larsson, Fernando Suarez-Sipmann
OBJECTIVE: To test whether positive end-expiratory pressure consistent with an open lung approach improves pulmonary vascular mechanics compared with higher or lower positive end-expiratory pressures in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Ten pigs, 35 ± 5.2 kg. INTERVENTIONS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced combining saline lung lavages with injurious mechanical ventilation...
October 19, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Fabrice Petitjeans, Luc Quintin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Mei-Yun Liaw, Lin-Yi Wang, Ya-Ping Pong, Yu-Chin Tsai, Yu-Chi Huang, Tsung-Hsun Yang, Meng-Chih Lin
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, perceived dyspnea, degree of fatigue, and activity of daily living with motor function and neurological status in stroke patients with stable congestive heart failure (CHF).This was a cohort study in a tertiary care medical center. Stroke patients with CHF and exertional dyspnea (New York Heart Association class I-III) were recruited. The baseline characteristics included duration of disease, Brunnstrom stage, spirometry, resting heart rate, resting oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), Borg scale, fatigue scale, and Barthel index...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Julia Scheiermann, Dennis M Klinman
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation (MV) is commonly used to improve blood oxygenation in critically ill patients and for general anesthesia. Yet the cyclic mechanical stress induced at even moderate ventilation volume settings [tidal volume (Vt) <10 mL/kg] can injure the lungs and induce an inflammatory response. This work explores the effect of treatment with suppressive oligonucleotides (Sup ODN) in a mouse model of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). METHODS: Balb/cJ mice were mechanically ventilated for 4 h using clinically relevant Vt and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 3 cmH2O under 2-3% isoflurane anesthesia...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Camila Chaves Viana, Carla Marques Nicolau, Regina Celia Turola Passos Juliani, Werther Brunow de Carvalho, Vera Lucia Jornada Krebs
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of manual hyperinflation, performed with a manual resuscitator with and without the positive end-expiratory pressure valve, on the respiratory function of preterm newborns under mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of hemodynamically stable preterm newborns with gestational age of less than 32 weeks, under mechanical ventilation and dependent on it at 28 days of life. Manual hyperinflation was applied randomly, alternating the use or not of the positive end-expiratory pressure valve, followed by tracheal aspiration for ending the maneuver...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Renata Spósito Roxo, Vivian Bertoni Xavier, Luiz Antônio Miorin, Andrea Olivares Magalhães, Yvoty Alves Dos Santos Sens, Vera Lúcia Dos Santos Alves
Introduction: Literature shows that patients undergoing hemodialysis present poor physical conditioning and low tolerance to exercise. They may also suffer from respiratory dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on pulmonary function and functional capacity of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Methods: Forty adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis were prospectively studied and randomized into two groups (control n = 20 and treatment n = 20)...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Erwan d'Aranda, Julien Bordes, Boris Bourgeois, Jared Clay, Pierre Esnault, Pierre-Julien Cungi, Philippe Goutorbe, Eric Kaiser, Eric Meaudre
BACKGROUND: Management of critically ill patients in austere environments is a logistic challenge. Availability of oxygen cylinders for the mechanically ventilated patient may be difficult in such a context. One solution is to use a ventilator able to function with an oxygen concentrator (OC). METHODS: We tested two Elisée™ 350 ventilators paired with SeQual Integra 10-OM oxygen concentrators (OC) (Chart Industries, http://www and evaluated the delivered fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2)...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Samir Jaber, Marion Monnin, Mehdi Girard, Matthieu Conseil, Moussa Cisse, Julie Carr, Martin Mahul, Jean Marc Delay, Fouad Belafia, Gérald Chanques, Nicolas Molinari, Audrey De Jong
PURPOSE: High-flow nasal cannula oxygen (HFNC) has the potential to provide apnoeic oxygenation. We decided to assess in a proof-of-concept study whether the addition of HFNC to non-invasive ventilation (NIV) could reduce oxygen desaturation during intubation, compared with NIV alone for preoxygenation, in severely hypoxaemic intensive care unit (ICU) patients with respiratory failure. METHODS: We conducted a randomised, controlled, single-centre trial with assessor-blinded outcome assessment in patients admitted to the ICU...
October 11, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Jennifer F Ha, Waseem Ostwani, Glenn Green
INTRODUCTION: With the advent of improved neonatal and pediatric intensive care management, tracheostomy is increasingly performed in children requiring prolonged ventilation. Even though tracheostomy is generally a safe procedure, there remains mortality and morbidity associated with it. OBJECTIVE: We report a rare complication of a tracheostomy tube resulting in extensive erosion and posterior tracheal false pouch secondary to a large tracheostomy tube and high positive end expiratory pressure in a 12-month-old infant...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Glauco A Westphal, Elisabeth Coll, Rafael L de Souza, Silvana Wagner, Artur Montemezzo, Fernanda Carolina Cani de Souza, Gabriel Torres, Stefan Halla, Tiago C Carnin, Míriam C Machado, Eduardo Berbigier, Fernando Busetto, Ivonei Bittencourt, Karine Gerent, Bruno S de Souza, Manoel Tassinari, Joel de Andrade
BACKGROUND: The disproportion between the large organ demand and the low number of transplantations performed represents a serious public health problem worldwide. Reducing the loss of transplantable organs from deceased potential donors as a function of cardiac arrest (CA) may contribute to an increase in organ donations. Our purpose was to test the hypothesis that a goal-directed protocol to guide the management of deceased donors may reduce the losses of potential brain-dead donors (PBDDs) due to CA...
October 11, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Ary Serpa Neto, Carmen S V Barbas, Fabienne D Simonis, Antonio Artigas-Raventós, Jaume Canet, Rogier M Determann, James Anstey, Goran Hedenstierna, Sabrine N T Hemmes, Greet Hermans, Michael Hiesmayr, Markus W Hollmann, Samir Jaber, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Gary H Mills, Rupert M Pearse, Christian Putensen, Werner Schmid, Paolo Severgnini, Roger Smith, Tanja A Treschan, Edda M Tschernko, Marcos F V Melo, Hermann Wrigge, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Paolo Pelosi, Marcus J Schultz
BACKGROUND: Scant information exists about the epidemiological characteristics and outcome of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) at risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and how ventilation is managed in these individuals. We aimed to establish the epidemiological characteristics of patients at risk of ARDS, describe ventilation management in this population, and assess outcomes compared with people at no risk of ARDS. METHODS: PRoVENT (PRactice of VENTilation in critically ill patients without ARDS at onset of ventilation) is an international, multicentre, prospective study undertaken at 119 ICUs in 16 countries worldwide...
October 4, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Sarah Svenningsen, Fumin Guo, David G McCormack, Grace Parraga
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based treatment and management for patients with bronchiectasis remain challenging. There is a need for regional disease measurements as focal distribution of disease is common. Our objective was to evaluate the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect regional ventilation impairment and response to airway clearance therapy (ACT) in patients with noncystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, providing a new way to objectively and regionally evaluate response to therapy...
October 4, 2016: Academic Radiology
Camilla R S Silva, Lívia B Andrade, Danielle A S X Maux, Andreza L Bezerra, Maria C M B Duarte
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) on respiratory function in seven- to 16-year-old children in the post-operative phase of cardiac surgery. Method: A randomized, controlled trial with 50 children who had undergone cardiac surgery with median sternotomy. After extubation, patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control group (n=26), which received instructions regarding posture, early ambulation, and cough stimulation, and CPAP group (continuous positive airway pressure; n=24), which received the same instructions as the control group and CPAP=10 cmH20 twice daily for 30 minutes from the 1st to the 5th post-operative day (POD)...
September 29, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Grace Hofmann, Lutana Haan, Jeff Anderson
Esophageal balloons are used in the respiratory monitoring of critical care patients. After the esophageal pressure is measured, the corresponding pleural pressure in the thorax can be projected, enabling lung-thorax compliance to be partitioned into chest-wall compliance and lung compliance. The esophageal balloon allows determination of transpulmonary pressures and a correspondingly individually tailored approach to respiratory care, such as patient-specific titration of positive end-expiratory pressure for patients with extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 2016: Critical Care Nurse
Joana Guimarães, Daniela Pinho, Catarina S Nunes, Carla S Cavaleiro, Humberto S Machado
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Pathophysiological changes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass may increase the risk of pulmonary complications in morbidly obese patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of immediate postextubation use of Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on arterial oxygenation in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The hypothesis is that the use of CPAP may improve oxygenation in the postoperative period when compared to Venturi mask...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Julien Bordes, Philippe Goutorbe, Pierre Julien Cungi, Marie Caroline Boghossian, Eric Kaiser
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) during spontaneous breathing anesthesia on functional residual capacity and ventilation distribution. DESIGN: Prospective and observational study. SETTING: Operating room, military teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Eighteen adult patients submitted to digestive endoscopic procedures under spontaneous breathing anesthesia. INTERVENTIONS: Anesthetic management was standardized...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Dannuey M Cardoso, Guilherme A F Fregonezi, Renan T Jost, Ricardo Gass, Cristine L Alberton, Isabella M Albuquerque, Dulciane N Paiva, Sérgio S M Barreto
Objective: To investigate the acute effects of EPAP on the activity of sternocleidomastoid (SCM), parasternal muscles and ventilatory parameters in COPD patients. Method: Twenty-four patients with COPD were studied using surface electromyography (sEMG) and a ventilometer. Patients were randomly assigned to EPAP 10 cmH2O-EPAP10 or 15 cmH2O-EPAP15 for 20 minutes. Results: The parasternal muscle sEMG activity increased during EPAP10 and EPAP15; however, a greater and significant increase was observed with EPAP10 (mean between-group difference: 12...
September 16, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Gianmaria Cammarota, Federico Longhini, Raffaella Perucca, Chiara Ronco, Davide Colombo, Antonio Messina, Rosanna Vaschetto, Paolo Navalesi
BACKGROUND: Compared to pneumatically controlled pressure support (PSP), neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) was proved to improve patient-ventilator interactions, while not affecting comfort, diaphragm electrical activity (EAdi), and arterial blood gases (ABGs). This study compares neurally controlled pressure support (PSN) with PSP and NAVA, delivered through two different helmets, in hypoxemic patients receiving noninvasive ventilation for prevention of extubation failure. METHODS: Fifteen patients underwent three (PSP, NAVA, and PSN) 30-min trials in random order with both helmets...
September 19, 2016: Anesthesiology
Murray Hinder, Pranav Jani, Archana Priyadarshi, Alistair McEwan, Mark Tracy
BACKGROUND: The T-piece resuscitator (TPR) is in common use worldwide to deliver positive pressure ventilation during resuscitation of infants <10 kg. Ease of use, ability to provide positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), availability of devices inbuilt into resuscitaires and cheaper disposable options have increased its popularity as a first-line device for term infant resuscitation. Research into its ventilation performance is limited to preterm infant and animal studies. Efficacy of providing PEEP and the use of TPR during term infant resuscitation are not established...
September 19, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Per Persson, Stefan Lundin, Ola Stenqvist
BACKGROUND: We have shown in acute lung injury patients that lung elastance can be determined by a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) step procedure and proposed that this is explained by the spring-out force of the rib cage off-loading the chest wall from the lung at end-expiration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the expanding chest wall on pleural pressure during PEEP inflation by building a model with an elastic recoiling lung and an expanding chest wall complex...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
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