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Beta cell mass AND FoxO

Katarzyna Ropka-Molik, Klaudia Pawlina-Tyszko, Kacper Żukowski, Katarzyna Piórkowska, Grzegorz Żak, Artur Gurgul, Natalia Derebecka, Joanna Wesoły
Recently, selection in pigs has been focused on improving the lean meat content in carcasses; this focus has been most evident in breeds constituting a paternal component in breeding. Such sire-breeds are used to improve the meat quantity of cross-breed pig lines. However, even in one breed, a significant variation in the meatiness level can be observed. In the present study, the comprehensive analysis of genes and microRNA expression profiles in porcine muscle tissue was applied to identify the genetic background of meat content...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marrit Putker, Harmjan R Vos, Kim van Dorenmalen, Hesther de Ruiter, Ana G Duran, Berend Snel, Boudewijn M T Burgering, Michiel Vermeulen, Tobias B Dansen
UNLABELLED: Reduction-oxidation (redox) signaling, the translation of an oxidative intracellular environment into a cellular response, is mediated by the reversible oxidation of specific cysteine thiols. The latter can result in disulfide formation between protein hetero- or homodimers that alter protein function until the local cellular redox environment has returned to the basal state. We have previously shown that this mechanism promotes the nuclear localization and activity of the Forkhead Box O4 (FOXO4) transcription factor...
January 1, 2015: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Srividhya Iyer, Li Han, Shoshana M Bartell, Ha-Neui Kim, Igor Gubrij, Rafael de Cabo, Charles A O'Brien, Stavros C Manolagas, Maria Almeida
A decline of the levels and activity of Sirtuin1 (Sirt1), a NAD(+) class III histone deacetylase, with age contributes to the development of several diseases including type 2 diabetes, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and cancer. The anti-aging effects of Sirt1 evidently result from the deacetylation of many transcription factors and co-factors including members of the Forkhead box O (FoxO) family and β-catenin. Wnt/β-catenin is indispensable for osteoblast generation. FoxOs, on the other hand, sequester β-catenin and inhibit osteoprogenitor proliferation...
August 29, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Maria Almeida, Li Han, Elena Ambrogini, Robert S Weinstein, Stavros C Manolagas
Endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs) and inflammatory cytokines contribute to the age-associated loss of bone mass and strength, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for their deleterious effects on the aging skeleton are unclear. Based on evidence that oxidative stress is a causal mechanism of the insulin resistance produced by either one of these two agents, we tested the hypothesis that their adverse skeletal effects also result from increased oxidative stress. We report that administration of prednisolone to mice increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phosphorylation of p66(shc) (an amplifier of H(2)O(2) generation in mitochondria) in bone...
December 30, 2011: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Maria Almeida, Elena Ambrogini, Li Han, Stavros C Manolagas, Robert L Jilka
Loss of bone mass with advancing age in mice is because of decreased osteoblast number and is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased canonical Wnt signaling. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We report an age-related increase in the lipid oxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) as well as increased expression of lipoxygenase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) in the murine skeleton. These changes together with decreased Wnt signaling are reproduced in 4-month-old mice bearing a high expressing allele of the lipoxygenase Alox15...
October 2, 2009: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ramamani Arumugam, Eric Horowitz, Danhong Lu, J Jason Collier, Sarah Ronnebaum, Don Fleenor, Michael Freemark
Carbohydrate metabolism in pregnancy reflects the balance between counterregulatory hormones, which induce insulin resistance, and lactogenic hormones, which stimulate beta-cell proliferation and insulin production. Here we explored the interactions of prolactin (PRL) and glucocorticoids in the regulation of beta-cell gene expression, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In rat insulinoma cells, rat PRL caused 30-50% (P < 0.001) reductions in Forkhead box O (FoxO)-1, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR)-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha), PPARalpha, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1) mRNAs and increased Glut-2 mRNA and GSIS; conversely, dexamethasone (DEX) up-regulated FoxO1, PGC1alpha, PPARalpha, CPT-1, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) mRNAs in insulinoma cells and inhibited GSIS...
November 2008: Endocrinology
D N Gross, A P J van den Heuvel, M J Birnbaum
Forkhead proteins, and FoxO1 in particular, play a significant role in regulating whole body energy metabolism. Glucose homeostasis is achieved by adjusting endogenous glucose production as well as glucose uptake by peripheral tissues in response to insulin. In the fasted state, the liver is primarily responsible for maintaining glucose levels, with FoxO1 playing a key role in promoting the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes. Following feeding, pancreatic beta cells secrete insulin, which promotes the uptake of glucose by peripheral tissues including skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and can in part suppress gluconeogenic enzyme expression in the liver...
April 7, 2008: Oncogene
C-M Liu, Z Yang, C-W Liu, R Wang, P Tien, R Dale, L-Q Sun
Foxo-1, a member of the Foxo forkhead type transcription factors, is markedly upregulated in skeletal muscle in energy-deprived states such as fasting, cancer and severe diabetes. In this study, we target the Foxo-1 mRNA in a mouse skeletal myoblast cell line C2C12 and in vivo models of normal and cancer cachexia mice by a Foxo-1 specific RNA oligonucleotide. Our results demonstrate that the RNA oligonucleotide can reduce the expression of Foxo-1 in cells and in normal and cachectic mice, leading to an increase in skeletal muscle mass of the mice...
December 2007: Cancer Gene Therapy
Dominique A Glauser, Werner Schlegel
FOXO transcription factors critically control fundamental cellular processes, including metabolism, cell differentiation, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and other reactions to cellular stress. FOXO factors sense the balance between stimuli promoting growth and differentiation versus stress stimuli signaling damage. Integrated through the FOXO system, these divergent stimuli decide on cell fate, a choice between proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. In pancreatic beta cells, most recent evidence highlights complex FOXO-dependent responses to glucose, insulin, or other growth factors, which include regulatory feedback...
May 2007: Journal of Endocrinology
Sara C Martinez, Corentin Cras-Méneur, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi, M Alan Permutt
Glucose controls islet beta-cell mass and function at least in part through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway downstream of insulin signaling. The Foxo proteins, transcription factors known in other tissues to be negatively regulated by Akt activation, affect proliferation and metabolism. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that glucose regulates Foxo1 activity in the beta-cell via an autocrine/paracrine effect of released insulin on its receptor. Mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6) were starved overnight for glucose (5 mmol/l) then refed with glucose (25 mmol/l), resulting in rapid Foxo1 phosphorylation (30 min, P < 0...
June 2006: Diabetes
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