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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532087/the-repairing-of-full-thickness-skin-deficiency-and-its-biological-mechanism-using-decellularized-human-amniotic-membrane-as-the-wound-dressing
#1
Mengsheng Song, Weiqing Wang, Qihua Ye, Shizhong Bu, Zhisen Shen, Yabin Zhu
Human amniotic membrane (HAM) was a biocompatible scaffold with advantages of anti-inflammatory, low antigen, feasibility, tolerance and low cost. In our previous work, HAM was treated to be decellularized using surfactant, lipase and DNAase methods and the efficacy as an implantable biological mesh was verified after decellularization treatment. In this work, we used the previous protocol to decellularize the fresh HAM, and applied it to repair full-thickness skin defects with Sprague-Dawley rats as the test animals...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531107/analysis-of-gene-expression-signatures-in-cancer-associated-stroma-from-canine-mammary-tumours-reveals-molecular-homology-to-human-breast-carcinomas
#2
Julia Ettlin, Elena Clementi, Parisa Amini, Alexandra Malbon, Enni Markkanen
Cancer-associated stroma (CAS) plays a key role in cancer initiation and progression. Spontaneously occurring canine mammary carcinomas are viewed as excellent models of human breast carcinomas. Considering the importance of CAS for human cancer, it likely plays a central role in canine tumours as well. So far, however, canine CAS lacks characterisation, and it remains unclear whether the biology between CAS from canine and human tumours is comparable. In this proof-of-principle study, using laser-capture microdissection, we isolated CAS and normal stroma from 13 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded canine simple mammary carcinomas and analysed the expression of seven known human CAS markers by RT-qPCR (Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR) and validated some targets by immunohistochemistry...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527846/characterization-of-dental-pulp-myofibroblasts-in-rat-molars-after-pulpotomy
#3
Naoki Edanami, Nagako Yoshiba, Naoto Ohkura, Ryosuke Takeuchi, Aiko Tohma, Yuichiro Noiri, Kunihiko Yoshiba
INTRODUCTION: Myofibroblasts express alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and play a critical role in wound healing. Myofibroblast differentiation is controlled by the joint actions of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and the extradomain A fibronectin splice variant (EDA-FN). Currently, the contribution of myofibroblasts to dental pulp healing is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed expressional characteristics of α-SMA-positive cells and investigated TGF-β1, EDA-FN, and α-SMA expression levels after pulpotomy to better understand dental pulp healing...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527569/estrogen-hormone-biology
#4
Katherine J Hamilton, Sylvia C Hewitt, Yukitomo Arao, Kenneth S Korach
The hormone estrogen is involved in both female and male reproduction, as well as numerous other biological systems including the neuroendocrine, vascular, skeletal, and immune systems. Therefore, it is also implicated in many different diseases and conditions such as infertility, obesity, osteoporosis, endometriosis, and a variety of cancers. Estrogen works through its two distinct nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Various transcriptional regulation mechanisms have been identified as the mode of action for estrogen, mainly the classical mechanism with direct DNA binding but also a nongenomic mode of action and one using tethered or indirect binding...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516569/stat4-expression-and-activation-is-increased-during-mitosis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-in-skin-and-mucosa-derived-cell-types-implications-in-neoplastic-and-inflammatory-skin-diseases
#5
Caterina Ferreli, Chester Lai, Suzannah August, Yvonne Buggy, Pawan Kumar, Nicola Brownlow, Peter Parker, Peter S Friedmann, Michael Ardern-Jones, Chris Pickard, Eugene Healy
BACKGROUND: The signal transducer and activator of transcription-4 (STAT4/Stat4) is a transcription factor known to convey signals from interleukin-12, interleukin-23, and interferon-alpha/beta to the nucleus, resulting in activation of dendritic cells, T-helper cell differentiation and production of interferon-gamma. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a novel role for STAT4 in cell mitosis. RESULTS: Phosphoserine STAT4 (pSerSTAT4) is increased in cells undergoing mitosis, and is distributed throughout the cytoplasm during this stage of the cell cycle whilst phosphotyrosine STAT4 (pTyrSTAT4) is confined to the chromosomal compartment...
May 18, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506643/epithelial-basement-membrane-injury-and-regeneration-modulates-corneal-fibrosis-after-pseudomonas-corneal-ulcers-in-rabbits
#6
Gustavo K Marino, Marcony R Santhiago, Santhanam Abirami, Luciana L Dibbin, Thangavadivel Shanmugapriya, Carla S Medeiros, Karthikeyan Bose, Kwai Ping Tam, Steven E Wilson
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether myofibroblast-related fibrosis (scarring) after microbial keratitis was modulated by the epithelial basement membrane (EBM) injury and regeneration. Rabbits were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa after epithelial scrape injury and the resultant severe keratitis was treated with topical tobramycin. Corneas were analyzed from one to four months after keratitis with slit lamp photos, immunohistochemistry for alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and monocyte lineage marker CD11b, and transmission electron microscopy...
May 12, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499784/gsk-3-as-a-novel-prognostic-indicator-in-leukemia
#7
REVIEW
Peter P Ruvolo
While leukemias represent a diverse set of diseases with malignant cells derived from myeloid or lymphoid origin, a common feature is the dysregulation of signal transduction pathways that influence leukemogeneisis, promote drug resistance, and favor leukemia stem cells. Mutations in PI3K, PTEN, RAS, or other upstream regulators can activate the AKT kinase which has central roles in supporting cell proliferation and survival. A major target of AKT is Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3). GSK3 has two isoforms (alpha and beta) that were studied as regulators of metabolism but emerged as central players in cancer in the early 1990s...
May 8, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479329/inflammatory-phenotypes-in-severe-asthma-are-associated-with-distinct-airway-microbiology
#8
Steven L Taylor, Lex E X Leong, Jocelyn M Choo, Steve Wesselingh, Ian A Yang, John W Upham, Paul N Reynolds, Sandra Hodge, Alan L James, Christine Jenkins, Matthew J Peters, Melissa Baraket, Guy B Marks, Peter G Gibson, Jodie L Simpson, Geraint B Rogers
BACKGROUND: Asthma pathophysiology and treatment responsiveness are predicted by inflammatory phenotype. However, the relationship between airway microbiology and asthma phenotype is poorly understood. We aimed to characterise airway microbiota in patients with symptomatic stable asthma, and relate composition to airway inflammatory phenotype and other phenotypic characteristics. METHODS: The microbial composition of induced sputum specimens collected from adult patients screened for a multicenter randomized controlled trial was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472181/hypertrophic-scar-regression-is-linked-to-the-occurrence-of-endothelial-dysfunction
#9
Xi-Qiao Wang, Fei Song, Ying-Kai Liu
Most microvessels have been shown to become stenosed or completely occluded during hypertrophic scar progression. Here, we examined the morphology of capillary endothelial cells (ECs) and fibroblasts using immunofluorescence staining for CD31 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and electron microscopy. In addition, ECs and fibroblasts were isolated from scar tissues, and the levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), endothelin 1 (ET-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were assayed using ELISAs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456604/herpesviruses-hijack-host-exosomes-for-viral-pathogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Sara Sadeghipour, Rommel A Mathias
Herpesviruses are remarkable pathogens possessing elaborate mechanisms to seize various host cellular components for immune evasion, replication, and virion egress. As viruses are dependent upon their hosts, investigating this intricate interplay has revealed that the exosome pathway is utilised by alpha (Herpes Simplex Virus 1), beta (Human Cytomegalovirus, and Human Herpesvirus 6) and gamma (Epstein-Barr Virus, and Kaposi Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus) herpesviruses. Virions and exosomes share similar properties and functions...
April 26, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446880/shifts-in-the-gut-microbiota-composition-due-to-depleted-bone-marrow-beta-adrenergic-signaling-are-associated-with-suppressed-inflammatory-transcriptional-networks-in-the-mouse-colon
#11
Tao Yang, Niousha Ahmari, Jordan T Schmidt, Ty Redler, Rebeca Arocha, Kevin Pacholec, Kacy L Magee, Wendi Malphurs, Jennifer L Owen, Gregory A Krane, Eric Li, Gary P Wang, Thomas W Vickroy, Mohan K Raizada, Christopher J Martyniuk, Jasenka Zubcevic
The brain-gut axis plays a critical role in the regulation of different diseases, many of which are characterized by sympathetic dysregulation. However, a direct link between sympathetic dysregulation and gut dysbiosis remains to be illustrated. Bone marrow (BM)-derived immune cells continuously interact with the gut microbiota to maintain homeostasis in the host. Their function is largely dependent upon the sympathetic nervous system acting via adrenergic receptors present on the BM immune cells. In this study, we utilized a novel chimera mouse that lacks the expression of BM beta1/2 adrenergic receptors (b1/2-ARs) to investigate the role of the sympathetic drive to the BM in gut and microbiota homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443133/analysis-of-purified-pancreatic-islet-beta-and-alpha-cell-transcriptomes-reveals-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-hsd11b1-as-a-novel-disallowed-gene
#12
Timothy J Pullen, Mark O Huising, Guy A Rutter
We and others have previously identified a group of genes, dubbed "disallowed," whose expression is markedly lower in pancreatic islets than in other mammalian cell types. Forced mis-expression of several members of this family leads to defective insulin secretion, demonstrating the likely importance of disallowance for normal beta cell function. Up to now, transcriptomic comparisons have been based solely on data from whole islets. This raises the possibilities that (a) there may be important differences in the degree of disallowance of family members between beta and other either neuroendocrine cells; (b) beta (or alpha) cell disallowed genes may have gone undetected...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428133/epidemiological-study-of-common-diseases-and-their-risk-factors-in-camels-in-south-punjab-pakistan
#13
Aneela Zameer Durrani, Zubair Bashir, Imran Rasheed, Noor-Ul-Ain Sarwar
Bacteriological study of mastitis along with common blood protozoan diseases were studied in dromedary camels in Cholistan, Dera Ismail Khan and Rahim Yar Khan districts in South Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose 300 camels were sampled randomly at different common grazing and watering point. For study of blood parasites clinically suspected and apparently healthy camels, 150 each, were sampled. An overall prevalence of 15%and 5% was recorded for trypanosomiasis and Anaplasmosis respectively. Trypanosoma evansi was identified with 280 bp product on polymerase chain reaction test...
April 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420706/common-structural-features-of-cholesterol-binding-sites-in-crystallized-soluble-proteins
#14
Anna N Bukiya, Alejandro M Dopico
Cholesterol-protein interactions are essential for the architectural organization of cell membranes and for lipid metabolism. While cholesterol-sensing motifs in transmembrane proteins have been identified, little is known about cholesterol recognition by soluble proteins. We reviewed the structural characteristics of binding sites for cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate from crystallographic structures available in the Protein Data Bank. This analysis unveiled key features of cholesterol-binding sites that are present in either all or the majority of sites: i) the cholesterol molecule is generally positioned between protein domains that have an organized secondary structure; ii) the cholesterol hydroxyl/sulfo group is often partnered by Asn, Gln and/or Tyr while the hydrophobic part of cholesterol interacts with Leu, Ile, Val and/or Phe; iii) cholesterol hydrogen-bonding partners are often found on alpha-helices while amino acids that interact with cholesterol hydrophobic core have a slight preference for beta-strands and secondary structure-lacking protein areas; iv) the steroid C21 and 26 constitute the ″hot spots″ most often seen for steroid-protein hydrophobic interactions; v) common ″cold spots″ are C8, 9, 10, 13 and 17, at which contacts with the proteins were not detected...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419211/the-inhibitory-g-protein-%C3%AE-subunit-g%C3%AE-z-promotes-type-1-diabetes-like-pathophysiology-in-nod-mice
#15
Rachel J Fenske, Mark T Cadena, Quincy E Harenda, Haley N Wienkes, Kathryn Carbajal, Michael D Schaid, Erin Laundre, Allison L Brill, Nathan A Truchan, Harpreet Brar, Jaclyn Wisinski, Jinjin Cai, Timothy E Graham, Feyza Engin, Michelle E Kimple
The alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric Gz protein, Gαz, promotes beta-cell death and inhibits beta-cell replication when pancreatic islets are challenged by stressors. Thus, we hypothesized that loss of Gαz protein would preserve functional beta-cell mass in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) model, protecting from overt diabetes. We saw that protection from diabetes was robust and durable up to 35 weeks of age in Gαz knockout mice. By 17 weeks of age, Gαz-null NOD mice had significantly higher diabetes-free survival than wild-type littermates...
April 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410378/metabolic-changes-and-inflammation-in-cultured-astrocytes-from-the-5xfad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-alleviation-by-pantethine
#16
Manuel van Gijsel-Bonnello, Kévin Baranger, Philippe Benech, Santiago Rivera, Michel Khrestchatisky, Max de Reggi, Bouchra Gharib
Astrocytes play critical roles in central nervous system homeostasis and support of neuronal function. A better knowledge of their response may both help understand the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and implement new therapeutic strategies. We used the 5xFAD transgenic mouse model of AD (Tg thereafter) to generate astrocyte cultures and investigate the impact of the genotype on metabolic changes and astrocytes activation. Metabolomic analysis showed that Tg astrocytes exhibited changes in the glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, compared to wild type (WT) cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409575/-modern-methods-in-analysis-of-microtubules-dynamic-in-vivo
#17
Marta Ewelina Wawro, Katarzyna Wieczorek, Katarzyna Sobierajska
Microtubules are involved in any vital cellular activities, including the maintenance of cell shape, division, migration and intracellular transport. Microtubule dynamics is regulated by the balance between their polymerization and depolymerization. Microtubule stability is dependent on their alpha and beta subunits composition, tubulin post-translational modifications and interaction of microtubules with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Disruption of these processes can lead to a number of pathological conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, or the fibrosis development...
2017: Postepy Biochemii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399484/the-effect-of-g-csf-and-amd3100-on-mice-treated-with-streptozotocin-expansion-of-alpha-cells-and-partial-islet-protection
#18
Yonathan Gomez, Dylana Diaz-Solano, Teresa Gledhill, Olga Wittig, Jose Cardier
Administration of streptozotocin (STZ) is one of the most used experimental models of diabetes (STZ-DT). STZ induces beta-cell damage in pancreatic islets. It is known that hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) are mobilized from bone marrow to damaged tissues. In this work, we evaluated the effects of the hematopoietic mobilizers G-CSF (250μg/kg; for five consecutive days) and AMD3100 (5mg/kg; single s.c injection) in mice treated with STZ (175mg/kg). Mice injected with STZ showed a significant reduction in the number and area of islets and in the number of beta- and alpha-cells...
April 8, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392361/dexmedetomidine-confers-neuroprotection-against-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-by-inhibiting-inflammation-through-inactivation-of-the-tlr-4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#19
Eugene Kim, Hyun-Chang Kim, Seungmi Lee, Ho-Geol Ryu, Yong-Hee Park, Jun Hyun Kim, Young-Jin Lim, Hee-Pyoung Park
Dexmedetomidine (DXM) has anti-inflammatory effects, which is considered an important mechanism of DXM-induced neuroprotection from cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. We determined whether the anti-inflammatory effects of DXM are associated with inhibition of the toll-like receptor (TLR)-4/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in a rat model of transient global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Fifty rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups (10 rats/group): Group S received no treatment; Group C underwent transient global ischemia (10min); Group D received DXM 30min before ischemia; Group R received resatorvid, a selective TLR-4 antagonist, 30min before ischemia; and Group RD received resatorvid and DXM 30min before ischemia...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390866/activation-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-signaling-in-gastric-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-increases-their-motility-via-expression-of-rhomboid-5-homolog-2-and-ability-to-induce-invasiveness-of-gastric-cancer-cells
#20
Takatsugu Ishimoto, Keisuke Miyake, Tannistha Nandi, Masakazu Yashiro, Nobuyuki Onishi, Kie Kyon Huang, Suling Joyce Lin, Ramnarayanan Kalpana, Su Ting Tay, Yuka Suzuki, Byoung Chul Cho, Daisuke Kuroda, Kota Arima, Daisuke Izumi, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Yoshifumi Baba, Eiji Oki, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideyuki Saya, Kosei Hirakawa, Hideo Baba, Patrick Tan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fibroblasts that interact with cancer cells are called cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)-they promote progression of different tumor types. We investigated the characteristics and functions of CAFs in diffuse-type gastric cancers (DGCs) by analyzing features of their genome and gene expression patterns. METHODS: We isolated CAFs and adjacent non-cancer fibroblasts (NFs) from 110 GC tissues from patients who underwent gastrectomy in Japan from 2008 through 2016...
April 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
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