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Beta cells from Alpha cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446880/shifts-in-the-gut-microbiota-composition-due-to-depleted-bone-marrow-beta-adrenergic-signaling-are-associated-with-suppressed-inflammatory-transcriptional-networks-in-the-mouse-colon
#1
Tao Yang, Niousha Ahmari, Jordan T Schmidt, Ty Redler, Rebeca Arocha, Kevin Pacholec, Kacy L Magee, Wendi Malphurs, Jennifer L Owen, Gregory A Krane, Eric Li, Gary P Wang, Thomas W Vickroy, Mohan K Raizada, Christopher J Martyniuk, Jasenka Zubcevic
The brain-gut axis plays a critical role in the regulation of different diseases, many of which are characterized by sympathetic dysregulation. However, a direct link between sympathetic dysregulation and gut dysbiosis remains to be illustrated. Bone marrow (BM)-derived immune cells continuously interact with the gut microbiota to maintain homeostasis in the host. Their function is largely dependent upon the sympathetic nervous system acting via adrenergic receptors present on the BM immune cells. In this study, we utilized a novel chimera mouse that lacks the expression of BM beta1/2 adrenergic receptors (b1/2-ARs) to investigate the role of the sympathetic drive to the BM in gut and microbiota homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443133/analysis-of-purified-pancreatic-islet-beta-and-alpha-cell-transcriptomes-reveals-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-hsd11b1-as-a-novel-disallowed-gene
#2
Timothy J Pullen, Mark O Huising, Guy A Rutter
We and others have previously identified a group of genes, dubbed "disallowed," whose expression is markedly lower in pancreatic islets than in other mammalian cell types. Forced mis-expression of several members of this family leads to defective insulin secretion, demonstrating the likely importance of disallowance for normal beta cell function. Up to now, transcriptomic comparisons have been based solely on data from whole islets. This raises the possibilities that (a) there may be important differences in the degree of disallowance of family members between beta and other either neuroendocrine cells; (b) beta (or alpha) cell disallowed genes may have gone undetected...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428133/epidemiological-study-of-common-diseases-and-their-risk-factors-in-camels-in-south-punjab-pakistan
#3
Aneela Zameer Durrani, Zubair Bashir, Imran Rasheed, Noor-Ul-Ain Sarwar
Bacteriological study of mastitis along with common blood protozoan diseases were studied in dromedary camels in Cholistan, Dera Ismail Khan and Rahim Yar Khan districts in South Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose 300 camels were sampled randomly at different common grazing and watering point. For study of blood parasites clinically suspected and apparently healthy camels, 150 each, were sampled. An overall prevalence of 15%and 5% was recorded for trypanosomiasis and Anaplasmosis respectively. Trypanosoma evansi was identified with 280 bp product on polymerase chain reaction test...
April 17, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420706/common-structural-features-of-cholesterol-binding-sites-in-crystallized-soluble-proteins
#4
Anna N Bukiya, Alejandro M Dopico
Cholesterol-protein interactions are essential for the architectural organization of cell membranes and for lipid metabolism. While cholesterol-sensing motifs in transmembrane proteins have been identified, little is known about cholesterol recognition by soluble proteins. We reviewed the structural characteristics of binding sites for cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate from crystallographic structures available in the Protein Data Bank. This analysis unveiled key features of cholesterol-binding sites that are present in either all or the majority of sites: i) the cholesterol molecule is generally positioned between protein domains that have an organized secondary structure; ii) the cholesterol hydroxyl/sulfo group is often partnered by Asn, Gln and/or Tyr while the hydrophobic part of cholesterol interacts with Leu, Ile, Val and/or Phe; iii) cholesterol hydrogen-bonding partners are often found on alpha-helices while amino acids that interact with cholesterol hydrophobic core have a slight preference for beta-strands and secondary structure-lacking protein areas; iv) the steroid C21 and 26 constitute the ″hot spots″ most often seen for steroid-protein hydrophobic interactions; v) common ″cold spots″ are C8, 9, 10, 13 and 17, at which contacts with the proteins were not detected...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419211/the-inhibitory-g-protein-%C3%AE-subunit-g%C3%AE-z-promotes-type-1-diabetes-like-pathophysiology-in-nod-mice
#5
Rachel J Fenske, Mark T Cadena, Quincy E Harenda, Haley N Wienkes, Kathryn Carbajal, Michael D Schaid, Erin Laundre, Allison L Brill, Nathan A Truchan, Harpreet Brar, Jaclyn Wisinski, Jinjin Cai, Timothy E Graham, Feyza Engin, Michelle E Kimple
The alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric Gz protein, Gαz, promotes beta-cell death and inhibits beta-cell replication when pancreatic islets are challenged by stressors. Thus, we hypothesized that loss of Gαz protein would preserve functional beta-cell mass in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) model, protecting from overt diabetes. We saw that protection from diabetes was robust and durable up to 35 weeks of age in Gαz knockout mice. By 17 weeks of age, Gαz-null NOD mice had significantly higher diabetes-free survival than wild-type littermates...
April 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410378/metabolic-changes-and-inflammation-in-cultured-astrocytes-from-the-5xfad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-alleviation-by-pantethine
#6
Manuel van Gijsel-Bonnello, Kévin Baranger, Philippe Benech, Santiago Rivera, Michel Khrestchatisky, Max de Reggi, Bouchra Gharib
Astrocytes play critical roles in central nervous system homeostasis and support of neuronal function. A better knowledge of their response may both help understand the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and implement new therapeutic strategies. We used the 5xFAD transgenic mouse model of AD (Tg thereafter) to generate astrocyte cultures and investigate the impact of the genotype on metabolic changes and astrocytes activation. Metabolomic analysis showed that Tg astrocytes exhibited changes in the glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, compared to wild type (WT) cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409575/-modern-methods-in-analysis-of-microtubules-dynamic-in-vivo
#7
Marta Ewelina Wawro, Katarzyna Wieczorek, Katarzyna Sobierajska
Microtubules are involved in any vital cellular activities, including the maintenance of cell shape, division, migration and intracellular transport. Microtubule dynamics is regulated by the balance between their polymerization and depolymerization. Microtubule stability is dependent on their alpha and beta subunits composition, tubulin post-translational modifications and interaction of microtubules with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Disruption of these processes can lead to a number of pathological conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, or the fibrosis development...
2017: Postepy Biochemii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399484/the-effect-of-g-csf-and-amd3100-on-mice-treated-with-streptozotocin-expansion-of-alpha-cells-and-partial-islet-protection
#8
Yonathan Gomez, Dylana Diaz-Solano, Teresa Gledhill, Olga Wittig, Jose Cardier
Administration of streptozotocin (STZ) is one of the most used experimental models of diabetes (STZ-DT). STZ induces beta-cell damage in pancreatic islets. It is known that hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) are mobilized from bone marrow to damaged tissues. In this work, we evaluated the effects of the hematopoietic mobilizers G-CSF (250μg/kg; for five consecutive days) and AMD3100 (5mg/kg; single s.c injection) in mice treated with STZ (175mg/kg). Mice injected with STZ showed a significant reduction in the number and area of islets and in the number of beta- and alpha-cells...
April 8, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392361/dexmedetomidine-confers-neuroprotection-against-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-by-inhibiting-inflammation-through-inactivation-of-the-tlr-4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#9
Eugene Kim, Hyun-Chang Kim, Seungmi Lee, Ho-Geol Ryu, Yong-Hee Park, Jun Hyun Kim, Young-Jin Lim, Hee-Pyoung Park
Dexmedetomidine (DXM) has anti-inflammatory effects, which is considered an important mechanism of DXM-induced neuroprotection from cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. We determined whether the anti-inflammatory effects of DXM are associated with inhibition of the toll-like receptor (TLR)-4/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in a rat model of transient global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Fifty rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups (10 rats/group): Group S received no treatment; Group C underwent transient global ischemia (10min); Group D received DXM 30min before ischemia; Group R received resatorvid, a selective TLR-4 antagonist, 30min before ischemia; and Group RD received resatorvid and DXM 30min before ischemia...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390866/activation-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-signaling-in-gastric-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-increases-their-motility-via-expression-of-rhomboid-5-homolog-2-and-ability-to-induce-invasiveness-of-gastric-cancer-cells
#10
Takatsugu Ishimoto, Keisuke Miyake, Tannistha Nandi, Masakazu Yashiro, Nobuyuki Onishi, Kie Kyon Huang, Suling Joyce Lin, Ramnarayanan Kalpana, Su Ting Tay, Yuka Suzuki, Byoung Chul Cho, Daisuke Kuroda, Kota Arima, Daisuke Izumi, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Yoshifumi Baba, Eiji Oki, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideyuki Saya, Kosei Hirakawa, Hideo Baba, Patrick Tan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fibroblasts that interact with cancer cells are called cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)-they promote progression of different tumor types. We investigated the characteristics and functions of CAFs in diffuse-type gastric cancers (DGCs) by analyzing features of their genome and gene expression patterns. METHODS: We isolated CAFs and adjacent non-cancer fibroblasts (NFs) from 110 GC tissues from patients who underwent gastrectomy in Japan from 2008 through 2016...
April 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390311/metformin-mitigates-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad3-signaling-and-liver-fibrosis-in-mice
#11
Kerui Fan, Kejia Wu, Ling Lin, Pu Ge, Jie Dai, Xiaojiao He, Kai Hu, Li Zhang
Increasing evidence suggests that the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin have an extensive therapeutic range beyond hypoglycemic therapy. We previously found that metformin significantly attenuated acute hepatitis. The present study investigated the potential effects of metformin on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in mice. The results indicated that treatment with metformin suppressed CCl4-induced elevation of liver index, formation of fibrotic septa, accumulation of connective tissue and upregulation of collagen I...
April 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383711/synergistic-effect-of-regulatory-t-cells-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-angiogenesis-in-the-endometriotic-milieu
#12
Xiao-Qiu Wang, Wen-Jie Zhou, Xue-Zhen Luo, Yu Tao, Da-Jin Li
STUDY QUESTION: Do regulatory T cells (Tregs) contribute to angiogenesis in endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: High levels of CCL17 and CCL22 cause the recruitment of Tregs, upregulate the immunosuppression of Tregs and, in turn, may promote angiogenesis in endometrial cells in synergy with proinflammatory cytokines. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: The peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis has a higher percentage of Tregs than that of normal individuals; however, the regulatory role of Tregs in the disease remains unclear...
April 4, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380380/virgin-beta-cells-persist-throughout-life-at-a-neogenic-niche-within-pancreatic-islets
#13
Talitha van der Meulen, Alex M Mawla, Michael R DiGruccio, Michael W Adams, Vera Nies, Sophie Dólleman, Siming Liu, Amanda M Ackermann, Elena Cáceres, Anna E Hunter, Klaus H Kaestner, Cynthia J Donaldson, Mark O Huising
Postnatal maintenance or regeneration of pancreatic beta cells is considered to occur exclusively via the replication of existing beta cells, but clinically meaningful restoration of human beta cell mass by proliferation has never been achieved. We discovered a population of immature beta cells that is present throughout life and forms from non-beta precursors at a specialized micro-environment or "neogenic niche" at the islet periphery. These cells express insulin, but lack other key beta cell markers, and are transcriptionally immature, incapable of sensing glucose, and unable to support calcium influx...
April 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371436/localization-of-alpha-keratin-and-beta-keratin-corneous-beta-protein-in-the-epithelium-on-the-ventral-surface-of-the-lingual-apex-and-its-lingual-nail-in-the-domestic-goose-anser-anser-f-domestica-by-using-immunohistochemistry-and-raman-microspectroscopy-analysis
#14
Kinga Skieresz-Szewczyk, Hanna Jackowiak, Tomasz Buchwald, Mirosław Szybowicz
The epithelium of the ventral surface of the apex of the tongue in most birds is specified by the presence of the special superficial layer called lingual nail. The aim of the present study is to determine the localization of the alpha-keratin and beta-keratin (corneous beta protein) in this special epithelium in the domestic goose by using immunohistochemistry staining and the Raman spectroscopy analysis. Due to lack of commercially available antibodies to detect beta-keratin (corneous beta protein), the Raman spectroscopy was used as a specific tool to detect and describe the secondary structure of proteins...
March 30, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370471/motor-deficits-and-beta-oscillations-are-dissociable-in-an-alpha-synuclein-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Ivani Brys, Jessica Nunes, Romulo Fuentes
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor symptoms resulting from chronic loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. The over expression of the protein alpha-synuclein in the substantia nigra has been used to induce progressive dopaminergic neuronal loss and to reproduce key histopathological and temporal features of PD in animal models. However the neurophysiological aspects of the alpha-synuclein PD model have been poorly characterized. Hereby we performed chronic in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the corticostriatal circuit of rats injected with viral vector to over express alpha-synuclein in the right substantia nigra...
March 30, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369516/comprehensive-chromosome-screening-and-gene-expression-analysis-from-the-same-biopsy-in-human-preimplantation-embryos
#16
Diego Marin, Yujue Wang, Xin Tao, Richard T Scott, Nathan R Treff
STUDY QUESTION: Can simultaneous comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) and gene expression analysis be performed on the same biopsy of preimplantation human embryos? SUMMARY ANSWER: For the first time, CCS and reliable gene expression analysis have been performed on the same human preimplantation embryo biopsy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A single trophectoderm (TE) biopsy is routinely used for many IVF programs offering CCS for selection of only chromosomally normal embryos for transfer...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363522/reversal-of-multidrug-resistance-by-marsdenia-tenacissima-and-its-main-active-ingredients-polyoxypregnanes
#17
Kenneth K W To, Xu Wu, Chun Yin, Stella Chai, Sheng Yao, Onat Kadioglu, Thomas Efferth, Yang Ye, Ge Lin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer is often associated with the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP-1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP or ABCG2), in cancer cells, which facilitates the active efflux of a wide variety of chemotherapeutic drugs out of the cells. Marsdenia tenacissima is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb that has long been clinically used for treatment of cancers, particularly in combinational use with anticancer drugs...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358707/polymorphisms-of-platelet-glycoprotein-receptors-and-cell-adhesion-molecules-in-fetuses-with-fetal-growth-restriction-and-their-mothers-as-detected-with-pyrosequencing
#18
Maria Simou, Evaggelia Kouskouni, Nikolaos Vitoratos, Emmanuel Economou, George Creatsas
BACKGROUND: Vascular thrombotic tendency may lead to fetal growth restriction (FGR). Altered platelet function and genetic heterogeneity may play a role in this procedure. We investigated whether maternal or fetal genotypic frequencies of genes polymorphisms for certain platelet receptor and cell adhesion molecules are altered in FGR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared the maternal and fetal genotypic frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genes coding for platelet receptors and cell adhesion molecules [integrin alpha subunit 2 (ITGA2)C807T, integrin subunit beta 3(ITGB3) T1565C, platelet cell adhesion protein 1 (PECAM1) CTG-GTG and selectin P(SELP)A/C]...
March 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356997/variations-in-the-structure-of-airborne-bacterial-communities-in-tsogt-ovoo-of-gobi-desert-area-during-dust-events
#19
Teruya Maki, Yasunori Kurosaki, Kazunari Onishi, Kevin C Lee, Stephen B Pointing, Dulam Jugder, Norikazu Yamanaka, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Masato Shinoda
Asian dust events transport the airborne bacteria in Chinese desert regions as well as mineral particles and influence downwind area varying biological ecosystems and climate changes. However, the airborne bacterial dynamics were rarely investigated in the Gobi desert area, where dust events are highly frequent. In this study, air samplings were sequentially performed at a 2-m high above the ground at the sampling site located in desert area (Tsogt-Ovoo of Gobi desert; Mongolia 44.2304°N, 105.1700°E). During the dust event days, the bacterial cells and mineral particles increased to more than tenfold of concentrations...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352263/cold-stress-and-nitrogen-deficiency-affected-protein-expression-of-psychrotrophic-dyadobacter-psychrophilus-b2-and-pseudomonas-jessenii-mp1
#20
Deep C Suyal, Saurabh Kumar, Amit Yadav, Yogesh Shouche, Reeta Goel
Nitrogen (N) deficiency and low temperature conditions are the prominent facet of Western Himalayan agro-ecosystems. A slight change in the environment alters the protein expression of the microorganisms. Therefore, proteomes of the two psychrotrophs Dyadobacter psychrophilus B2 and Pseudomonas jessenii MP1 were analyzed using two dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS, to determine the physiological response of altitudinally different but indigenous microorganisms in response to cold stress under N depleting conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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