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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807664/social-interaction-modulates-the-neuroinflammatory-response-to-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-male-mice
#1
Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, Ning Zhang, Adam H Haines, Surbhi, Min Zhou, A Courtney DeVries
Social isolation is a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, although the underlying mechanisms remain underspecified. Considering the potential of microglia to become sensitized by stressors and their role in neuroinflammation, we hypothesized that social isolation primes microglia, resulting in an exaggerated neuroimmune response to experimental cerebral ischemia. First, major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) gene expression, an indicator of microglial priming, was compared between mice that were socially isolated or pair-housed...
August 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806941/androgen-receptor-is-expressed-in-mouse-cardiomyocytes-at-prenatal-and-early-postnatal-developmental-stages
#2
Enrique Pedernera, María José Gómora, Iván Meneses, Marlon De Ita, Carmen Méndez
BACKGROUND: Previous studies show that androgens are involved in hypertrophy and excitability of cardiomyocytes and that their effects are mediated through their receptor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of androgen receptor (AR) in mouse heart during prenatal and early postnatal stages. RESULTS: The expression of AR and related genes, alpha myosin heavy chain -Myh6-, beta myosin heavy chain -Myh7- and atrial natriuretic factor -Nppa- was simultaneously evaluated by semiquantitative RT-PCR...
August 14, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806736/unravelling-the-interplay-of-sphingolipids-and-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-the-human-corneal-stroma
#3
Sarah E Nicholas, Tyler G Rowsey, Shrestha Priyadarsini, Nawajes A Mandal, Dimitrios Karamichos
PURPOSE: To delineate the role of Sphingolipids (SPLs) in the human cornea and their cross-talks with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in order to develop novel, non-invasive therapies. METHODS: Human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) were harvested from healthy donors, stimulated with Vitamin C to promote extracellular matrix assembly, treated with exogenous sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) or sphingosine kinase inhibitor 2 (SPHK I2) and isolated after 4 weeks for further analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796422/insulin-producing-cells-derived-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-of-patients-with-fulminant-type-1-diabetes-vulnerability-to-cytokine-insults-and-increased-expression-of-apoptosis-related-genes
#4
Yoshiya Hosokawa, Taro Toyoda, Kenji Fukui, Megu Yamaguchi Baden, Michinori Funato, Yasushi Kondo, Tomomi Sudo, Hiromi Iwahashi, Marina Kishida, Chihiro Okada, Akira Watanabe, Isao Asaka, Kenji Osafune, Akihisa Imagawa, Iichiro Shimomura
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: This study was performed to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D) and evaluate the cytokine-induced apoptotic reactions of beta-like insulin-producing cells differentiated from the iPSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: iPSCs were generated from fibroblasts of patients with FT1D by inducing six reprogramming factors. Insulin-producing cells were differentiated from the iPSCs in vitro. The proportion of cleaved caspase-3-positive or TUNEL-positive cells among INSULIN (INS)-positive cells derived from FT1D-iPSC and control human-iPSC lines was evaluated under treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleuin-1-beta, and interferon-gamma...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796060/candidate-genes-investigation-for-severe-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-based-on-bioinformatics-analysis
#5
Shan Qi, Changhong Wang, Chunfu Li, Pu Wang, Minghui Liu
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver condition worldwide. However, its etiology and fundamental pathophysiology for the disease process are poorly understood. In this study, we thus used bioinformatics to identify candidate genes potentially causative of severe NAFLD. METHODS: Gene expression profile data GSE49541 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Tissues samples from 32 severe and 40 mild NAFLD patients were evaluated to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the 2 groups, followed by analyses of Gene Ontology (GO) functions and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792539/active-microorganisms-thrive-among-extremely-diverse-communities-in-cloud-water
#6
Pierre Amato, Muriel Joly, Ludovic Besaury, Anne Oudart, Najwa Taib, Anne I Moné, Laurent Deguillaume, Anne-Marie Delort, Didier Debroas
Clouds are key components in Earth's functioning. In addition of acting as obstacles to light radiations and chemical reactors, they are possible atmospheric oases for airborne microorganisms, providing water, nutrients and paths to the ground. Microbial activity was previously detected in clouds, but the microbial community that is active in situ remains unknown. Here, microbial communities in cloud water collected at puy de Dôme Mountain's meteorological station (1465 m altitude, France) were fixed upon sampling and examined by high-throughput sequencing from DNA and RNA extracts, so as to identify active species among community members...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770500/loss-of-pericytes-in-radiation-necrosis-after-glioblastoma-treatments
#7
Soon-Tae Lee, Youngbeom Seo, Ji-Yeon Bae, Kon Chu, Jin Wook Kim, Seung Hong Choi, Tae Min Kim, Il Han Kim, Sung-Hye Park, Chul-Kee Park
Radiation necrosis (RN) in brain tumor patients is often symptomatic, persistent without immediate resolution, and confused with tumor recurrence. Cerebral vascular pericytes are essential for endothelial function, vascular integrity, and angiogenesis. In this study, we showed that the loss of pericytes is involved in the pathogenesis of RN. From a brain tumor tissue repository, we identified three patients since 2011 with pathologically confirmed RN after the standard treatment for glioblastoma (GBM). The RN and their preradiation GBM tissues were serially processed for Western blotting using cell-type-specific antibodies against endothelial (CD31, active RhoA), pericyte [platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-β)], alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), astrocyte (GFAP), myelin sheath protein (MBP), and microglial markers (Iba1)...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765216/key-role-of-the-scavenger-receptor-marco-in-mediating-adenovirus-infection-and-subsequent-innate-responses-of-macrophages
#8
Mareike D Maler, Peter J Nielsen, Nicole Stichling, Idan Cohen, Zsolt Ruzsics, Connor Wood, Peggy Engelhard, Maarit Suomalainen, Ildiko Gyory, Michael Huber, Joachim Müller-Quernheim, Wolfgang W A Schamel, Siamon Gordon, Thilo Jakob, Stefan F Martin, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Urs F Greber, Marina A Freudenberg, György Fejer
The scavenger receptor MARCO is expressed in several subsets of naive tissue-resident macrophages and has been shown to participate in the recognition of various bacterial pathogens. However, the role of MARCO in antiviral defense is largely unexplored. Here, we investigated whether MARCO might be involved in the innate sensing of infection with adenovirus and recombinant adenoviral vectors by macrophages, which elicit vigorous immune responses in vivo Using cells derived from mice, we show that adenovirus infection is significantly more efficient in MARCO-positive alveolar macrophages (AMs) and in AM-like primary macrophage lines (Max Planck Institute cells) than in MARCO-negative bone marrow-derived macrophages...
August 1, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759505/qualitative-hormonal-profiling-of-the-lacrimal-drainage-system-potential-insights-into-the-etiopathogenesis-of-primary-acquired-nasolacrimal-duct-obstruction
#9
Mohammad Javed Ali, Martin Schicht, Friedrich Paulsen
PURPOSE: To investigate the presence and distribution patterns of hormone receptors in the lacrimal drainage system in normal and diseased states. METHODS: The study was performed on cadaveric and clinical samples of the lacrimal drainage system. Immunohistochemical labeling was performed for assessing the presence and distribution of receptors of estrogen alpha, estrogen beta, aromatase (CYP19), testosterone, progesterone, oxytocin, prolactin, and somatostatins 1 to 5 (SSTR1, SSTR2, SSTR3, SSTR4, and SSTR5)...
July 28, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754339/interleukin-1-receptor-knockout-mice-develop-epidermal-cysts-and-show-an-altered-innate-immune-response-following-exposure-to-ultraviolet-b-radiation
#10
Nikhil N Kulkarni, Christopher A Adase, Ling-Juan Zhang, Andrew W Borkowski, Fengwu Li, James A Sanford, Daniel J Coleman, Carlos Aguilera, Arup K Indra, Richard L Gallo
In this study, we observed that mice lacking the interleukin 1 receptor (IL1r(-/-)), or deficient in interleukin 1-beta (IL1-β), developed multiple epidermal cysts after chronic ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. Cysts that developed in IL1r(-/-) mice were characterized by the presence of the hair follicle marker Sox 9, keratins (K10 and K14) and normal melanocyte distribution and retinoid X receptor α (RXR α) expression. The increased incidence of cysts in IL1r(-/-) mice was associated with less skin inflammation as characterized by decreased recruitment of macrophages, and their skin also maintained epidermal barrier function compared to wild-type mice...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751018/deletion-of-the-p2x4-receptor-is-neuroprotective-acutely-but-induces-a-depressive-phenotype-during-recovery-from-ischemic-stroke
#11
Rajkumar Verma, Chunxia G Cronin, Jacob Hudobenko, Venugopal R Venna, Louise D McCullough, Bruce T Liang
INTRODUCTION: Acute ischemic injury leads to severe neuronal loss. One of the key mechanisms responsible for this effect is inflammation, which is characterized by the activation of myeloid cells, including resident microglia and infiltrating monocytes/macrophages. P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) present on these immune cells modulate the inflammatory response. For example, excessive release of adenosine triphosphate during acute ischemic stroke triggers stimulation of P2X4Rs, leading to myeloid cell activation and proliferation and further exacerbating post-ischemic inflammation...
July 24, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746825/differential-expression-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-glp-2-is-involved-in-pancreatic-islet-cell-adaptations-to-stress-and-beta-cell-survival
#12
Dawood Khan, Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Nigel Irwin, Peter R Flatt
Recent studies have confirmed that locally released proglucagon derived gene products, other than glucagon, have a major influence on pancreatic endocrine function. We assessed the impact of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) on beta-cell secretory function, proliferation and apoptosis, as well as glucose tolerance, feeding behaviour and islet adaptions to chemically-induced insulin deficiency and resistance. The GLP-2 receptor was evidenced on cultured rodent and human beta-cells, rodent alpha-cells and isolated mouse islets...
July 23, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738532/genipin-attenuates-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity-by-counteracting-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-apoptosis
#13
Eglal Mahgoub, Shanmugam Muthu Kumaraswamy, Kamal Hassan Kader, Balaji Venkataraman, Shreesh Ojha, Ernest Adeghate, Mohanraj Rajesh
Cisplatin (CP) is a potent and widely used chemotherapeutic agent. However, the clinical benefits of CP are compromised because it elicits nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. In this study, we investigated the nephroprotective effects of the phytochemical genipin (GP) isolated from the gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) fruit, using a murine model of CP-induced nephropathy. GP pretreatment attenuated the CP-induced renal tissue injury by diminishing the serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and cystatin C levels, as well as those of kidney injury molecule-1...
September 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719882/antileishmanial-activity-and-tubulin-polymerization-inhibition-of-podophyllotoxin-derivatives-on-leishmania-infantum
#14
José Miguel Escudero-Martínez, Yolanda Pérez-Pertejo, Rosa M Reguera, María Ángeles Castro, María Victoria Rojo, Carolina Santiago, Andrés Abad, Pablo Anselmo García, José Luis López-Pérez, Arturo San Feliciano, Rafael Balaña-Fouce
Leishmania microtubules play an important role not only in cell division, but also in keeping the shape of the parasite and motility of its free-living stages. Microtubules result from the self-assembly of alpha and beta tubulins, two phylogenetically conserved and very abundant eukaryotic proteins in kinetoplastids. The colchicine binding domain has inspired the discovery and development of several drugs currently in clinical use against parasites. However, this domain is less conserved in kinetoplastids and may be selectively targeted by new compounds...
June 28, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707278/daclizumab-development-clinical-trials-and-practical-aspects-of-use-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Laura E Baldassari, John W Rose
Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed towards CD25, the alpha subunit of the high-affinity interleukin (IL)-2 receptor. Daclizumab exerts its effects via multiple mechanisms, including reduction of IL-2-mediated lymphocyte activation and upregulation of CD56-bright natural killer cells. Intravenous daclizumab (Zenapax™) was initially approved for prevention of rejection in renal transplant. In subsequent early testing, followed by larger-scale phase II and phase III trials, both intravenous and subcutaneous daclizumab have demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of multiple sclerosis...
July 13, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707081/evaluation-of-clinical-pathology-parameters-in-fecal-pcr-positive-or-pcr-negative-goats-for-johne-s-disease
#16
Francesca Bonelli, F Fratini, B Turchi, C Cantile, V V Ebani, G Colombani, A Galiero, M Sgorbini
Johne's disease (JD) is an economically important infectious disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study evaluated the differences in various hematological and biochemical parameters between healthy goats and goats with JD. Forty goats were chosen randomly from a herd endemic for JD. A complete physical examination was performed. Blood and fresh fecal samples were collected from each goat. A complete blood cell (CBC) count and a protein electrophoresis were performed...
July 14, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702523/implications-of-peptide-assemblies-in-amyloid-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Pu Chun Ke, Marc-Antonie Sani, Feng Ding, Aleksandr Kakinen, Ibrahim Javed, Frances Separovic, Thomas P Davis, Raffaele Mezzenga
Neurodegenerative disorders and type 2 diabetes are global epidemics compromising the quality of life of millions worldwide, with profound social and economic implications. Despite the significant differences in pathology - much of which are poorly understood - these diseases are commonly characterized by the presence of cross-β amyloid fibrils as well as the loss of neuronal or pancreatic β-cells. In this review, we document research progress on the molecular and mesoscopic self-assembly of amyloid-beta, alpha synuclein, human islet amyloid polypeptide and prions, the peptides and proteins associated with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, type 2 diabetes and prion diseases...
July 12, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697756/proteomic-characterization-of-paired-non-malignant-and-malignant-african-american-prostate-epithelial-cell-lines-distinguishes-them-by-structural-proteins
#18
Jennifer S Myers, Karin A Vallega, Jason White, Kaixian Yu, Clayton C Yates, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang
BACKGROUND: While many factors may contribute to the higher prostate cancer incidence and mortality experienced by African-American men compared to their counterparts, the contribution of tumor biology is underexplored due to inadequate availability of African-American patient-derived cell lines and specimens. Here, we characterize the proteomes of non-malignant RC-77 N/E and malignant RC-77 T/E prostate epithelial cell lines previously established from prostate specimens from the same African-American patient with early stage primary prostate cancer...
July 11, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687070/massively-parallel-nanowell-based-single-cell-gene-expression-profiling
#19
Leonard D Goldstein, Ying-Jiun Jasmine Chen, Jude Dunne, Alain Mir, Hermann Hubschle, Joseph Guillory, Wenlin Yuan, Jingli Zhang, Jeremy Stinson, Bijay Jaiswal, Kanika Bajaj Pahuja, Ishminder Mann, Thomas Schaal, Leo Chan, Sangeetha Anandakrishnan, Chun-Wah Lin, Patricio Espinoza, Syed Husain, Harris Shapiro, Karthikeyan Swaminathan, Sherry Wei, Maithreyan Srinivasan, Somasekar Seshagiri, Zora Modrusan
BACKGROUND: Technological advances have enabled transcriptome characterization of cell types at the single-cell level providing new biological insights. New methods that enable simple yet high-throughput single-cell expression profiling are highly desirable. RESULTS: Here we report a novel nanowell-based single-cell RNA sequencing system, ICELL8, which enables processing of thousands of cells per sample. The system employs a 5,184-nanowell-containing microchip to capture ~1,300 single cells and process them...
July 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683409/thymus-vulgaris-l-extract-has-antimicrobial-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-the-absence-of-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity
#20
Jonatas Rafael de Oliveira, Daiane de Jesus Viegas, Ana Paula Réquia Martins, Cláudio Antonio Talge Carvalho, Cristina Pacheco Soares, Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Luciane Dias de Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the biological effects of the T. vulgaris L. extract., such as antimicrobial activity on planktonic cultures and mono- and polymicrobial biofilms, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory activity and genotoxicity. METHODS: Monomicrobial biofilms of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and polymicrobial biofilms composed by C. albicans with each bacterium were formed for 48h and exposed for 5min to the plant extract...
June 27, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
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