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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913195/breast-cancer-derived-extracellular-vesicles-stimulate-myofibroblast-differentiation-and-pro-angiogenic-behavior-of-adipose-stem-cells
#1
REVIEW
Young Hye Song, Christine Warncke, Sung Jin Choi, Siyoung Choi, Aaron E Chiou, Lu Ling, Han-Yuan Liu, Susan Daniel, Marc A Antonyak, Richard A Cerione, Claudia Fischbach
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are abundantly present in the mammary microenvironment and can promote breast cancer malignancy by differentiating into myofibroblasts. However, it remains largely unclear which role tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TEVs) play in this process. Here, we used microfabricated, type I collagen-based 3-D tissue culture platforms to investigate the effect of breast cancer cell-derived TEVs on ASCs myofibroblast differentiation and consequential changes in extracellular matrix remodeling and vascular sprouting...
November 29, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906177/-normalizing-the-malignant-phenotype-of-luminal-breast-cancer-cells-via-alpha-v-beta-3-integrin
#2
Hanan Abu-Tayeh, Keren Weidenfeld, Alisa Zhilin-Roth, Sagi Schif-Zuck, Sonja Thaler, Cristina Cotarelo, Tuan Z Tan, Jean P Thiery, Jeffrey E Green, Geula Klorin, Edmond Sabo, Jonathan P Sleeman, Maty Tzukerman, Dalit Barkan
Reestablishing tissue organization of breast cancer cells into acini was previously shown to override their malignant phenotype. In our study, we demonstrate that alpha(v)beta(3) integrin (Int-αvβ3), previously shown to play a role in cancer progression, promoted differentiation and growth arrest of organoids derived from luminal A breast cancer cells grown in their relevant three-dimensional microenvironment. These organoids differentiated into normal-like acini resembling a benign stage of breast tissue...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906033/the-role-of-the-backbone-torsion-in-protein-folding
#3
EDITORIAL
Irina Sorokina, Arcady Mushegian
BACKGROUND: The set of forces and sequence of events that govern the transition from an unfolded polypeptide chain to a functional protein with correct spatial structure remain incompletely known, despite the importance of the problem and decades of theory development, computer simulations, and laboratory experiments. Information about the correctly folded state of most proteins is likely to be present in their sequences, and yet many proteins fail to attain native structure after overexpression in a non-native environment or upon experimental denaturation and refolding...
December 1, 2016: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876065/expression-of-adiponectin-receptors-in-human-and-rat-intervertebral-disc-cells-and-changes-in-receptor-expression-during-disc-degeneration-using-a-rat-tail-temporary-static-compression-model
#4
Yoshiki Terashima, Kenichiro Kakutani, Takashi Yurube, Toru Takada, Koichiro Maeno, Hiroaki Hirata, Shingo Miyazaki, Masaaki Ito, Yuji Kakiuchi, Yoshiki Takeoka, Ryosuke Kuroda, Kotaro Nishida
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue is a large endocrine organ known to secret adiponectin, which has anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Adiponectin is widely involved in systemic disease, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac infraction. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of adiponectin in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. METHODS: Adipose and IVD tissues were obtained from human patients undergoing surgery (n = 4) and from skeletally mature Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 21)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871914/neonatal-levels-of-adiponectin-interleukin-10-and-interleukin-12-are-associated-with-the-risk-of-developing-type-1-diabetes-in-childhood-and-adolescence-a-nationwide-danish-case-control-study
#5
Steffen U Thorsen, Christian B Pipper, Stefanie Eising, Kristin Skogstrand, David M Hougaard, Jannet Svensson, Flemming Pociot
BACKGROUND/AIM: An in-depth understanding of the early phase of type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis is important for targeting primary prevention. We examined if 14 preselected mediators of immune responses differed in neonates that later developed T1D compared to control neonates. METHODS: The study is a case-control study with a 1:2 matching. The individuals were born between 1981 through 2002. Cases were validated using the National Patient Register and the Danish Childhood Diabetes Register...
November 15, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871176/in-vivo-angiogenic-capacity-of-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth-with-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#6
Ji-Hye Kim, Gee-Hye Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Hee Jang Pyeon, Jae Cheoun Lee, Gene Lee, Hyun Nam
Dental pulp is a highly vascularized tissue requiring adequate blood supply for successful regeneration. In this study, we investigated the functional role of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) as a perivascular source for in vivo formation of vessel-like structures. Primarily isolated SHEDs showed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics including the expression of surface antigens and in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials. Moreover, SHEDs were positive for NG2, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), and CD146 as pericyte markers...
November 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869206/endotoxin-free-hyaluronan-and-hyaluronan-fragments-do-not-stimulate-tnf-%C3%AE-interleukin-12-or-upregulate-co-stimulatory-molecules-in-dendritic-cells-or-macrophages
#7
Yifei Dong, Arif Arif, Mia Olsson, Valbona Cali, Blair Hardman, Manisha Dosanjh, Mark Lauer, Ronald J Midura, Vincent C Hascall, Kelly L Brown, Pauline Johnson
The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan, has been described as a regulator of tissue inflammation, with hyaluronan fragments reported to stimulate innate immune cells. High molecular mass hyaluronan is normally present in tissues, but upon inflammation lower molecular mass fragments are generated. It is unclear if these hyaluronan fragments induce an inflammatory response or are a consequence of inflammation. In this study, mouse bone marrow derived macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) were stimulated with various sizes of hyaluronan from different sources, fragmented hyaluronan, hyaluronidases and heavy chain modified-hyaluronan (HA-HC)...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864352/single-cell-transcriptomes-identify-human-islet-cell-signatures-and-reveal-cell-type-specific-expression-changes-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
Nathan Lawlor, Joshy George, Mohan Bolisetty, Romy Kursawe, Lili Sun, Sivakamasundari V, Ina Kycia, Paul Robson, Michael L Stitzel
Blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by the coordinated action of at least four cell types constituting pancreatic islets. Changes in the proportion and/or function of these cells are associated with genetic and molecular pathophysiology of monogenic, type 1, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Cellular heterogeneity impedes precise understanding of the molecular components of each islet cell type that govern islet dysfunction, particularly the less abundant delta and gamma/pancreatic polypeptide (PP) cells. Here, we report single cell transcriptomes for 638 cells from non-diabetic (ND) and T2D human islet samples...
November 18, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848152/the-presence-and-impact-of-estrogen-metabolism-on-the-biology-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#9
Keely May McNamara, Saki Oguro, Fumiya Omata, Kyoko Kikuchi, Fouzia Guestini, Koyu Suzuki, Yang Yang, Eriko Abe, Hisashi Hirakawa, Kristy A Brown, Ishida Takanori, Noriaki Ohuchi, Hironobu Sasano
PURPOSE: While triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is negative for estrogen receptor alpha, a substantial proportion of carcinomas express estrogen receptor beta (ERβ); consequently, estrogen actions and metabolism may be relevant in this cancer subtype. METHODS: A cohort of 81 TNBC patients from Tohoku University Hospital, Japan were characterised with regard to the expression of estrogen receptor beta and enzymes known to modulate levels of estrogens in breast and other tissues (Aromatase, 17-beta- Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 1, 2 and 6)...
November 15, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846984/extractive-scintillating-polymer-sensors-for-trace-level-detection-of-uranium-in-contaminated-ground-water
#10
Christine E Duval, Timothy A DeVol, Scott M Husson
This contribution describes the synthesis of robust extractive scintillating resin and its use in a flow-cell detector for the direct detection of uranium in environmental waters. The base poly[(4-methyl styrene)-co-(4-vinylbenzyl chloride)-co-(divinylbenzene)-co-(2-(1-napthyl)-4-vinyl-5-phenyloxazole)] resin contains covalently bound fluorophores. Uranium-binding functionality was added to the resin by an Arbuzov reaction followed by hydrolysis via strong acid or trimethylsilyl bromide (TMSBr)-mediated methanolysis...
December 1, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846610/bone-marrow-findings-in-autoimmune-lymphoproliferative-syndrome-with-germline-fas-mutation
#11
Yi Xie, Stefania Pittaluga, Susan Price, Mark Raffeld, Jamie Hahn, Elaine S Jaffe, V Koneti Rao, Irina Maric
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is rare genetic disorder characterized by defective FAS-mediated apoptosis, autoimmune disease, accumulation of mature T-cell receptor alpha/beta positive, CD4 and CD8 double-negative T cells and increased risk for lymphoma. Despite frequent hematological abnormalities, literature is scarce regarding the bone marrow pathology in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed 3l bone marrow biopsies from a cohort of 240 patients with germline FAS mutation...
October 20, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843953/considerations-for-defining-cytokine-dose-duration-and-milieu-that-are-appropriate-for-modeling-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-in-type-2-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
Craig S Nunemaker
Proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathophysiology of both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). T1D is an autoimmune disease involving the adaptive immune system responding to pancreatic beta-cells as antigen-presenting cells. This attracts immune cells that surround pancreatic islets (insulitis) and secrete cytokines, such as IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha, in close proximity to pancreatic beta-cells. In contrast, there is little evidence for such a focused autoimmune response in T2D...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835955/acute-effects-of-exercise-on-the-inflammatory-state-in-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#13
Lars Harbaum, Emilia Renk, Sara Yousef, Antonia Glatzel, Nicole Lüneburg, Jan K Hennigs, Tim Oqueka, Hans J Baumann, Djordje Atanackovic, Ekkehard Grünig, Rainer H Böger, Carsten Bokemeyer, Hans Klose
BACKGROUND: Exercise training positively influences exercise tolerance and functional capacity of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that exercise modulates the activated inflammatory state found in IPAH patients. METHODS: Single cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed in 16 IPAH patients and 10 healthy subjects. Phenotypic characterization of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and circulating cytokines were assessed before, directly after and 1 h after exercise...
November 11, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835939/anti-fibrotic-action-of-pirfenidone-in-dupuytren-s-disease-derived-fibroblasts
#14
Chaoming Zhou, Fang Liu, Phillip H Gallo, Mark E Baratz, Sandeep Kathju, Latha Satish
BACKGROUND: Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a complex fibro-proliferative disorder of the hand that is often progressive and eventually can cause contractures of the affected fingers. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) has been implicated as a key stimulator of myofibroblast activity and fascial contraction in DD. Pirfenidone (PFD) is an active small molecule shown to inhibit TGF-β1-mediated action in other fibrotic disorders. This study investigates the efficacy of PFD in vitro in inhibiting TGF-β1-mediated cellular functions leading to Dupuytren's fibrosis...
November 11, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834303/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-and-genotypes-of-transient-receptor-potential-ion-channel-and-acetylcholine-receptor-genes-from-isolated-b-lymphocytes-in-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-patients
#15
Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik, Samantha Johnston, Anu Chacko, Thao Nguyen, Peter Smith, Donald Staines
OBJECTIVE: The pathomechanism of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is unknown; however, a small subgroup of patients has shown muscarinic antibody positivity and reduced symptom presentation following anti-CD20 intervention. Given the important roles of calcium (Ca(2+)) and acetylcholine (ACh) signalling in B cell activation and potential antibody development, we aimed to identify relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genotypes in isolated B cells from CFS/ME patients...
November 10, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832535/epigenetic-analysis-of-endocrine-cell-subtypes-from-human-pancreatic-islets
#16
Jia Zhang, Klaus H Kaestner
Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to multiple complex diseases, including diabetes mellitus. Dissecting the epigenomic landscape of normal and disease states has greatly expanded our understanding of the regulation of key players in disease pathogenesis and is thus opening doors to novel therapeutic avenues. The human pancreatic islet is a pivotal micro-organ that maintains global glucose homeostasis. The heterogeneity of the islet impedes meaningful in-depth epigenetic analysis using whole islet tissue, because important marks in one cell type are masked by signals from other cell types...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825961/repression-of-microrna-function-mediates-inflammation-associated-colon-tumorigenesis
#17
Takeshi Yoshikawa, Jianfeng Wu, Motoyuki Otsuka, Takahiro Kishikawa, Nobumi Suzuki, Akemi Takata, Motoko Ohno, Rei Ishibashi, Mari Yamagami, Ryo Nakagawa, Naoya Kato, Masaaki Miyazawa, Jiahuai Han, Kazuhiko Koike
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the mechanisms by which chronic inflammation contributes to carcinogenesis, such as the development of colon tumors in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Specific microRNA (miRNAs) can function as suppressors or oncogenes, and widespread alterations in miRNA expression have been associated with tumorigenesis. We studied whether alterations in miRNA function contribute to inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis. METHODS: We studied the effects of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A), and IL1 beta (IL1B) on miRNA function, measured by activity of reporter constructs containing miRNA-binding sites in their 3' untranslated regions, in human 293T embryonic kidney, Caco-2, HT29, and HCT116 colon carcinoma cells, as well as dicer +/+ and dicer -/- and Apobec3 +/+ and Apobec3 -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
November 5, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824294/anti-oxidant-actions-of-selenium-in-orbital-fibroblasts-a-basis-for-the-effects-of-selenium-in-graves-orbitopathy
#18
Giovanna Rotondo Dottore, Marenza Leo, Giamberto Casini, Francesco Latrofa, Luca Cestari, Stefano Sellari-Franceschini, Marco Nardi, Paolo Vitti, Claudio Marcocci, Michele Marino
Background A recent clinical trial has shown a beneficial effect of the antioxidant agent selenium in Graves' orbitopathy (GO). In order to shed light on the cellular mechanisms on which selenium may act, here we investigated its effects in cultured orbital fibroblasts. Methods Primary cultures of orbital fibroblasts from 6 GO patients and 6 control subjects were established. Cells were treated with H2O2 to induce oxidative stress, after pre-incubation with selenium-(Methyl)selenocysteine (SeMCys). The following assays were performed: glutathione disulfide (GSSG), as a measure of oxidative stress, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, cell proliferation, hyaluronic acid (HA) and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
November 8, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814577/identification-of-natural-peptides-as-a-new-class-of-antimalarial-drugs-by-in-silico-approaches
#19
Ramar Perumal Samy, Sok Lin Foo, Octavio L Franco, Bradley G Stiles, Alan P Kumar, Gautam Sethi, Lina Hk Lim
Malaria is one of the most widespread and serious parasitic diseases worldwide. Currently available antimalarial drugs have side effects, and many strains of Plasmodia have developed resistance to such drugs. The present review examines the use of annexins and of natural peptides from snake venom as a new class of anti-malarial agents, with the key property of reducing inflammation. Severe cases of malaria manifest elevated serum levels of liver enzymes, inflammation, fibrin deposition, apoptosis, and reduction in peripheral CD8(+) T cells...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802092/case-report-preservation-of-reduced-numbers-of-insulin-positive-cells-in-sulfonylurea-unresponsive-kcnj11-related-diabetes
#20
Siri Atma W Greeley, Mark C Zielinski, Ananta Poudel, Honggang Ye, Shivani Berry, Jerome B Taxy, David Carmody, Donald F Steiner, Louis H Philipson, Jamie R Wood, Manami Hara
CONTEXT: The most common genetic cause of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus is activating mutations in KCNJ11, which can usually be treated using oral sulfonylureas (SU) instead of insulin injections, although some mutations are SU unresponsive. Here, we provide the first report of the pancreatic islet endocrine cell composition and area in a patient with an SU-unresponsive KCNJ11 mutation (p.G334D), in comparison to age-matched controls. CASE DESCRIPTION: Pancreatic autopsy tissue sections from a 2-year female child diagnosed with KCNJ11-related diabetes at 4 days of age and 13 age-matched controls were stained with insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide and Ki67 antibodies to determine islet endocrine cell composition and area...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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