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Beta cells AND Polyphenols

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425820/quercetin-restrains-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-inhibiting-twist1-and-regulating-e-cadherin-expression
#1
Jihong Feng, Dalong Song, SiYuan Jiang, XiaoHui Yang, TingTing Ding, Hong Zhang, Junmin Luo, Jun Liao, Qian Yin
Emerging evidence has indicated that transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells, thus promoting their motility and invasiveness. Quercetin, a member of the polyphenolic flavonoid family, has been reported to display anticancer activity against a broad range of cancer cell types. Indeed, numerous studies have shown the cancer preventive effects and molecular mechanisms of quercetin in vitro using diverse cell model systems. However, the potential effect of quercetin on EMT remains unclear...
February 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401682/molecular-pharmacology-of-rosmarinic-and-salvianolic-acids-potential-seeds-for-alzheimer-s-and-vascular-dementia-drugs
#2
REVIEW
Solomon Habtemariam
Both caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid (danshensu) are synthesized through two distinct routs of the shikimic acid biosynthesis pathway. In many plants, especially the rosemary and sage family of Lamiaceae, these two compounds are joined through an ester linkage to form rosmarinic acid (RA). A further structural diversity of RA derivatives in some plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a form of RA dimer, salvianolic acid-B (SA-B), that further give rise to diverse salvianolic acid derivatives...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341416/resveratrol-influences-pancreatic-islets-by-opposing-effects-on-electrical-activity-and-insulin-release
#3
Simone Brouwer, Theresa Hoffmeister, Anne Gresch, Lisa Schönhoff, Martina Düfer
SCOPE: Resveratrol is suggested to improve glycemic control by activation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and has already been tested clinically. Our investigation characterizes the targets of resveratrol in pancreatic beta cells and their contribution to short- and long-term effects on insulin secretion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Islets or beta cells were isolated from C57Bl/6N mice. Electrophysiology was performed with microelectrode arrays and patch-clamp technique, insulin secretion and content were determined by radioimmunoassay, cAMP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration by fluorescence methods...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301146/a-self-microemulsifying-formulation-of-oxyresveratrol-prevents-amyloid-beta-protein-induced-neurodegeneration-in-mice
#4
Yaowaporn Sangsen, Thongchai Sooksawate, Kittisak Likhitwitayawuid, Boonchoo Sritularak, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee
The polyphenol compound, oxyresveratrol (OXY) possesses potent antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of potential utility in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, the low oral bioavailability limits its neuroprotective effect and clinical application. The neuroprotective effect of orally administered OXY-loaded self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (OXY-SMEDDS) was compared with free OXY in vivo. Mice were orally administered either free OXY or OXY-SMEDDS once daily at a dose of 90, 180, or 360 mg/kg for 14 d...
January 4, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161661/chlorogenic-acid-prevents-diabetic-nephropathy-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-through-modulation-of-the-nrf2-ho-1-and-nf-%C3%A4-b-pathways
#5
Liping Bao, Jushuang Li, Dongqing Zha, Lian Zhang, Ping Gao, Tao Yao, Xiaoyan Wu
Oxidative and inflammatory damage have been suggested to play important roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is one of the most abundant polyphenols and has known immunoprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, animal experiments were designed to examine the protective effects of CGA in DN, and cellular experiments were designed to explore the underlying mechanisms. CGA significantly attenuated diabetic renal damage based on histological pathology and molecular biological methods...
November 18, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142396/antioxidant-and-cholinesterase-inhibitory-activities-of-ethyl-acetate-extract-of-terminalia-chebula-cell-free-in-vitro-and-in-silico-studies
#6
Mohamed Asik Rajmohamed, Suganthy Natarajan, Premkumar Palanisamy, Akbarsha Mohammad Abdulkader, Archunan Govindaraju
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by memory loss and impaired cognitive function. Cholinergic enzyme deficiency and oxidative stress are the two major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. The symptomatic treatment, as of now, is the use of cholinesterase inhibitors toward cholinergic "downturn." Therefore, there is a search for compounds that will be useful in focused therapies. There has been suggestion that Terminalia chebula fruit would be a potential source...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097552/the-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-curcumin-is-mediated-by-its-oxidative-metabolites
#7
Rebecca L Edwards, Paula B Luis, Paolo V Varuzza, Akil I Joseph, Sai Han Presley, Rupesh Chaturvedi, Claus Schneider
The spice turmeric, with its active polyphenol curcumin, has been used as anti-inflammatory remedy in traditional Asian medicine for centuries. Many cellular targets of curcumin have been identified, but how such a wide range of targets can be affected by a single compound is unclear. Here, we identified curcumin as a pro-drug that requires oxidative activation into reactive metabolites to exert anti-inflammatory activities. Synthetic curcumin analogs that undergo oxidative transformation potently inhibited the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), whereas stable, non-oxidizable analogs were less active, with a correlation coefficient (R2) of IC50versus log of autoxidation rate of 0...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090409/resveratrol-attenuates-the-cytotoxicity-induced-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-in-pc12-cells-by-upregulating-heme-oxygenase-1-via-the-pi3k-akt-nrf2-pathway
#8
Yang Hui, Tang Chengyong, Luo Cheng, He Haixia, Zhou Yuanda, Yu Weihua
Oxidative stress and cytotoxic damage induced by amyloid beta (Aβ) have been considered pivotal in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may represent a target for treatment. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway elicits a survival signal to protect against multiple injuries, and the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a downstream target of the PI3K/Akt pathway, can bind to HO-1. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol derived from grapes, has been widely reported to have diverse antioxidative effects against AD, but the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated...
October 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078076/involvement-of-bilitranslocase-and-beta-glucuronidase-in-the-vascular-protection-by-hydroxytyrosol-and-its-glucuronide-metabolites-in-oxidative-stress-conditions
#9
Julien Peyrol, Grégory Meyer, Philippe Obert, Olivier Dangles, Laurent Pechère, Marie-Josèphe Amiot, Catherine Riva
Olive oil vascular benefits have been attributed to hydroxytyrosol (HT). However, HT biological actions are still debated because it is extensively metabolized into glucuronides (GCs). The aim of this study was to test HT and GC vasculoprotective effects and the underlying mechanisms using aorta rings from 8-week-old male Wistar rats. In the absence of oxidative stress, incubation with 100 μM HT or GC for 5 min did not exert any vasorelaxing effect and did not influence the vascular function. Conversely, in condition of oxidative stress [upon incubation with 500 μM tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) for 30 min], preincubation with HT or GC improved acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation compared with untreated samples (no t-BHP)...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754022/unfolding-novel-mechanisms-of-polyphenol-flavonoids-for-better-glycaemic-control-targeting-pancreatic-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-iapp
#10
REVIEW
Ivana R Sequeira, Sally D Poppitt
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterised by hyperglycaemia resulting from defective insulin secretion, insulin resistance, or both. The impact of over-nutrition and reduced physical activity, evidenced by the exponential rise in obesity and the prevalence of T2D, strongly supports the implementation of lifestyle modification programs. Accordingly, an increased consumption of fruits and plant-derived foods has been advocated, as their intake is inversely correlated with T2D prevalence; this has been attributed, in part, to their contained polyphenolic compounds...
July 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669771/antidiabetic-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-water-and-n-butanol-soluble-extracts-from-saharian-anvillea-radiata-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#11
Chouaib Kandouli, Mathieu Cassien, Anne Mercier, Caroline Delehedde, Emilie Ricquebourg, Pierre Stocker, Mourad Mekaouche, Zineb Leulmi, Aicha Mechakra, Sophie Thétiot-Laurent, Marcel Culcasi, Sylvia Pietri
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: According to Saharian traditional medicine, Anvillea radiata Coss. & Dur. (Asteraceae) has been valued for treating a variety of ailments such as gastro-intestinal, liver and pulmonary diseases, and has gained awareness for its beneficial effect on postprandial hyperglycemia. However, to best of our knowledge, no detailed study of the antidiabetic curative effects of this plant has been conducted yet. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of dietary supplementation with Anvillea radiata extracts on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice in relation with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pancreatic beta-cells and skeletal muscle protection, and digestive enzyme inhibiting properties...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610976/dioscin-suppresses-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-suppresses-a549-lung-cancer-migration-and-invasion
#12
Won-Chul Lim, Hyunhee Kim, Young-Joo Kim, Kyung-Chul Choi, In Ho Lee, Ki Heon Lee, Mi Kyung Kim, Hyeonseok Ko
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important cellular process, occurs during cancer development and progression, has a crucial role in metastasis by enhancing the motility of tumor cells. Dioscin is a polyphenolic component isolated from Phyllanthus amarus, which exhibits a wide range of pharmacological and physiological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-fungal, and anti-viral activities. However, the possible role of dioscin in the EMT is unclear. We investigated the suppressive effect of dioscin on the EMT...
August 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567323/comparative-neuroprotective-effects-of-dietary-curcumin-and-solid-lipid-curcumin-particles-in-cultured-mouse-neuroblastoma-cells-after-exposure-to-a%C3%AE-42
#13
Panchanan Maiti, Gary L Dunbar
Aggregation of amyloid beta protein (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau (p-Tau) plays critical roles in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As an antiamyloid natural polyphenol, curcumin (Cur) has a potential role in prevention of neurodegeneration in AD. However, due to limited absorption of the dietary Cur, the solid lipid Cur particles (SLCP) have been suggested as being more effective for AD therapy. In the present study, we compared the role of dietary Cur and SLCP on oxidative stress, neuronal death, p-Tau level, and certain cell survival markers in vitro, after exposure to Aβ42...
2017: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456938/glioprotective-effect-of-resveratrol-an-emerging-therapeutic-role-for-oligodendroglial-cells
#14
Priscila Machado Rosa, Leo Anderson Meira Martins, Diogo Onofre Souza, André Quincozes-Santos
Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol compound highly found in red wine that displays several beneficial effects on the central nervous system (CNS), preventing or slowing the progression of a wide variety of neurological diseases. Its neuroprotective role is particularly associated to modulation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses in glial cells in a mechanism dependent of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) signaling pathway. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC), primarily known for giving rise to mature oligodendrocytes, have emerged as dynamic cells that are also important to maintain the CNS homeostasis...
April 29, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416441/glechoma-hederacea-extracts-attenuate-cholestatic-liver-injury-in-a-bile-duct-ligated-rat-model
#15
Ya-Yu Wang, Shih-Yi Lin, Wen-Ying Chen, Su-Lan Liao, Chih-Cheng Wu, Pin-Ho Pan, Su-Tze Chou, Chun-Jung Chen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In traditional Chinese medicine, Glechoma hederacea is frequently prescribed to patients with cholelithiasis, dropsy, abscess, diabetes, inflammation, and jaundice. Polyphenolic compounds are main bioactive components of Glechoma hederacea. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective potential of hot water extract of Glechoma hederacea against cholestatic liver injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cholestatic liver injury was produced by ligating common bile ducts in Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358620/daily-coffee-intake-inhibits-pancreatic-beta-cell-damage-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-a-mouse-model-of-spontaneous-metabolic-syndrome-tsumura-suzuki-obese-diabetic-mice
#16
Syunsuke Watanabe, Tetsuyuki Takahashi, Hirohisa Ogawa, Hisanori Uehara, Takaaki Tsunematsu, Hayato Baba, Yuki Morimoto, Koichi Tsuneyama
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is one of the most important health issues worldwide. Obesity causes insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and various diseases throughout the body. The liver phenotype, which is called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), frequently progresses to hepatocellular carcinoma. We recently established a new animal model, Tsumura-Suzuki obese diabetic (TSOD) mice, which spontaneously exhibit obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and NASH with liver nodules...
May 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280523/resveratrol-attenuates-copper-induced-senescence-by-improving-cellular-proteostasis
#17
Liliana Matos, Alexandra Monteiro Gouveia, Henrique Almeida
Copper sulfate-induced premature senescence (CuSO4-SIPS) consistently mimetized molecular mechanisms of replicative senescence, particularly at the endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis level. In fact, disruption of protein homeostasis has been associated to age-related cell/tissue dysfunction and human disorders susceptibility. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound with proved antiaging properties under particular conditions. In this setting, we aimed to evaluate resveratrol ability to attenuate cellular senescence induction and to unravel related molecular mechanisms...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265554/protective-role-of-hesperidin-against-%C3%AE-radiation-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-rat-testis
#18
Nadia Z Shaban, Ahmed M Ahmed Zahran, Fatma H El-Rashidy, Ahmad S Abdo Kodous
BACKGROUND: Gamma (γ) ray, an electromagnetic radiation, is occasionally accompanying the emission of an alpha or beta particle. Exposure to such radiation can cause cellular changes such as mutations, chromosome aberration and cellular damage which depend upon the total amount of energy, duration of exposure and the dose. Ionizing radiation can impair spermatogenesis and can cause mutations in germ cells. In general, type B spermatogonia are sensitive to this type of radiation. The current study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of hesperidin (H), as a polyphenolic compound, on rat testis injury induced by γ-radiation...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700119/biomimetic-apoe-reconstituted-high-density-lipoprotein-nanocarrier-for-blood-brain-barrier-penetration-and-amyloid-beta-targeting-drug-delivery
#19
Qingxiang Song, Huahua Song, Jianrong Xu, Jialin Huang, Meng Hu, Xiao Gu, Juan Chen, Gang Zheng, Hongzhuan Chen, Xiaoling Gao
Amyloid beta (Aβ) and its aggregation forms in the brain have been suggested as key targets for the therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, the development of nanocarriers that possess both blood-brain barrier permeability and Aβ-targeting ability is of great importance for the intervention of AD. Here we constructed a biomimetic nanocarrier named apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-reconstituted high density lipoprotein nanocarrier (ANC) from recombinant ApoE and synthetic lipids to achieve the above goals. α-Mangostin (α-M), a polyphenolic agent that can inhibit the formation of Aβ oligomers and fibrils and accelerate Aβ cellular degradation, was used as the model drug...
November 7, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693453/development-of-a-neuroprotective-potential-algorithm-for-medicinal-plants
#20
Weixi Liu, Hang Ma, Nicholas A DaSilva, Kenneth N Rose, Shelby L Johnson, Lu Zhang, Chunpeng Wan, Joel A Dain, Navindra P Seeram
Medicinal plants are promising candidates for Alzheimer's disease (AD) research but there is lack of systematic algorithms and procedures to guide their selection and evaluation. Herein, we developed a Neuroprotective Potential Algorithm (NPA) by evaluating twenty-three standardized and chemically characterized Ayurvedic medicinal plant extracts in a panel of bioassays targeting oxidative stress, carbonyl stress, protein glycation, amyloid beta (Aβ) fibrillation, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, and neuroinflammation...
September 29, 2016: Neurochemistry International
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