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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404014/incidence-and-enteral-feed-antecedents-of-severe-neonatal-necrotising-enterocolitis-across-neonatal-networks-in-england-2012-13-a-whole-population-surveillance-study
#1
Cheryl Battersby, Nick Longford, Sundhiya Mandalia, Kate Costeloe, Neena Modi
BACKGROUND: Necrotising enterocolitis is a neonatal gastrointestinal inflammatory disease with high mortality and severe morbidity. This disorder is growing in global relevance as birth rates and survival of babies with low gestational age improve. Population data are scant and pathogenesis is incompletely understood, but enteral feed exposures are believed to affect risk. We aimed to quantify the national incidence of severe necrotising enterocolitis, describe variation across neonatal networks, and investigate enteral feeding-related antecedents of severe necrotising enterocolitis...
January 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387717/relationships-among-different-water-soluble-choline-compounds-differ-between-human-preterm-and-donor-milk
#2
Sara Moukarzel, Lynda Soberanes, Roger A Dyer, Susan Albersheim, Rajavel Elango, Sheila M Innis
Choline is essential for infant development. Human milk choline is predominately present in three water-soluble choline (WSC) forms: free choline (FC), phosphocholine (PhosC), and glycerophosphocholine (GPC). It is unclear whether mother's own preterm milk and pooled donor milk differ in WSC composition and whether WSC compounds are interrelated. Mother's own preterm milk (n = 75) and donor milk (n = 30) samples from the neonatal intensive care unit, BC Women's Hospital were analyzed for WSC composition using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
April 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384618/microwave-dielectric-spectroscopy-study-of-water-dynamics-in-normal-and-contaminated-raw-bovine-milk
#3
Daniel Agranovich, Paul Ben Ishai, Gil Katz, Dror Bezman, Yuri Feldman
The role of water in bovine milk is more complicated than that of a background solvent. To understand the interaction between water and the constituents of milk, an extensive dielectric study of the γ-dispersion of raw bovine milk was carried out over the frequency range 0.1-50GHz and the interval of temperatures (10°C-42°C). Samples were provided by utilizing an extended donor pool. The results reveal that the temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation times is described by the Arrhenius law...
March 30, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381523/human-milk-oligosaccharide-composition-predicts-risk-of-necrotising-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants
#4
Chloe A Autran, Benjamin P Kellman, Jae H Kim, Elizabeth Asztalos, Arlin B Blood, Erin C Hamilton Spence, Aloka L Patel, Jiayi Hou, Nathan E Lewis, Lars Bode
OBJECTIVE: Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common and often fatal intestinal disorders in preterm infants. Markers to identify at-risk infants as well as therapies to prevent and treat NEC are limited and urgently needed. NEC incidence is significantly lower in breast-fed compared with formula-fed infants. Infant formula lacks human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), such as disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT), which prevents NEC in neonatal rats. However, it is unknown if DSLNT also protects human preterm infants...
April 5, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369652/early-versus-late-enteral-feeding-in-preterm-intrauterine-growth-restricted-neonates-with-antenatal-doppler-abnormalities-an-open-label-randomized-trial
#5
Vishal Vishnu Tewari, Sachin Kumar Dubey, Reema Kumar, Shakti Vardhan, C M Sreedhar, Girish Gupta
Background of the study: Enteral feeding in preterm neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AREDF) on umbilical artery (UA) Doppler is delayed owing to an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Delaying enteral feeding with longer duration of parenteral nutrition (PN) carries an increased risk of sepsis. Objectives: To study early versus late feeding in preterm IUGR neonates for time required to attain sufficient feed volume to discontinue PN and increased risk of NEC or feed intolerance (FI)...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335478/lactational-stage-of-pasteurized-human-donor-milk-contributes-to-nutrient-limitations-for-infants
#6
Christina J Valentine, Georgia Morrow, Amanda Reisinger, Kelly A Dingess, Ardythe L Morrow, Lynette K Rogers
BACKGROUND: Mother's own milk is the first choice for feeding preterm infants, but when not available, pasteurized human donor milk (PDM) is often used. Infants fed PDM have difficulties maintaining appropriate growth velocities. To assess the most basic elements of nutrition, we tested the hypotheses that fatty acid and amino acid composition of PDM is highly variable and standard pooling practices attenuate variability; however, total nutrients may be limiting without supplementation due to late lactational stage of the milk...
March 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298536/pasteurization-procedures-for-donor-human-milk-affect-body-growth-intestinal-structure-and-resistance-against-bacterial-infections-in-preterm-pigs
#7
Yanqi Li, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Marita de Waard, Lars Christensen, Ping Zhou, Pingping Jiang, Jing Sun, Anders Miki Bojesen, Charlotte Lauridsen, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Trine Kastrup Dalsgaard, Stine Brandt Bering, Per Torp Sangild
Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants.Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward bacterial infections relative to HP-treated DM.Methods: Bacteria, selected bioactive components, and markers of antioxidant capacity were measured in unpasteurized donor milk (UP), HP-treated milk, and UVC-treated milk (all from the same DM pool)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286292/metabolic-engineering-of-escherichia-coli-for-the-production-of-2-fucosyllactose-and-3-fucosyllactose-through-modular-pathway-enhancement
#8
Di Huang, Kexin Yang, Jia Liu, Yingying Xu, Yuanyuan Wang, Ru Wang, Bin Liu, Lu Feng
Fucosyllactoses, including 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) and 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL), are important oligosaccharides in human milk that are commonly used as nutritional additives in infant formula due to their biological functions, such as the promotion of bifidobacteria growth, inhibition of pathogen infection, and improvement of immune response. In this study, we developed a synthetic biology approach to promote the efficient biosynthesis of 2'-FL and 3-FL in engineered Escherichia coli. To boost the production of 2'-FL and 3-FL, multiple modular optimization strategies were applied in a plug-and-play manner...
March 9, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262036/the-effect-of-simulated-flash-heating-pasteurisation-and-holder-pasteurisation-on-human-milk-oligosaccharides
#9
Brodie Daniels, Anna Coutsoudis, Chloe Autran, Kimberly Amundson Mansen, Kiersten Israel-Ballard, Lars Bode
BACKGROUND: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important protective functions in human milk. A low-cost remote pasteurisation temperature-monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cell phone-based networked sensing system to monitor simulated flash heat pasteurisation. AIM: To compare the pasteurisation effect on HMOs of the FoneAstra FH method with the current Sterifeed Holder method used by human milk banks. METHODS: Donor human milk samples (n = 48) were obtained from a human milk bank and pasteurised using the two pasteurisation methods...
March 6, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252573/influence-of-feeding-type-on-gut-microbiome-development-in-hospitalized-preterm-infants
#10
Xiaomei Cong, Michelle Judge, Wanli Xu, Ana Diallo, Susan Janton, Elizabeth A Brownell, Kendra Maas, Joerg Graf
BACKGROUND: Premature infants have a high risk for dysbiosis of the gut microbiome. Mother's own milk (MOM) has been found to favorably alter gut microbiome composition in infants born at term. Evidence about the influence of feeding type on gut microbial colonization of preterm infants is limited. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of feeding types on gut microbial colonization of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: Thirty-three stable preterm infants were recruited at birth and followed up for the first 30 days of life...
March 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244065/breastfeeding-education-and-support-for-women-with-twins-or-higher-order-multiples
#11
REVIEW
Heather M Whitford, Selina K Wallis, Therese Dowswell, Helen M West, Mary J Renfrew
BACKGROUND: There are rising rates of multiple births worldwide with associated higher rates of complications and more hospital care, often due to prematurity. While there is strong evidence about the risks of not breastfeeding, rates of breastfeeding in women who have given birth to more than one infant are lower than with singleton births. Breastfeeding more than one infant can be more challenging because of difficulties associated with the birth or prematurity. The extra demands on the mother of frequent suckling, coordinating the needs of more than one infant or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit can lead to delayed initiation or early cessation...
February 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241501/early%C3%A2-nutritional%C3%A2-interventions%C3%A2-for%C3%A2-brain%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-cognitive%C3%A2-development%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-preterm%C3%A2-infants-a%C3%A2-review%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-literature
#12
REVIEW
Nora Schneider, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
Adequate nutrition is important for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm-born infants. In this review, we aim to summarize the current knowledge on nutritional interventions initiated during the hospital stay targeting brain and cognitive development benefits in preterm human infants. Studies can broadly be split in general dietary intervention studies and studies investigating specific nutrients or nutritional supplements. In general, mother's breast milk was reported to be better for preterm infants' neurodevelopment compared to infant formula...
February 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241418/the-effect-of-simulated-flash-heat-pasteurization-on-immune-components-of-human-milk
#13
Brodie Daniels, Stefan Schmidt, Tracy King, Kiersten Israel-Ballard, Kimberly Amundson Mansen, Anna Coutsoudis
A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples (N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized...
February 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162020/holder-pasteurization-affects-s100b-concentrations-in-human-milk
#14
Chiara Peila, Alessandra Coscia, Enrico Bertino, Giovanni Li Volti, Fabio Galvano, Gerard H A Visser, Diego Gazzolo
PURPOSE: Donor milk (DM) represents an important nutrition source for high-risk newborns. Holder pasteurization (HoP) is the most recommended procedure for DM treatment, providing a good compromise between microbiological safety and biological quality. HoP was previously shown to affect DM cytokines, growth factors and hormones levels, whilst no data concerning the possible effects of HoP on neurobiomarkers (NB) are available. Therefore, our study investigated whether the concentration in DM of a well-known NB involved in brain development/damage, namely S100B, changes due to HoP...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161170/maternal-supplementation-with-rumen-protected-methionine-increases-prepartal-plasma-methionine-concentration-and-alters-hepatic-mrna-abundance-of-1-carbon-methionine-and-transsulfuration-pathways-in-neonatal-holstein-calves
#15
C B Jacometo, Z Zhou, D Luchini, M N Corrêa, J J Loor
An important mechanism of nutritional "programming" induced by supplementation with methyl donors during pregnancy is the alteration of mRNA abundance in the offspring. We investigated the effects of rumen-protected Met (RPM) on abundance of 17 genes in the 1-carbon, Met, and transsulfuration pathways in calf liver from cows fed the same basal diet without (control, CON) or with RPM at 0.08% of diet dry matter/d (MET) from -21 through +30 d around calving. Biopsies (n = 8 calves per diet) were harvested on d 4, 14, 28, and 50 of age...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159212/human-milk-treatment-and-quality-of-banked-human-milk
#16
REVIEW
Jean-Charles Picaud, Rachel Buffin
The aim of human milk banks is to deliver safe and high quality donor human milk. Treatment of human milk has to destroy most microorganisms while preserving immunological and nutrient components, which is obtained when using low time low temperature pasteurization. However it destroys bile-simulated lipase, reduces lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and bactericidal capacity of human milk. New methods are under investigation such as high temperature short time pasteurization, high pressure processing, or ultraviolet irradiation...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159209/necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-human-milk-feeding-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Nicole Theresa Cacho, Leslie A Parker, Josef Neu
This article summarizes evidence regarding whether a donor human milk (DHM) and/or an exclusively human milk (EHM) diet decreases the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and the dose of human milk (HM) necessary to reduce the risk of NEC in premature infants. Additional research regarding protection afforded by DHM and EHM is necessary as well as research elucidating the exact dose of HM necessary for NEC risk reduction. Research is also needed to determine whether there is a dose-dependent effect of DHM, a combination of mother's own milk and DHM, and an EHM diet on NEC incidence...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159208/the-importance-of-human-milk-for-immunity-in-preterm-infants
#18
REVIEW
Erin D Lewis, Caroline Richard, Bodil M Larsen, Catherine J Field
The immune system of preterm infants is immature, placing them at increased risk for serious immune-related complications. Human milk provides a variety of immune protective and immune maturation factors that are beneficial to the preterm infant's poorly developed immune system. The most studied immune components in human milk include antimicrobial proteins, maternal leukocytes, immunoglobulins, cytokines and chemokines, oligosaccharides, gangliosides, nucleotides, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159201/ensuring-safety-in-donor-human-milk-banking-in-neonatal-intensive-care
#19
REVIEW
Ben T Hartmann
The provision of donor human milk avoids the risks associated with early infant formula feeding only when maternal milk is unavailable. Donor human milk-banking services (DHMBS) should provide an effective clinical service that causes no harm to donors or recipients. This article aims to begin the process of defining the minimum acceptable standard required for safe donor human milk banking in the neonatal unit. An assessment process is established to consider the potential risks and benefits of milk banking to both recipients and donors...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159199/evidence-based-methods-that-promote-human-milk-feeding-of-preterm-infants-an-expert-review
#20
REVIEW
Paula P Meier, Tricia J Johnson, Aloka L Patel, Beverly Rossman
Best practices translating the evidence for high-dose human milk (HM) feeding for preterm infants during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization have been described, but their implementation has been compromised. Although the rates of any HM feeding have increased over the last decade, efforts to help mothers maintain HM provision through to NICU discharge have remained problematic. Special emphasis should be placed on prioritizing the early lactation period of coming to volume so that mothers have sufficient HM volume to achieve their personal HM feeding goals...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
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