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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800816/an-investigation-of-vtx2-bacteriophage-transduction-to-different-escherichia-coli-patho-groups-in-food-matrices-and-nutrient-broth
#1
Sepo Nyambe, Catherine Burgess, Paul Whyte, Declan Bolton
This study investigated bacteriophage (phage) mediated transfer of the vtx2 gene from a donor Escherichia coli (C600φ3538(Δvtx2::cat)) to enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC) and diffusely adherent (DAEC) E. coli strains in LB broth, milk, ground beef and lettuce. Two bacterial concentrations for both the E. coli donor and recipient strains, 3 and 5 log10 CFU/ml (LB broth and milk)/g (beef) or/cm(2) (lettuce), were used. When transductants were obtained, the location of insertion of the phage (insertion sites wrbA, yehA, sbcB, yecE and/or Z2577) in the E...
December 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783445/donor-milk-or-formula-a-qualitative-study-of-postpartum-mothers-of-healthy-newborns
#2
Laura R Kair, Valerie J Flaherman
BACKGROUND: Many breastfed infants receive supplemental feeds during the birth hospitalization, either by maternal request or due to medical indications. Donor milk from a certified milk bank has become increasingly available and is now used in some settings for term and late preterm infants. No studies have explored maternal opinions about donor milk and formula as options for supplementary feedings. Research aim: This study aimed to explore maternal perceptions about donor milk and formula supplementation and implications for continued breastfeeding...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768852/septic-episodes-in-a-premature-infant-after-in-utero-exposure-to-rituximab
#3
Susanne Hay, Sandra Burchett, Oreofe Odejide, Sule Cataltepe
Rituximab is an increasingly used immunotherapeutic agent for women of reproductive age for treatment of autoimmune diseases, leukemias, and lymphomas. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets B-cell surface antigen CD20 and can cross the placenta. Current evidence of the impact of this medication on the developing fetus is limited, but there is little to suggest that fetal exposure to this medication places an infant at increased risk of immunosuppression and subsequent infection. Here we report a case of in utero rituximab exposure that was associated with 2 severe septic episodes with Enterococcus faecalis, in a premature infant of 29 weeks' gestational age with a birth weight of 820 g...
August 2, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765581/oropharyngeal-mucosal-transmission-of-zika-virus-in-rhesus-macaques
#4
Christina M Newman, Dawn M Dudley, Matthew T Aliota, Andrea M Weiler, Gabrielle L Barry, Mariel S Mohns, Meghan E Breitbach, Laurel M Stewart, Connor R Buechler, Michael E Graham, Jennifer Post, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Eric Peterson, Wendy Newton, Emma L Mohr, Saverio Capuano, David H O'Connor, Thomas C Friedrich
Zika virus is present in urine, saliva, tears, and breast milk, but the transmission risk associated with these body fluids is currently unknown. Here we evaluate the risk of Zika virus transmission through mucosal contact in rhesus macaques. Application of high-dose Zika virus directly to the tonsils of three rhesus macaques results in detectable plasma viremia in all animals by 2 days post-exposure; virus replication kinetics are similar to those observed in animals infected subcutaneously. Three additional macaques inoculated subcutaneously with Zika virus served as saliva donors to assess the transmission risk from contact with oral secretions from an infected individual...
August 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764968/production-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-by-enzymatic-and-whole-cell-microbial-biotransformations
#5
Georg A Sprenger, Florian Baumgärtner, Christoph Albermann
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are almost unique constituents of breast milk and are not found in appreciable amounts in cow milk. Due to several positive aspects of HMO for the development, health, and wellbeing of infants, production of HMO would be desirable. As a result, scientist from different disciplines have developed methods for the preparation of single HMO compounds. Here, we review approaches to HMO preparation by (chemo-)enzymatic syntheses or by whole-cell biotransformation with recombinant bacterial cells...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749825/a-fortified-donor-milk-policy-is-associated-with-improved-in-hospital-head-growth-and-weight-gain-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#6
Gemma Ginovart, Ignasi Gich, Antonio Gutiérrez, Sergio Verd
BACKGROUND: Previous research has reported that infants fed donor milk grow slower than those fed formula. However, most of the trials used unfortified donor milk, which limits the ability to generalize the results to current clinical practice. PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of early human milk feeding (donor milk and/or mother's own milk) with standard fortification on in-hospital growth of very low-birth-weight infants. METHODS: This pre-/postretrospective study included selected newborn infants less than 1500 g admitted to a level IV neonatal intensive care unit before and after the introduction of a policy providing donor milk when mother's own milk was not available in sufficient quantity to meet her infant's need...
August 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742378/effect-of-the-various-steps-in-the-processing-of-human-milk-in-the-concentrations-of-iga-igm-and-lactoferrin
#7
Gerardo Arroyo, Kevin Alexander Ortiz Barrientos, Karla Lange, Federico Nave, Gabriela Miss Mas, Pamela Lam Aguilar, Miguel Angel Soto Galindo
INTRODUCTION: Human milk immune components are unique and important for the development of the newborn. Milk processing at the Human Milk Banks (HMB), however, causes partial destruction of immune proteins. The objective of this study was to determine the effects that heating during the milk processing procedure at the HMB had on the concentrations of IgA, IgM, and lactoferrin at three critical points in time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty milk samples (150 mL) were collected from voluntary donors at the HMB at the Hospital Nacional Pedro de Bethancourt, located in Antigua Guatemala...
July 25, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740388/role-of-tim-4-in-exosome-dependent-entry-of-hiv-1-into-human-immune-cells
#8
Brian Sims, Anitra L Farrow, Sparkle D Williams, Anju Bansal, Alexandre Krendelchtchikov, Linlin Gu, Qiana L Matthews
Exosomes, 30-200 nm nanostructures secreted from donor cells and internalized by recipient cells, can play an important role in the cellular entry of some viruses. These microvesicles are actively secreted into various body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, and breast milk. We successfully isolated exosomes from human breast milk and plasma. The size and concentration of purified exosomes were measured by nanoparticle tracking, while Western blotting confirmed the presence of the exosomal-associated proteins CD9 and CD63, clathrin, and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin proteins (TIMs)...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714111/room-for-improvement-in-breast-milk-feeding-after-very-preterm-birth-in-europe-results-from-the-epice-cohort
#9
Emilija Wilson, Anna-Karin Edstedt Bonamy, Mercedes Bonet, Liis Toome, Carina Rodrigues, Elizabeth A Howell, Marina Cuttini, Jennifer Zeitlin
Breast milk feeding (BMF) is associated with lower neonatal morbidity in the very preterm infant (<32 weeks gestation) and breastfeeding is beneficial for maternal health. Previous studies show large variations in BMF after very preterm birth and recognize the need for targeted breastfeeding support in the neonatal intensive care units (NICU). In a European collaboration project about evidence-based practices after very preterm birth, we examined the association between maternal, obstetric, and infant clinical factors; neonatal and maternal care unit policies; and BMF at discharge from the NICU...
July 17, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691975/stability-of-cortisol-and-cortisone-in-human-breast-milk-during-holder-pasteurization
#10
Bibian van der Voorn, Marita de Waard, Lisette R Dijkstra, Annemieke C Heijboer, Joost Rotteveel, Johannes B van Goudoever, Martijn J J Finken
Human donor milk is the feeding of choice for preterm infants, when own mother's milk is not available. Holder pasteurization is necessary to secure the safety of donor milk, although it can affect milk quality by reduction of nutritional and bioactive components. Recently, research has focused on the potential role of breast-milk glucocorticoids for infant development. At this moment, it is unknown whether pasteurization affects milk glucocorticoid levels. Therefore, we assessed whether Holder pasteurization, the most frequently used method nowadays, reduces breast-milk cortisol and cortisone levels, using breast milk samples from 30 women who delivered at term...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690067/transient-changes-in-milk-production-efficiency-and-bacterial-community-composition-resulting-from-near-total-exchange-of-ruminal-contents-between-high-and-low-efficiency-holstein-cows
#11
Paul J Weimer, Madison S Cox, Tania Vieira de Paula, Miao Lin, Mary Beth Hall, Garret Suen
The objectives of this study were to determine if milk production efficiency (MPE) is altered by near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- (HE) and low-MPE (LE) cows and to characterize ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC) before exchange and over time postexchange. Three pairs of ruminally cannulated, third-lactation cows were selected whose MPE (energy-corrected milk per unit of dry matter intake) differed over their first 2 lactations. Approximately 95% of ruminal contents were exchanged between cows within each pair...
September 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685670/milk-donor-blood-screening-for-hiv-syphilis-and-hepatitis-b-markers-in-a-brazilian-human-milk-bank-prevalence-time-trends-over-the-2005-2015-period
#12
Emil Kupek, Estela Olivo Savi
BACKGROUND: Human milk banking has been promoted to provide donated breast milk for at-risk children whose mothers cannot breastfeed them but this effort was hindered by the advent of HIV epidemic. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the seroprevalence of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B in the blood of human milk donors registered in a major maternity hospital in the northern region of the Santa Catarina State, Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective study included serological tests for HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B screening of milk donor candidates in the 2005-2015 period...
July 7, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643867/transfusion-transmitted-cmv-infection%C3%A2-%C3%A2-current-knowledge-and-future-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
M Ziemann, T Thiele
Transmission of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) via transfusion (TT-CMV) may still occur and remains a challenge in the treatment of immunocompromised CMV-seronegative patients, e.g. after stem cell transplantation, and for low birthweight infants. Measures to reduce the risk of TT-CMV have been evaluated in clinical studies, including leucocyte depletion of cellular blood products and/or the selection of CMV-IgG-negative donations. Studies in large blood donor cohorts indicate that donations from newly CMV-IgG-positive donors should bear the highest risk for transmitting CMV infections because they contain the highest levels of CMV-DNA, and early CMV antibodies cannot neutralise CMV...
June 23, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636003/in-vitro-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-by-whey-protein-to-preserve-intestinal-health
#14
T Sánchez-Moya, R López-Nicolás, D Planes, C A González-Bermúdez, G Ros-Berruezo, C Frontela-Saseta
The effect of several types of whey milk - cow, sheep, goat and a mixture of them (60 : 20 : 20, respectively) - was assessed in the human gut microbiota. The prebiotic potential of these substrates was evaluated through in vitro gastrointestinal digestion following faecal batch culture fermentations (mimicking colonic fermentation) for 48 hours, using faeces from normal-weight (NW) and obese (OB) donors. Throughout the fermentation process, pH, gas production, short chain and branched fatty acids (SCFA-BCFA) were measured, as well as the changes of microbiota using qPCR...
June 21, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627820/performance-of-the-liaison%C3%A2-xl-murex-rechtlv-i-ii-immunoassay-in-the-detection-of-htlv-1-2-antibodies-in-serum
#15
Pierre Gantner, Aurelie Velay, Nicolas Guigue, Heidi Barth, Marie-Josee Wendling, Constance Delaugerre, Samira Fafi-Kremer
BACKGROUND: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) immunoassays are used for blood screen- ing from blood products, milk, and organ donors. METHODS: We assessed the performance of the DiaSorin Liaison® XL murex recHTLV-I/II immunoassay relative to the Abbott Architect® rHTLV-I/II immunoassay and with the Innogenetics immunoblot as confirmation. RESULTS: A panel of HTLV positive (n = 66) and negative (n = 30) sera was tested in both techniques within the same freeze/thaw cycle...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603716/optimizing-nutrition-in-preterm-low-birth-weight-infants-consensus-summary
#16
REVIEW
R Kishore Kumar, Atul Singhal, Umesh Vaidya, Saswata Banerjee, Fahmina Anwar, Shashidhar Rao
Preterm birth survivors are at a higher risk of growth and developmental disabilities compared to their term counterparts. Development of strategies to lower the complications of preterm birth forms the rising need of the hour. Appropriate nutrition is essential for the growth and development of preterm infants. Early administration of optimal nutrition to preterm birth survivors lowers the risk of adverse health outcomes and improves cognition in adulthood. A group of neonatologists, pediatricians, and nutrition experts convened to discuss and frame evidence-based recommendations for optimizing nutrition in preterm low birth weight (LBW) infants...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602109/air-and-water-processes-do-not-produce-the-same-high-quality-pasteurization-of-donor-human-milk
#17
Rachel Buffin, Pierre Pradat, Jocelyne Trompette, Isabelle Ndiaye, Eliane Basson, Isabelle Jordan, Jean-Charles Picaud
BACKGROUND: Holder pasteurization is the most commonly used technique in milk banks worldwide, but higher temperatures and longer pasteurization time have been associated with damage to the immune components of human milk. Research aim: This study aimed to assess the detailed pattern of pasteurization temperature using two water pasteurizers (WP1 and WP2) and one air pasteurizer (AP). METHODS: The milk temperature during each phase of the pasteurization cycle was recorded using 6 to 9 probes, depending on the number of bottles, in the pasteurizers...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586632/antibody-profile-of-colostrum-and-the-effect-of-processing-in-human-milk-banks-implications-in-immunoregulatory-properties
#18
Claudio Rodríguez-Camejo, Arturo Puyol, Laura Fazio, Analía Rodríguez, Emilia Villamil, Eliana Andina, Vanira Cordobez, Hernán Díaz, Mary Lemos, Gabriela Siré, Lilián Carroscia, Mara Castro, Luis Panizzolo, Ana Hernández
BACKGROUND: When feeding preterm infants, donor milk is preferred if the mother's own milk is unavailable. Pasteurization may have detrimental effects on bioactivity, but more information is needed about its effects on the immunological compounds. Research aim: This work has two main aims: evaluate the antibody profile of colostrum and study the quantitative variations in the antibodies' level and specific reactivity after undergoing Holder pasteurization. The authors focused on immunoregulatory components of colostrum (antidietary antibodies and TGF-β2) in the neonatal gut...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576299/effects-of-donor-breastmilk-feeding-on-growth-and-early-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-preterm-infants-an-observational-study
#19
Laura S Madore, Samudragupta Bora, Carmina Erdei, Tina Jumani, Allison R Dengos, Sarbattama Sen
PURPOSE: Donor breastmilk (DBM) has gained popularity as an alternative to formula when mother's own milk (MOM) is unavailable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a predominantly DBM diet on growth and subsequent neurodevelopment in preterm infants at a level 3 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: This single-center, observational cohort study compared data from preterm infants supplemented with predominantly (>50%) DBM to those from age- and weight-matched infants fed only MOM or supplemented with predominantly (>50%) preterm formula (PF)...
May 30, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570820/human-milk-oligosaccharides-exhibit-antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-properties-against-group-b-streptococcus
#20
Dorothy L Ackerman, Ryan S Doster, Jörn-Hendrik Weitkamp, David M Aronoff, Jennifer A Gaddy, Steven D Townsend
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that causes invasive infections in both children and adults. During pregnancy, GBS is a significant cause of infection of the fetal membranes (chorioamnionitis), which can lead to intra-amniotic infection, preterm birth, stillbirth, and neonatal sepsis. Recently, breastfeeding has been thought to represent a potential mode of GBS transmission from mother to newborn, which might increase the risk for late-onset sepsis...
June 13, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
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