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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757199/supporting-mothers-of-very-preterm-infants-and-breast-milk-production-a-review-of-the-role-of-galactogogues
#1
REVIEW
Elizabeth V Asztalos
Human milk, either mother’s own milk or donor human milk, is recommended as the primary source of nutrition for very preterm infants. Initiatives should be in place in neonatal units to provide support to the mother as she strives to initiate and maintain a supply of breast milk for her infant. The use of galactogogues are considered when these initiatives alone may not be successful in supporting mothers in this endeavor. Although there are non-pharmacologic compounds, this review will focus on the pharmacologic galactogogues currently available and the literature related to their use in mothers of very preterm infants...
May 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739367/impact-of-umbilical-cord-milking-and-pasteurized-donor-human-milk-on-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-retrospective-review
#2
Mehtab K Sekhon, Bradley A Yoder
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious complication of prematurity. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of an umbilical cord milking protocol (UCM) and pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) on NEC rates in infants less than 30 weeks gestational age from January 1, 2010 to September 30, 2016. We hypothesized an incremental decrease in NEC after each intervention. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 638 infants born less than 30 weeks gestational age...
May 8, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717409/synthesis-of-a-fucosylated-trisaccharide-via-transglycosylation-by-%C3%AE-l-fucosidase-from-thermotoga-maritima
#3
Francisco Guzmán-Rodríguez, Sergio Alatorre-Santamaría, Lorena Gómez-Ruiz, Gabriela Rodríguez-Serrano, Mariano García-Garibay, Alma Cruz-Guerrero
Fucosylated oligosaccharides, such as 2'-fucosyllactose in human milk, have important biological functions such as prebiotics and preventing infection. In this work, the effect of an acceptor substrate (lactose) and the donor substrate 4-nitrophenyl-α-L-fucopyranoside (pNP-Fuc) on the synthesis of a fucosylated trisaccharide was studied in a transglycosylation reaction using α-L-fucosidase from Thermotoga maritima. Conducting a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), it was demonstrated that synthesized oligosaccharide corresponded to a fucosylated trisaccharide, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of the hydrolyzed compound confirmed it was fucosyllactose...
May 2, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678922/enzymatic-synthesis-of-6-sialyllactose-a-dominant-sialylated-human-milk-oligosaccharide-by-a-novel-exo-%C3%AE-sialidase-from-bacteroides-fragilis-nctc9343
#4
Longcheng Guo, Xiaodi Chen, Li Xu, Min Xiao, Lili Lu
Gut bacteria provide a rich source of glycosidases that can recognize and/or hydrolyze glycans for nutritions. Interestingly, some glycosidases are also found to catalyze transglycosylation reactions in vitro and thus can be used for oligosaccharide synthesis. In this work, six putative and one known exo -α-sialidase genes, including three from Bacteroides fragilis NCTC9343, three from Clostridium perfringens ATCC13124, and one known from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1254, were subjected to gene cloning and heterogeneous expression in Escherichia coli The recombinant enzymes were purified, characterized for substrate specificity, and screened for transglycosylation activity...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618272/does-fortification-of-pasteurized-donor-human-milk-increase-the-incidence-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-among-preterm-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Bethou Adhisivam, Dilesh Kohat, Vasanthan Tanigasalam, Vishnu Bhat, Nishad Plakkal, C Palanivel
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of fortified pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) versus unfortified PDHM on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and immediate outcome among preterm neonates. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital, south India included 80 healthy preterm neonates randomized to two groups (Group A and B). Neonates in Group A and B were fed with fortified PDHM and unfortified PDHM respectively...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603403/comparison-of-calorie-and-protein-intake-of-very-low-birth-weight-infants-receiving-mother-s-own-milk-or-donor-milk-when-the-nutrient-composition-of-human-milk-is-measured-with-a-breast-milk-analyzer
#6
Melanie Newkirk, Fauzia Shakeel, Prabhu Parimi, Pamela Rothpletz-Puglia, Rachael Patusco, Andrea Fleisch Marcus, Rebecca Brody
BACKGROUND: In premature infants, donor breast milk (DBM) is assumed to provide reduced nutrients vs. mother's own milk (MOM). This study examined calorie and protein delivery when very low birth weight infants were fed fortified MOM or DBM, with a known nutrient composition, relative to established nutrition recommendations and to determine if there were differences between the groups. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was conducted in 29 very low birth weight infants receiving MOM or DBM...
March 30, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595434/medicine-body-fluid-and-food-the-regulation-of-human-donor-milk-in-canada
#7
Martha J Paynter, Kathryn Hayward
The use of peer-to-peer online networks to access both pasteurized and unpasteurized human donor milk is increasing in Canada. In the absence of a mother's own milk, donor milk is the next best nutrition available for all infants in need of supplementation. Limited supply and the cost of pasteurized milk puts it out of reach for many. Although milk banks in Canada all operate on a non-profit basis, there is a lack of regulatory safeguards regarding for-profit operations and private milk exchange. This paper describes regulation of human donor milk and identifies gaps putting families at risk...
February 2018: Healthcare Policy, Politiques de Santé
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587541/effect-of-holder-pasteurization-on-macronutrients-and-immunoglobulin-profile-of-pooled-donor-human-milk
#8
B Adhisivam, B Vishnu Bhat, Krishna Rao, S M Kingsley, Nishad Plakkal, C Palanivel
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to study the effect of Holder pasteurization on macronutrients and immunoglobulin profile of pooled donor human milk. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted in a Human Milk Bank of a tertiary care teaching institute in south India. Thirty random paired pooled donor human milk samples (before and after pasteurization) were analyzed for macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrates) using infrared spectroscopy. Similarly, immunoglobulin profile (IgA and IgG) before and after pasteurization was quantified using ELISA...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584524/impact-of-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-admission-on-bacterial-colonization-of-donated-human-milk
#9
Amir Elmekkawi, Deborah L O'Connor, Debbie Stone, Eugene W Yoon, Michael Larocque, Allison McGeer, Sharon Unger
BACKGROUND: Unpasteurized human donor milk typically contains a variety of bacteria. The impact of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission of the donor's infant and duration of lactation on bacterial contamination of human milk is unknown. Research aim: This study aimed (a) to describe the frequency/concentration of skin commensal bacteria and pathogens in unpasteurized human donor milk and (b) to assess the impact of NICU admission and (c) the duration of milk expression on bacterial colonization of donated milk...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577668/most-commensally-bacterial-strains-in-human-milk-of-healthy-mothers-display-multiple-antibiotic-resistance
#10
Mao-Sheng Huang, Ching-Chang Cheng, Shu-Ying Tseng, Yi-Ling Lin, Hui-Min Lo, Po-Wen Chen
Recent reports have shown that food-borne or commensal bacteria can function as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance. However, the antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates of most milk samples or the total bacterial counts (TBC) in human milk from healthy donors, are not fully understood in Taiwan. Thus, five healthy mothers were randomly recruited each month, and totally 30 mothers without any symptoms of infection were recruited over 6 months. Milk samples were then harvested and analyzed immediately after collection...
March 25, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571821/care-of-the-growth-restricted-newborn
#11
REVIEW
Bianca Carducci, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
With the first 1,000 days of life proving to be a critical window of opportunity for physical and cognitive growth and development, an optimal intrauterine environment is vital. If fetus needs are compromised prenatally, there is an increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and infants being born premature, low birth weight (LBW), or small-for-gestational age (SGA). Specialized care of these high-risk infants is necessary in terms of preconception interventions, resuscitation, thermoregulation, nutritional support and kangaroo mother care...
February 26, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566974/donor-human-milk-and-risk-of-surgical-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-meta-analysis
#12
Marco Silano, Gregorio Paolo Milani, Giovanni Fattore, Carlo Agostoni
BACKGROUND & AIM: The prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a primary goal in the care of preterm and low birth-weight infants. Donor-banked milk (DM)-feeding has been reported to have a protective effect towards NEC with respect to formula-feeding. All the meta-analysis published so far, have been focused on the protective effect of DM on the overall risk of NEC, none of them focused on the risk of the most severe cases on NEC only, that are those requiring surgery. We conducted a meta-analysis of available evidences on the risk of developing surgical cases of NEC in DM-fed preterm and/or low birth weight infants with respect to those formula-fed...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565633/effect-of-the-piastra-benchtop-flash-heating-pasteurizer-on-immune-factors-of-donor-human-milk
#13
Brodie Daniels, Penny Reimers, Tracy King, Stefan Schmidt, Anna Coutsoudis
INTRODUCTION: PiAstra is a simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization temperature monitoring system designed using Raspberry Pi technology for the pasteurization of human milk. This study analyzed the effect of the PiAstra FH method on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A [IgA] and lactoferrin activity). METHODS: Donor milk samples (N = 45) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA and lactoferrin activity were compared to their unpasteurized controls using the Student's t test...
March 22, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559863/bioethics-in-practice-the-ethics-surrounding-the-use-of-donor-milk
#14
Shelley Thibeau, Harley G Ginsberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553558/breast-milk-enhances-growth-of-enteroids-an-ex-vivo-model-of-cell-proliferation
#15
Wyatt E Lanik, Lily Xu, Cliff J Luke, Elise Z Hu, Pranjal Agrawal, Victoria S Liu, Rajesh Kumar, Alexa M Bolock, Congrong Ma, Misty Good
Human small intestinal enteroids are derived from the crypts and when grown in a stem cell niche contain all of the epithelial cell types. The ability to establish human enteroid ex vivo culture systems are important to model intestinal pathophysiology and to study the particular cellular responses involved. In recent years, enteroids from mice and humans are being cultured, passaged, and banked away for future use in several laboratories across the world. This enteroid platform can be used to test the effects of various treatments and drugs and what effects are exerted on different cell types in the intestine...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543698/dose-response-relationship-between-donor-human-milk-mother-s-own-milk-preterm-formula-and-neonatal-growth-outcomes
#16
Elizabeth A Brownell, Adam P Matson, Kelsey C Smith, James E Moore, Patricia A Esposito, Mary M Lussier, Trudy J Lerer, James I Hagadorn
BACKGROUND: A dose-response relationship between proportions of donor human milk (DHM) intake and in-neonatal intensive care unit (in-NICU) growth rates, if any, remains poorly defined. Objective was to evaluate interrelationships between percentages of DHM, mother's own milk (MOM), and preterm formula (PF) intake and neonatal growth parameters at 36 weeks postmenstrual age or NICU discharge. METHODS: Infants eligible for this single-center retrospective study were inborn at ≤32 weeks gestation or ≤1800 g, stayed in the NICU for ≥7 days, and received enteral nutrition consisting of human milk fortified with Enfamil human milk fortifier acidified liquid...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534807/biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-derived-damage-to-proteins-and-dna-in-human-breast-milk
#17
Ángel Sánchez-Illana, Anna Parra-Llorca, Diana Escuder-Vieco, Carmen Rosa Pallás-Alonso, María Cernada, María Gormaz, Máximo Vento, Julia Kuligowski
Oxidative stress derived biomarkers have been extensively studied for assessing pathological situations in the neonatal period and their usefulness for an early outcome prediction of oxidative stress related diseases in non-invasive biofluids could be demonstrated. This is the first report on a method for the simultaneous detection of a panel of oxidative stress related biomarkers for quantifying damage to proteins and DNA in human breast milk samples. A straightforward sample clean-up procedure using 1.5 mL of milk was developed and extracts were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry...
August 3, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525126/quechers-and-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-determination-of-parabens-and-ultraviolet-filters-in-human-milk-samples
#18
F Vela-Soria, L M Iribarne-Durán, V Mustieles, I Jiménez-Díaz, M F Fernández, N Olea
Concerns are growing about human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), especially during developmental stages. Parabens (PBs) and ultraviolet filters (UVFs) are prevalent EDCs widely used as additives in cosmetics and personal care products (PCPs). The objective of this study was to develop a method to determine four PBs and ten UVFs in human milk using QuEChERS treatment and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Multivariate strategies were applied to optimize experimental parameters...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511463/biocompatibility-of-highly-purified-bovine-milk-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#19
Masaharu Somiya, Yusuke Yoshioka, Takahiro Ochiya
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) deliver biologically active cargos from donor cells to recipient cells for intercellular communication. Since the existence of RNA cargo was discovered, EVs have been considered to be useful drug-delivery systems. Specifically, EVs from bovine milk (mEV) are one of the most promising platforms, since bovine milk is a scalable source of EVs for mass production. However, it is still difficult to isolate pure EVs from bovine milk owing to the complexity of raw materials. Furthermore, the biocompatibility and immunotoxicity of mEVs are still unclear...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501938/the-strong-correlation-between-neonatal-early-onset-group-b-streptococcal-disease-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#20
Irene A Stafford, Eliza Rodrigue, Alexandra Berra, Wesley Adams, Asha J Heard, Joseph L Hagan, Shawn J Stafford
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of newborn gastrointestinal emergencies, affecting 1-3 per 1000 live births. Although NEC has been linked to a microbial etiology, associations with maternal intrapartum and resultant newborn early-onset invasive Group B streptococcus (EO-GBS) have been weakly defined. OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to determine the relationship between EO-GBS and NEC. STUDY DESIGN: Data from 2008 to 2015 were collected from pediatric records with ICD diagnosis codes consistent with all stages of NEC, with the exception of neonatal EO-GBS data (only available 2011-2015)...
April 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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