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cell-based coagulation theory

Steven G Rinaldo, Patrick Urchaga, Jingwei Hu, Wendy Lee, Jürgen Stumper, Cynthia Rice, Michael Eikerling
In polymer electrolyte fuel cells a decrease in catalytic surface-area within the cathode catalyst layer is a critical barrier to commercialization. This loss in catalytic surface-area manifests as a loss in cell voltage and thus power density of the cell. It has been established that potential cycling accelerates the loss in catalytic surface-area yet isolating the contributing mechanisms as well as relating mechanisms to operating conditions is not as straightforward. We approach the issue of surface-area loss deconvolution with a combined experimental, modelling and theoretical framework...
December 28, 2014: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
J R Wright, B-Y Xu
In clinical islet transplantation, isolated islets are embolized into the liver via the portal vein (PV); however, up to 70% of the islets are lost in the first few days after transplantation (i.e., too quickly to be mediated by the adaptive immune system). Part of early loss is due to instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction, an immune/thrombotic process caused by islets interacting with complement. We have shown that glucose toxicity (GT) also plays a critical role based upon the observation that islets embolized into the PVs of diabetic athymic mice are rapidly lost but, if recipients are not diabetic, the islet grafts persist...
July 2014: Medical Hypotheses
Steven G Rinaldo, Wendy Lee, Jürgen Stumper, Michael Eikerling
Nanoparticle catalysts dispersed on high-surface-area electronic support materials are used in a wide range of applications. Nano-sized particles afford a high active surface area per unit volume of an electrocatalytic medium. However, the gain in active surface area for desired surface reactions is offset in part by enhanced rates of degradation processes that cause losses in catalyst mass, catalyst surface area, and electrocatalytic activity. A dynamic model of surface-area-loss phenomena based on the theories of Lifshitz and Slyozov [J...
October 2012: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Cees Vermeer
Vitamin K is essential for the synthesis of proteins belonging to the Gla-protein family. To the members of this family belong four blood coagulation factors, which all are exclusively formed in the liver. The importance of vitamin K for hemostasis is demonstrated from the fact that vitamin K-deficiency is an acute, life-threatening condition due to excessive bleeding. Other members of the Gla-protein family are osteocalcin, matrix Gla-protein (MGP), and Gas6 that play key functions in maintaining bone strength, arterial calcification inhibition, and cell growth regulation, respectively...
2012: Food & Nutrition Research
Hyung Joo Lee, Jiyeon Kweon, Eunji Kim, Seokjoong Kim, Jin-Soo Kim
Despite the recent discoveries of and interest in numerous structural variations (SVs)--which include duplications and inversions--in the human and other higher eukaryotic genomes, little is known about the etiology and biology of these SVs, partly due to the lack of molecular tools with which to create individual SVs in cultured cells and model organisms. Here, we present a novel method of inducing duplications and inversions in a targeted manner without pre-manipulation of the genome. We found that zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) designed to target two different sites in a human chromosome could introduce two concurrent double-strand breaks, whose repair via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) gives rise to targeted duplications and inversions of the genomic segments of up to a mega base pair (bp) in length between the two sites...
March 2012: Genome Research
Jens Litmathe, Udo Boeken, Gabriele Bohlen, Dilek Gursoy, Christoph Sucker, Peter Feindt
INTRODUCTION: Perioperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) remains a catastrophe in cardiac surgery and adequate patient screening is still lacking. We present a prospective trial starting with preoperative data collection. For the first time, the postoperative outcomes of patients after open-heart surgery are evaluated to predict a hazard-constellation for the patient at risk of developing SIRS. METHODS: Of 2315 patients undergoing cardiac surgery over a 2-year period, 107 were considered likely to develop perioperative SIRS based on a high-risk stratification; 12 of them actually developed SIRS and were recruited for this study...
November 2011: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
John W Simmons, Christopher E White, John D Ritchie, Mark O Hardin, Michael A Dubick, Lorne H Blackbourne
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests trauma involving total body tissue damage increases the acute coagulopathy of trauma (ACOT) by various mechanisms, especially in massive transfusion (MT). Our hypothesis was that MT patients injured by explosion will have a higher international normalization ratio (INR) at admission than MT patients injured by gunshot wound (GSW). METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on US military injured in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom from March 2003 to September 2008, who received MT (≥ 10 red blood cells in 24 hours) and had an INR on admission...
July 2011: Journal of Trauma
M Cushing, B H Shaz
Massive transfusion is an essential part of resuscitation efforts in acute trauma patients. The goal is to quickly correct trauma-induced coagulopathy and replace red blood cell (RBC) mass with the minimal number as well as the appropriate choice of blood components to minimize the possible adverse effects of transfusions. Early trauma induced coagulopathy (ETIC) is present in about 20% of patients upon hospital admission and predicts for decreased survival. The mechanism of ETIC is still being elucidated; however, most theories of ETIC's pathophysiology justify the early use of plasma...
March 2011: Minerva Anestesiologica
Shrimati Shetty, Kanjaksha Ghosh
PROBLEM: An immune-based aetiology is one of the several accepted causes for recurrent foetal loss (RFL). However, most of the immunological theories have not fulfilled the criteria for causality. This is a review of the various immunological causes of RFL and the outcome of different treatment protocols. METHOD OF STUDY: Both auto- and alloimmune maternal immunological abnormalities have been proposed to account for foetal loss. Among the autoimmune factors, anti-phospholipid antibodies (APAs) have been demonstrated to be the strongest risk factors for foetal loss, the prevalence of which is as high as 40% in women with RFL...
July 2009: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
G Richardson, L J Cummings, H J Harris, P O'Shea
We study a model system in which lipid bilayers are created using variable (precisely known) proportions of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. The model membranes exhibit cholesterol-enriched microdomains that are analogous to the so-called "lipid rafts" that form in living cells. After briefly presenting some experimental results, we formulate and solve a novel mathematical model based on the Smoluchowski equations for coagulation and fragmentation. We present a comparison between the distribution of lipid-raft areas observed in experimental lipid bilayers, and that distribution predicted by the theoretical model...
June 15, 2007: Biophysical Journal
Pyung-Kyu Park, Chung-Hak Lee, Sangho Lee
We have investigated, theoretically, the physical properties of cake layers formed from aggregates to obtain a better understanding of membrane systems used in conjunction with coagulation/flocculation pretreatment. We developed a model based on fractal theory and incorporated a cake collapse effect to predict the porosity and permeability of the cake layers. The floc size, fractal dimension, and transmembrane pressure were main parameters that we used in these model calculations. We performed experiments using a batch cell device and a confocal laser-scanning microscope to verify the predicted specific cake resistances and porosities under various conditions...
April 15, 2006: Environmental Science & Technology
Raúl Izaguirre Avila
For centuries, the mystery surrounding blood coagulation stimulated the curiosity of researchers. The knowledge about this function has increased notably in the last century and has permitted to understand numerous physiopatho logical phenomena in several hemorrhagic and thrombotic diseases, and has made it possible to develop diverse drugs of proved efficacy for prevention and therapy. All this was initiated in 1905, when Paul Morawitz published an extensive monograph on the four factors of blood coagulation known until then (fibrinogen, thrombin, thrombokinase, and calcium)...
July 2005: Archivos de Cardiología de México
Buford R Conley, John D Doux, Patrick Y Lee, Kimberly A Bazar, Stephanie M Daniel, Anthony J Yun
Current treatment options for aortic aneurysms are suboptimal and their pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. We propose the existence of a coordinated multi-node baroreceptor network that measures pressures at all vascular bifurcations and enables system-wide hemodynamic coordination and vasomotor regulation, in accordance with the principle of Bernoulli. While the presence of baroreceptors at bifurcations remains unknown, behavior at the level of systems predicts their existence, possibly as glomus cell derivatives...
2005: Medical Hypotheses
Tracey L H Jason, James Koropatnick, Randal W Berg
Targeting unique mRNA molecules using antisense approaches, based on sequence specificity of double-stranded nucleic acid interactions should, in theory, allow for design of drugs with high specificity for intended targets. Antisense-induced degradation or inhibition of translation of a target mRNA is potentially capable of inhibiting the expression of any target protein. In fact, a large number of proteins of widely varied character have been successfully downregulated using an assortment of antisense-based approaches...
November 15, 2004: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
P le Roux
Mortality among critically ill patients has been attributed to the development of sepsis. About 28% of patients with sepsis still die, despite numerous interventions. Trials on sepsis investigated mostly anti-inflammatory strategies, based on the prevailing theory that sepsis represents an uncontrolled inflammatory response. None of these showed convincing benefit in humans, despite promising results in animal studies. The reason for this is becoming clear: sepsis represents a biphasic response to infection, and the initial pro-inflammatory response that we have targeted thus far is invariably followed by a prolonged period of immune suppression...
May 2004: SADJ: Journal of the South African Dental Association
I V Skiadas, B K Ahring
The advantageous performance of the UASB reactors is due to the immobilisation of the active biomass, since bacteria coagulate forming aggregates usually called granules. Changes in organic loading rate, hydraulic loading rate or influent substrate composition usually result in changes in granule characteristics and lead to different reactor behaviour. A dynamic mathematical model has been developed for the anaerobic digestion of a glucose based synthetic wastewater in UASB reactors. Cellular automata (CA) theory has been applied to simulate the granule development process...
2002: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
R M Hardaway
BACKGROUND: The mortality associated with septic shock, both in percentage of septic shock cases and total number of septic shock cases, has been increasing over the past several decades. This is despite major advances in diagnosis and treatment. The basic cause of traumatic and septic shock has been only partially elucidated. METHODS: Data sources include research papers on the subject of traumatic and septic shock from 1875 to the present. These papers numbered over 10 000, few of which are included in the reference list because many are duplicative or negative...
November 1998: British Journal of Surgery
M P McGee, H Teuschler, J Liang
Electrostatic interactions during activation of coagulation factor X were analysed by comparing effects of ionic strength on reaction rates with predictions of classical electrostatic theory. Geometrical correlations were investigated using alpha-shape-based computations on the crystal structure of Ca-fragment 1 of prothrombin. The ionic strength of the reaction environment was controlled with different univalent salts including NaCl, KCl, CsCl, LiCl, NaI, NaBr and KI. Reactions were assembled in three different environments: aqueous phase, cell membranes and synthetic TF/PS/PC (tissue factor relipidated in 30% phosphatidylserine, 70% phosphatidylcholine) vesicles...
February 15, 1998: Biochemical Journal
M Ioniţă
This work presents the possible implications of the angiogenic growth factors and some cell mediators in the initiation and development of the neovascular proliferation in diabetic retinopathy. According to the physiopathologic theories stated above, that are implied in the generation of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, here are some therapeutic experiments based on the action of the angiogenic growth factors.
1997: Oftalmologia
L Szalay, P Andréka, J Fehér
Among the general principles of the therapy of hepatic encephalopathy the authors discuss the intensive care of patients, maintenance of their volume and electrolyte balance, treatment of coagulation defect, therapy of gastrointestinal bleeding and portal hypertension, provision of central renal catheter, infection prophylaxis, monitoring of intracranial pressure, and if necessary, respiration and intubation of patients. The study also deals with possibilities of treatment based on the toxic hypothesis and on the theory of neurotransmitters...
April 23, 1995: Orvosi Hetilap
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