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Jocasta Ball, Maja-Lisa Løchen, Melinda J Carrington, Joshua F Wiley, Simon Stewart
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation represents a substantial clinical and public health issue. The definitive impact of body mass index on prognosis of patients with chronic (persistent or permanent) atrial fibrillation remains undetermined. AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of body mass index with health outcomes (mortality and re-hospitalisation) of patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Using data from the Standard versus Atrial Fibrillation spEcific managemenT strategY (SAFETY) trial (a randomised controlled trial of home-based, atrial fibrillation-specific disease management), we performed post-hoc analyses of mortality and re-hospitalisation outcomes during minimum 24-month follow-up according to baseline body mass index profile...
April 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
B H van Duren, K Sugand, R Wescott, R Carrington, A Hart
BACKGROUND: Hip fractures contribute to a significant clinical burden globally with over 1.6 million cases per annum and up to 30% mortality rate within the first year. Insertion of a dynamic hip screw (DHS) is a frequently performed procedure to treat extracapsular neck of femur fractures. Poorly performed DHS fixation of extracapsular neck of femur fractures can result in poor mobilisation, chronic pain, and increased cut-out rate requiring revision surgery. A realistic, affordable, and portable fluoroscopic simulation system can improve performance metrics in trainees, including the tip-apex distance (the only clinically validated outcome), and improve outcomes...
March 29, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
Carsten Putzke, Jake Ayres, Jonathan Buhot, Salvatore Licciardello, Nigel E Hussey, Sven Friedemann, Antony Carrington
In underdoped cuprates, an incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) order is known to coexist with superconductivity. A dip in T_{c} at the hole doping level where the CDW is strongest (n_{p}≃0.12) suggests that CDW order may suppress superconductivity. We investigate the interplay of charge order with superconductivity in underdoped YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{7-δ} by measuring the temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient R_{H}(T) at high magnetic field and at high hydrostatic pressure. We find that, although pressure increases T_{c} by up to 10 K at 2...
March 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Bridgette McNamara, Lina Gubhaju, Louisa Jorm, David Preen, Jocelyn Jones, Grace Joshy, Carrington Shepherd, Daniel McAullay, Sandra Eades
INTRODUCTION: Empirical evidence on family and community risk and protective factors influencing the comparatively high rates of potentially preventable hospitalisations and deaths among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants and children is limited. As is evidence on geographical variation in these risks. The 'Defying the Odds' study aims to explore the impact of perinatal outcomes, maternal social and health outcomes and level of culturally secure service availability on the health outcomes of Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal infants and children aged 0-5 years...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Open
Natalie M Lowe, Lucy E Kershaw, Jonathan M Bernstein, Stephanie B Withey, Kathleen Mais, Jarrod J Homer, Nicholas J Slevin, Suzanne C Bonington, Bernadette M Carrington, Catharine M West
OBJECTIVES: Previously, we showed that pre-treatment tumour plasma perfusion (Fp) predicts RECIST response to induction chemotherapy (ICT) in locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The aim here was to determine whether the pre-treatment tumour Fp estimate, changes in tumour Fp or RECIST response post 2 cycles of ICT were prognostic for long-term survival outcomes. METHODS: A prospective study enrolled patients with high stage HNSCC treated with docetaxel (T), cisplatin (P) and 5-fluorouracil (F) (ICT) followed by synchronous cisplatin and intensity modulated radiotherapy...
2018: PloS One
Michael Filarsky, Sabine A Fraschka, Igor Niederwieser, Nicolas M B Brancucci, Eilidh Carrington, Elvira Carrió, Suzette Moes, Paul Jenoe, Richárd Bártfai, Till S Voss
Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites that proliferate in the bloodstream. During each replication cycle, some parasites differentiate into gametocytes, the only forms able to infect the mosquito vector and transmit malaria. Sexual commitment is triggered by activation of AP2-G, the master transcriptional regulator of gametocytogenesis. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1)-dependent silencing of ap2-g prevents sexual conversion in proliferating parasites. In this study, we identified Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte development 1 (GDV1) as an upstream activator of sexual commitment...
March 16, 2018: Science
K Alkhodair, H Almhanna, J McGetrick, S Gedair, M E Gallagher, B Fernandez-Fuertes, T Tharmalingam, P B Larsen, E Fitzpatrick, P Lonergan, A C O Evans, S D Carrington, C J Reid
Sialic acid (Sia) is a major constituent of both the sperm glycocalyx and female reproductive mucosal surface and is involved in regulating sperm migration, uterotubal reservoir formation and oocyte binding. Siglecs (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin - like lectins) commonly found on immune cells, bind to Sia in a linkage- and sugar-specific manner and often mediate cell-to-cell interactions and signalling. Proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of human and bovine sperm have listed Siglecs, but to date, their presence and/or localisation on sperm has not been studied...
April 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
James Cottom, Scott Carrington, Stephen A Brigido, Stephen A Brigido, Minton Truitt Cooper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Foot & Ankle Specialist
Bridget P Bannerman, Susanne Kramer, Richard G Dorrell, Mark Carrington
The degree of conservation and evolution of cytoplasmic mRNA metabolism pathways across the eukaryotes remains incompletely resolved. In this study, we describe a comprehensive genome and transcriptome-wide analysis of proteins involved in mRNA maturation, translation, and mRNA decay across representative organisms from the six eukaryotic super-groups. We demonstrate that eukaryotes share common pathways for mRNA metabolism that were almost certainly present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor, and show for the first time a correlation between intron density and a selective absence of some Exon Junction Complex (EJC) components in eukaryotes...
2018: PloS One
Pushp Bajaj, Xiao-Gang Wang, Tucker Carrington, Francesco Paesani
Full-dimensional vibrational spectra are calculated for both X- (H2 O) and X- (D2 O) dimers (X = F, Cl, Br, I) at the quantum-mechanical level. The calculations are carried out on two sets of recently developed potential energy functions (PEFs), namely, Thole-type model energy (TTM-nrg) and many-body energy (MB-nrg), using the symmetry-adapted Lanczos algorithm with a product basis set including all six vibrational coordinates. Although both TTM-nrg and MB-nrg PEFs are derived from coupled-cluster single double triple-F12 data obtained in the complete basis set limit, they differ in how many-body effects are represented at short range...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Janaina de Freitas Nascimento, Steven Kelly, Jack Sunter, Mark Carrington
Selective transcription of individual protein coding genes does not occur in trypanosomes and the cellular copy number of each mRNA must be determined post-transcriptionally. Here, we provide evidence that codon choice directs the levels of constitutively expressed mRNAs. First, a novel codon usage metric, the gene expression codon adaptation index (geCAI), was developed that maximised the relationship between codon choice and the measured abundance for a transcriptome. Second, geCAI predictions of mRNA levels were tested using differently coded GFP transgenes and were successful over a 25-fold range, similar to the variation in endogenous mRNAs...
March 15, 2018: ELife
Jocasta Ball, Maja-Lisa Løchen, Melinda J Carrington, Joshua F Wiley, Simon Stewart
Objective: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is prevalent in atrial fibrillation (AF) and has the potential to contribute to poor outcomes. We investigated the influence of MCI on survival and rehospitalisation in patients with chronic forms of AF undergoing a home-based, AF-specific disease management intervention (home-based intervention (HBI)) or standard management (SM). Methods: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool was administered at baseline (a score of <26/30 indicated MCI) in patients with AF randomised to HBI versus SM...
2018: Open Heart
Seth Jonas, Kassandra Fronczyk, Lucas M Pratt
An extreme space weather event has the potential to disrupt or damage infrastructure systems and technologies that many societies rely on for economic and social well-being. Space weather events occur regularly, but extreme events are less frequent, with a small number of historical examples over the last 160 years. During the past decade, published works have (1) examined the physical characteristics of the extreme historical events and (2) discussed the probability or return rate of select extreme geomagnetic disturbances, including the 1859 Carrington event...
March 12, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Jane M Carrington, Nicolette Estrada, Angela C Brittain, Katherine M Dudding, Benjamin J Galatzan, Christine Nibbelink, Ryan J Rasmussen, Monte L Roberts, Susan M Renz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Nursing Administration Quarterly
Jessica Bame, Casper Hoeck, Matthew J Carrington, Craig P Butts, Christof M Jäger, Anna K Croft
The use of molecular dynamics (MD) calculations to derive relative populations of conformers is highly sensitive to both timescale and parameterisation of the MD. Where these calculations are coupled with NOE data to determine the dynamics of a molecular system, this can present issues if these populations are thus relied upon. We present an approach that refines the highly accurate PANIC NMR methodology combined with clustering approaches to generate conformers, but without restraining the simulations or considering the relative population distributions generated by MD...
February 28, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zhiqiang Zhao, Jun Chen, Zhaojun Zhang, Dong H Zhang, Xiao-Gang Wang, Tucker Carrington, Fabien Gatti
Quantum mechanical calculations of ro-vibrational energies of CH4 , CHD3 , CH3 D, and CH3 F were made with two different numerical approaches. Both use polyspherical coordinates. The computed energy levels agree, confirming the accuracy of the methods. In the first approach, for all the molecules, the coordinates are defined using three Radau vectors for the CH3 subsystem and a Jacobi vector between the remaining atom and the centre of mass of CH3 . Euler angles specifying the orientation of a frame attached to CH3 with respect to a frame attached to the Jacobi vector are used as vibrational coordinates...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Xiao-Gang Wang, Tucker Carrington
We compute numerically exact rovibrational levels of water dimer, with 12 vibrational coordinates, on the accurate CCpol-8sf ab initio flexible monomer potential energy surface [C. Leforestier et al., J. Chem. Phys. 137, 014305 (2012)]. It does not have a sum-of-products or multimode form and therefore quadrature in some form must be used. To do the calculation, it is necessary to use an efficient basis set and to develop computational tools, for evaluating the matrix-vector products required to calculate the spectrum, that obviate the need to store the potential on a 12D quadrature grid...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Joseph M Carrington, Jill A Poole
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Agriculture remains a major economic sector globally, and workers experience high rates of chronic inflammatory lung and musculoskeletal diseases. Whereas obstructive pulmonary diseases are known risk factors for bone loss, the underlying relationship between lung inflammation and bone health is not well known. RECENT FINDINGS: An agriculture organic dust extract inhalation animal model has recently linked lung injury-induced inflammation to systemic bone loss...
February 22, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Maureen P Martin, Vivek Naranbhai, Patrick R Shea, Ying Qi, Veron Ramsuran, Nicolas Vince, Xiaojiang Gao, Rasmi Thomas, Zabrina L Brumme, Jonathan M Carlson, Steven M Wolinsky, James J Goedert, Bruce D Walker, Florencia P Segal, Steven G Deeks, David W Haas, Stephen A Migueles, Mark Connors, Nelson Michael, Jacques Fellay, Emma Gostick, Sian Llewellyn-Lacey, David A Price, Bernard A Lafont, Phillip Pymm, Philippa M Saunders, Jacqueline Widjaja, Shu Cheng Wong, Julian P Vivian, Jamie Rossjohn, Andrew G Brooks, Mary Carrington
HLA-B*57 control of HIV involves enhanced CD8+ T cell responses against infected cells, but extensive heterogeneity exists in level of HIV control among B*57+ individuals. Using whole genome sequencing of untreated B*57+ HIV-1 infected controllers and non-controllers, we identified a single variant (rs643347A/G) encoding an isoleucine to valine substitution at position 47 (I47V) of the inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, KIR3DL1, as the only significant modifier of B*57 protection. The association replicated in an independent cohort and across multiple outcomes...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Eilidh Carrington, Thomas D Otto, Tadge Szestak, Frank Lennartz, Matt K Higgins, Chris I Newbold, Alister G Craig
The Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigen PfEMP1 expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes is thought to play a major role in the pathology of severe malaria. As the sequence pool of the var genes encoding PfEMP1 expands there are opportunities, despite the high degree of sequence diversity demonstrated by this gene family, to reconstruct full-length var genes from small sequence tags generated from patient isolates. To test whether this is possible we have used a set of recently laboratory adapted ICAM-1-binding parasite isolates to generate sequence tags and, from these, to identify the full-length PfEMP1 being expressed by them...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
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