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Bonnie Bowers, Randall Flory, Joseph Ametepe, Lauren Staley, Anne Patrick, Heather Carrington
This study evaluated the effectiveness of 30 or 60min of daily exposure to high-density or to zero-density (placebo condition) negative air ions over 18 days on the symptoms of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in 40 participants under controlled laboratory conditions. Exposure to high-density negative air ions was superior to zero-density negative air ions in alleviating depression and the atypical symptoms of SAD. Also, more subjects in the high-density negative air ions groups met two different clinical response criteria than did those in the zero-density groups...
August 19, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Richard L Conn, Steven McVea, Angela Carrington, Tim Dornan
INTRODUCTION: Recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines aim to improve intravenous (IV) fluid prescribing for children, but existing evidence about how and why fluid prescribing errors occur is limited. Studying this can lead to more effective implementation, through education and systems design. AIMS: Identify types of IV fluid prescribing errors reported in practiceAnalyse factors that contribute to errorsProvide guidance to educators and those responsible for designing systems...
2017: PloS One
Jane M Carrington, Thaddeus W W Pace, Kate G Sheppard, Katherine M Dudding, Delaney Stratton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
Cristina M Justice, Jinoh Kim, Sun-Don Kim, Kyunhgho Kim, Garima Yagnik, Araceli Cuellar, Blake Carrington, Chung-Ling Lu, Raman Sood, Simeon A Boyadjiev, Alexander F Wilson
Craniosynostosis presents either as a nonsyndromic congenital anomaly or as a finding in nearly 200 genetic syndromes. Our previous genome-wide association study of sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis identified associations with variants downstream from BMP2 and intronic in BBS9. Because no coding variants in BMP2 were identified, we hypothesized that conserved non-coding regulatory elements may alter BMP2 expression. In order to identify and characterize noncoding regulatory elements near BMP2, two conserved noncoding regions near the associated region on chromosome 20 were tested for regulatory activity with a Renilla luciferase assay...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Debbie Horsfall, Joy Paton, Amie Carrington
BACKGROUND: Community-managed mental health organisations are important vehicles for "place-based" recovery-oriented services in regional areas. However, the community-based sector is not well described in data collections and more research is needed to identify the specific contributions that such services can make to recovery. This situation has become more acute in Australia with the restructure of mental health services under the new National Disabilities Insurance Scheme (NDIS). AIMS: The project aimed to understand more about what is effective in the service system; what impacts living in a regional location might have on a person's lived and service system experience and what people find helpful and supportive in their recovery journeys...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
Craig C Robertson, James S Wright, Elliot J Carrington, Robin N Perutz, Christopher A Hunter, Lee Brammer
Control of intermolecular interactions is integral to harnessing self-assembly in nature. Here we demonstrate that control of the competition between hydrogen bonds and halogen bonds, the two most highly studied directional intermolecular interactions, can be exerted by choice of solvent (polarity) to direct the self-assembly of co-crystals. Competitive co-crystal formation has been investigated for three pairs of hydrogen bond and halogen bond donors, which can compete for a common acceptor group. These competitions have been examined in seven different solvents...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Paul F Cook, Sarah J Schmiege, Lucy Bradley-Springer, Whitney Starr, Jane M Carrington
Medication adherence is a challenge for people living with HIV (PLWH), who may experience a gap between their intentions and everyday behaviors. We measured PLWH's (n = 87) daily experiences and tested a model to explain the intention-behavior gap. Participants completed baseline questionnaires, then used a smartphone-based survey and an electronic pill bottle to provide daily data for the next 10 weeks. These PLWH, with generally well-controlled HIV, were nevertheless adherent on only 73% of study days...
September 9, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Julian W Sacre, Jocasta Ball, Chiew Wong, Yih-Kai Chan, Simon Stewart, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Melinda J Carrington
Background: To examine mild cognitive impairment and its associations with subclinical cardiac dysfunction in patients with chronic heart disease yet to develop the clinical syndrome of chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods and results: Patients from the Nurse-led Intervention for Less Chronic Heart Failure Study (n = 373 with chronic heart disease other than CHF; 64 ± 11 years, 69% men) were screened for mild cognitive impairment [Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) score <26] and underwent echocardiographic/clinical profiling...
August 7, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Ashley Malmlov, Janine Seetahal, Christine Carrington, Vernie Ramkisson, Jerome Foster, Kerri L Miazgowicz, Sandra Quackenbush, Joel Rovnak, Oscar Negrete, Vincent Munster, Tony Schountz
Tacaribe virus (TCRV) was isolated in the 1950s from artibeus bats captured on the island of Trinidad. The initial characterization of TCRV suggested that artibeus bats were natural reservoir hosts. However, nearly 60 years later experimental infections of Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) resulted in fatal disease or clearance, suggesting artibeus bats may not be a reservoir host. To further evaluate the TCRV reservoir host status of artibeus bats, we captured bats of six species in Trinidad for evidence of infection...
2017: PloS One
T Takenaka, Y Mizukami, J A Wilcox, M Konczykowski, S Seiro, C Geibel, Y Tokiwa, Y Kasahara, C Putzke, Y Matsuda, A Carrington, T Shibauchi
A key aspect of unconventional pairing by the antiferromagnetic spin-fluctuation mechanism is that the superconducting energy gap must have the opposite sign on different parts of the Fermi surface. Recent observations of non-nodal gap structure in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCu_{2}Si_{2} were then very surprising, given that this material has long been considered a prototypical example of a superconductor where the Cooper pairing is magnetically mediated. Here we present a study of the effect of controlled point defects, introduced by electron irradiation, on the temperature-dependent magnetic penetration depth λ(T) in CeCu_{2}Si_{2}...
August 18, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Vaishnavi Kannan, Jason S Fish, Jacqueline M Mutz, Angela R Carrington, Ki Lai, Lisa S Davis, Josh E Youngblood, Mark R Rauschuber, Kathryn A Flores, Evan J Sara, Deepa G Bhat, DuWayne L Willett
BACKGROUND: Creation of a new electronic health record (EHR)-based registry often can be a "one-off" complex endeavor: first developing new EHR data collection and clinical decision support tools, followed by developing registry-specific data extractions from the EHR for analysis. Each development phase typically has its own long development and testing time, leading to a prolonged overall cycle time for delivering one functioning registry with companion reporting into production. The next registry request then starts from scratch...
June 14, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
Steven Kelly, Alasdair Ivens, G Adam Mott, Ellis O'Neill, David Emms, Olivia Macleod, Paul Voorheis, Kevin Tyler, Matthew Clark, Jacqueline Matthews, Keith Matthews, Mark Carrington
There are hundreds of Trypanosoma species that live in the blood and tissue spaces of their vertebrate hosts. The vast majority of these do not have the ornate system of antigenic variation that has evolved in the small number of African trypanosome species, but can still maintain long-term infections in the face of the vertebrate adaptive immune system. Trypanosoma theileri is a typical example, has a restricted host range of cattle and other Bovinae, and is only occasionally reported to cause patent disease although no systematic survey of the effect of infection on agricultural productivity has been performed...
August 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Brett Williams, Mimi Ghosh, Charles A B Boucher, Frederic Bushman, Stacy Carrington-Lawrence, Ronald G Collman, Satya Dandekar, Que Dang, Angela Malaspina, Roger Paredes, Cara Wilson, Piotr Nowak, Nichole Klatt, Laurel Lagenaur, Alan Landay
Commensal organisms appear to play significant roles in normal homeostasis as well as in the pathogensis of HIV infection in a number of different organ systems. On November 17th and 18th 2016, leading researchers from around the world met to discuss their insights on advances in our understanding of HIV and the microbiome at the NIH in Bethesda.
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Thomas Bartossek, Nicola G Jones, Christin Schäfer, Mislav Cvitković, Marius Glogger, Helen R Mott, Jochen Kuper, Martha Brennich, Mark Carrington, Ana-Sunčana Smith, Susanne Fenz, Caroline Kisker, Markus Engstler
The most prominent defence of the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei against the host immune system is a dense coat that comprises a variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). Despite the importance of the VSG family, no complete structure of a VSG has been reported. Making use of high-resolution structures of individual VSG domains, we employed small-angle X-ray scattering to elucidate the first two complete VSG structures. The resulting models imply that the linker regions confer great flexibility between domains, which suggests that VSGs can adopt two main conformations to respond to obstacles and changes of protein density, while maintaining a protective barrier at all times...
September 11, 2017: Nature Microbiology
Ellen M Leitman, Christian B Willberg, Ming-Han Tsai, Huabiao Chen, Søren Buus, Fabian Chen, Lynn Riddell, David Haas, Jacques Fellay, James J Goedert, Alicja Piechocka-Trocha, Bruce D Walker, Jeffrey Martin, Steven Deeks, Steven M Wolinsky, Jeremy Martinson, Maureen Martin, Ying Qi, Asier Sáez-Cirión, Otto O Yang, Philippa C Matthews, Mary Carrington, Philip J R Goulder
Immune control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection is typically associated with effective Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. We here focus on HLA-B*14, that protects against HIV disease progression, but the immunodominant HLA-B*14-restricted anti-HIV response is Env-specific (ERYLKDQQL, 'HLA-B*14-EL9'). A subdominant HLA-B*14-restricted response targets Gag (DRYFKTLRA, 'HLA-B*14-DA9'). Using HLA-B*14/peptide-saporin conjugated tetramers, we show that HLA-B*14-EL9 is substantially more potent at inhibiting viral replication than HLA-B*14-DA9...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
Brian Kawahara, Travis Moller, Kayla Hu-Moore, Samantha Carrington, Kym F Faull, Suvajit Sen, Pradip K Mascharak
Drug resistance is a major impediment to effective treatment of breast cancer. Compared to normal cells, cancer cells have an increased antioxidant potential due to an increased ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG). This is known to confer therapeutic resistance. Here, we have identified a mechanism, unique to breast cancer cells, whereby cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) promotes elevated GSH/GSSG. Lentiviral silencing of CBS in human breast cancer cells attenuated GSH/GSSG, total GSH, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and processes downstream of Nrf2 that promote GSH synthesis and regeneration of GSH from GSSG...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Emma M Carrington, David M Tarlinton, Daniel H Gray, Nicholas D Huntington, Yifan Zhan, Andrew M Lew
Targeting survival mechanisms of immune cells may provide an avenue for immune intervention to dampen unwanted responses (e.g. autoimmunity, immunopathology and transplant rejection) or enhance beneficial ones (e.g. immune deficiency, microbial defence and cancer immunotherapy). The selective survival mechanisms of the various immune cell types also avails the possibility of specific tailoring of such interventions. Here, we review the role of the BCL-2 anti-apoptotic family members (BCL-2, BCL-XL, BCL-W, MCL-1 and A1) on cell death/survival of the major immune cell types e...
September 6, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
Stephen A Brigido, Scott C Carrington, Nicole M Protzman
Total ankle arthroplasty is a viable surgical technique for the treatment of end-stage degenerative joint disease. With continued advancement in prosthetic design, refined surgical techniques, and improved outcomes, the indications for total ankle replacement have expanded to include cases of increasing complexity. With meticulous preoperative planning and exacting execution, many frontal plane deformities and cases of avascular necrosis can now be successfully addressed at the time of prosthesis implantation or in a staged procedure...
October 2017: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
Elliot J Carrington, Craig A McAnally, Ashleigh J Fletcher, Stephen P Thompson, Mark Warren, Lee Brammer
Understanding the behaviour of flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-porous crystalline materials that undergo a structural change upon exposure to an external stimulus-underpins their design as responsive materials for specific applications, such as gas separation, molecular sensing, catalysis and drug delivery. Reversible transformations of a MOF between open- and closed-pore forms-a behaviour known as 'breathing'-typically occur through well-defined crystallographic transitions. By contrast, continuous breathing is rare, and detailed characterization has remained very limited...
September 2017: Nature Chemistry
Marc G W Rémond, Simon Stewart, Melinda J Carrington, Thomas H Marwick, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Peter Meikle, Darren O'Brien, Nathaniel S Marshall, Graeme P Maguire
BACKGROUND: Of the estimated 10-11 year life expectancy gap between Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people) and non-Indigenous Australians, approximately one quarter is attributable to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Risk prediction of CVD is imperfect, but particularly limited for Indigenous Australians. The BIRCH (Better Indigenous Risk stratification for Cardiac Health) project aims to identify and assess existing and novel markers of early disease and risk in Indigenous Australians to optimise health outcomes in this disadvantaged population...
August 23, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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