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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177321/the-crystal-structure-of-pd1-a-haemophilus-surface-fibril-domain
#1
Jack Wright, Maren Thomsen, Robert Kolodziejczyk, Joshua Ridley, Jessica Sinclair, Glenn Carrington, Birendra Singh, Kristian Riesbeck, Adrian Goldman
The Haemophilus surface fibril (Hsf) is an unusually large trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA) expressed by the most virulent strains of H. influenzae. Hsf is known to mediate adhesion between pathogen and host, allowing the establishment of potentially deadly diseases such as epiglottitis, meningitis and pneumonia. While recent research has suggested that this TAA might adopt a novel `hairpin-like' architecture, the characterization of Hsf has been limited to in silico modelling and electron micrographs, with no high-resolution structural data available...
February 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159573/factors-associated-with-the-control-of-viral-replication-and-virologic-breakthrough-in-a-recently-infected-hiv-1-controller
#2
Victoria E Walker-Sperling, Christopher W Pohlmeyer, Rebecca T Veenhuis, Megan May, Krystle A Luna, Allison R Kirkpatrick, Oliver Laeyendecker, Andrea L Cox, Mary Carrington, Justin R Bailey, Roberto C Arduino, Joel N Blankson
HIV-1 controllers are patients who control HIV-1 viral replication without antiretroviral therapy. Control is achieved very early in the course of infection, but the mechanisms through which viral replication is restricted are not fully understood. We describe a patient who presented with acute HIV-1 infection and was found to have an HIV-1 RNA level of <100copies/mL. She did not have any known protective HLA alleles, but significant immune activation of CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells was present, and both cell types inhibited viral replication...
January 26, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157776/translating-evidence-based-protocols-into-the-home-healthcare-setting
#3
Katherine L Beissner, Eileen Bach, Christopher M Murtaugh, MaryGrace Trifilio, Charles R Henderson, Yolanda Barrón, Melissa A Trachtenberg, Carrington Reid
Activity-limiting pain is common among older home care patients and pain management is complicated by the high prevalence of physical frailty and multimorbidity in the home care population. A comparative effectiveness study was undertaken at a large urban home care agency to examine an evidence-based pain self-management program delivered by physical therapists (PTs). This article focuses on PT training, methods implemented to reinforce content after training and to encourage uptake of the program with appropriate patients, and therapists' fidelity to the program...
February 2017: Home Healthcare Now
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153979/interspecies-comparison-of-the-mechanical-properties-and-biochemical-composition-of-byssal-threads
#4
Zeineb Bouhlel, Bertrand Genard, Neilly Ibrahim, Emily Carrington, José M F Babarro, Aynur Lok, Augusto A V Flores, Christian Pellerin, Réjean Tremblay, Isabelle Marcotte
Several bivalve species produce byssus threads to provide attachment to substrates, with mechanical properties highly variable among species. Here, we examined the distal section of byssal threads produced by a range of bivalve species (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus trossulus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus californianus, Pinna nobilis, Perna perna, Xenostrobus securis, Brachidontes solisianus and Isognomon bicolor) collected from different nearshore environments. Morphological and mechanical properties were measured, and biochemical analyses were performed...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148735/sequence-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-untranslated-promoter-regions-for-hla-class-i-genes
#5
Veron Ramsuran, Pedro G Hernández-Sanchez, Colm O'hUigin, Gaurav Sharma, Niamh Spence, Danillo G Augusto, Xiaojiang Gao, Christian A García-Sepúlveda, Gurvinder Kaur, Narinder K Mehra, Mary Carrington
Polymorphisms located within the MHC have been linked to many disease outcomes by mechanisms not yet fully understood in most cases. Variants located within untranslated regions of HLA genes are involved in allele-specific expression and may therefore underlie some of these disease associations. We determined sequences extending nearly 2 kb upstream of the transcription start site for 68 alleles from 57 major lineages of classical HLA class I genes. The nucleotide diversity within this promoter segment roughly follows that seen within the coding regions, with HLA-B showing the highest (∼1...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125726/a-receptor-s-tale-an-eon-in-the-life-of-a-trypanosome-receptor
#6
REVIEW
Matthew K Higgins, Harriet Lane-Serff, Paula MacGregor, Mark Carrington
African trypanosomes have complex life cycles comprising at least ten developmental forms, variously adapted to different niches in their tsetse fly vector and their mammalian hosts. Unlike many other protozoan pathogens, they are always extracellular and have evolved intricate surface coats that allow them to obtain nutrients while also protecting them from the immune defenses of either insects or mammals. The acquisition of macromolecular nutrients requires receptors that function within the context of these surface coats...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108642/the-potential-role-for-smartphones-among-older-adults-with-chronic-noncancer-pain-a-qualitative-study
#7
Joshua E Richardson, Jennifer I Lee, Anita Nirenberg, M Carrington Reid
: OBJECTIVE : To determine the role that smartphones may play in supporting older adults with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) in order to improve pain management in this expanding population. DESIGN:  Qualitative study. SETTING:  One academically affiliated primary care practice serving older adults with CNCP in New York City. SUBJECTS : Thirteen older adults (age 65-85 years) with CNCP on chronic opioid therapy, that is, continuous use of opioids for at least six months...
January 20, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107252/multimorbidity-and-the-risk-of-all-cause-30-day-readmission-in-the-setting-of-multidisciplinary-management-of-chronic-heart-failure-a-retrospective-analysis-of-830-hospitalized-patients-in-australia
#8
Joshua F Wiley, Yih-Kai Chan, Yasmin Ahamed, Jocasta Ball, Melinda J Carrington, Barbara Riegel, Simon Stewart
BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity has an adverse effect on health outcomes in hospitalized individuals with chronic heart failure (CHF), but the modulating effect of multidisciplinary management is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that increasing morbidity would independently predict an increasing risk of 30-day readmission despite multidisciplinary management of CHF. METHODS: We studied patients hospitalized for any reason with heart failure receiving nurse-led, postdischarge multidisciplinary management...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107088/the-national-eye-survey-of-trinidad-and-tobago-nestt-rationale-objectives-and-methodology
#9
Tasanee Braithwaite, Neville Q Verlander, Debra Bartholomew, Petra Bridgemohan, Kevin McNally, Allana Roach, Subash Sharma, Deo Singh, Konrad Pesudovs, Surujpal Teelucksingh, Christine Carrington, Samuel Ramsewak, Rupert Bourne
PURPOSE: This paper describes the rationale, study design and procedures of the National Eye Survey of Trinidad and Tobago (NESTT). The main objective of this survey is to obtain prevalence estimates of vision impairment and blindness for planning and policy development. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional survey was undertaken using random multistage cluster sampling, with probability-proportionate-to-size methods. Eligible participants aged 5 years and older were sampled from the non-institutional population in each of 120 cluster segments...
January 20, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101937/methods-of-anorectal-manometry-vary-widely-in-clinical-practice-results-from-an-international-survey
#10
E V Carrington, H Heinrich, C H Knowles, S S Rao, M Fox, S M Scott
BACKGROUND: Ano-rectal manometry (ARM) is the most commonly performed investigation for assessment of anorectal dysfunction. Its use is supported by expert consensus documents and international guidelines. Variation in technology, data acquisition, and analysis affect results and clinical interpretation. This study examined variation in ARM between institutions to establish the status of current practice. METHODS: A 50-item web-based questionnaire assessing analysis and interpretation of ARM was distributed by the International Anorectal Physiology Working Group via societies representing practitioners that perform ARM...
January 18, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097230/protection-against-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-by-pfspz-vaccine
#11
Judith E Epstein, Kristopher M Paolino, Thomas L Richie, Martha Sedegah, Alexandra Singer, Adam J Ruben, Sumana Chakravarty, April Stafford, Richard C Ruck, Abraham G Eappen, Tao Li, Peter F Billingsley, Anita Manoj, Joana C Silva, Kara Moser, Robin Nielsen, Donna Tosh, Susan Cicatelli, Harini Ganeshan, Jessica Case, Debbie Padilla, Silas Davidson, Lindsey Garver, Elizabeth Saverino, Tooba Murshedkar, Anusha Gunasekera, Patrick S Twomey, Sharina Reyes, James E Moon, Eric R James, Natasha Kc, Minglin Li, Esteban Abot, Arnel Belmonte, Kevin Hauns, Maria Belmonte, Jun Huang, Carlos Vasquez, Shon Remich, Mary Carrington, Yonas Abebe, Amy Tillman, Bradley Hickey, Jason Regules, Eileen Villasante, B Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman
BACKGROUND: A radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoite (SPZ) malaria vaccine, PfSPZ Vaccine, protected 6 of 6 subjects (100%) against homologous Pf (same strain as in the vaccine) controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) 3 weeks after 5 doses administered intravenously. The next step was to assess protective efficacy against heterologous Pf (different from Pf in the vaccine), after fewer doses, and at 24 weeks. METHODS: The trial assessed tolerability, safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of direct venous inoculation (DVI) of 3 or 5 doses of PfSPZ Vaccine in non-immune subjects...
January 12, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079376/synthesis-structures-and-co-release-capacity-of-a-family-of-water-soluble-photocorms-assessment-of-the-biocompatibility-and-their-phototoxicity-toward-human-breast-cancer-cells
#12
Indranil Chakraborty, Samantha J Carrington, Graham Roseman, Pradip K Mascharak
Two manganese(I) carbonyl complexes derived from 2-(pyridyl)benzothiazole (pbt) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) release carbon monoxide (CO) under low-power broad-band visible-light illumination. CO photorelease from [Mn(CO)3(pbt)(PTA)]CF3SO3 (1, where PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) is accompanied by an emergence of a strong fluorescence around 400 nm from almost nonfluorescent preirradiated 1. However, [Mn(CO)3(phen)(PTA)]CF3SO3 (2) showed no such phenomenon upon prolonged illumination under similar experimental conditions...
January 12, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077659/hiv-controllers-exhibit-enhanced-frequencies-of-mhc-class-ii-tetramer-gag-specific-cd4-t-cells-in-chronic-clade-c-hiv-1-infection
#13
Faatima Laher, Srinika Ranasinghe, Filippos Porichis, Nikoshia Mewalal, Karyn Pretorius, Nasreen Ismail, Søren Buus, Anette Stryhn, Mary Carrington, Bruce D Walker, Thumbi Ndung'u, Zaza M Ndhlovu
: Immune control of viral infections is heavily dependent on helper CD4(+) T cell function. However, understanding the contribution of HIV-specific CD4(+) T cell responses to immune protection against HIV-1, particularly in clade C infection remains incomplete. Recently, MHC class II tetramers have emerged as a powerful tool for interrogating antigen specific CD4(+) T cells without relying on effector functions. Here, we defined the MHC class II alleles for immunodominant Gag CD4(+) T cell epitopes in clade C virus infection, constructed MHC class II tetramers, and then used these to define the magnitude, function, and relation to viral load of HIV-specific CD4(+) T cell responses in a cohort of untreated HIV clade C infected persons...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034612/improving-patient-knowledge-of-palliative-care-a-randomized-controlled-intervention-study
#14
Elissa Kozlov, M Carrington Reid, Brian D Carpenter
OBJECTIVES: To determine if laypersons' knowledge about palliative care can improve with a brief education intervention. METHODS: 152 adults were recruited to participate in a web-based randomized intervention trial that followed a 2 (content)×2 (format) between-subjects design. Groups received either a video intervention, an information page intervention, a video control, or an information page control. An ANCOVA with contrast coding of two factors was utilized to assess if knowledge, as measured by the Palliative Care Knowledge Scale (PaCKS), increased post intervention...
December 21, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984898/using-an-internal-coordinate-gaussian-basis-and-a-space-fixed-cartesian-coordinate-kinetic-energy-operator-to-compute-a-vibrational-spectrum-with-rectangular-collocation
#15
Sergei Manzhos, Tucker Carrington
We demonstrate that it is possible to use basis functions that depend on curvilinear internal coordinates to compute vibrational energy levels without deriving a kinetic energy operator (KEO) and without numerically computing coefficients of a KEO. This is done by using a space-fixed KEO and computing KEO matrix elements numerically. Whenever one has an excellent basis, more accurate solutions to the Schrödinger equation can be obtained by computing the KEO, potential, and overlap matrix elements numerically...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965167/nanoparticle-passage-through-porcine-jejunal-mucus-microfluidics-and-rheology
#16
Sourav Bhattacharjee, Eugene Mahon, Sabine M Harrison, Jim McGetrick, Mohankumar Muniyappa, Stephen D Carrington, David J Brayden
A micro-slide chamber was used to screen and rank sixteen functionalized fluorescent silica nanoparticles (SiNP) of different sizes (10, 50, 100 and 200 nm) and surface coatings (aminated, carboxylated, methyl-PEG1000ylated, and methyl-PEG2000ylated) according to their capacity to permeate porcine jejunal mucus. Variables investigated were influence of particle size, surface charge and methyl-PEGylation. The anionic SiNP showed higher transport through mucus whereas the cationic SiNP exhibited higher binding with lower transport...
December 10, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936225/evaluation-of-antigens-for-development-of-a-serological-test-for-human-african-trypanosomiasis
#17
Sylvain Biéler, Harald Waltenberger, Michael P Barrett, Richard McCulloch, Jeremy C Mottram, Mark Carrington, Wilhelm Schwaeble, James McKerrow, Margaret A Phillips, Paul A Michels, Philippe Büscher, Jean-Charles Sanchez, Richard Bishop, Derrick R Robinson, James Bangs, Michael Ferguson, Barbara Nerima, Audrey Albertini, Gerd Michel, Magdalena Radwandska, Joseph Mathu Ndung'u
BACKGROUND: Control and elimination of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) can be accelerated through the use of diagnostic tests that are more accurate and easier to deploy. The goal of this work was to evaluate the immuno-reactivity of antigens and identify candidates to be considered for development of a simple serological test for the detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense infections, ideally both. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The reactivity of 35 antigens was independently evaluated by slot blot and ELISA against sera from both T...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919745/biomechanics-of-cell-reorientation-in-a-three-dimensional-matrix-under-compression
#18
Lijie Yang, Léolène Jean Carrington, Begum Erdogan, Mingfang Ao, Bryson M Brewer, Donna J Webb, Deyu Li
Although a number of studies have reported that cells cultured on a stretchable substrate align away from or perpendicular to the stretch direction, how cells sense and respond to compression in a three-dimensional (3D) matrix remains an open question. We analyzed the reorientation of human prostatic normal tissue fibroblasts (NAFs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in response to 3D compression using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method. Results show that NAFs align to specific angles upon compression while CAFs exhibit a random distribution...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893951/events-leading-to-hospital-related-disenrollment-of-home-hospice-patients-a-study-of-primary-caregivers-perspectives
#19
Veerawat Phongtankuel, Shawn Paustian, Manney Carrington Reid, Amanda Finley, Angela Martin, John Delfs, Rosemary Baughn, Ronald D Adelman
BACKGROUND: Approximately 25% of hospice disenrollments in the United States occur as the result of hospitalization, which can lead to burdensome transitions and undesired care. Informal caregivers (e.g., spouses, children) play a critical role in caring for patients on home hospice. Research examining hospital-related disenrollment among these patients is limited. OBJECTIVE: To understand the events surrounding the hospitalization of patients discharged from home hospice through the perspective of their informal caregivers...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880898/hiv-1-control-by-nk-cells-via-reduced-interaction-between-kir2dl2-and-hla-c-%C3%A2-12-02-c-%C3%A2-14-03
#20
Zhansong Lin, Kimiko Kuroki, Nozomi Kuse, Xiaoming Sun, Tomohiro Akahoshi, Ying Qi, Takayuki Chikata, Takuya Naruto, Madoka Koyanagi, Hayato Murakoshi, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Shinichi Oka, Mary Carrington, Katsumi Maenaka, Masafumi Takiguchi
Natural killer (NK) cells control viral infection in part through the interaction between killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligands. We investigated 504 anti-retroviral (ART)-free Japanese patients chronically infected with HIV-1 and identified two KIR/HLA combinations, KIR2DL2/HLA-C(∗)12:02 and KIR2DL2/HLA-C(∗)14:03, that impact suppression of HIV-1 replication. KIR2DL2(+) NK cells suppressed viral replication in HLA-C(∗)14:03(+) or HLA-C(∗)12:02(+) cells to a significantly greater extent than did KIR2DL2(-) NK cells in vitro...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
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