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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654566/prospective-state-and-trait-predictors-of-daily-medication-adherence-behavior-in-hiv
#1
Paul F Cook, Sarah J Schmiege, Whitney Starr, Jane M Carrington, Lucy Bradley-Springer
BACKGROUND: Many persons living with HIV (PLWH) are nonadherent to medication. Trait level measures that ask about predictors of adherence in the abstract may not adequately capture state level daily variability that more directly impacts adherence. OBJECTIVES: This preliminary study was designed to test six predictors of electronically monitored adherence at both the state and trait levels and to compare their relative effects. METHODS: Using a smartphone, 87 PLWH completed randomly cued daily surveys on thoughts, mood, stress, coping, social support, and treatment motivation...
July 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650381/potential-for-immune-driven-viral-polymorphisms-to-compromise-antiretroviral-based-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-prevention-of-hiv-1-infection
#2
Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Zabrina L Brumme, Emily Adland, Gustavo Reyes-Terán, Santiago Avila-Rios, Carlos R Mejía-Villatoro, Tsunefusa Hayashida, Takayuki Chikata, Giang Van Tran, Kinh Van Nguyen, Rita I Meza, Elsa Y Palou, Humberto Valenzuela-Ponce, Juan M Pascale, Guillermo Porras-Cortés, Marvin Manzanero, Guinevere Q Lee, Jeffrey N Martin, Mary N Carrington, Mina John, Simon Mallal, Art F Y Poon, Philip Goulder, Masafumi Takiguchi, Shinichi Oka
OBJECTIVE: Long-acting rilpivirine is a candidate for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for prevention of HIV-1 infection. However, rilpivirine resistance mutations at reverse transcriptase codon 138 (RT-E138X) occur naturally in a minority of HIV-1-infected persons; in particular those expressing Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-B*18 where RT-E138X arises as an immune escape mutation. We investigate the global prevalence, B*18-linkage and replicative cost of RT-E138X and its regional implications for rilpivirine PrEP...
June 23, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649982/structural-and-regulatory-diversity-shape-hla-c-protein-expression-levels
#3
Gurman Kaur, Stephanie Gras, Jesse I Mobbs, Julian P Vivian, Adrian Cortes, Thomas Barber, Subita Balaram Kuttikkatte, Lise Torp Jensen, Kathrine E Attfield, Calliope A Dendrou, Mary Carrington, Gil McVean, Anthony W Purcell, Jamie Rossjohn, Lars Fugger
Expression of HLA-C varies widely across individuals in an allele-specific manner. This variation in expression can influence efficacy of the immune response, as shown for infectious and autoimmune diseases. MicroRNA binding partially influences differential HLA-C expression, but the additional contributing factors have remained undetermined. Here we use functional and structural analyses to demonstrate that HLA-C expression is modulated not just at the RNA level, but also at the protein level. Specifically, we show that variation in exons 2 and 3, which encode the α1/α2 domains, drives differential expression of HLA-C allomorphs at the cell surface by influencing the structure of the peptide-binding cleft and the diversity of peptides bound by the HLA-C molecules...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647415/restrictive-arteriopathy-in-late-onset-pompe-disease-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Konark Malhotra, David C Carrington, David S Liebeskind
Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is an adult type of classical Pompe disease and presents without cardiomyopathy. Neuroimaging in LOPD is typically limited to posterior circulation and involves dilative arteriopathy, especially dolichoectasia and intracranial aneurysms. We report an interesting case of an established diagnosis of asymptomatic LOPD in a young man with a restrictive-variant pattern in posterior vasculature. We discuss the clinical presentation, neuroimaging, existing literature, and prognosis in vascular variants of LOPD...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626631/chronic-eosinophilic-pneumonia-adjunctive-therapy-with-inhaled-steroids
#5
Christopher Chan, David DeLapp, Perry Nystrom
Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP) is a rare form of diffuse parenchymal lung disease first identified by Carrington et al. in 1969. It is characterized by the presence of constitutional and respiratory symptoms with associated peripheral opacities on imaging and elevated serum and/or bronchoalveolar eosinophilia. Although data is limited regarding etiology or prevalence, it is known that ICEP has a 2:1 female: male predominance and typically affects non-smokers. Diagnosis rests on the clinical constellation of respiratory symptoms of at least 2-4 weeks duration, the presence of diffuse pulmonary alveolar consolidation, classically described as the "photographic negative of pulmonary edema", the presence of eosinophils ≥40% on bronchoalveolar lavage or ≥1000/mm(3) eosinophils on peripheral blood and the exclusion of other known causes of eosinophilic lung diseases such as drugs, toxins, fungi, parasites, and collagen-vascular disorders...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618587/general-scaling-relations-for-locomotion-in-granular-media
#6
James Slonaker, D Carrington Motley, Qiong Zhang, Stephen Townsend, Carmine Senatore, Karl Iagnemma, Ken Kamrin
Inspired by dynamic similarity in fluid systems, we have derived a general dimensionless form for locomotion in granular materials, which is validated in experiments and discrete element method (DEM) simulations. The form instructs how to scale size, mass, and driving parameters in order to relate dynamic behaviors of different locomotors in the same granular media. The scaling can be derived by assuming intrusion forces arise from resistive force theory or equivalently by assuming the granular material behaves as a continuum obeying a frictional yield criterion...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595429/expanding-palliative-care-s-reach-in-the-community-via-the-elder-service-agency-network
#7
M Carrington Reid, Angela Ghesquiere, Cara Kenien, Elizabeth Capezuti, Daniel Gardner
Over the past two decades, palliative care has established itself as a promising approach to address the complex needs of individuals with advanced illness. Palliative care is well-established in US hospitals and has recently begun to expand outside of the hospital setting to meet the needs of non-hospitalized individuals. Experts have called for the development of innovative community-based models that facilitate delivery of palliative care to this target population. Elder service agencies are important partners that researchers should collaborate with to develop new and promising models...
April 17, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585694/the-abrams-geriatric-self-neglect-scale-introduction-validation-and-psychometric-properties
#8
Robert C Abrams, M Carrington Reid, Cynthia Lien, Maria Pavlou, Anthony Rosen, Nancy Needell, Joseph Eimicke, Jeanne Teresi
OBJECTIVE: Self-neglect is an imprecisely defined entity with multiple clinical expressions and adverse health consequences, especially in the elderly. However, research has been limited by the absence of a measurement instrument that is both inclusive and specific. Our goal was to establish the psychometric properties of a quantitative instrument, the Abrams Geriatric Self-Neglect Scale (AGSS). METHODS: We analyzed data from a 2007 case-control study of 71 cognitively intact community-dwelling older self-neglectors that had used the AGSS...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571348/an-intertwined-method-for-making-low-rank-sum-of-product-basis-functions-that-makes-it-possible-to-compute-vibrational-spectra-of-molecules-with-more-than-10-atoms
#9
Phillip S Thomas, Tucker Carrington
We propose a method for solving the vibrational Schrödinger equation with which one can compute spectra for molecules with more than ten atoms. It uses sum-of-product (SOP) basis functions stored in a canonical polyadic tensor format and generated by evaluating matrix-vector products. By doing a sequence of partial optimizations, in each of which the factors in a SOP basis function for a single coordinate are optimized, the rank of the basis functions is reduced as matrix-vector products are computed. This is better than using an alternating least squares method to reduce the rank, as is done in the reduced-rank block power method...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542610/gpr40-partial-agonist-mk-2305-lower-fasting-glucose-in-the-goto-kakizaki-rat-via-suppression-of-endogenous-glucose-production
#10
Corin Miller, Michele J Pachanski, Melissa E Kirkland, Daniel T Kosinski, Joel Mane, Michelle Bunzel, Jin Cao, Sarah Souza, Brande Thomas-Fowlkes, Jerry Di Salvo, Adam B Weinglass, Xiaoyan Li, Robert W Myers, Kevin Knagge, Paul E Carrington, William K Hagmann, Maria E Trujillo
GPR40 (FFA1) is a fatty acid receptor whose activation results in potent glucose lowering and insulinotropic effects in vivo. Several reports illustrate that GPR40 agonists exert glucose lowering in diabetic humans. To assess the mechanisms by which GPR40 partial agonists improve glucose homeostasis, we evaluated the effects of MK-2305, a potent and selective partial GPR40 agonist, in diabetic Goto Kakizaki rats. MK-2305 decreased fasting glucose after acute and chronic treatment. MK-2305-mediated changes in glucose were coupled with increases in plasma insulin during hyperglycemia and glucose challenges but not during fasting, when glucose was normalized...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531281/standard-vs-intensified-management-of-heart-failure-to-reduce-healthcare-costs-results-of-a-multicentre-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
P A Scuffham, J Ball, J D Horowitz, C Wong, P J Newton, P Macdonald, J McVeigh, A Rischbieth, N Emanuele, M J Carrington, C M Reid, Y K Chan, S Stewart
Aims: To determine if an intensified form of heart failure management programme (INT-HF-MP) based on individual profiling is superior to standard management (SM) in reducing health care costs during 12-month follow-up (primary endpoint). Methods and results: A multicentre randomized trial involving 787 patients (full analysis set) discharged from four tertiary hospitals with chronic HF who were randomized to SM (n = 391) or INT-HF-MP (n = 396). Mean age was 74 ± 12 years, 65% had HF with a reduced ejection fraction (31...
May 20, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527461/systematically-expanding-nondirect-product-bases-within-the-pruned-multi-configuration-time-dependent-hartree-mctdh-method-a-comparison-with-multi-layer-mctdh
#12
Robert Wodraszka, Tucker Carrington
We propose a pruned multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method with systematically expanding nondirect product bases and use it to solve the time-independent Schrödinger equation. No pre-determined pruning condition is required to select the basis functions. Using about 65 000 basis functions, we calculate the first 69 vibrational eigenpairs of acetonitrile, CH3CN, to an accuracy better than that achieved in a previous pruned MCTDH calculation which required more than 100 000 basis functions...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523387/seroprevalence-of-economically-important-viral-pathogens-in-swine-populations-of-trinidad-and-tobago-west-indies
#13
Jamie R V Sookhoo, Arianne Brown-Jordan, Lemar Blake, Ridley B Holder, Sharon M Brookes, Stephen Essen, Christine V F Carrington, Ian H Brown, Christopher A L Oura
The objective of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and identify the strains of swine influenza virus (SwIV), as well as the seroprevalence of porcine parvovirus (PPV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in pigs in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). Blood samples (309) were randomly collected from pigs at farms throughout T&T...
May 18, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486816/attitudes-towards-exercise-among-substance-using-older-adults-living-with-hiv-and-chronic-pain
#14
Annie L Nguyen, Jordan E Lake, M Carrington Reid, Suzette Glasner, Jessica Jenkins, Jury Candelario, Sarah Soliman, Homero E Del Pino, Alison A Moore
Chronic pain and substance use disorders occur commonly among HIV-infected persons. Recent CDC guidelines recommend non-pharmacologic approaches over opioid medications for the management of chronic pain. This is particularly relevant for persons with substance use disorders. Structured physical activity may be an effective strategy for pain reduction. We developed a combined cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) + exercise intervention to reduce pain, pain-related disability and substance use and improve physical function in older HIV-infected adults with chronic pain and substance use...
May 9, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486054/beyond-the-page-a-process-review-of-using-ethnodrama-to-disseminate-research-findings
#15
Jamilah Taylor, Emily Namey, Annette Carrington Johnson, Greg Guest
Public health researchers are charged with communicating study findings to appropriate audiences. Dissemination activities typically target the academic research community. However, as participatory research grows, researchers are increasingly exploring innovative dissemination techniques to reach broader audiences, particularly research participants and their communities. One technique is ethnodrama/ethnotheatre, a written or live performance based on study findings. Though used effectively in social change programs, dramas are seldom used to distribute research findings exclusively...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480053/understanding-the-evolution-and-spread-of-chikungunya-virus-in-the-americas-using-complete-genome-sequences
#16
N S D Sahadeo, O M Allicock, P M De Salazar, A J Auguste, S Widen, B Olowokure, C Gutierrez, A M Valadere, K Polson-Edwards, S C Weaver, C V F Carrington
Local transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was first detected in the Americas in December 2013, after which it spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean islands and American mainland, causing a major chikungunya fever epidemic. Previous phylogenetic analysis of CHIKV from a limited number of countries in the Americas suggests that an Asian genotype strain was responsible, except in Brazil where both Asian and East/Central/South African (ECSA) lineage strains were detected. In this study, we sequenced thirty-three complete CHIKV genomes from viruses isolated in 2014 from fourteen Caribbean islands, the Bahamas and two mainland countries in the Americas...
January 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473698/implantable-strain-sensor-to-monitor-fracture-healing-with-standard-radiography
#17
Hunter Pelham, Donald Benza, Paul W Millhouse, Nathan Carrington, Md Arifuzzaman, Caleb J Behrend, Jeffrey N Anker, John D DesJardins
Current orthopaedic clinical methods do not provide an objective measure of fracture healing or weight bearing for lower extremity fractures. The following report describes a novel approach involving in-situ strain sensors to objectively measure fracture healing. The sensor uses a cantilevered indicator pin that responds to plate bending and an internal scale to demonstrate changes in the pin position on plain film radiographs. The long lever arm amplifies pin movement compared to interfragmentary motion, and the scale enables more accurate measurement of position changes...
May 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449009/the-prognostic-value-of-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-contrast-agent-transfer-constant-k-trans-in-cervical-cancer-is-explained-by-plasma-flow-rather-than-vessel-permeability
#18
Ben R Dickie, Chris J Rose, Lucy E Kershaw, Stephanie B Withey, Bernadette M Carrington, Susan E Davidson, Gillian Hutchison, Catharine M L West
BACKGROUND: The microvascular contrast agent transfer constant K(trans) has shown prognostic value in cervical cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. This study aims to determine whether this is explained by the contribution to K(trans) of plasma flow (Fp), vessel permeability surface-area product (PS), or a combination of both. METHODS: Pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data from 36 patients were analysed using the two-compartment exchange model...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442184/pigmented-villonodular-synovitis-of-the-knee-a-retrospective-analysis-of-214-cases-at-a-uk-tertiary-referral-centre
#19
K H Patel, P D Gikas, R C Pollock, R W Carrington, S R Cannon, J A Skinner, T W Briggs, W J S Aston
AIMS: Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, locally aggressive and potentially recurrent synovial disease. We present the largest single-centre experience of knee PVNS. Our aim was to evaluate our tertiary hospital's experience in the management of knee PVNS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective data collection of consecutive cases of knee PVNS from 2002 to 2015. RESULTS: In total, 214 cases of knee PVNS were identified which represented 53...
April 22, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429320/euglena-gracilis-genome-and-transcriptome-organelles-nuclear-genome-assembly-strategies-and-initial-features
#20
ThankGod Echezona Ebenezer, Mark Carrington, Michael Lebert, Steven Kelly, Mark C Field
Euglena gracilis is a major component of the aquatic ecosystem and together with closely related species, is ubiquitous worldwide. Euglenoids are an important group of protists, possessing a secondarily acquired plastid and are relatives to the Kinetoplastidae, which themselves have global impact as disease agents. To understand the biology of E. gracilis, as well as to provide further insight into the evolution and origins of the Kinetoplastidae, we embarked on sequencing the nuclear genome; the plastid and mitochondrial genomes are already in the public domain...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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