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Beta Cells AND FoxO

Min Cui, Renyong Jia, Juan Huang, Xianglong Wu, Zhiqiang Hu, Xingcui Zhang, Mingshu Wang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Yin Wu, Qiao Yang, Shaqiu Zhang, Yunya Liu, Ling Zhang, Zhongqiong Yin, Bo Jing, Anchun Cheng
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), belonging to the Flaviviridae family, is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. Since April 2010, the outbreak of DTMUV in southeast provinces of China has caused great economic losses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles in viral infection through binding to the host target genes or the viral genomes. To better understanding the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interaction, here we identified the miRNA expression profiles in DTMUV-infected and uninfected DEF cells by high-throughput sequencing...
May 23, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Katarzyna Ropka-Molik, Klaudia Pawlina-Tyszko, Kacper Żukowski, Katarzyna Piórkowska, Grzegorz Żak, Artur Gurgul, Natalia Derebecka, Joanna Wesoły
Recently, selection in pigs has been focused on improving the lean meat content in carcasses; this focus has been most evident in breeds constituting a paternal component in breeding. Such sire-breeds are used to improve the meat quantity of cross-breed pig lines. However, even in one breed, a significant variation in the meatiness level can be observed. In the present study, the comprehensive analysis of genes and microRNA expression profiles in porcine muscle tissue was applied to identify the genetic background of meat content...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mi-Kyung Kim, Hyun Mi Shin, HyeSook Jung, EunJu Lee, Tae Kyoon Kim, Tae Nyun Kim, Min Jeong Kwon, Soon Hee Lee, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jeong Hyun Park
Type 2 diabetes manifests beta cell deficiencies and alpha cell expansion which is consistent with relative insulin deficiency and glucagon oversecretion. The effects of hyperglycemia on alpha cells are not as understood in comparison to beta cells. Hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress, which induces Akt activation or FoxO activation, depending on cell type. Several studies independently reported that FoxO1 translocations in alpha cells and beta cells were opposite. We compared the responses of pancreatic alpha cells and beta cells against hyperglycemia...
September 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Bo-Xiang Chen, Shao-Kui Yi, Wei-Feng Wang, Yan He, Yan Huang, Ze-Xia Gao, Hong Liu, Wei-Min Wang, Huan-Ling Wang
The economic and biological significance of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) makes this species important to explore the underlying molecular mechanism of hypoxia response. In the present study, we compared the transcriptional responses to serious hypoxia in skeletal muscle among hypoxia tolerant (MT), sensitive (MS) and control (without hypoxia treatment, MC) M. amblycephala obtained according to the time difference of losing balance after hypoxia treatment. A total of 88,200,889 clean reads were generated and assembled into 44,493 unigenes...
August 15, 2017: Gene
Valentina Klaus, Heinke Bastek, Katja Damme, Leonard B Collins, Roland Frötschl, Norbert Benda, Dominik Lutter, Heidrun Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, James A Swenberg, Daniel R Dietrich, Kerstin Stemmer
Genotoxic carcinogens pose great hazard to human health. Uncertainty of current risk assessment strategies and long latency periods between first carcinogen exposure and diagnosis of tumors have raised interest in predictive biomarkers. Initial DNA adduct formation is a necessary step for genotoxin induced carcinogenesis. However, as DNA adducts not always translate into tumorigenesis, their predictive value is limited. Here we hypothesize that the combined analysis of pro-mutagenic DNA adducts along with time-matched gene expression changes could serve as a superior prediction tool for genotoxic carcinogenesis...
October 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Kyoichiro Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Forkhead box class O family member proteins (FoxOs) of transcription factors are essential regulators of cellular homeostasis, including glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress response and redox signaling, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Altered FoxO1 expression and activity have been associated with glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and complications of diabetes. In the liver, they direct carbons to glucose or lipid utilization, thus providing a unifying mechanism for the two abnormalities of the diabetic liver: excessive glucose production, and increased lipid synthesis and secretion...
November 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Ignacio Norambuena-Soto, Constanza Núñez-Soto, Fernanda Sanhueza-Olivares, Nicole Cancino-Arenas, David Mondaca-Ruff, Raul Vivar, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Rosemarie Mellado, Mario Chiong
Fibroblasts play several homeostatic roles, including electrical coupling, paracrine signaling and tissue repair after injury. Fibroblasts have low secretory activity. However, in response to injury, they differentiate to myofibroblasts. These cells have an increased extracellular matrix synthesis and secretion, including collagen fibers, providing stiffness to the tissue. In pathological conditions myofibroblasts became resistant to apoptosis, remaining in the tissue, causing excessive extracellular matrix secretion and deposition, which contributes to the progressive tissue remodeling...
May 23, 2017: Bioscience Trends
Xin Zhang, Dong Ren, Ling Guo, Lan Wang, Shu Wu, Chuyong Lin, Liping Ye, Jinrong Zhu, Jun Li, Libing Song, Huanxin Lin, Zhenyu He
BACKGROUND: Thymosin beta 10 (TMSB10) has been demonstrated to be involved in the malignant process of many cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the biological roles and clinical significance of TMSB10 in breast cancer and to identify whether TMSB10 might be used as a serum marker for the diagnosis of breast cancer. METHODS: TMSB10 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) of 253 breast tumors and ELISA of serum from 80 patients with breast cancer...
February 8, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Ovais Shafi
BACKGROUND: The AD etiology is yet not properly known. Interactions among environmental factors, multiple susceptibility genes and aging, contribute to AD. This study investigates the factors that play role in causing AD and how changes in cellular pathways contribute to AD. METHODS: PUBMED database, MEDLINE database and Google Scholar were searched with no date restrictions for published articles involving cellular pathways with roles in cancers, cell survival, growth, proliferation, development, aging, and also contributing to Alzheimer's disease...
November 22, 2016: BMC Neurology
D Germain
By being both the source of ATP and the mediator of apoptosis, the mitochondria are key regulators of cellular life and death. Not surprisingly alterations in the biology of the mitochondria have implications in a wide array of diseases including cancer and age-related diseases such as neurodegeneration. To protect the mitochondria against damage the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) orchestrates several pathways, including the protein quality controls, the antioxidant machinery, oxidative phosphorylation, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
Roongpetch Keowkase, Natthida Weerapreeyakul
Amyloid-β, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, is toxic to neurons and causes cell death in the brain. Oxidative stress is known to play an important role in Alzheimer's disease, and there is strong evidence linking oxidative stress to amyloid-β. The herbal plant "Tiew kon" (Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorum) is an indigenous vegetable that is grown in Southeast Asia. Many reports suggested that the twig extract from C. formosum possesses an antioxidant property. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of the twig extract from C...
April 2016: Planta Medica
Utpal B Pajvani, Domenico Accili
Until recently, type 2 diabetes was seen as a disease caused by an impaired ability of insulin to promote the uptake and utilisation of glucose. Work on forkhead box protein O (FOXO) transcription factors revealed new aspects of insulin action that have led us to articulate a liver- and beta cell-centric narrative of diabetes pathophysiology and treatment. FOXO integrate a surprisingly diverse subset of biological functions to promote metabolic flexibility. In the liver, they controls the glucokinase/glucose-6-phosphatase switch and bile acid pool composition, directing carbons to glucose or lipid utilisation, thus providing a unifying mechanism for the two abnormalities of the diabetic liver: excessive glucose production and increased lipid synthesis and secretion...
November 2015: Diabetologia
Giovanni Luca Gravina, Andrea Mancini, Luca Scarsella, Alessandro Colapietro, Ana Jitariuc, Flora Vitale, Francesco Marampon, Enrico Ricevuto, Claudio Festuccia
Deregulation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway contributes to prostate cancer development and progression. Here, we compared the in vitro effects of the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor (XL765) with those observed with the sole PI3K (XL147) or mTOR (rapamycin) inhibition in 2 non-tumor prostate epithelial cell lines, 8 prostate cancer cell lines, and 11 prostate cancer cell derivatives. We demonstrated that the XL765 treatment showed superior and proliferative effects of XL147 or rapamycin...
January 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Premalatha Shathasivam, Alexandra Kollara, Maurice J Ringuette, Carl Virtanen, Jeffrey L Wrana, Theodore J Brown
Drosophila melted encodes a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing protein that enables normal tissue growth, metabolism, and photoreceptor differentiation by modulating Forkhead box O (FOXO), target of rapamycin, and Hippo signaling pathways. Ventricular zone expressed PH domain-containing 1 (VEPH1) is the mammalian ortholog of melted, and although it exhibits tissue-restricted expression during mouse development and is potentially amplified in several human cancers, little is known of its function. Here we explore the impact of VEPH1 expression in ovarian cancer cells by gene-expression profiling...
June 9, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Katsuki Okada, Atsuhiko T Naito, Tomoaki Higo, Akito Nakagawa, Masato Shibamoto, Taku Sakai, Akihito Hashimoto, Yuki Kuramoto, Tomokazu Sumida, Seitaro Nomura, Masamichi Ito, Toshihiro Yamaguchi, Toru Oka, Hiroshi Akazawa, Jong-Kook Lee, Sachio Morimoto, Yasushi Sakata, Ichiro Shiojima, Issei Komuro
BACKGROUND: There are changes in the skeletal muscle of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), such as volume reduction and fiber type shift toward fatigable type IIb fiber. Forkhead box O (FoxO) signaling plays a critical role in the development of skeletal myopathy in CHF, and functional interaction between FoxO and the Wnt signal mediator β-catenin was previously demonstrated. We have recently reported that serum of CHF model mice activates Wnt signaling more potently than serum of control mice and that complement C1q mediates this activation...
July 2015: Circulation. Heart Failure
Prasanna Abeyrathna, Yunchao Su
Akt kinase, a member of AGC kinases, is important in many cellular functions including proliferation, migration, cell growth and metabolism. There are three known Akt isoforms which play critical and diverse roles in the cardiovascular system. Akt activity is regulated by its upstream regulatory pathways at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Beta-catenin/Tcf-4, GLI1 and Stat-3 are some of few known transcriptional regulators of AKT gene. Threonine 308 and serine 473 are the two critical phosphorylation sites of Akt1...
November 2015: Vascular Pharmacology
Michel Schmitt-Ney, Giovanni Camussi
PAX3-FOXO1 (PAX3-FKHR) is the fusion protein produced by the genomic translocation that characterizes the alveolar subtype of Rhabdomyosarcoma, a pediatric sarcoma with myogenic phenotype. PAX3-FOXO1 is an aberrant but functional transcription factor. It retains PAX3-DNA-binding activity and functionally overlaps PAX3 function while also disturbing it, in particular its role in myogenic differentiation. We herein show that PAX3-FOXO1 interferes with normal FOXO function. PAX3-FOXO1 affects FOXO-family member trans-activation capability and the FOXO-dependent TGF-β response...
2015: PloS One
Xingjun Wang, Yeqing Ma, Yu Zhao, Yujun Chen, Yujia Hu, Changyan Chen, Yingyao Shao, Lei Xue
The amyloid precursor like protein-1 (APLP1) belongs to the amyloid precursor protein family that also includes the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the amyloid precursor like protein-2 (APLP2). Though the three proteins share similar structures and undergo the same cleavage processing by α-, β- and γ-secretases, APLP1 shows divergent subcellular localization from that of APP and APLP2, and thus, may perform distinct roles in vivo. While extensive studies have been focused on APP, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, the functions of APLP1 remain largely elusive...
June 2015: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Wen Luo, Xia Zhao, Hengwei Jin, Lichan Tao, Jingai Zhu, Huijuan Wang, Brian A Hemmings, Zhongzhou Yang
Second heart field (SHF) progenitors exhibit continued proliferation and delayed differentiation, which are modulated by FGF4/8/10, BMP and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PTEN-Akt signaling regulates the stem cell/progenitor cell homeostasis in several systems, such as hematopoietic stem cells, intestinal stem cells and neural progenitor cells. To address whether PTEN-Akt signaling is involved in regulating cardiac progenitors, we deleted Pten in SHF progenitors. Deletion of Pten caused SHF expansion and increased the size of the SHF derivatives, the right ventricle and the outflow tract...
February 15, 2015: Development
Hao Liu, Jiang Yin, Hongsheng Wang, Guanmin Jiang, Min Deng, Ge Zhang, Xianzhang Bu, Shaohui Cai, Jun Du, Zhimin He
Emerging evidence has revealed a negative correlation between Forkhead box-O (FOXO) expression and prostate cancer grade and spread, indicating its role as a suppressor of prostate cancer metastasis. However, there is still incomplete understanding about the role of FOXO transcription factors in prostate cancer progression. In this investigation, we demonstrate that FOXO3a significantly inhibits the expression β-catenin in prostate cancer cells. The mechanism of inhibiting β-catenin expression involves the FOXO3a-mediated transactivated microRNA-34b/c, which consequently suppressed β-catenin mRNA expression by targeting the untranslated regions (UTRs) of β-catenin...
March 2015: Cellular Signalling
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