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Obesity management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820474/significance-of-resveratrol-in-clinical-management-of-chronic-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Awais Wahab, Kuo Gao, Caixia Jia, Feilong Zhang, Guihua Tian, Ghulam Murtaza, Jianxin Chen
Resveratrol could be beneficial to health and provides protection against a wide array of pathologies and age-associated problems, as evident from preclinical studies. However, a comparison of animal and human studies reveals that this dietary polyphenol cannot protect against metabolic diseases and their associated complications. The clinical outcomes are affected by many factors such as sample size. This article not only presents a comprehensive review of the current advances concerning the dose, the extent of absorption, interaction and toxicity of resveratrol in human studies, but also describes its therapeutic effects against several chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and aging and the related diseases...
August 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819907/weight-and-eating-concerns-in-women-s-reproductive-health
#2
REVIEW
Courtney McCuen-Wurst, Elizabeth Culnan, Nicole L Stewart, Kelly C Allison
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Women's weight status affects their reproductive functioning, and, likewise, women's lifetime weight trajectories are influenced by reproductive events. We examine the relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), pregnancy, the postpartum period, and gynecological cancers with weight, body image, and other psychiatric issues. RECENT FINDINGS: Women with overweight or obesity are at higher risk for PCOS, and the mood and anxiety symptoms often comorbid with PCOS are linked to weight as well as the core symptoms of the disorder...
August 18, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818558/current-and-emerging-pharmacotherapies-for-obesity-in-australia
#3
REVIEW
Samantha Hocking, Anthony Dear, Michael A Cowley
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major issue in Australia and globally. Many individuals struggle to maintain weight loss with lifestyle modification, and adjunctive pharmacotherapy may help. Historically, there have been limited pharmacotherapies for managing obesity. In addition, previous treatments such as phentermine-fenfluramine, rimonabant and sibutramine were withdrawn due to safety issues, resulting in lingering safety concerns. METHODS: This is a narrative review of published data examining four new pharmacotherapy options for weight management in Australia...
August 14, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818324/the-treatment-of-segmental-tibial-fractures-does-patient-preference-differ-from-surgeon-choice
#4
Z Little, T O Smith, S E McMahon, C Cooper, A Trompeter, M Pearse, S Britten, B Rogers, H Sharma, B Narayan, M Costa, D J Beard, C B Hing
INTRODUCTION: Segmental tibial fractures are complex injuries with a prolonged recovery time. Current definitive treatment options include intramedullary fixation or a circular external fixator. However, there is uncertainty as to which surgical option is preferable and there are no sufficiently rigorous multi-centre trials that have answered this question. The objective of this study was to determine whether patient and surgeon opinion was permissive for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing intramedullary nailing to the application of a circular external fixator...
August 9, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818261/contemporary-medical-therapies-of-atherosclerotic-carotid-artery-disease
#5
Suk F Cheng, Martin M Brown
Contemporary medical therapy consists of identification and treatment of all patient-modifiable vascular risk factors. Specific atherosclerotic disease therapies are designed to reduce the risk of thrombosis, and the disease progression in order to reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events. Contemporary medical management emphasizes the need to support the patient in achieving lifestyle modifications and to adjust medication to achieve individualized target values for specific quantifiable risk factors...
March 2017: Seminars in Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817856/back-to-basics-the-effect-of-healthy-diet-and-exercise-on-chronic-disease-management
#6
Robert L Allison
INTRODUCTION: The increase in obesity rates in the U.S. and other less developed industrial countries have led to a worldwide epidemic of chronic disease states. Increased obesity rates are implicated in the treatment failures for illnesses such as coronary artery disease, diabetes, heart failure, hypertension and cancer. Effective prevention of obesity through diet and exercise contributes to the successful medical management of multiple chronic disease states. OBJECTIVE: Review the last 10 years of literature (2006-2016) on the effects of diet and exercise as they relate to the prevention of chronic disease...
2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817334/community-health-worker-support-for-disadvantaged-patients-with-multiple-chronic-diseases-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Shreya Kangovi, Nandita Mitra, David Grande, Hairong Huo, Robyn A Smith, Judith A Long
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a community health worker (CHW) intervention improved outcomes in a low-income population with multiple chronic conditions. METHODS: We conducted a single-blind, randomized clinical trial in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (2013-2014). Participants (n = 302) were high-poverty neighborhood residents, uninsured or publicly insured, and diagnosed with 2 or more chronic diseases (diabetes, obesity, tobacco dependence, hypertension). All patients set a disease-management goal...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817167/body-mass-index-50-kg-m2-and-beyond-perioperative-care-of-pregnant-women-with-superobesity-undergoing-cesarean-delivery
#8
Marcela Carolina Smid, Sarah K Dotters-Katz, Robert M Silver, Jeffrey A Kuller
Importance: Superobesity, defined as body mass index 50 kg/m(2) or greater, is the fastest-growing obesity group in the United States. Currently, 2% of pregnant women in the United States are superobese, and 50% will deliver via cesarean delivery. Objective: To review evidence of perioperative care during cesarean delivery among superobese women. Evidence Acquisition: We performed an evidence-based review of maternal and neonatal risks of cesarean delivery and of intraoperative management and immediate postpartum care of superobese pregnant women...
August 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815987/health-related-quality-of-life-in-randomized-controlled-trials-of-lorcaserin-for-obesity-management-what-mediates-improvement
#9
R L Kolotkin, R D Crosby, Z Wang
Lorcaserin, plus diet and exercise, has demonstrated significant weight loss and improved cardiometabolic parameters vs. placebo in patients with overweight/obesity in three randomized, placebo-controlled trials. We examined whether lorcaserin is also associated with greater improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and whether these improvements are wholly attributable to weight loss. Pooled data from Behavioral Modification and Lorcaserin for Overweight and Obesity Management (BLOOM), Behavioral Modification and Lorcaserin Second Study for Obesity Management (BLOSSOM) and BLOOM-Diabetes Mellitus (BLOOM-DM) trials were analysed (n = 5624)...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815846/innovative-look-at-dairy-heifer-rearing-effect-of-prenatal-and-post-natal-environment-on-later-performance
#10
REVIEW
M Van Eetvelde, G Opsomer
As heifer rearing is a costly investment, dairy farmers have been stimulated to maximize early growth of their calves, mainly by enhanced liquid feeding. However, the long-term effects of this "accelerated growth" are largely unknown. Studies recently performed at Ghent University indicate that in dairy cattle, certain maternal factors (such as young age and high milk yield) and environmental factors (such as high ambient temperatures) create a suboptimal environment for the developing foetus, altering the phenotype of the newborn calf...
August 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815416/what-is-the-evidence-for-paediatric-adolescent-bariatric-surgery
#11
REVIEW
Natalie Durkin, Ashish P Desai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In spite of the increasing prevalence of severe and complex obesity in children, surgery as a potential management option is still not widely accepted. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence for surgical options in the severely obese paediatric population. Increasing evidence supports early rather than later use of bariatric surgery in the treatment of extreme obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Prior to 2007, the feasibility and safety of surgery have been reported by predominantly small, sporadic single-centre retrospective case series...
August 16, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815402/covered-esophageal-stenting-is-effective-for-symptomatic-gastric-lumen-narrowing-and-related-complications-following-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy
#12
Murad A Aburajab, Joshua B Max, Mel A Ona, Kapil Gupta, Miguel Burch, F Michael Feiz, Simon K Lo, Laith H Jamil
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is gaining popularity in treating morbid obesity. Prior studies showed a 3.5% risk of gastric sleeve stenosis (GSS). There is no consensus on how to treat these patients, and the role of endoscopic therapy has been addressed in only a few studies. We aim to assess the efficacy and safety of endoscopic stenting in the management of GSS following LSG. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective data were reviewed from July 2009 to November 2013...
August 16, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814950/morinda-citrifolia-l-leaf-extract-prevent-weight-gain-in-sprague-dawley-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#13
Najla Gooda Sahib Jambocus, Amin Ismail, Alfi Khatib, Fawzi Mahomoodally, Nazamid Saari, Muhammad Waseem Mumtaz, Azizah Abdul Hamid
Background: Morinda citrifolia L. is widely used as a folk medicinal food plant to manage a panoply of diseases, though no concrete reports on its potential anti-obesity activity. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of M. citrifolia leaf extracts (MLE60) in the prevention of weight gain in vivo and establish its phytochemical profile. Design: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups based on a normal diet (ND) or high fat diet (HFD), with or without MLE60 supplementation (150 and 350 mg/kg body weight) and assessed for any reduction in weight gain...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814133/behavioral-and-psychosocial-characteristics-among-head-start-childcare-providers
#14
Jiying Ling
The aim of the study was twofold: (a) describe behavioral and psychosocial characteristics of Head Start childcare providers including technology use, physical activity, nutrition, depression, and quality of life and (b) examine associations among these characteristics. Using a cross-sectional design, a nonrandom sample of 80 Head Start childcare providers completed an online survey via SurveyMonkey. About 80.1% were overweight or obese. Nearly all had a computer or smartphone. About 55% met the national physical activity recommendation of 150 min/week...
January 1, 2017: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813774/pulmonary-embolism-caused-by-popliteal-vein-aneurysm-a-case-report
#15
Kevin Marquez, Kalyan Chakravarthy Potu, Chad Laurich, Randall Lamfers
In this case report, we describe an unusual episode of bilateral submassive pulmonary embolism (PE) caused by a popliteal vein aneurysm (PVA). The development of PE stems from many risk factors including obesity (BMI³ 30 kg/m2), hypertension, cigarette smoking (greater than 25 cigarettes per day), increasing age, surgery, immobility, malignancy, and inherited thrombophilia. A PVA is a rare but significant cause of PE. A 28-year-old male presented to the emergency department with progressive shortness of breath...
March 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812826/a-policy-analysis-on-the-proactive-prevention-of-chronic-disease-learnings-from-the-initial-implementation-of-integrated-measurement-for-early-detection-mido
#16
Roberto Tapia-Conyer, Rodrigo Saucedo-Martínez, Ricardo Mújica-Rosales, Héctor Gallardo-Rincón, Evan Lee, Craig Waugh, Lucía Guajardo, Braulio Torres-Beltrán, Úrsula Quijano-González, Mauricio López-Mendez, Elena Rose Atkinson
Mexico, like many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), specifically diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lipid disorders. Many people with these NCDs may not be aware that they have a disease, pointing to the need for broader screening programs. The traditional prevention policy in Mexico was based on screening with a paper-based risk factor questionnaire. However, this was used to screen patients already seeking healthcare services at facilities, and screening goals were set as a function of the number of questionnaires applied, not number of individuals screened...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811703/barrett-s-oesophagus-current-controversies
#17
REVIEW
Chidi Amadi, Piers Gatenby
Oesophageal adenocarcinoma is rapidly increasing in Western countries. This tumour frequently presents late in its course with metastatic disease and has a very poor prognosis. Barrett's oesophagus is an acquired condition whereby the native squamous mucosa of the lower oesophagus is replaced by columnar epithelium following prolonged gastro-oesophageal reflux and is the recognised precursor lesion for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. There are multiple national and society guidelines regarding screening, surveillance and management of Barrett's oesophagus, however all are limited regarding a clear evidence base for a well-demonstrated benefit and cost-effectiveness of surveillance, and robust risk stratification for patients to best use resources...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810972/when-military-fitness-standards-no-longer-apply-the-high-prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-recent-air-force-retirees
#18
Marcus M Cranston, Mark W True, Jana L Wardian, Rishawn M Carriere, Tom J Sauerwein
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. With MetS prevalence rates increasing in the U.S. population, prevention efforts have largely focused on diet and exercise interventions. Before retirement, military service members have met fitness requirements for at least 20 years, and have lower MetS rates compared to age-matched U.S. population controls (23.4% vs. 39.0%), which suggests a protective effect of the lifestyle associated with military service...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810399/identification-and-regulation-of-emotions-in-adults-of-varying-weight-statuses
#19
Andrea E Kass, Jennifer E Wildes, Emil F Coccaro
Comparing individuals of varying weight statuses on their identification and regulation of emotions may increase our understanding of mechanisms that drive excess weight gain and highlight more precise weight regulation targets. In Study I ( N = 1333), adults with obesity had reduced self-reported attention to and repair of emotions compared to adults with overweight or normal weight. In Study II ( N = 85), adults with obesity had deficits in assessor-administrated tasks of strategic emotional intelligence (i...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809663/promoting-physical-activity-and-nutrition-in-people-with-stroke
#20
Ryan R Bailey
The prevalence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity is high in people with stroke. Risk factors for these conditions include hypertension, high cholesterol, and physical inactivity. These risk factors are common in people with stroke and often go unmanaged. Engagement in healthy behaviors is important for managing and preventing these risk factors and comorbid conditions. More specifically, physical activity and nutrition are key health behaviors for the management and maintenance of health in people with stroke...
September 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
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