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Bacteria, viruses,cancer,parasits

Kevin Cheeseman, Gabriela Certad, Jonathan B Weitzman
Over 20 % of cancers have infectious origins, including well-known examples of microbes such as viruses (HPV, EBV) and bacteria (H. pylori). The contribution of intracellular eukaryotic parasites to cancer etiology is largely unexplored. Epidemiological and clinical reports indicate that eukaryotic protozoan, such as intracellular apicomplexan that cause diseases of medical or economic importance, can be linked to various cancers: Theileria and Cryptosporidium induce host cell transformation while Plasmodium was linked epidemiologically to the "African lymphoma belt" over fifty years ago...
October 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Nurdan Tözün, Eser Vardareli
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. These cancers are the end result of a complex interplay between gene and environment. Bacteria, parasites, and viruses have been implicated in some cancers. Recent data have put at focus the gut microbiome as the key player firing tumorigenesis. Experimental and human studies have provided evidence on the role of microbiota in cancer development. Although subject to changes in different settings such as antibiotic treatment, diet or lifestyle, our microbiome is quite stable and is capable of increasing susceptibility to cancer or decrease and halt its progression...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Salih Kuk, Yunus Uyar, Serkan Karaca, Süleyman Yazar
Microorganisms colonize tissues and organs such as the skin and gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary systems. These microorganisms are generally called as "human microbiota". Human microbiota mostly consists of commensal microorganisms. The commensal microorganisms located on and in the human body are bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and parasites. The microbiota genome is 100 times bigger in size than the human genome. Although the human genome is stationary, microbial genome has a compatible flexible variability during human life...
June 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Zhi Li, Xuan Liu, Yi Li, Xiqian Lan, Polly Hangmei Leung, Jiashen Li, Gang Li, Maobin Xie, Yanxia Han, Xiaofen Lin
Antimicrobial peptides, produced by innate immune system of hosts in response to invading pathogens, are capable of fighting against a spectrum of bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites and cancer cells. Here, a recombinant silkworm AMP Bmattacin2 from heterologous expression is studied, indicating a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and showing selective killing ability towards skin and colon cancer cells over their normal cell counterparts. For the purpose of biomedical application, the electrospinning fabrication technique is employed to load Bmattacin2 into PLLA nanofibrous membrane...
2016: Scientific Reports
Caixia Zhu, Qing Zhu, Chong Wang, Liming Zhang, Fang Wei, Qiliang Cai
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 is a central regulator in the adaptation process of cell response to hypoxia (low oxygen). Emerging evidence has demonstrated that HIF-1 plays an important role in the development and progression of many types of human diseases, including pathogen-associated cancers. In the present review, we summarize the recent understandings of how human pathogenic agents including viruses, bacteria and parasites deregulate cellular HIF-1 signaling pathway in their associated cancer cells, and highlight the common molecular mechanisms of HIF-1 signaling activated by these pathogenic infection, which could act as potential diagnostic markers and new therapeutic strategies against human infectious cancers...
October 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Martyn Plummer, Catherine de Martel, Jerome Vignat, Jacques Ferlay, Freddie Bray, Silvia Franceschi
BACKGROUND: Infections with certain viruses, bacteria, and parasites are strong risk factors for specific cancers. As new cancer statistics and epidemiological findings have accumulated in the past 5 years, we aimed to assess the causal involvement of the main carcinogenic agents in different cancer types for the year 2012. METHODS: We considered ten infectious agents classified as carcinogenic to human beings by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We calculated the number of new cancer cases in 2012 attributable to infections by country, by combining cancer incidence estimates (from GLOBOCAN 2012) with estimates of attributable fraction (AF) for the infectious agents...
September 2016: Lancet Global Health
Carlos Polanco
Antibacterial peptides are subject to broad research due to their potential application and the benefit they can provide for a wide range of diseases. In this work, a mathematical-computational method, called the Polarity Vector Method, is introduced that has a high discriminative level (>70%) to identify peptides associated with Gram (-) bacteria, Gram (+) bacteria, cancer cells, fungi, insects, mammalian cells, parasites, and viruses, taken from the Antimicrobial Peptides Database. This supervised method uses only eigenvectors from the incident polar matrix of the group studied...
2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Ezra D Mirvish, Masahiro Shuda
Over 20% of human cancers worldwide are associated with infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Various methods have been used to identify human tumor viruses, including electron microscopic observations of viral particles, immunologic screening, cDNA library screening, nucleic acid hybridization, consensus PCR, viral DNA array chip, and representational difference analysis. With the Human Genome Project, a large amount of genetic information from humans and other organisms has accumulated over the last decade...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xiuqing Wang, Guangshun Wang
The venoms of spiders and scorpions contain a variety of chemical compounds. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from these organisms were first discovered in the 1990s. As of May 2015, there were 42 spider's and 63 scorpion's AMPs in the Antimicrobial Peptide Database ( These peptides have demonstrated broad or narrow-spectrum activities against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. In addition, they can be toxic to cancer cells, insects and erythrocytes. To provide insight into such an activity spectrum, this article discusses the discovery, classification, structure and activity relationships, bioinformatics analysis, and potential applications of spider and scorpion AMPs...
2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
Clarke Brian Blackadar
In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)...
February 10, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
M Ward, A Ward, O Johansson
The International Agency for Research on Cancer recognises five viruses, one bacterium and three parasites as having a causal relationship to cancer, and one virus, HIV, that by suppressing the immune system assists in the development of cancer. In addition numerous researchers have claimed links between cancer and other viruses and bacteria, many of which have been isolated from tumours. Excluding the non-causal HIV, 33 infectious agents linked with cancer have been identified in the literature, 27 of which have one thing in common: they are all present in mosquitoes...
January 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Srinivas Mamidi, Simon Höne, Michael Kirschfink
Constituting a part of the innate immune system, the complement system consists of over 50 proteins either acting as part of a 3-branch activation cascade, a well-differentiated regulatory system in fluid phase or on each tissue, or as receptors translating the activation signal to multiple cellular effector functions. Complement serves as first line of defence against infections from bacteria, viruses and parasites by orchestrating the immune response through opsonisation, recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection and direct cell lysis...
November 28, 2015: Immunobiology
Sagarika Banerjee, Zhi Wei, Fei Tan, Kristen N Peck, Natalie Shih, Michael Feldman, Timothy R Rebbeck, James C Alwine, Erle S Robertson
Infectious agents are the third highest human cancer risk factor and may have a greater role in the origin and/or progression of cancers, and related pathogenesis. Thus, knowing the specific viruses and microbial agents associated with a cancer type may provide insights into cause, diagnosis and treatment. We utilized a pan-pathogen array technology to identify the microbial signatures associated with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). This technology detects low copy number and fragmented genomes extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded archival tissues...
2015: Scientific Reports
Zenildo Santos Silva, Sandra Kalil Bussadori, Kristianne Porta Santos Fernandes, Ying-Ying Huang, Michael R Hamblin
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs non-toxic dyes called photosensitizers (PSs), which absorb visible light to give the excited singlet state, followed by the long-lived triplet state that can undergo photochemistry. In the presence of ambient oxygen, reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals are formed that are able to kill cancer cells, inactivate microbial pathogens and destroy unwanted tissue. Although there are already several clinically approved PSs for various disease indications, many studies around the world are using animal models to investigate the further utility of PDT...
September 28, 2015: Bioscience Reports
Peter M Howley
The role of infectious agents in cancer is generally underappreciated. However, approximately 20% of human cancers are caused by infectious agents and as such they rank second only to tobacco as a potentially preventable cause in humans. Specific viruses, parasites, and bacteria have been linked to specific human cancers. The infectious etiology for these specific cancers provides opportunities for prevention and treatment.
2015: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
Felix Broecker, Chakkumkal Anish, Peter H Seeberger
Unique carbohydrate antigens are expressed on the surface of various pathogens, including bacteria, parasites, and viruses, and aberrant glycosylation is a frequent feature of cancer cells. Antibodies recognizing such carbohydrate antigens may be used for the specific detection of potentially harmful cells, immunohistochemistry, and diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The generation of specific and strongly binding antibodies against defined carbohydrate epitopes is challenging, since isolated carbohydrates often suffer from low purity, usually have limited immunogenicity, and induce antibodies of low affinity...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jayaram Lakshmaiah Narayana, Jyh-Yih Chen
Multidrug-resistant bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections are major health threats. The Infectious Diseases Society of America has expressed concern on the decrease of pharmaceutical companies working on antibiotic research and development. However, small companies, along with academic research institutes, are stepping forward to develop novel therapeutic methods to overcome the present healthcare situation. Among the leading alternatives to current drugs are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are abundantly distributed in nature...
October 2015: Peptides
Anna Kozajda, Irena Szadkowska-Stańczyk
BACKGROUND: The paper presents the intentional use of biological agents for industrial, diagnostic and research purposes in Polish enterprises. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The National Register of Biological Agents (Krajowy Rejestr Czynników Biologicznych - KRCB) is an online database that collects the data on the intentional use of biological agents at work in Poland. RESULTS: As of December 2013 there were 533 notifications in KRCB, mainly for diagnostic (73%), research (20%) and industrial purposes (7%)...
2015: Medycyna Pracy
Nathalie Labrecque, Nicolas Cermakian
The immune system is a complex set of physiological mechanisms whose general aim is to defend the organism against non-self-bodies, such as pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites), as well as cancer cells. Circadian rhythms are endogenous 24-h variations found in virtually all physiological processes. These circadian rhythms are generated by circadian clocks, located in most cell types, including cells of the immune system. This review presents an overview of the clocks in the immune system and of the circadian regulation of the function of immune cells...
August 2015: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Nicola Di Santo, Jessie Ehrisman
Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation, evasion of cell death and the ability to invade and disrupt vital tissue function. The classic model of carcinogenesis describes successive clonal expansion driven by the accumulation of mutations that eliminate restraints on proliferation and cell survival. It has been proposed that during cancer's development, the loose-knit colonies of only partially differentiated cells display some unicellular/prokaryotic behavior reminiscent of robust ancient life forms...
October 2014: Mutation Research
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