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Sexual abuse children rct

Linda Kaljee, Liying Zhang, Lisa Langhaug, Kelvin Munjile, Stephen Tembo, Anitha Menon, Bonita Stanton, Xiaoming Li, Jacob Malungo
Orphaned and vulnerable children (OVC) experience poverty, stigma, and abuse resulting in poor physical, emotional, and psychological outcomes. The Teachers' Diploma Programme on Psychosocial Care, Support, and Protection is a child-centered 15-month long-distance learning program focused on providing teachers with the knowledge and skills to enhance their school environments, foster psychosocial support, and facilitate school-community relationships. A randomized controlled trial was implemented in 2013-2014...
March 10, 2016: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Beth L Green, Catherine Ayoub, Jessica Dym Bartlett, Adam Von Ende, Carrie Furrer, Rachel Chazan-Cohen, Claire Vallotton, Joanne Klevens
The high societal and personal costs of child maltreatment make identification of effective early prevention programs a high research priority. Early Head Start (EHS), a dual generational program serving low-income families with children prenatally through age three years, is one of the largest federally funded programs for infants and toddlers in the United States. A national randomized trial found EHS to be effective in improving parent and child outcomes, but its effectiveness in reducing child maltreatment was not assessed...
July 2014: Children and Youth Services Review
Carol Rivas, Jean Ramsay, Laura Sadowski, Leslie L Davidson, Danielle Dunne, Sandra Eldridge, Kelsey Hegarty, Angela Taft, Gene Feder
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner abuse is common worldwide, damaging the short- and long-term physical, mental, and emotional health of survivors and children. Advocacy may contribute to reducing abuse, empowering women to improve their situation by providing informal counselling and support for safety planning and increasing access to different services. Advocacy may be a stand-alone service, accepting referrals from healthcare providers, or part of a multi-component (and possibly multi-agency) intervention provided by service staff or others...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Nathalie Fleming, Teresa O'Driscoll, Gisela Becker, Rachel F Spitzer, Lisa Allen, Debra Millar, Philippa Brain, Nancy Dalziel, Elise Dubuc, Julie Hakim, Deanna Murphy, Rachel Spitzer
OBJECTIVE: To describe the needs and evidence-based practice specific to care of the pregnant adolescent in Canada, including special populations. OUTCOMES: Healthy pregnancies for adolescent women in Canada, with culturally sensitive and age-appropriate care to ensure the best possible outcomes for these young women and their infants and young families, and to reduce repeat pregnancy rates. EVIDENCE: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and The Cochrane Library on May 23, 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e...
August 2015: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Kerryann Walsh, Karen Zwi, Susan Woolfenden, Aron Shlonsky
BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse is a significant global problem in both magnitude and sequelae. The most widely used primary prevention strategy has been the provision of school-based education programmes. Although programmes have been taught in schools since the 1980s, their effectiveness requires ongoing scrutiny. OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse. Specifically, to assess whether: programmes are effective in improving students' protective behaviours and knowledge about sexual abuse prevention; behaviours and skills are retained over time; and participation results in disclosures of sexual abuse, produces harms, or both...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kenneth A Dodge, Karen L Bierman, John D Coie, Mark T Greenberg, John E Lochman, Robert J McMahon, Ellen E Pinderhughes
OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of early intervention to prevent adult psychopathology and improve well-being in early-starting conduct-problem children. METHOD: Kindergarteners (N=9,594) in three cohorts (1991-1993) at 55 schools in four communities were screened for conduct problems, yielding 979 early starters. A total of 891 (91%) consented (51% African American, 47% European American; 69% boys). Children were randomly assigned by school cluster to a 10-year intervention or control...
January 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
Alyssa A Rheingold, Kristyn Zajac, Jason E Chapman, Meghan Patton, Michael de Arellano, Benjamin Saunders, Dean Kilpatrick
Given the significant rates and deleterious consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), identifying effective primary prevention approaches is a clear priority. There isa growing awareness that childcare professionals (e.g.,teachers, childcare personnel, clergy) are in a unique position to engage in prevention efforts due to high accessibility to children and expertise in child development. However, CSA prevention programs targeting childcare professionals have received insufficient attention. The goal of this study was toc on duct an independent multi-site controlled evaluation of an existing CSA prevention program, Stewards of Children, offered through both in-person and web-based formats...
April 2015: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Arnon Bentovim, Ian Elliott
The purpose of this study is to distill the "effective practice elements" from randomised controlled interventions (RCTs) to prevent the recurrence of abusive and neglectful parenting and the associated health and developmental impairment of children. The resulting elements would be used then to develop a step-by-step modular-systemic approach to intervention that is suitable to the needs of a variety of frontline practitioners in social care, health, and education. A series of 22 randomised RCTs were analysed using the distillation and matching approach to establish the presence of effective practice elements...
2014: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Jamila Mejdoubi, Silvia C C M van den Heijkant, Frank J M van Leerdam, Martijn W Heymans, Remy A Hirasing, Alfons A M Crijnen
BACKGROUND: Expectant mothers and mothers of young children are especially vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV). The nurse-family partnership (NFP) is a home visitation program in the United States effective for the prevention of adverse child health outcomes. Evidence regarding the effect of nurse home visiting on IPV is inconsistent. This study aims to study the effect of VoorZorg, the Dutch NFP, on IPV. METHODS: A random sample of 460 eligible disadvantaged women <26 years, with no previous live births, was randomized...
2013: PloS One
Niklas Långström, Pia Enebrink, Eva-Marie Laurén, Jonas Lindblom, Sophie Werkö, R Karl Hanson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of current medical and psychological interventions for individuals at risk of sexually abusing children, both in known abusers and those at risk of abusing. DESIGN: Systematic review of interventions designed to prevent reoffending among known abusers and prevention for individuals at risk of sexually abusing children. Randomised controlled trials and prospective observational studies were eligible. Primary outcomes were arrests, convictions, breaches of conditions, and self reported sexual abuse of children after one year or more...
2013: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Donna Gillies, Fiona Taylor, Carl Gray, Louise O'Brien, Natalie D'Abrew
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in children and adolescents who have experienced trauma and has high personal and health costs. Although a wide range of psychological therapies have been used in the treatment of PTSD there are no systematic reviews of these therapies in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of psychological therapies in treating children and adolescents who have been diagnosed with PTSD...
May 2013: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
Megan C Goslin, Carla Smith Stover, Steven Berkowitz, Steven Marans
This study examined factors related to children's acute symptoms following a potentially traumatic event (PTE) to more clearly identify domains that should be included in screenings of youth exposed to a PTE. In particular, the authors examined whether trauma category (i.e., sexual abuse/disclosure of abuse, intentionally perpetrated traumas other than sexual abuse, and unintentional traumas) was related to symptoms after controlling for other relevant factors. Participants were 112 youth presenting for clinical evaluation within a month of a PTE and their nonoffending caregivers...
August 2013: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Ian V McPhail, Chantal A Hermann, Kevin L Nunes
OBJECTIVE: Emotional congruence with children is an exaggerated affective and cognitive affiliation with children that is posited to be involved in the initiation and maintenance of sexual offending against children. The current meta-analysis examined the relationship between emotional congruence with children and sexual offending against children, sexual recidivism, and change following sexual offender treatment. METHOD: A systematic literature review of online academic databases, conference proceedings, governmental agency websites, and article, book chapter, and book reference lists was performed...
August 2013: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
F Radat
The link between stress and migraine is complex. In its recent conception, stress is viewed as a transactional process between an individual and his-her environment in which the individual makes a response to an internal or external constraint. This paper reviews the evidence in favor of a relationship between stress and migraine. Many studies show that 50 to 80% of patients report stress as a precipitating factor for their migraine headaches. Many authors have suggested that acute stress can provoke biological modifications lowering the threshold of the individual's susceptibility to a migraine attack...
May 2013: Revue Neurologique
Karin A W L van Rosmalen-Nooijens, Judith B Prins, Marianne Vergeer, Sylvie H Lo Fo Wong, Antoine L M Lagro-Janssen
BACKGROUND: Violence in families affects children. Exposure to violence is seen as child abuse. Figures show that about one third of children exposed to violence become victim or perpetrator in their adult life: known as intergenerational transmission. Violence also affects sexual and reproductive health. To prevent problems in adult life, children need help and support. However, while trying to protect their parents, children often do not seek help, or perceive the threshold as too high...
2013: BMC Public Health
Eileen Vizard
BACKGROUND: The assessment of victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is now a recognized aspect of clinical work for both CAMH and adult services. As juvenile perpetrators of CSA are responsible for a significant minority of the sexual assaults on other children, CAMH services are increasingly approached to assess these oversexualized younger children or sexually abusive adolescents. A developmental approach to assessment and treatment intervention is essential in all these cases. METHOD: This review examines research on the characteristics of child victims and perpetrators of CSA...
May 2013: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Donna Gillies, Fiona Taylor, Carl Gray, Louise O'Brien, Natalie D'Abrew
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in children and adolescents who have experienced trauma and has high personal and health costs. Although a wide range of psychological therapies have been used in the treatment of PTSD there are no systematic reviews of these therapies in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of psychological therapies in treating children and adolescents who have been diagnosed with PTSD...
2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Geraldine Macdonald, Julian P T Higgins, Paul Ramchandani, Jeffrey C Valentine, Latricia P Bronger, Paul Klein, Roland O'Daniel, Mark Pickering, Ben Rademaker, George Richardson, Matthew Taylor
BACKGROUND: Despite differences in how it is defined, there is a general consensus amongst clinicians and researchers that the sexual abuse of children and adolescents ('child sexual abuse') is a substantial social problem worldwide. The effects of sexual abuse manifest in a wide range of symptoms, including fear, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder and various externalising and internalising behaviour problems, such as inappropriate sexual behaviours. Child sexual abuse is associated with increased risk of psychological problems in adulthood...
2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rachel K Jewkes, Kristin Dunkle, Mzikazi Nduna, P Nwabisa Jama, Adrian Puren
OBJECTIVES: To describe prevalence of childhood experiences of adversity in rural South African youth and their associations with health outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed questionnaires and blood specimens collected during a baseline survey for a cluster randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention, and also tested blood HIV and herpes simplex type 2 virus at 12- and 24-month follow up; 1,367 male and 1,415 female volunteers were recruited from 70 rural villages...
November 2010: Child Abuse & Neglect
Sarah E Hetrick, Rosemary Purcell, Belinda Garner, Ruth Parslow
BACKGROUND: PTSD is an anxiety disorder related to exposure to a severe psychological trauma. Symptoms include re-experiencing the event, avoidance and arousal as well as distress and impairment resulting from these symptoms.Guidelines suggest a combination of both psychological therapy and pharmacotherapy may enhance treatment response, especially in those with more severe PTSD or in those who have not responded to either intervention alone. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the combination of psychological therapy and pharmacotherapy provides a more efficacious treatment for PTSD than either of these interventions delivered separately...
2010: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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