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Padmavali Palange, Rahul Narang, Venkataramana Kandi
BACKGROUND: Laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis has undergone a rapid change during last few years and a number of techniques for culture as well as molecular diagnosis have been used with their respective advantages and disadvantages. Sporadic studies have also reported the isolation of M. tuberculosis on standard blood agar (BA), which at one time was not considered as a suitable medium for mycobacterial culture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the routine use of 5% sheep BA in a mycobacteriology laboratory by comparing isolation rates and time for isolation of mycobacteria from pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples with those on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium...
August 30, 2016: Curēus
Preeti Pillai, Mahesh Lakhe, Anjali Shetty, Rajeev Soman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Cihadiye Elif Öztürk, İdris Şahin, Şükrü Öksüz, Nida Kılıç, Özge Kılınçel, Leyla Aydın, Dursun Atik, Emine Afşin
Throughout the history of mankind, tuberculosis (TB) has caused serious illness and still continues to do so. Archaeobiological studies indicated that TB in humans dates back to 4000-8000 BC, and cases were shown to be due to Mycobacterium bovis subsp.bovis rather than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, this situation was thought to begin with domestication of animals, consumption of their milk, and living together in the same environment with them. Over time, with the consumption of boiled milk and with the establishment of separate animal shelters, M...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Fernando Alcaide, Begoña Palop-Borrás, Diego Domingo, Griselda Tudó
To date, more than 170 species of mycobacteria have been described, of which more than one third may be pathogenic to humans, representing a significant workload for microbiology laboratories. These species must be identified in clinical practice, which has long been a major problem due to the shortcomings of conventional (phenotypic) methods and the limitations and complexity of modern methods largely based on molecular biology techniques. The aim of this review was to briefly describe different aspects related to the use of MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) mass spectrometry (MS) for the identification of mycobacteria...
June 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Vanessa Deggim-Messmer, Guido V Bloemberg, Claudia Ritter, Antje Voit, Rico Hömke, Peter M Keller, Erik C Böttger
Molecular assays have not yet been able to replace time-consuming culture-based methods in clinical mycobacteriology. Using 6875 clinical samples and a study period of 35months we evaluated the use of PCR-based assays to establish a diagnostic workflow with a fast time-to-result of 1-2days, for 1. detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB), 2. detection and identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), and 3. identification of drug susceptible MTB. MTB molecular-based detection and culture gave concordant results for 97...
July 2016: EBioMedicine
E Guinard, C Bulai Livideanu, H Barthélémy, M Viguier, Z Reguiai, M A Richard, D Jullien, N Beneton, C Bara, P Vabres, A Grandvuillemin, M C Marguery, F Amelot, M P Konstantinou, H Bagheri, C Paul
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about active tuberculosis (TB) occurring in psoriasis patients treated with Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of TB in psoriasis patients treated with TNF antagonists. METHODS: Nationwide retrospective study of psoriasis patients having experienced TB. Cases of TB were collected via three methods: search in the national pharmacosurveillance database, questionnaire to members of the French psoriasis research group, the college of French dermatology professors...
August 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Mulualem Tadesse, Dossegnaw Aragaw, Leen Rigouts, Gemeda Abebe
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) was endorsed as the initial diagnostic tool in people suspected of human immunodeficiency virus-associated or drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). However, information regarding the performance of Xpert for diagnosing smear-negative TB in high burden settings remains limited. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert and the impact of bleach concentration on the performance of Xpert using smear-negative sputum samples from human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Mulualem Tadesse, Dossegnaw Aragaw, Belayneh Dimah, Feyisa Efa, Kedir Abdella, Wakjira Kebede, Ketema Abdissa, Gemeda Abebe
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The nature and frequency of mutations in rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates vary considerably according to geographic locations. However, information regarding specific mutational patterns in Ethiopia remains limited. METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was carried out among confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Southwest Ethiopia. Mutations associated with RIF and INH resistances were studied using GenoType MTBDRplus line probe assay in 112 M...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Zarir F Udwadia, Jai Bharat Mullerpattan, Kushal D Shah, Camilla S Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant TB program involves a standard regimen with a 6-month intensive phase and an 18-month continuation phase. However, the local drug resistance patterns in high MDR regions such as Mumbai may not be adequately reflected in the design of the regimen for that particular area. SETTING: The study was carried out at a private Tertiary Level Hospital in Mumbai in a mycobacteriology laboratory equipped to perform the second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST)...
May 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Angela Lau, James Barrie, Christopher Winter, Abdel-Halim Elamy, Gregory Tyrrell, Richard Long
BACKGROUND: Computer-aided detection to identify and diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis is being explored. While both cavitation on chest radiograph and smear-positivity on microscopy are independent risk factors for the infectiousness of pulmonary tuberculosis it is unknown which radiographic pattern, were it detectable, would provide the greatest public health benefit; i.e. reduced transmission. Herein we provide that evidence. OBJECTIVES: 1) to determine whether pulmonary tuberculosis in a high income, low incidence country is more likely to present with "typical" adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis radiographic features and 2) to determine whether those with "typical" radiographic features are more likely than those without such features to transmit the organism and/or cause secondary cases...
2016: PloS One
Narotam Sharma, R K Singh, Praveen Sharma
Molecular diagnostic tools for tuberculosis (TB) have evolved quickly with new innovations which can provide unprecedented opportunities for the rapid, sensitive and specific diagnosis of M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens and the status of its drug sensitivity. Microscopy and culture methods can not be replaced but the molecular assays can be applied in parallel with any new molecular tests for the diagnosis of TB. For extra pulmonary specimens, the use of the amplification methods is advocated, since rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis is critical...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Tomasz Jagielski, Alina Minias, Jakko van Ingen, Nalin Rastogi, Anna Brzostek, Anna Żaczek, Jarosław Dziadek
Molecular typing has revolutionized epidemiological studies of infectious diseases, including those of a mycobacterial etiology. With the advent of fingerprinting techniques, many traditional concepts regarding transmission, infectivity, or pathogenicity of mycobacterial bacilli have been revisited, and their conventional interpretations have been challenged. Since the mid-1990s, when the first typing methods were introduced, a plethora of other modalities have been proposed. So-called molecular epidemiology has become an essential subdiscipline of modern mycobacteriology...
April 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Julie Tans-Kersten, Shou-Yean Grace Lin, Edward Desmond, David Warshauer
OBJECTIVES: We explored sharing nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and molecular and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing between two state public health tuberculosis (TB) laboratories, and evaluated turnaround times and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: From September 1, 2012, to May 30, 2013, the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene (Wisconsin Lab) submitted specimens to the Microbial Diseases Laboratory of the California Department of Public Health (California Lab) for NAAT and molecular drug susceptibility testing (MDST) by pyrosequencing, and culture-based TB drug susceptibility testing by the BACTEC(TM) MGIT(TM) 960 system...
January 2016: Public Health Reports
Laura Rindi, Carlo Garzelli
BACKGROUND: In Italy, the prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in human infections is largely unknown. Herein, we report the epidemiology of NTM infections in a region of central Italy, Tuscany, over the last 11 years, and provide a review of the recent literature on NTM isolation rates in different geographic regions. METHODS: The complete collection of NTM strains isolated from a total of 42,055 clinical specimens at the Laboratory of Clinical Mycobacteriology of Pisa University Hospital, Italy, from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2014 was included...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
N Selvakumar, A Syam Sunder, M Gomathi Sekar, C Ponnuraja, Vanaja Kumar
To get insight into the sensitivity of fluorescence microscopy for diagnostic and follow-up sputum samples from pulmonary tuberculosis patients in clinical trials, the yield of smear positivity - among culture positive sputum samples - encountered in diagnostic and follow-up samples was retrospectively analyzed from the data available in a mycobacteriology laboratory in India. The sensitivity of fluorescence microscopy for diagnostic and follow-up samples respectively was found to be 94.3% and 60.7%. With these values as guidelines, the performance of fluorescence microscopy in the treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis under DOTS plus program remains to be monitored and studied...
September 2012: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Payam Tabarsi, Ehsan Chitsaz, Ahmadreza Moradi, Parvaneh Baghaei, Majid Marjani, Davood Mansouri
BACKGROUND: The risk of death is significantly higher in TB/HIV-infected patients than in those patients with just one disease or the other. This study aims to evaluate the impact of demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics on the treatment outcome and mortality of TB/HIV co-infected patients in a TB tertiary center in Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted at Iran's National Referral Center for Tuberculosis. In total, 111 patients were recruited between 2004 and 2007...
June 2012: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
S Errarhay, N Hmidani, H Fatmi, H Saadi, C Bouchikhi, A Amarti, A Banani
We report the case of a menopausal 74-year-old patient who presents pyorrhoea for 6months. We suspect initially a carcinoma process, but the anatomopathological examination takings obtained by biopsy curettage of the endometrial under hysteroscopy is in favor of an inflammatory infiltrate with epithelioid and giant cells of type Langhans and type Muller without caseous necrosis. The bacteriological direct examination after coloring of Gram, Ziehl-Neelsen and Sabouraud was negative. The bacteriological culture in the Löewenstein and Coletsos environment identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
June 2013: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Benjamin Thumamo Pokam, Anne E Asuquo, Lydia N Abia-Bassey, Mandor B Idasa, Nse O Umoh, Francis O Eko, Nalin Rastogi
SETTING: Nigeria has the world's fourth largest tuberculosis burden, and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) represents a serious public health problem. OBJECTIVES: To describe the demography of TB patients and determine the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to the major TB drugs. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-seven newly diagnosed TB patients (26 (19%) being HIV positive) from all age groups were recruited into the study...
June 2013: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Bright Varghese, Ruba Al-Omari, Sahal Al-Hajoj
Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a crucial procedure to determine the effective drug regimen for patients' treatment. Reporting of erroneous DST results to the treating physician has adulterous effects on patients. As a first study of its type, the inconsistencies in reporting DST results of rifampicin and isoniazid from Saudi Arabia were assessed. An automated liquid culture-based DST and a molecular mutation detection technique were used. Performance of first-line drug susceptibility testing of 1904 clinical isolates showed 44 inconsistent results...
March 2013: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
N Selvakumar, K Silambuchelvi, M Gomathi Sekar, A Syam Sunder, S Anbarasu, V Banu Rekha, C Ponnuraja, Vanaja Kumar
BACKGROUND: Documentation of structured quality indicators for mycobacteriology laboratories supporting exclusively controlled clinical trials in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To document laboratory indicators for a solid (Lowenstein-Jensen medium) culture system in a mycobacteriology laboratory for a period of 4years (2007-2010). METHODS: The sputum samples, collected from PTB suspects/patients enrolled in clinical trials, were subjected to fluorescence microscopy, culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST)...
December 2012: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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