Read by QxMD icon Read


Gary W Procop
The laboratory, which utilizes some of the most sophisticated and rapidly changing technologies, plays a critical role in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Some of these tools are being employed in resource-challenged countries for the rapid detection and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Foremost, the laboratory defines appropriate specimen criteria for optimal test performance. The direct detection of mycobacteria in the clinical specimen, predominantly done by acid-fast staining, may eventually be replaced by rapid-cycle PCR...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Bastien Mollo, Stéphane Jouveshomme, François Philippart, Benoît Pilmis
Tuberculosis is one of the main etiologies to evoke in the context of lymphocyte pleurisy. However, diagnosis is difficult and is based on mycobacteriology that is not enough sensitive and time-consuming, or on histology that requires invasive biopsy gesture. This literature review, carried out from Medline, summarizes the main meta-analyzes, reviews, and originator publications in English on biomarkers, classic and more innovative, studied for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy. Among the immuno-biochemical markers, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), isoenzyme of adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) and total adenosine deaminase (ADA) seem the most relevant with respective sensitivities of 89% (87-91), 97...
February 1, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
Majid Marjani, Amir Yousefzadeh, Payam Tabarsi, Afshin Moniri, Ali Akbar Velayati
BACKGROUND: Pleural tuberculosis (TB) is common among HIV-infected patients. In the absence of HIV infection, the yield of mycobacteriological study is low and usually invasive procedures, including pleural fluid analysis and pleural biopsy, are necessary. The present study aimed to determine the yield of mycobacteriological study of sputum and pleural fluid among HIV-infected patients. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study involved HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with new pleural TB admitted to the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Tehran, Iran, for 5years...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Pieter-Jan Ceyssens, Karine Soetaert, Markus Timke, An Van den Bossche, Katrin Sparbier, Koen De Cremer, Markus Kostrzewa, Marijke Hendrickx, Vanessa Mathys
Species identification and drug susceptibility testing (DST) of mycobacteria are important yet complex processes traditionally reserved for reference laboratories. Recent technical improvements in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has started to facilitate routine mycobacterial identifications in clinical laboratories. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of performing phenotypic MALDI-based DST in mycobacteriology using the recently described MALDI Biotyper antibiotic susceptibility test rapid assay (MBT-ASTRA)...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
David E Griffith, Timothy R Aksamit
With a surprising predictability, most studies and reviews addressing therapy for nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease either start or end by mentioning the paucity of data from randomized and controlled trials. That is a legitimate criticism for NTM lung disease therapy, but it also somehow seems to influence attitudes toward all aspects of NTM investigation. Certainly the study of NTM diseases in general and NTM lung disease in particular is a recent development. Previously, NTM were viewed as minor, if inconvenient, pathogens similar to Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
2016: F1000Research
J Mencarini, C Cresci, M T Simonetti, C Truppa, G Camiciottoli, M L Frilli, P G Rogasi, S Veloci, M Pistolesi, G M Rossolini, A Bartoloni, F Bartalesi
The diseases caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), in both AIDS and non-AIDS populations, are increasingly recognized worldwide. Although the American Thoracic Society published the guidelines for diagnosis of NTM pulmonary disease (NTM-PD), the diagnosis is still difficult. In the first part of the study, we collected data on NTM isolates in the Mycobacteriology Laboratory of Careggi Hospital (Florence, Italy) and analysed the epidemiological data of NTM isolates. Then, to analyse the risk factors associated to NTM-PD, we studied the presence of ATS/IDSA criteria for NTM-PD in patients who had at least one positive respiratory sample for NTM and were admitted to the Infectious Disease Unit and the Section of Respiratory Medicine...
November 2, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Padmavali Palange, Rahul Narang, Venkataramana Kandi
BACKGROUND: Laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis has undergone a rapid change during last few years and a number of techniques for culture as well as molecular diagnosis have been used with their respective advantages and disadvantages. Sporadic studies have also reported the isolation of M. tuberculosis on standard blood agar (BA), which at one time was not considered as a suitable medium for mycobacterial culture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the routine use of 5% sheep BA in a mycobacteriology laboratory by comparing isolation rates and time for isolation of mycobacteria from pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples with those on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium...
August 30, 2016: Curēus
Preeti Pillai, Mahesh Lakhe, Anjali Shetty, Rajeev Soman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Cihadiye Elif Öztürk, İdris Şahin, Şükrü Öksüz, Nida Kılıç, Özge Kılınçel, Leyla Aydın, Dursun Atik, Emine Afşin
Throughout the history of mankind, tuberculosis (TB) has caused serious illness and still continues to do so. Archaeobiological studies indicated that TB in humans dates back to 4000-8000 BC, and cases were shown to be due to Mycobacterium bovis subsp.bovis rather than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, this situation was thought to begin with domestication of animals, consumption of their milk, and living together in the same environment with them. Over time, with the consumption of boiled milk and with the establishment of separate animal shelters, M...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Fernando Alcaide, Begoña Palop-Borrás, Diego Domingo, Griselda Tudó
To date, more than 170 species of mycobacteria have been described, of which more than one third may be pathogenic to humans, representing a significant workload for microbiology laboratories. These species must be identified in clinical practice, which has long been a major problem due to the shortcomings of conventional (phenotypic) methods and the limitations and complexity of modern methods largely based on molecular biology techniques. The aim of this review was to briefly describe different aspects related to the use of MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) mass spectrometry (MS) for the identification of mycobacteria...
June 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Vanessa Deggim-Messmer, Guido V Bloemberg, Claudia Ritter, Antje Voit, Rico Hömke, Peter M Keller, Erik C Böttger
Molecular assays have not yet been able to replace time-consuming culture-based methods in clinical mycobacteriology. Using 6875 clinical samples and a study period of 35months we evaluated the use of PCR-based assays to establish a diagnostic workflow with a fast time-to-result of 1-2days, for 1. detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB), 2. detection and identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), and 3. identification of drug susceptible MTB. MTB molecular-based detection and culture gave concordant results for 97...
July 2016: EBioMedicine
E Guinard, C Bulai Livideanu, H Barthélémy, M Viguier, Z Reguiai, M A Richard, D Jullien, N Beneton, C Bara, P Vabres, A Grandvuillemin, M C Marguery, F Amelot, M P Konstantinou, H Bagheri, C Paul
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about active tuberculosis (TB) occurring in psoriasis patients treated with Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of TB in psoriasis patients treated with TNF antagonists. METHODS: Nationwide retrospective study of psoriasis patients having experienced TB. Cases of TB were collected via three methods: search in the national pharmacosurveillance database, questionnaire to members of the French psoriasis research group, the college of French dermatology professors...
August 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Mulualem Tadesse, Dossegnaw Aragaw, Leen Rigouts, Gemeda Abebe
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) was endorsed as the initial diagnostic tool in people suspected of human immunodeficiency virus-associated or drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). However, information regarding the performance of Xpert for diagnosing smear-negative TB in high burden settings remains limited. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert and the impact of bleach concentration on the performance of Xpert using smear-negative sputum samples from human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Mulualem Tadesse, Dossegnaw Aragaw, Belayneh Dimah, Feyisa Efa, Kedir Abdella, Wakjira Kebede, Ketema Abdissa, Gemeda Abebe
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The nature and frequency of mutations in rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates vary considerably according to geographic locations. However, information regarding specific mutational patterns in Ethiopia remains limited. METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was carried out among confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Southwest Ethiopia. Mutations associated with RIF and INH resistances were studied using GenoType MTBDRplus line probe assay in 112 M...
June 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Zarir F Udwadia, Jai Bharat Mullerpattan, Kushal D Shah, Camilla S Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant TB program involves a standard regimen with a 6-month intensive phase and an 18-month continuation phase. However, the local drug resistance patterns in high MDR regions such as Mumbai may not be adequately reflected in the design of the regimen for that particular area. SETTING: The study was carried out at a private Tertiary Level Hospital in Mumbai in a mycobacteriology laboratory equipped to perform the second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST)...
May 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Angela Lau, James Barrie, Christopher Winter, Abdel-Halim Elamy, Gregory Tyrrell, Richard Long
BACKGROUND: Computer-aided detection to identify and diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis is being explored. While both cavitation on chest radiograph and smear-positivity on microscopy are independent risk factors for the infectiousness of pulmonary tuberculosis it is unknown which radiographic pattern, were it detectable, would provide the greatest public health benefit; i.e. reduced transmission. Herein we provide that evidence. OBJECTIVES: 1) to determine whether pulmonary tuberculosis in a high income, low incidence country is more likely to present with "typical" adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis radiographic features and 2) to determine whether those with "typical" radiographic features are more likely than those without such features to transmit the organism and/or cause secondary cases...
2016: PloS One
Narotam Sharma, R K Singh, Praveen Sharma
Molecular diagnostic tools for tuberculosis (TB) have evolved quickly with new innovations which can provide unprecedented opportunities for the rapid, sensitive and specific diagnosis of M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens and the status of its drug sensitivity. Microscopy and culture methods can not be replaced but the molecular assays can be applied in parallel with any new molecular tests for the diagnosis of TB. For extra pulmonary specimens, the use of the amplification methods is advocated, since rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis is critical...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Tomasz Jagielski, Alina Minias, Jakko van Ingen, Nalin Rastogi, Anna Brzostek, Anna Żaczek, Jarosław Dziadek
Molecular typing has revolutionized epidemiological studies of infectious diseases, including those of a mycobacterial etiology. With the advent of fingerprinting techniques, many traditional concepts regarding transmission, infectivity, or pathogenicity of mycobacterial bacilli have been revisited, and their conventional interpretations have been challenged. Since the mid-1990s, when the first typing methods were introduced, a plethora of other modalities have been proposed. So-called molecular epidemiology has become an essential subdiscipline of modern mycobacteriology...
April 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Julie Tans-Kersten, Shou-Yean Grace Lin, Edward Desmond, David Warshauer
OBJECTIVES: We explored sharing nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and molecular and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing between two state public health tuberculosis (TB) laboratories, and evaluated turnaround times and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: From September 1, 2012, to May 30, 2013, the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene (Wisconsin Lab) submitted specimens to the Microbial Diseases Laboratory of the California Department of Public Health (California Lab) for NAAT and molecular drug susceptibility testing (MDST) by pyrosequencing, and culture-based TB drug susceptibility testing by the BACTEC(TM) MGIT(TM) 960 system...
January 2016: Public Health Reports
Laura Rindi, Carlo Garzelli
BACKGROUND: In Italy, the prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in human infections is largely unknown. Herein, we report the epidemiology of NTM infections in a region of central Italy, Tuscany, over the last 11 years, and provide a review of the recent literature on NTM isolation rates in different geographic regions. METHODS: The complete collection of NTM strains isolated from a total of 42,055 clinical specimens at the Laboratory of Clinical Mycobacteriology of Pisa University Hospital, Italy, from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2014 was included...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"